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Paras, Shane Nicole B.

9- Holerith
MUSIC Characteristics of Renaissance Music
❖ Mostly polyphonic
Music of the Medieval Period (700-1400) ❖ Imitation among the voices is common
❖ also known as the Middle Ages or Dark Ages ❖ Use of word painting in texts and music
❖ start with the fall of the Roman Empire ❖ Melodic lines move in a flowing manner
Characteristics of Gregorian Chants ❖ Melodies are easier to perform because these move
➢ Monophonic along a scale with a few large laps
➢ Free meter
➢ Modal Vocal Music of the Renaissance Period
➢ Usually based on Latin Liturgy Mass- form of sacred musical composition that sets texts
➢ Use of Neume notation of the Eucharistic liturgy into music
Characteristics of the Mass
❖ Monophonic plainchant-named after Pope Gregory I ❖ Polyphonic
❖ Dissemination means ‘to spread’ ❖ May be sung a capella or with orchestral
❖ Monophonic refers to having a single an accompaniment
accompanied melodic lined ❖ Text may be syllabic, neumatic or melismatic
❖ Modal relates to musical note Five Main Sections of Mass
❖ Neume notation refers to any of various symbols ❖ Kyrie “Lord Have Mercy”
used in the notation of Gregorian Chant ❖ Gloria “Glory to God in the Highest”
❖ Credo “Apostle’s Creed” or “Nicean Creed”
Troubador Music ❖ Sanctus and Benedictus “Holy holy” and “Blessed Is
He”
❖ Troubador refers to the writers and performer of song
Agnus Dei “Lamb of God”
or poetry in the Middle Age
❖ Chivalry refers to systems of values such as loyalty
and honor Madrigal- secular vocal polyphonic music composition
which originated from Italy
Characteristics of Toubador Music -Written and expressed in a poetic text and sung during
courtly social gatherings
➢ Usually monophonic
-most important secular form during the Renaissance
➢ Sometimes with improvised accompaniment
period
➢ Tells of chivalry and courtly love
Characteristics of the Madrigal
➢ Originated in France
❖ Polyphonic
➢ Written in the French language
❖ Sung a cappella
❖ Through-composed
Famous Composer of the Medieval Period ❖ Frequently in 3 to 6 voices
Adam de la Halle (France, 1237-1288)
✓ Also known as Adam le Bossu and Famous Composers of the Renaissance Period
Adam the Hunchback Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Rome 1525- Feb 2,1594)
✓ Son of a well-known citizen of Arras, Thomas Morley (1557-1602)
Henri de la Halle
✓ Cistercian Abbey of Vaucelles
✓ One of the oldest secular composers ARTS
Pre-Historic Era
His musical play: Jeu de Robin et de Marion ❖ Includes all human existence before the emergence
La Chanson du roi Sicile of writing
❖ art is only one clue – along with fossils, pollens and
Music of the Renaissance Period (1400-1600) other finds to an understanding of early human life
❖ Term comes from the word renaitre which means and culture
rebirth, revival and rediscovery
❖ Is a period of looking back to the Golden Age of Paintings from the Pre-Historic Era
Greece and Rome ➢ their paintings were found inside the caves – may
❖ Lute was the prominent instrument at this era have been their way of communicating with each
❖ Also known as the Golden Age of acapella choral other; may also be for religious or ceremonial
music purposes
➢ Prehistoric drawing of animals were usually correct in ❖ artist rely on the shade and hues of paint to create
proportion (Cave of Lascaux) life-like feeling
➢ dominant features of the paintings were large animals Paintings from the Roman Era
native in the religion. ❖ copied or imitated from Hellenic Greek paintings
➢ discovered on September 12,1940 ❖ fresco technique was used; tic-tac-toe design; multi
➢ nearly 2,000 figures; mainly of animals, human point perspective; tropme-l’-oeil effect
figures and abstract designs ❖ animals, everyday life, still life, mythological subjects,
➢ Sections identified inside the caves: portraits and landscapes
The Great Hall of the Bulls, The Lateral Passage, The ❖ landscape painting is the main innovation of Roman
Shaft of the Dead man, The Chamber of Engravings, painting from Greek painting
The Painted Gallery, Chamber of Feliness
Mosaic
Paintings form the Ancient Egypt ❖ art process where an image is created using an
❖ the purpose of the paintings is to make deceased assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stones
afterlife place pleasant or other materials
❖ themes: journey to underworld introducing the
deceased to the gods of the underworld by their Byzantine Painting
protective deities ❖ lively styles of paintings; Christian subjects
❖ emphasize the importance of life after death and the
preservation of the knowledge of the past Romanesque Painting
❖ painting were highly stylized, symbolic and shows ❖ largely placed mosaics on the walls of the churches
profile view of animal or a person
❖ Main colors: red, black, blue, gold, green derived from Paintings from the Gothic Era
the mineral pigments ❖ confined in the illumination of manuscript pages and
the painting of frescoes on the walls of churches in
Paintings from Classical Greek Era cosmopolitan style, elegant manner and sophisticated
❖ paintings were most commonly found in vases,
panels and tomb Sculptures from the Early Age
❖ depict natural figures with dynamic compositions Pre-Historic Sculptures – region and locality
❖ subjects: battle scenes, mythological figures and Venus of Willendrof, Venus of Brassempouy
everyday scenes Sculptures from the Egyptian Era
❖ reveal grasp of linear perspective and naturalist elements – forms, hieroglyphics, relative size, color, actions
representation Queen Nefertiti, The Pharoah Menkaure and his Queen
Most common methods of Greek painting: Sculptures from the Classical Period
Fresco – water based pigments; matte style Greek Sculptures – points of human anatomy and proportion
Encaustic – Greek ship builders; hot wax Myron; The Discobulus
Vase Painting Roman Sculptures
Kerch Style – referred to as Kerch Vases are red; monumental terra-cotta
figured pottery The Portonacio Sarcophagus, Sarcophagus from cervetiri
Shapes commonly found are:
Byzantine Sculptures
pelike – wine container
theological significance
lekanis – low bowl with two horizontal and low broad foot
The Barberini Diptych
lebes gamikos – high handles and lid use to carry bridal bath
Romanesque Sculptures
krater – bowl use for mixing wine and water
❖ Common motifs: scenes from the life of women, reliquaries, altar frontals, crucifixes
mythological beings, mythical story or event Last Judgement
❖ technique – polycromy – combination of different Gothic Sculptures
colors especially the brilliant ones more lively and realistic
Resurrection of the Virgin
Panel Painting
❖ paintings on flat panels of wood (Pitsa Panel) Architecture from the Early Age
Pre-historic Architecture
Tomb/ Wall Painting megaliths from the Greek word lithos “stone” and megas “big”
❖ very popular during classical period huge stone blocks which probably intended for burial
❖ uses the method frescos in either tempera (water Megalithic monuments
based) or encaustic (wax)
❖ water based materials (Tomb of the Diver)
Neutral EB – calories you consume equals the amount you
expend
PHYSICAL EDUCATION HEALTH
Nutrition and Weight Health – state of complete physical, mental and social well-
gain weight – calories consumed and calories expended being
Community – sociological group in a large place sharing one
Gaining Weight environment
may result to higher-than-normal basal metabolic rate Community Health – art and science of maintaining,
gaining muscle and not fat weight protecting and improving the health of all the members of the
community
Environmental Health – aspects of human health that are
Losing Weight determined by physical, chemical, biological, social and
involves a negative energy balance psychological factors
increasing exercise and decreasing caloric intake
A Healthy Community Include:
Determining Calorie Needs
calorie – heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of 1. clean and safe physical environment
water 1 degree Celsius; Kilocalorie is 1,000 calories 2. environment that meets everyone basic needs
3. environment that promotes social harmony and
Total energy expenditure (TEE) – total number of calories your actively involves everyone
body needs on a daily basis 4. understanding of local health and environmental
Can determine by: issues
➢ your basal metabolic rate (BMR) 5. community that participates in identifying local
➢ thermic effect of food solutions to local problems
➢ thermic effect of your physical activity 6. community whose members have access to varied
experiences, means of interaction and
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) communication
energy required to maintain your body at rest 7. accessible and appropriate health services and
fast from 8-12 hours facilities
60% to 75% of the TEE 8. promotion and celebration of historical and cultural
heritage
The Thermic Effect of Food 9. diverse and innovative economy
energy required to digest and absorb food 10. sustainable us of available resources of a ll
10% to 15% of your TTE
Primary Health Care – program of DOH
The Thermic Effect of Physical Activity
amount of energy required for physical activity Perennial Community Health Problems
15% for sedentary people; 80% for athletes ➢ Human Excreta and Sewage
NEAT – non-exercise activity thermogenesis ➢ Disease Control
energy expended in unplanned physical activity ➢ Peace and Order
➢ Waste Disposal
Maximizing Food Consuming ➢ Food Sanitation
200 calories – inactive child ➢ Water Supply
200-400 – physically active child ➢ Drug Abuse, Prevention and Control in the
(9-13 years) 1800 kcal for males; 1600 kcal for females Community
(14-18 years) 2200 kcal for males; 1800 kcal for females
Vary according to factors: economy, politics, geography,
Managing your Weight culture and social context
when weight loss is desired, a plan of action is needed for a
long-term success Paces which experience community health problems like:
➢ water-borne and communicable disease
Energy Balance ➢ armed conflicts
compares the amount of energy consumed as food with the ➢ natural disasters
amount of energy expended through the combination of resting ➢ highly urbanized zones
metabolism, activities of daily living, voluntary physical ➢ overpopulated areas
exercise.
Positive EB – consume more energy; weight gain Solid Waste Management Program – helps lessen the amount
Negative EB – expend more calories, weight loss of refuse in our country
KIND COMPOSITION SOURCES Definition of Solid Waste states in accordance with the best
Waste from Households, principles of:
preparation, Restaurants, ➢ public health
Garbage cooking and Stores, ➢ economics
serving of food, Markets ➢ engineering
market wastes ➢ conservation
Combustible: ➢ aesthetics
Paper, cartons, ➢ public attitude
boxes, wood
Same as R.A No. 9003 – many ways to do Solid Waste Management
Rubbish
Garbage REDUCE, REUSE and RECYCLE
Non-combustible:
Metals, tin cans,
Glass, dirt Environmental Problems in the Philippines
Residue from Deforestation – destruction of big areas of forests
fires used for Same as Flash Flood – sudden flood of great volume
Ashes Illegal Logging –
cooking an Garbage
heating Illegal Mining – extraction of valuable minerals
Sweepings, dirt, Streets, Mining Act of 1995
Street Refuse Soil Erosion – soil and rock are moved from one place to
leaves sidewalks, alleys
Same as street another place by wind, water and gravity
Dead Animals Cats, Dogs, Cows Causes of Soil Erosion:
refuse
Abandoned Unwanted cars Same as street ✓ Deforestation
Vehicles and trucks refuse ✓ Agriculture
Food-processing ✓ Urbanization
Industrial wastes, lumber Factories, power ✓ Mining
Wastes scraps, metal plants Coral Reef Degradation – significant problem throughout the
scraps world – Coral reefs – underwater ecosystems built from
Demolition Lumber, pipes, calcium carbonate
Demolition Sites 27% reefs affected – 11% completely lots; 16% damaged
wastes bricks
Construction Scrap lumber, New construction,
Wastes pipes remodeling Pollution – alteration of the physical, chemical and biological
Hazardous solids Household, properties of water, air and land resources
Special Wastes Air Pollution – alteration of physical, chemical and biological
and liquids hotels, hospitals
properties of the atmospheric air
Sewage
Septic tank Water Pollution – alteration of physical, chemical and
Treatment Septic tanks
sludge biological properties of a body of water
Residue
Noise Pollution – excessive sound that causes hearing loss,
stress, fatigue, irritability, tension
Soil Pollution – caused by chemicals in pesticides
Stable Manure – animal wastes from barns
Street Night Soil – human waste
Pertinent Laws adhering to environmental safety and
Yard Cutting – leaves, branches, grass
health protection:
Waste Disposal – discharge materials in accordance with local
P.D. 389 – The Forestry Reform Code
environment guidelines or laws
P.D. 704 – Preservation of fishery resources
P.D. 1219 – Protection of Coral ecosystems
Solid Waste Management refers to the discipline associated
P.D. 1067 – Water Code of the Philippines
with the:
P.D. 463 – Amended the Mining Act of 1936
➢ control of generation
P.D. 1251 – Fines on tailings and mines wastes
➢ storage collection
P.D. 984 – The Pollution Control Law
➢ transfer and transport
P.D. 825 – Improper disposal of garbage
➢ processing
P.D. 856 – Sanitation Code
➢ disposal of solid waste
R.A. 8749 – Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999