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SYNOPSIS

OBESITY IN YOUNG WOMEN ( AGE OF 25 TO 35) CAUSES AND PREVENTION

SUBMITTED TO

PROFESSOR KALPANA KULSHRESHTHA ( PROGRAMME INCHARGE ,IGNOU)

COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE

G. B PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY , PANTNAGAR

FOR PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF SCIENE IN DIETIC AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

DR. KALPANA KULSHRESHTHA

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND NUTRITION

SUBMITTED BY

MADHURI RAWAT

E.NO 141991719

IGNOU STUDENT ( DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND NUTRITION)

COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE

G.B PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECH, PANTNAGAR 263145


INTRODUCTION

“Obesity is defined as condition characterized by excess body fat”. It usually occur when
calories consumed exceeds those expended through exercise and activity. (Port, 2007) The terms
overweight and obesity are used interchangeably. However, according to Beers (2003), “a
distinction is made between being overweight and being obese. Overweight is defined as a BMI
of 25 to 29.9,”while “obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or more” (p.831). Presently, obesity is a
serious nutritional disorder that encompasses cosmetic considerations. Attempts to combat this
health crisis have placed a burden both on health resources as well as governmental finances.
Nevertheless, the fight against obesity should not be neglected. It is a growing epidemic that
must be remedied. This paper is written for the purpose of educating people on obesity. It will:
examine the prevalence of obesity locally, regionally and internationally, the causes of obesity
and discuss how it contributes to the development of common diseases. In addition, aspects of
obesity prevent strategies will be outlined and, two approaches used to treat obesity will be
analysed.

Local, regional as well as global facts on obesity are quite similar and tend the share the
following characteristics. They reflect a tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity. It is
prevalent both in adults and children and the rate of incidence is higher in women than in men.
During the late nineties, obesity emerged as a health problem in Trinidad and Tobago.
Unpublished data from 1999 considered obesity to be a serious problem only among adults
during that time. While 4.6% adolescents,13-19 years were overweight 16.8% of adults(20 years
and older) were obese. Additionally, the rate of incidence among women was almost twice as
high as in men. (“Nutrition Country Profile” [NCP]). Over the last ten year the incidence of
obesity has tripled in Trinidad and Tobago. Bishops, (2011). Also it is prevalent more than ever
among children and adolescents. As a matter of fact, twenty-three percent of pupils from primary
schools and twenty- five percent of secondary school pupils in Trinidad and Tobago were
recorded as being overweight by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute for the period 2009-
2011 (King, 2011).
The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana and St. Lucia are among the Caribbean countries which show a
substantial level of obesity (Ford & Mokdad, 2008, vol.93, p.51). Over the years, the prevalence
of obesity in the Caribbean has increased at freighting rates. “In two decades obesity has grown
by almost 400% ...” (Henry, 2004, vol.37, p. 1) “Twenty- five percent of adult Caribbean women
are seriously... obese, and this is almost twice as many as their male counterparts” (CFNI, 2001)”
(Henry, 2004, vol.37, p. 1). In addition to these startling statistics, the Caribbean Food and
Nutrition Institute reported that 15 % of the populations of various Caribbean countries are made
up by obese children (Wilkinson, 2007). Because obesity has been increasing at shocking rates,
the World Health Organization nicknamed the term obesity as “globesity” “Worldwide obesity
has more than doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of
these over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. Nearly 43 million
children under the age of five were overweight in 2010.” (World health organization, 2011).

CONTROL AND TREATMENTS OF OBESITY

Treatment of the disease is simple in principle. If a patient eats a diet that provides 500-1000
Kcal (1-4 MJ) less than is needed for the activities of daily life, then and only then will the
excess reserves of energy in adipose tissue be drawn upon and weight lost at a rate of 0.5-1 kg
each week [21]. However, in practice, this is difficult for most patients, since it requires changes
in long established habits with a new discipline, similar to that which an athlete imposes on
herself when going into training. Physical exercise and dietary advice Besides restricting food
intake, physical fitness should be improved by engaging in as much exercise as possible in order
to lose weight, but also to maintain the appropriate weight in the long-term [43]. Exercise may
prove difficult for many patients in the early phase of rigorous exercises they may not be
accustomed to. Only with strong motivation maintained over long periods can patients lose
weight and sustain the loss. Doctors, dieticians and mutual exchanges in slimming clubs can
provide the support for morale. Although exercise can help reach a target weight, dietary
restriction and control are more effective as part of treatment of obesity

Obese patients are advised to walk, when possible, rather than use their cars or public transport,
to climb stairs rather than use the elevator and to take up one or more hobbies demanding
physical exercise. Hobbies that are suitable for the middle aged and elderly demanding physical
exertion include dancing, swimming, jogging, golf and gardening. Even if exercise contributes
only little to a negative energy balance, it benefits by promoting physical fitness, and preventing
muscle atrophy. Insufficient use of the muscles of the trunk and limbs of the respiratory system
and of the myocardium increases the risk of orthopaedic, respiratory and circulatory disorders. In
women, planned loss of weight after menopause seems to reduce the risk of breast cancer .
Patients also require practical advice on food and health based on hard science, and, not on false
ideas of no practical value which often circulate widely, and can be taken readily by despairing
patients. It is advisable to set a target weight and a realistic time to reach this target. This should
be agreed upon between the patient and the adviser at the start of treatment. Once the target has
been fixed, progress should be monitored and checked regularly by weighing and BMI
calculation Dietary advice has to be tailored to the patient’s previous food history which should
be obtained in as much detail as possible. Due to their high energy density, it is advisable to
remove from diets such high calorie items as refined sugar, sweets, candies, jams, jellies, honey,
syrups, canned or frozen fruits (unless preserved without sugar), dried fruits, cakes, ice cream,
fatty meats, sausages, fatty fish, fried foods, mayonnaise and salad dressings, cream sauces,
carbonated beverages, beers, spirits and all alcoholic beverages generally . no orthopaedic or
cardiovascular complications is it possible to increase physical activities
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVES :-
- To measure obesity.
- To study diet to be taken in obesity
- Physical activity in lifestyle
- Abominal related disease .
-
STUDY DESIGN : It will be interventional study which will be perfromed to access the effect
of obesity on women body at the age of 25 to 45 during the period of 01 to 2 months .

Subject of Participation :
Selection : Women at the age of 25 to 45 .
Sample size :- 50 women
Inclusion criteria :The subject will enrolled in the study based on the inclusion criteria which
is as follows :
Willingness to participate in the study

Sampling procedure:- Purposive sampling procedure will be used .


Instrument for Data Collection :-

- A baseline questionnaire or interview


- Body mass index ( measured as kg/m2) will be calculated using weight and height
measurement.
STRATEGIES RELATED TO OBESITY

The fact that the obesity epidemic didn’t flash over countries like a wildfire-rather it smoldered
and then slowly grew year after year-has made it even more difficult to combat, since its causes
have become so intertwined into the social, environmental, and governmental fabric.

Yet efforts to combat obesity-primarily through prevention-are beginning to gain traction, if by a


step at a time. To realize real strides, though, positive change must come to all parts of society:
from governments and schools , businesses and non-profit organization, neighborhoods and
communities, individuals and families. We need to change policies and create an environment
where the default option is the healthy choice.

Evidence shows that obesity prevention policy and environmental change efforts should focus on
facilitating a handful of key behaviors:

 This section of the website summarizes promising strategies for obesity prevention, based
on a review of expert guidance from major governmental, professional, and public health
advocacy organizations. Inside, you will find high-level recommendations for changes in key
settings-families, early childcare, schools, worksites, healthcare organizations-and for broad,
community-wide changes in the food and activity environments that can help make healthy
choices easier choices, for all. Each page also includes links to toolkits, guidelines, and other
useful resources for putting these obesity prevention strategies into practice. Over time, we
will add new obesity prevention strategies, recommendations, and resources as more evidence
emerges. Keep in mind that these obesity prevention recommendations are based primarily on
a review of U.S. expert guidance, unless otherwise indicated; in other countries, different
policy approaches may be needed to achieve improvements in food and physical activity
environments.Choosing healthier foods (whole grains, fruits and vegetables, healthy fats and
protein sources) and beverages

 Limiting unhealthy foods (refined grains and sweets, potatoes, red meat, processed meat)
and beverages (sugary drinks)

 Increasing physical activity

 Limiting television time, screen time, and other “sit time”

 Improving sleep

 Reducing stress

STRATEGIES TO PRVENT OBESITY


There is no single or simple solution to the obesity epidemic. It’s a complex problem and there

has to be a multifaceted approach. Policy makers, state and local organizations, business and

community leaders, school, childcare and healthcare professionals, and individuals must work

together to create an environment that supports a healthy lifestyle. There are several ways state

and local organizations can create a supportive environment to promote healthy living behaviors

that prevent obesity.

State and Local Programs

Resources are available to help disseminate consistent public health recommendations and

evidence-based practices for state, local, territorial and tribal public health organizations,

grantees, and practitioners.

Knowing your body mass index (BMI), achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, and getting

regular physical activity are all actions you can take for yourself to combat obesity.

Community Efforts

To reverse the obesity epidemic, community efforts should focus on supporting healthy eating

and active living in a variety of settings. Learn about different efforts that can be used in early

childhood care , hospitals , schools , and food service venues .

Healthy Living
The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't short-term dietary changes; it's about

a lifestyle that includes healthy eating and regular physical activity.

 Assessing Your Weight

BMI and waist circumference are two screening tools to estimate weight status and

potential disease risk.

 Healthy Weight

A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. Visit the Healthy Weight Website;

learn about balancing calories, losing weight, and maintaining a healthy weight.

 ChooseMyPlate

Healthy eating habits are a key factor for a healthy weight. Visit

the ChooseMyPlate Website; look up nutritional information of foods, track your calorie

intake, plan meals, and find healthy recipes.

 Physical Activity Basics

Physical activity is important for health and a healthy weight. Learn about different kinds

of physical activity and the guidelines for the amount needed each day.

/CONCLUSIONS
Obesity results from over-nutrition, low physical activity, change of dietary habits, urbanization,
and in a minority of patients to a physical condition or metabolic disturbance. To treat obesity,
restricting food intake and engaging in physical fitness are necessary. Although exercise can help
a patient reach a target weight, dietary restriction and control may be more effective for the
treatment of obesity. Several forms of surgical procedures can be used where exercise and food
restriction have failed, especially in morbid obesity. However, surgeries may be more expensive
and carry with them certain uncertainties and problems than dietary plans combined with regular
physical activity. It seems that society needs to instill in young people healthy and orderly eating
habits based on sound nutritional science and to provide sports fields and the opportunities,
education, encouragement and the motivation to use them on a regular basis. Exercise and
sensible eating are the best ways to regulate body fat percentage [54]. Nevertheless, the key to
keeping a healthy body weight is largely dependent on one’s lifestyle. Despite lower rates of
obesity than many regions of the world, obesity is increasing in Africa with rates in South Africa
and North Africa being comparable to those in developed countries. African countries should
therefore place measures in place to forestall its effects on health and burden on the health care
system.

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