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MOTIVATION

Processes and Theories


WHAT IS MOTIVATION ?

DERIVED FROM LATIN – ‘MOVERE’- TO MOVE

IS A PROCESS THAT STARTS WITH A PHYSIOLOGICAL OR


PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICIECY OR EED THAT ACTIVATES
A BEHAVIOUR OR DRIVE THAT IS AIMED AT GOAL OR
ICETIVE.

NEEDS DRIVES INCENTIVES


NEED – Due to physiological or psychological imbalance

DRIVES (MOTIVES) – Deficiency with direction, are set up


to alleviate needs.

INCENTIVE – Alleviate the need and reduce a drive.


MOTIVES

1. PRIMARY MOTIVES: Physiological & Unlearned e.g.


hunger, thirst, sleep , sex etc.

2. SECONDARY MOTIVES: Learned or cognitive

Most important for study of human behaviour


Achievement; Power; Affiliation; Security; Status

3. GENERAL MOTIVES:
Unlearned but not physiologically based
Used to increase stimulation So called “stimulus motives”

Unlearned drive for: Curiosity Motive; Manipulation Motive;


Activity Motive
THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT OF WORK – MOTIVATION
PROCESS
CONTENT THEORIES – deal with needs/ drives that people have
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Herzberg’s Two- Factor theory of motivation
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

PROCESS THEORIES – Cognitive antecedents that go into motivation


Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Porter- Lawler Model

CONTEMPORARY THEORIES

Equity Theory – Adams


Attribution Theory- Kelley
Theory of needs – Mclellaland
Cognitive Evaluation Theory – Heider, de Charmes & Bem
Goal Setting Theory - Locke
CONTENT THEORIES
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY
Conversion into Content Model of
Work Motivation
SELF –
ACTUALIZATION
Personal growth,
realisation of
potential

ESTEEM NEEDS
Promotions, Titles

SOCIAL NEEDS
Work groups

SECURITY NEEDS
Union, Health Insurance

BASIC NEEDS
Pay
HERZBERG’S TWO- FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Hygiene Factors – Do not motivate but prevent dissatisfaction.
Bring motivation to theoretical zero level.
Motivators – Motivates the individuals

Hygiene factors MOTIVATORS


Company policy & Achievement
administration, Recognition
Supervision, Work itself
technical, Salary, Responsibility
Interpersonal
relations,
Working conditions.
PROCESS THEORIES

VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY


2nd level
Outcome

INSTRUMENTALITIES

OUTCOME
EXPECTANCY 1A
1st level
Outcome
OUTCOME
OUTCOME 1 1B
MOTIVATIONAL
FORCE
OUTCOME 2A
OUTCOME 2

OUTCOME
2B
TERMS

VALENCY – Strength of an individual’s preference for a


Particular outcome

INSTRUMENTALITY – of first level outcome in obtaining


A desired 2nd level outcome.

EXPECTANCY – PROBABILITY THAT A PARTICULAR


ACTION WILL LEAD TO A FIRST LEVEL OUTCOME.

MOTIVATIONAL FORCE – Σ Valence X Expectancy


Perceived
Value of Abilities Equitable
Reward and traits
Intrinsic rewards
rewards

Effort Perfor- Satisfaction


mance

Extrinsic
rewards
Perceived Role
effort perceptions

Porter-Lawler Model
CONTEMPORARY THEORY
EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
-J STRACY ADAMS
-COGNITIVELY BASED
-IS BASED ON EQUITY
EQUITY :
Person’s outcomes other’s outcomes
Person’s input vs other’s input

The striving to restore equity is an explanation of work motivation.


Strength is directly proportional to the inequity.

Workers prefer equitable payment to overpayment


Contemporary theories
 Cognitive Evaluation theory
allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had
been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to
decrease the overall level of motivation
motivation..
 Self Concordance
The degree to which a person’s reason’s for
pursuing a goal consistent with the person’s
interests and core values
values.. (e.
(e.g. if one pursues a
goal because of an intrinsic interest, they are
more likely to achieve it and are happy even if
they do not achieve it it..
MOTIVATING PERFORMANCE THROUGH
• JOB DESIGN
• GOAL SETTING
The Hackman-Oldham job characteristics model of work motivation

CORE JOB CRITICAL PERSO/AL A/D


CHARACTERISTICS PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES WORK OUTCOMES
High internal work
Variety of skill motivation
Experienced meaningfulness
Identity of the task High quality work
of the work
Significance of the task performance
High satisfaction with
Experienced responsibility
Autonomy the work
for work outcomes
Low turnover and
Knowledge of results from work absenteeism
Feedback
activities

Moderated by
employee growth-
need strength
Specific guidelines for redesigning jobs for the more effective
practice of HRM
Provide cross training
SKILL VARIETY
Expand duties requiring more skill

Give projects a deadline for completion


TASK IDENTITY
Form self contained work modules

TASK Communicate importance of the job


SIGNIFICANCE Enhance image of the organisation

Empower to make decisions


AUTONOMY Give more responsibility and authority

Implement information systems


FEEDBACK
Supervisors give objective, immediate
information on how the employee is doing
Locke (1968) GOAL SETTING
•Expectancy theories of work motivation served as theoretical
foundation
•Intentions or goals play an important role as cognitive
determinants of behavior
•People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and
desires
•Goals provide a directional nature to people’s behavior and guide
their thoughts and actions to one outcome rather than the other
•The individual then responds and performs according to these
intentions or goals
•Consequences, feedback or reinforcement are the result of these
responses
Locke’s GOAL-SETTING theory of work motivation

Set overall
Develop the
objectives and
organisation
action plans

Conduct final Set individual


appraisal of objectives and
results action plans

Conduct periodic appraisals


and provide feedback on
progress; make adjustments