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CHAPTER 5

RAINFALL AND RECHARGE ANALYSIS

5.1 GENERAL

The Lower Bhavani River Basin mainly occurs in Erode District of


Tamil Nadu State. Namakkal and Karur Districts lie to the east. Dindigul
District is its immediate neighbor to the south; and on the west, it has
Coimbatore and Nilgiri Districts as its boundaries. Thus, Erode District is
essentially a land-locked area having no sea-coast of its own. A part of the
eastern boundary of the study area is covered by the Cauvery River, entering
Erode District from Salem and flowing in a southerly direction. In this study,
rainfall data for the period of 10 years (1995 – 2004) was collected from the
government departments. Nine rainfall stations are located in the study area.
Spatial and seasonal variations of rainfall intensities, frequency distribution
analysis of annual, monsoon and non-monsoon rainfall, and regression
analysis have been carried out in this chapter. In addition to rainfall analysis,
surface runoff and groundwater table elevation models have also been
developed using GIS to understand the groundwater level fluctuations and
recharge mechanisms.

The study area, in general, is characterized by scanty rainfall and


dry climate. Maximum rainfall is recorded in the Gobichettipalyam and
Bhavani Taluks. The Palghat Gap in the Western Ghats, which has a soothing
effect on the climate of Coimbatore District, does not render much help in
improving the dry climate in this area (Madhu et al 2006). The cool wind that
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gushes out of the west coast through the Palghat Gap loses its coolness and
becomes dry by the time it crosses Coimbatore District and reaches Erode
region. Unlike Coimbatore, which is blessed with a health-aiding climate, the
study area has dry weather through out, except during the monsoon season.
Summer season starts from March. The scanty showers during this period do
not provide any relief to the oppressive heat. There is slight improvement in
the climate during June-August. The north-east monsoon sets in vigorosly
only during October-November and by December, the rains disappear
rendering the weather clear and pleasant. Hence, the area generally
experiences dry climatic conditions with a maximum temperature of 40º C
during April and May, and a minimum temperature of 22º C during
November and December.

5.2 VARIOUS SEASONS

The Indian Meteorological Service divides the year into four


seasons: (1) the relatively dry, cool winter from December through February;
(2) the dry, hot summer from March through May; (3) the south-west
monsoon from June through September, when the predominating south-west
maritime winds bring rains to most of the country; and (4) the north-east, or
retreating monsoon of October and November (Jagannadha-Sarma 2005). The
south-west monsoon blows in from sea to land. It usually breaks on the west
coast early in June and reaches most of South Asia by the first week of July.
Because of the critical importance of monsoon rainfall to agricultural
production, predictions of the monsoon arrival date are eagerly watched by
government planners and agronomists, who need to determine the optimal
dates for plantings. The south-west monsoon occurs in the form of two
branches. After breaking on the southern part of the peninsula in early June,
one branch known as the Arabian Sea monsoon reaches Bombay around June,
and settles over most of South Asia by late June, bringing cooler but more
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humid weather (De-Marsily 1986). The other branch, known as the Bay of
Bengal monsoon, moves northward in the Bay of Bengal and spreads over
most of Assam by the first week of June. On encountering the barrier of the
Himalayan Great Range, it is deflected westward along the Indo-Gangetic
Plain towards New Delhi. Thereafter, the two branches merge as a single
current, bringing rains to the remaining parts of North India in July.

5.2.1 Cold Weather Season (Winter Season)

The months of January and February are considered as the winter


period. Extended effects of the ‘north-east monsoon activity' in the south and
the 'western disturbances' in the north of the country are the features of this
period. Extra-tropical low pressure systems passing through the northern part
of the country from east to west, mainly between November and April, are
termed as 'Western Disturbances’ (Jayarami-Reddy 2006). Winter rains and
severe cold waves are the result of the movement of these systems. In Tamil
Nadu, January is the coldest month, when the daily minimum temperature for
the state as a whole is 21° C, varying from about 16° C in the north to about
24° C in the south. The lowest temperature ever recorded at an individual
station in the plains was 10.2° C at Tirupattur on 15th December 1974, which
was 5.9° C lower than the normal of the coldest month. In the ghat areas,
Uthagamandalam registered the lowest minimum temperature of -2.1° C on
7th January 1976, which was 7.3° C lower than the normal of the coldest
month.

5.2.2 Hot Weather Season (Summer Season)

The hot season from March through May is the traditional period
when the winter pattern of pressure and winds gets disturbed prior to the
establishment of the summer monsoon; hence, is often referred to as the
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‘pre-monsoon' season. This season is characterized by heavy dust haze and


extremely high temperature over North India. The land and sea breeze effect
is prominent over the coastal areas during this season. The frequency of
thunderstorms increases progressively over South India with increased influx
of moist air from the sea (Prasad et al 2006). As the season advances, a few
tropical cyclones form in the Indian seas, but they generally move north or
north-east and strike the Bengal, Bangladesh or Burma coasts. Convective
activity is essential for the occurrence of thunder and dust storms. With the
advance of summer, thunder activity becomes pronounced in April and May
due to ground heating, mainly over inland stations.

In Tamil Nadu, May is the hottest month with the mean daily
maximum temperature of 36° C in the plains, and the hilly region in the west
recording about 13° C as the lowest. The highest temperature ever recorded at
an individual station in the plains is 46.3° C at Tirupattur on 4th May 1976,
which was 9.6° C higher than the normal for the warmest month.
Uthagamandalam, a hill station, registered the highest maximum temperature
of 28.5° C on 29th April 1986, which was 5.8° C higher than the normal for
the warmest month.

5.2.3 South-West Monsoon Season

The period between June and September is referred to as the ‘south-


west monsoon' period. It is the principal rainy season for the Indian
subcontinent. This is the summer monsoon period where the south-west
monsoon holds sway over the country. The whole country receives nearly
75% of its rainfall during this period. The south-west monsoon sets in over
the extreme south-western tip of the peninsula by the end of May
(Jagannadha-Sarma 2005). The onset of monsoon is characterized by a
sudden spurt of rainfall activity. It progresses inland in stages and covers the
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entire country by the middle of July. It starts retreating from the extreme
north-west by the beginning of September, progressively receding
southwards. Tamil Nadu is considered as a rain shadow region as it lies on the
eastern (leeward side) side of the Western Ghats. The total annual rainfall is
higher over the southern part of the state. In this period, the state receives only
32% of its annual rainfall.

5.2.4 North-East Monsoon Season (Retreating South-West Monsoon)

The period between October and December is referred to as the


north-east monsoon season over Peninsular India. Earlier, this period was also
referred to as the “post-monsoon season" or “retreating south-west monsoon
season". The north-east monsoon season is the major period of rainfall
activity over southern peninsular India, particularly in the eastern half
comprising of the meteorological subdivisions of coastal Andhra Pradesh,
Rayalaseema and Tamilnadu-Pondicherry (Mandal et al 2005). For Tamil
Nadu, this is the main rainy season accounting for about 48% of the annual
rainfall. Coastal districts of the state get nearly 60% of their annual rainfall,
while the interior districts get about 40-50% of their annual rainfall.

The increase in rainfall activity over Andhra-Tamil Nadu coasts,


which takes place sometime around the middle of October, is generally
considered as the “setting in of the north-east monsoon". The normal date of
onset of the north-east monsoon is around 20 th of October, with a deviation of
about a week on either side. The rainfall over the south peninsular region
towards the end of the south-west monsoon season is mainly in the interior
districts, and generally occurs in the afternoon, evening or early part of the
night (Shivam-Tripathi et al 2006). As the season advances, the rainfall is
mainly in the coastal districts with the interior districts getting less rain. It
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generally occurs during night and early morning hours. Along the east coast,
rainfall occurring during late night and morning hours is a usual feature of the
north-east monsoon.

5.3 RAIN GAUGE STATIONS

The base map of the study area was prepared from the Survey of
India toposheets (SOI 1981) on 1:50000 scale. Places in which the rain
gauges are installed (PWD 2002) to measure the rainfall through out the year
are Gobichettipalyam (R1), Perundurai (R2), Anainasuvampalayam (R3),
Bhavanisagar Agri (R4), Bhavani (R5), Bhavanisagar PWD (R6),
Satyamangalam (R7), Kodiveri Anaicut (R8) and Gunderipallam (R9)
(Figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1 Locations of rain gauge stations


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Monthly rainfall data for a 10-year period (1995 - 2004) was


collected from the Public Works Department, Tamil Nadu (PWD, 2006).
Seasonal behavior, spatial variation of rainfall intensity, frequency
distribution of rainfall and regression analysis has been attempted in this
chapter. The collected rainfall data has been categorized into four major
seasons as given in Table 5.1 Monthly variations of rainfall and seasonal
averages of rainfall were calculated. Frequency variations of rainfall based on
intensities were also computed and plotted as charts.

Table 5.1 Various seasons

S.No. Seasons/Periods Months


1 Post-monsoon (PM) January and February
2 Pre-monsoon (PrM) March, April and May
3 SW Monsoon (SW) June, July, August and September
4 NE Monsoon (NE) October, November and December

5.4 MONTHLY VARIATIONS OF RAINFALL

The average monthly variation of rainfall intensity calculated for


the period of ten years (1995-2004) has been plotted for all the rainfall
stations (Figure 5.2). Generally, an increasing trend in rainfall intensity is
noticed between January and May at all the stations. Intensity of rainfall then
decreases during June, and again increases till October. The declining trend
again occurs from October to January. Peak in rainfall intensity is observed
during October at all the rainfall stations.
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Gobichettipalyam Perundurai
200

Average Rainfall (mm)

Avg Rainfall (mm)


250
200 150
150 100
100
50
50
0 0
n b ar pr ay un l t v c b ar pr l
Ja F e M Ju Aug Sep Oc No De n ay Jun Ju Aug p ct v c
A M J Ja Fe M A M Se O No De
Months M onths

Anainasuvampalayam Bhavani

200

Avg Rainfall (mm)


200
Avg Rainfall (mm)

150
150
100
100
50
50

0 0
b ar pr l ct v c
n b ar r ay n
Ju
l g p ct v c
Ja
n
Fe M ay Jun Ju Aug Se
p
O No De
Ja Fe M Ap M Ju Au Se O No De A M
M onths Months

Satyam angalam Bhavanisagar (PWD)


Average Rainfall (mm)

Average Rainfall (mm)

250 300
200 250
150 200
150
100
100
50 50
0 0
b ar pr l ct ov ec l
n
Ja Fe M ay Jun Ju Aug p n b ar pr ay n Ju Aug p ct ov ec
A M Se O N D J a Fe M A M Ju Se O N D
Months Months

Kodiveri Anaicut Gunderipallam

200 150
Avg Rainfall (mm)

Avg Rainfall (mm)

150
100
100
50
50

0 0
b ar pr l ct ov ec l
n
Ja Fe M ay Jun Ju Aug p n b ar pr ay un
Ju Aug Sep ct v c
A M Se O N D Ja Fe M A M J O No De
Months Months

Bhavanisagar (Agri)
Average Rainfall (mm)

150

100

50

0
b ar pr ay un l ct
n
Ja Fe M A M J Ju Aug Sep O ov ec
N D
Months

Figure 5.2 Monthly variations of rainfall pattern


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5.5 SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF RAINFALL

The seasonal behavior of rainfall (Figure 5.3) during 1995 to 2004


has been analyzed for all the rain gauge stations located in the Lower Bhavani
River Basin. The basin receives more rainfall during the NE monsoon season
(60-70%). Rainfall contribution by post-monsoon is very less when compared
with the other seasons. The SW monsoon contributes good amount of rainfall
in some stations. Rainfall intensity during pre-monsoon season is higher than
in the SW monsoon season at three stations: Gobichetttipalyam, Bhavanisagar
(PWD) and Bhavanisagar (Agri). The percentage contribution of rainfall by
various seasons has also been determined and presented in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2 Average, maximum and minimum rainfall during various


seasons

Average
contribution Maximum occurrence Minimum occurrence
Monsoon/
(1995-2004)
Season
In In
In mm In % Station Year In mm Station Year In %
% mm
R2 2004
1995,
R3 2002,
2004
Post-
49.39 6.46 R6 2000 190.20 6.4 R4 2004 0 0
monsoon
(1994,
1995,
R5
2003,
2004)
Pre-
166.52 21.80 R6 2004 418.20 21.7 R7 1998 28 3.4
monsoon
SW
209.91 27.48 R5 1998 606.00 27.3 R1 1997 40.4 19.2
monsoon
NE
338.1 44.26 R7 2005 691.60 44.2 R6 1995 90 36.4
monsoon
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Ave rage Se asonal Rainfall at Average Seasonal Rainfall at Bhavani


Anainasuvam palayam
120

Avg Rainfall (mm)


40
Average Rainfall
100
80
(mm) 60
20
40
20
0
0 PM PrM SW NE
PM PrM SW NE
Seasons
Seas ons

Average Seasonal Rainfall at Average Seasonal Rainfall at Bhavanisagar


Gobichettipalyam (Agri)
80

Avg Rainfall (mm)


160
Avg Rainfall (mm)

140 60
120
100
80 40
60
40 20
20
0 0
PM PrM SW NE PM PrM SW NE
Seasons Seasons

Ave rage Se asonal Rainfall at Pe rundurai Ave rage Seasonal Rainfall at Satyam angalam
140
Avg Rainfall (mm)

Avg Rainfall (mm)

120 400
100
80 300
60 200
40
100
20
0 0
PM PrM SW NE PM PrM SW NE
Seas ons Seasons

Average Seasonal Rainfall at Gunderipallam Average Seasonal Rainfall at Kodiveri


Anaicut
40
Avg Rainfall (mm)

60
Avg Rainfall

30
40
(mm)

20
20
10
0
0 PM PrM SW NE
PM PrM SW NE
Seasons Seasons

Ave rage Se asonal Rainfall at Bhavanisagar


(PWD)
140
120
Avg Rainfall

100
(mm)

80
60
40
20
0
PM PrM SW NE
Seasons

Figure 5.3 Seasonal variations of rainfall pattern


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5.6 SPATIAL VARIATION PATTERNS OF RAINFALL

Isohyetal maps (Figures 5.4(a) to 5.4(e)) were prepared using GIS,


namely Geomedia (v.5.3) by taking the average annual and seasonal rainfall
data (1995-2004) of nine rain gauge stations for understanding the spatial
variations of rainfall intensity over the basin. Vector diagrams for
representing the direction of increasing order of rainfall intensity were also
prepared using the same GIS software. These vector diagrams were
superimposed over the corresponding isohyetal maps. The length of the
arrows in each vector diagram is proportional to the intensity of rainfall
variation. Lengths of the arrows are more where the isohyetal contour lines
are closer, indicating more variation in rainfall intensity. Shorter arrows are
indicative of less variation in rainfall intensity; the isohyetal contours are well
spaced.

Figure 5.4(a) Spatial variation of average annual rainfall


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Figure 5.4(b) Spatial variation of average NE monsoon rainfall

Figure 5.4(c) Spatial variation of average post-monsoon rainfall


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Figure 5.4(d) Spatial variation of average pre-monsoon rainfall

Figure 5.4(e) Spatial variation of average SW monsoon rainfall


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Direction of increasing rainfall intensity is indicated by the


direction of arrows. It is observed from the isohyetal maps that the average
annual and monsoon rainfall intensities generally increase towards
Satyamangalam and Gobichettipalyam rain gauge stations. However, the
pre-monsoon rainfall intensity increases towards west in the basin.

5.7 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL

Frequency distribution diagrams of pre-monsoon, post-monsoon,


SW monsoon and NE monsoon for the nine rain gauge stations are illustrated
in Figure 5.5. Ten years of rainfall data was considered for preparing the
frequency distribution diagrams. Frequency variation of rainfall intensities
during various seasons are shown in Figure 5.5. Bhavanisagar (Agri),
Gunderipallam and Anainasuvampalayam stations do not have any rainfall
record greater than 250 mm of rainfall. Post-monsoon rainfall intensity falls
only in the category of < 250 mm in all the rainfall stations. The north-east
monsoon alone falls in the range of 500-700 mm in Bhavanisagar (PWD),
Gobichettipalyam and Satyamangalam rainfall stations. The south-west
monsoon also been recorded in the range of 500-700 mm at the Bhavani and
Perundurai rainfall stations.
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Average Se asonal Rainfall at Bhavanis agar Ave rage Seas onal Rainfall at Bhavani
PWD
30 15

Frequency
Frequency 20 10

10 5

0 0
<250 250-500 500-750 <250 250-500 500-750
Range of Rainfall Inte nsity (m m)
Range of Rainfall Intensity (m m )
Pos t Monsoon Pre Mons oon Post Monsoon PreMonsoon
SW Monsoon NE Mons oon SW Monsoon NE Monsoon

Average Seasonal Rainfall at Gobichettipalyam Ave rage Seasonal Rainfall at Bhavanis agar
15 (Agri)
30

Frequency
Frequency

10 20

5 10

0
0
<250 250-500 500-750
<250 250-500 500-750 Range of Rainfall Inte nsity (m m )
Range of Rainfall Intensity (mm)
Post Monsoon Pre Monsoon Post Mons oon Pre Mons oon
SW Monsoon NE Monsoon SW Monsoon NE Mons oon

Ave rage Seas onal Rainfall at Perundurai Average Seasonal Rainfall at


Satyam angalam
15 15
Frequency
Frequency

10 10

5 5
0 0
<250 250-500 500-750 <250 250-500 500-750
Range of Rainfall Intensity (m m ) Range of Rainfall Intensity (m m )
Post Monsoon PreMonsoon Post Monsoon PreMonsoon
SW Monsoon NE Monsoon SW Monsoon NE Monsoon

Average Seasonal Rainfall at Gunderipallam Average Se asonal Rainfall at Kodive ri Anaicut


35 30
30 25
Frequency
Frequency

25 20
20
15
15
10 10
5 5
0 0
<250 250-500 500-750 <250 250-500 500-750
Range of Rainfall Intensity (m m ) Range of Rainfall Intens ity (m m)
Pos t Mons oon Pre Monsoon Post Mons oon Pre Monsoon
SW Mons oon NE Mons oon SW Mons oon NE Monsoon

Average Se asonal Rainfall at


Anainasuvampalayam
40
Frequency

30
20
10
0
<250 250-500 500-750
Range of Rainfall Inte nsity (m m )
Pos t Monsoon Pre Mons oon
SW Monsoon NE Mons oon

Figure 5.5 Frequency distribution of rainfall


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5.8 REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF ANNUAL AND MONSOON


RAINFALL

Statistics shows that the annual rainfall of India (AR) as a whole is


a reflection of total monsoon rainfall (MR) and that, on the average, the MR is
around 75% of the AR (Jagannadha-Sarma 2005). To examine this
contention, the ten-year MR–AR data of each station was tested for regression
analysis. The regression constants of intercept and X-variables obtained are
presented in Table 5.3. From the best fit lines in correlation diagrams plotted
between AR and MR.

Table 5.3 Regression equation constants and X-variables at the nine


rain gauge stations

Station Intercept X -variable


Gobichettipalyam 155.36 1.024
Perundurai 171.98 0.97
Anainasuvampalayam 60.98 0.446
Bhavanisagar (Agri) 45.71 1.52
Bhavani 260.85 0.79
Bhavanisagar (PWD) 189.37 1.040
Satyamangalam 188.05 0.97
Kodiveri Anaicut 70.72 1.11
Gunderipallam 5.41 0.88

5.9 DEM AND SURFACE RUNOFF MODEL

Fine-textured patterns (high drainage density) noticed on the hill


slopes indicate high surface runoff and low rainfall infiltration. The coarser
patterns (moderate drainage density) in the plains, however, are indicative of
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high rainfall infiltration (Lillesand and Kiefer 1994, Lokesha et al 2005). As


the rainfall runoff is mainly controlled by the terrain slope, the vector diagram
indicating slope/runoff direction and magnitude was developed from the
topographical grid file using GIS. The vector diagram was then superimposed
over the DEM (raster) for understanding the surface runoff and infiltration
processes (Figure 5.6). It is observed that the regional slope and the surface
runoff are generally towards south-east in this region.

Figure 5.6 DEM indicating slope variation and surface runoff

5.10 RECHARGE AND WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATION

Rainfall recharge rate differs from one soil type to other. Most of
the basin area is occupied by red soil, with or without calcareous material.
Black soil and brown soil occurs as scattered patches and do not have much
influence on groundwater recharge. Hydrographs correlating water level
fluctuation and rainfall recharge were prepared for the 43 wells. Monthly
rainfall and water level data of a 10-year period (1995-2004) were used for
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preparing the hydrographs, which reveal that the wells located in the red, non-
calcareous soil respond quicker to rainfall (Figure 5.7). However, the recharge
rate is comparatively slow in the wells located in red calcareous soil
(Figure 5.8). This is, however, not clearly observed in some hydrographs
because groundwater is pumped even during the monsoon (rainy) season.

5.11 RESULTS OF RAINFALL – RECHARGE ANALYSIS

1) The average annual rainfall of the basin, calculated from ten


years data (1995-2004) is 617.7 mm, which is less than the
average rainfall of the state of Tamil Nadu.

2) Monthly rainfall patterns show increasing trend in rainfall


intensities between January and May, and June and October at
all stations. Lowest rainfall intensities are usually recorded
during the month of January in this basin.

3) The basin receives more rainfall during the north-east


monsoon season. The average contribution of this monsoon is
338 mm, which is 44% of the total rainfall of the basin.
Highest intensity of rainfall (1995-2004) during this monsoon
was 692 mm in 2004.

4) Contribution to rainfall by various seasons is in the following


order: NE monsoon (44%) > SW monsoon (28%) > Pre-
monsoon (22%) > Post-monsoon (6%)

5) Occurrence of rainfall during the NE monsoon season at


various stations is in the following order: Satyamangalam >
Bhavanisagar (PWD) > Gobichettipalyam > Perundurai >
Bhavani > Bhavanisagar (Agri) > Gunderipallam > Kodiveri
Anaicut > Anainasuvampalayam.
Well No.
WELL No:99 Rainfall (mm)
Groundwater level (b.g.l)

0 16
2 14
Water level (m)

Rainfall (mm)
4 12
6 10
8 8
10 6
12 4
14 2
16 0
J 1995 DJ 1996 DJ 1997 DJ 1998 DJ 1999 DJ 2000 DJ 2001 DJ 2002 DJ 2003 DJ 2004 D

Well No.
WELL No. 28
28 Rainfall (mm)
Groundwater level (b.g.l)

0 350
Water level (m)

Rainfall (mm)
2 300
4 250
6 200
8 150
10 100
12 50
14 0
J 1995 DJ 1996 DJ 1997 DJ 1998 DJ 1999 DJ 2000 DJ 2001 DJ 2002 DJ 2003 DJ 2004 D

Figure 5.7 Hydrographs of wells located in red  non-calcareous soil

53
Well
WELLNo.
No.15
15 Rainf all
Groundw ater level (b.g.l)
0 10
1 9
Water level (m)

2 8

Rainfall (mm)
3 7
6
4
5
5
4
6 3
7 2
8 1
9 0
J 1995 DJ 1996 DJ 1997 DJ 1998 DJ 1999 DJ 2000 DJ 2001 DJ 2002 DJ 2003 DJ 2004 D

Rainfall (mm)
Well
WellNo.
No. 1 Groundw ater level (b.g.l)
0 1400

1200
5
Water level (m)

1000

Rainfall (mm)
10
800

600
15

400
20
200

25 0
J 1995 DJ 1996 DJ 1997 DJ 1998 DJ 1999 DJ 2000 DJ 2001 DJ 2002 DJ 2003 DJ 2004 D

Figure 5.8 Hydrographs of wells located in red  calcareous soil

54
55

6) Occurrence of rainfall during the SW monsoon season at


various stations is in the following order: Gobichettipalyam >
Perundurai > Bhavani > Satyamangalam > Bhavanisagar
(PWD) and (Agri) > Anainasuvampalayam > Kodiveri >
Gunderipallam.

7) Occurrence of rainfall during the pre-monsoon season at


various stations is in the following order: Bhavanisagar
(PWD) and (Agri) > Satyamangalam > Gobichettipalyam >
Perundurai > Bhavani > Kodiveri > Anainasuvampalayam >
Gunderipallam.

8) Occurrence of rainfall during the post-monsoon season at


various stations is in the following order: Bhavanisagar
(PWD) > Satyamangalam > Gobichettipalyam >
Gunderipallam > Bhavanisagar (Agri) > Kodiveri >
Perundurai > Bhavani > Anainasuvampalayam

9) Spatial variation isohyetal maps indicate that intensity of


rainfall increases towards the center and north-western part of
the basin.

10) Frequency distribution analysis indicates that all seasons have


higher frequency values in the category of < 250 mm.

11) The regression equation (rainfall) of the basin is: Annual


Rainfall (AR) = (1.0477 x Monsoon Rainfall) + 121.043

12) Surface runoff is less in the central part of the basin. It is


more towards Bhavani River from the northern as well as
southern parts of the basin.

13) Rainfall recharge rate is relatively higher in red  non-


calcareous soil.