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# AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Credit Hours Programs

## MCT 455: Industrial Robotics

Sheet: Robot Dynamics

1. In robotic manipulators, explain what is meant by forward and inverse kinematics, and forward and inverse dynamics.
Discuss how these methods are used in the design and control of robot systems.

2. Figure 1 shows a revolute prismatic (RP) manipulator. The links of this RP manipulator have uniform inertia I1 and
I2 and total mass m1 and m2 for links 1 and 2 respectively. The center of mass of link 1 is located at a distance l1 from
joint 1-axis, and the centre of mass of link 2 is at the variable distance d2 from the joint-1 axis. Formulate the
equations of motion of this system using:
𝑑 𝜕𝐿 𝜕𝐿
1. Lagrangian dynamic formulation: ( )− = 𝑄𝑖
𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑞̇ 𝑖 𝜕𝑞𝑖
2. Lagrangian dynamic formulation in Cartesian space: 𝑴(𝒒)𝒒̈ + 𝑽(𝒒, 𝒒̇ ) + 𝑮(𝒒) = 𝑸
Find inertia matrix M(q), 𝑽(𝒒, 𝒒̇ ), and 𝑮(𝒒) and Q if there is no external forces and if there is external
forces
3. Compare the results from Lagrangian dynamic formulation in 1 and 2

Note: Solve the dynamics of this system symbolically and assume any symbols will be needed for the
dynamic model.

Figure 1: RP manipulator

3. Figure 2 shows a 2DoF vertical planar manipulator in which the link coordinate axes are aligned with the principle
axes of each link. Assuming that the moving links are homogeneous with a relatively small cross section. Compute
the link inertia matrices, link Jacobian matrices, gravitational effects, and Lagrange’s equations of motion. Consider
fx and fy as external forces acting at the end effectors.

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Figure 2: Planar 2R manipulator exerting a force f(fx, fy)

4. Figure 3 shows a SCARA arm in which the robot is constructed with four parallel joint axes. The first two and the
fourth are revolute joints, and the third is a prismatic joint. For simplification, consider the motion of the first three
moving links and combine the mass of the fourth link and the load with the third link. In this case we will deal with
simplified pure position problem. Compute the simplified SCARA arm dynamics using Lagrangian Dynamics
formula:
𝑀𝑞̈ + 𝑉 + 𝐺 = 𝑄

## Figure 3: Schematic diagram of a SCARA arm

5. Figure 4 shows a two link planar manipulator comprising two revolute joints. The manipulator is carrying a load of
2kg. Using the Recursive Newton Euler technique calculate the motor torques at both joints when θ1= θ2=20o to carry
the robot dynamics and the 2kg payload at this position. The parameters for the manipulator are given in Table 1.
Assume g=9.81m/s2 and the centroid of the links are at the mid points of the links.

## Table 1: Two link planar manipulator parameters

Mass 10 kg 6 kg
Length 0.4 m 0.2 m
Moment of inertia about centroid 2×10-3 kg/m2 2×10-4 kg/m2

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2
Y

2
X
g

Y1 τ2 θ2

X1
τ1
θ1

## Figure 4: Planar two link manipulator

6. Consider the planar two link manipulator in Figure 5. Calculate the joint 2 torque using the Recursive Newton Euler
method given the parameter values in Table 2. Note that an external toque of 5 Nm and external force of 20N act at
the tip of the manipulator. Use g=9.81m/s2

Table 2
Mass 6kg 3kg
Moment of inertia about centroid 0.8kgm2 0.3kgm2

0.4m
=5Nm
0.2m
0.8m Nm
g F=20N
c2
0.4m

Joint 1 c1 Joint 2

ө=20º

## Figure 5: Two link planar manipulator

7. Figure 6 shows a two link planar manipulator comprising two revolute joints. The manipulator is carrying a load of
2kg and an external toque of 3 Nm are acting at the tip of the manipulator. Using the Recursive Newton Euler
technique calculate only the motor torque at joint 2 (𝜏2 ) when θ1= 15o and θ2=25o to carry the robot dynamics and
the 2kg payload at this position. The parameters for the manipulator are given in Table 1. Assume g=9.81m/s 2 and
the centroid of the links are at the mid points of the links. [6 Marks]

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Table 3: Two link planar manipulator parameters

Mass 5 kg 3 kg
Length 0.3 m 0.15 m
Moment of inertia about centroid 2×10-3 kg/m2 2×10-4 kg/m2

2
Y

2
X
𝜏𝑒 =3Nm

g
Y1 τ2 θ2

X1
τ1
θ1

## Figure 6: Planar two link manipulator

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Formula Sheet
Recursive Newton-Euler Formulation for 2D Robots with Revolute Joints

##  Outward Recursions  Inward Recursions

1. 𝝎𝒊 = 𝝎𝒊−𝟏 + 𝜽̇𝒊 1. 𝒊𝒇𝒊+𝟏 = 𝒊𝑹𝒊+𝟏 𝒊+𝟏𝒇𝒊+𝟏
2. 𝝎̇𝒊 = 𝝎̇𝒊−𝟏 + 𝜽̈𝒊 2. 𝒊
𝒇𝒊 = 𝒊𝑭𝒊 + 𝒊+𝟏𝒇𝒊+𝟏
𝒊
3. 𝒗̇ 𝒊−𝟏 = 𝒊𝑹𝒊−𝟏 𝒊−𝟏𝒗̇ 𝒊−𝟏 3. 𝝉𝒊 = 𝑵𝒊 + 𝝉𝒊+𝟏 + 𝒊𝒇𝒊,𝒚 𝒄𝒊 +
𝒊
−𝝎𝟐𝒊 𝒇𝒊+𝟏,𝒚 (𝑳𝒊 − 𝒄𝒊 )
𝒊
4. 𝒗̇ 𝒊 = 𝒊𝒗̇ 𝒊−𝟏 + 𝑳𝒊 [ ]
𝝎̇𝒊

𝒊 −𝝎𝟐𝒊
5. 𝒂𝒊 = 𝒊𝒗̇ 𝒊−𝟏 + 𝒄𝒊 [ ]
𝝎̇𝒊
𝒊
6. 𝑭𝒊 = 𝒎𝒊 𝒊𝒂𝒊
7. 𝑵𝒊 = 𝑰𝒊 𝝎̇𝒊

Lagrangian Formulation

𝒏

## 𝑴(𝒒) = ∑(𝑱𝑻𝒗𝒊 𝒎𝒊 𝑱𝒗𝒊 + 𝑱𝑻𝝎𝒊 𝑰𝒊 𝑱𝝎𝒊 )

𝒊=𝟏

𝑸 = 𝝉 + 𝑱𝑻 𝑭𝒆
𝒏 𝒏
𝝏𝑴𝒊𝒋 𝟏 𝝏𝑴𝒋𝒌
𝑽𝒊 = ∑ ∑( − ) 𝒒̇ 𝒋 𝒒̇ 𝒌
𝝏𝒒𝒌 𝟐 𝝏𝒒𝒊
𝒋=𝟏 𝒌=𝟏

𝑮𝒊 = − ∑ 𝒎𝒋 𝒈𝑻 𝑱𝒊𝒗𝒋
𝒋=𝟏

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