You are on page 1of 3

Global Changes:

Rising temperatures:

Scientists have high confidence that global temperatures has risen and will continue
to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gases produced by human
activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes
more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a
temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century.(
https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/). The speed of today's rise is more troubling because
adjusting to rapid climate change is very difficult. (Kump, L. (2011). THE Last Great Global
Warming. Scientific American, 305(1), 57.).

The report stated there was “very high confidence” that temperatures would
rise across Australia throughout the century, with the average annual
temperature set to be up to 1.3C warmer in 2030 compared with the average
experienced between 1986 and 2005.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jan/26/climate-change-will-hit-australia-
harder-than-rest-of-world-study-shows

Rising sea levele:

The mean sea level has been projected to rise in the 21st century as a result of global
warming. The largest contributions to sea level riseare estimated to come from thermal
expansion (0.288 m) and the melting of mountain glaciers and icecaps (0.106 m), with
smaller inputs from Greenland (0.024 m) and Antarctica (- 0.074 m). (Raper, S., &
Braithwaite, R. (2006). Low sea level rise projections from mountain glaciers and icecaps
under global warming. Nature, 439(7074), 311-3.) .Rising sea levels will erode coasts and
cause more frequent coastal flooding. Some island nations will disappear. The problem is
serious because up to 10 percent of the world’s population lives in vulnerable areas less than
10 meters (about 30 feet) above sea level.

(https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page6.php).

Impacting Ecosystems
More importantly, perhaps, global warming is already putting pressure on ecosystems, the
plants and animals that co-exist in a particular climate zone, both on land and in the ocean.
Warmer temperatures have already shifted the growing season in many parts of the globe.
Warmer temperatures also extend the growing season. This means that plants need more water
to keep growing throughout the season or they will dry out, increasing the risk of failed crops
and wildfires.
(https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page6.php)

Pliocene:

The Pliocene Era occurred an estimated three hundred million years ago. The world appeared very
different with sea levels reported to be an estimated 25 meters higher than today’s sea level (Cook,
2010) However, the world was a different place then and current measurements have not been
seen since the Pliocene era 3 million years ago (Skeptical Science, 2017). During the Pliocene
temperatures in the arctic were 16°C warmer, globally they were 3°C warmer, and sea levels
were 25 metres higher (Skeptical Science, 2017). Sea surface temperature patterns such as of the
Pliocene (e.g., large warming at mid and high latitudes with stable tropical temperatures) are inconsistent
with the warming caused by increased CO2. Combination of CO2 increase and ocean heat transport
change have resulted in the warmer Pliocene surface
temperatures (https://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/features/199704_pliocene/page3.html)

Australian climate change:

Australia faces significant environmental and economic impacts from climate change across a number of sectors,
including water security, agriculture, coastal communities, and infrastructure. ustralia’s changing climate
represents a significant challenge to individuals, communities, governments, businesses,
industry and the environment. Australia has already experienced increases in average
temperatures over the past 60 years, with more frequent hot weather, fewer cold days,
shifting rainfall patterns and rising sea levels.
(https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/OandA/Areas/Oceans-and-climate/Climate-change-
information).
Leading scientists advise climate change will cause increases to the frequency and intensity of extreme
weather events. Rising sea levels pose a significant risk to coastal communities, while the world’s oceans
could become too acidic to support coral reefs and other calcifying marine organisms.

In 2020 average temperatures in Australia will be 1.5°C higher than in 1900. In 2070, if we do
nothing about climate change, it will be only 3.5°C hotter on average.
https://australianmuseum.net.au/what-are-the-impacts-of-climate-change

Rainfall

 Rainfall extremes are increasing around the world, and the increase is linked to the
warming of the atmosphere which has taken place New findings from the ARC
Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, published in Nature Climate
Change on Tuesday, reveal that a two-degree rise in average global temperatures
would lead to a 10-30 per cent increase in extreme downpours. Rainfall has
increased across parts of northern Australia since the 1970s.
(http://www.bom.gov.au/state-of-the-climate/) Australians will need to
batten down the hatches with more intense rain storms predicted as a result of
higher humidity driven by a rise in global temperatures.
http://www.smh.com.au/environment/more-rain-on-the-horizon-as-climate-change-affects-australia-
study-finds-20170115-gts0l1.html

Conclusion:

Nations around the world are upping their game in the fight against climate change. There is a
great need to Climate change presents a major and growing challenge to the Arctic and the world as a
whole. While the concerns this generates are important now, their implications are even greater for future
generations that will bear the consequences of current actions or inaction. Strong rapid action to reduce
emissions is required in order to alter the future path of human-induced warming. Action is also needed to
begin to adapt to the warming that is already occurring and that will continue.