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Structural
Dynamics
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
1
Spring-Mass system
subjected
to
a
time
dependent
k
F(t)
m
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
2

Free-body diagram of

the

mass.

T = kx

m

F(t)

ma = mx & &

m

=

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

3

( )

F t

k x = m && x

(

t)

x & + k x = F

&

m

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Dynamic Analysis

4

Homogeneou s :
F
(
t
)
=
0
m && x
+ k
x =
0
Dynamic Analysis

Solution

of D.E.

is sum

of homogeneous and particular solutions:

7/29/2005

5

Let
:
k
2
ω
=
m
Then :
2
&& x +
ω
x =
0
the natural circular
Dynamic Analysis

ω 2 is

7/29/2005

frequency

6

2
π
τ
=
ω
Dynamic Analysis

is

the period (measured in seconds)

τ

7/29/2005

7

Displacement
due
to simple
harmonic
motion.
τ
x
m
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Dynamic Analysis
8

One One

Dimensional Dimensional

Bar Bar

Element Element

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Dynamic Analysis

9

Step
1
-
Select Element Type
ˆ
1
2
ˆ
d
d
1x
2x
ˆ
e
f
x (
t)
ˆ
e
(
t)
1
f
2x
L
E - modulus
of elasticity
A
- cross-sectional area
ρ - mass density
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
10
 Step 2 - uˆ = a 1 + a 2 xˆ ˆ ˆ uˆ = N 1 d 1 x + N 2 d 2x N = 1 − xˆ N 1 = xˆ L 2 L Dynamic Analysis

Select a

Displacement

Function

7/29/2005

11

 Step 3 - Define { ε [ B x ] } = = ∂ uˆ = [ B 1 ⎤ ]{} ˆ d ⎡ ∂ − xˆ 1 ⎢ ⎣ ˆ L L ⎦ ⎥ { ˆ d } = ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ d ˆ d 1 x ⎫ ⎭ ⎬ { σ } = [ D 2 x ]{ ε x } = [ D ][ B ]{ d} ˆ Dynamic Analysis

Strain/Displacement

and

Stress/Strain

Relationships

7/29/2005

12

Step 4

Derive

Element

-

Stiffness and

Mass

Matrices

and

Equations

With time

ˆ

ˆ

f

f

1x

2x

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

13

Newton’s Newton’s Second Second

Law Law

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

14

NODAL
EQUATIONS
2
ˆ
d
ˆ
e
ˆ
1
x
f
= f
+ m
1
x
1
x
1
2
∂ t
2
ˆ
d
ˆ
e
ˆ
2 x
f
= f
+
m
2 x
2 x
2
2
∂ t
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

EQUILIBRIUM

15

m 1 and m 2 are obtained by
lumping
the total mass of
the
bar
equally
at the
two nodes
ρ
AL
m
=
1
2
ρ
AL
m
=
2
2
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

16

Lumped
Mass
Model
ˆ
1
2
ˆ
d
d
1x
2x
m
m
1
2
ˆ
e
f
(t)
ˆ
e
1x
f
(t)
2x
L
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
17
Equilibrium
in Matrix Form
ˆ
d
1x
ˆ
e
ˆ
2
f
1
x
⎫ ⎪
f
m
0
t
1x
1
=
+
ˆ
e
ˆ
ˆ
f
f
0
m
⎥ ⎨
d
2
x
2x
2
2x
2
t
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
18

Equilibrium

in Matrix Form

ˆ
e
f
(
t

)

[

&&

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

] d

k

d

+

=

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

19

Defining
Terms
1
1 ⎤
[
AE
k
]
=
Element
Stiffness
Matrix
L
1
1
ρ AL ⎡
1
0
[
m
]
=
Element
Lumped
Mass
Matrix
2
0
1
{
ˆ
}
d
Nodal
Displaceme nts
{
2
{
ˆ
}
&&
}
d
ˆ
d
=
Nodal
Accelerati ons
2
t
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Dynamic Analysis
20
Consistent
Mass
Matrix
{
e
}
{
& &
}
X
= −ρ
{
T
f
}
=
[
]
{
∫∫∫
N
X
}
dV
b
V
{
f
}
= −
ρ N
[
]
T
{
∫∫∫
uˆ && }dV
b
V
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

21

Mass
{
}
=
[
ˆ
N
]
d
&
&
ˆ
=
[
N
]
d
&&
ˆ
uˆ &&
=
[
N
]
d
Dynamic Analysis

Consistent

Matrix

7/29/2005

22

Consistent
Mass
Matrix
]{
&&
}
{
T
ˆ
f
}
=
∫∫∫
ρ N
[
][
N
d
dV
b
V
}
{
}
[
ˆ
f
=
]{ &&
d
b
[
]
[
][
T
=
∫∫∫
ρ
N
N ]dV
V
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

23

Consistent
Mass
Matrix
Bar
Element
[
]
[
T
= ρ
∫∫∫
N
]
[
N
]
dV
V
1
[
]
L
xˆ ⎤
= ρ
∫∫∫
1
dV
L
L ⎦
V
L
L
1
[
]
xˆ ⎤
= ∫
ρ
A
1
dxˆ
xˆ L
L
L ⎦
0
L
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

24

Consistent
Mass
Matrix
Bar
Element
⎞ ⎟ ⎞
1 −
L
xˆ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 1 −
1 −
[
]
L ⎠ ⎝
L
L ⎠
⎝ L
=ρ A
dxˆ
xˆ ⎞
xˆ ⎞
0
⎛ 1 −
⎜ L ⎠
⎝ L
L ⎠
⎝ L
ρ
A L ⎡
2
1 ⎤
[
]
=
6
1
2
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
25

STEP 5

Assemble the

Global

-

Equations

and

Apply B.C.’s

{
F
(
t

[

]

{

}

) }

]{

}

[

&&

K

d

M

d

+

=

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

26

{

[

]{ d}

&&

( ) }

[

] {

}

F t

K

d

M

+

=

Now Now must must solve solve coupled coupled set set

ofof ODE’sODE’s

instead instead of of set set of of

linear linear algebraic algebraic equations! equations!

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

27

[

Consistent

Mass

Matrix

[
m
]

∫∫∫

]

T

[

N ]dV

N

ρ

=

V

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

28

Beam
Element
yˆ, vˆ
ˆ
φ
, mˆ
1
1
2
ˆ
φ
, mˆ
2
2
L
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
f
,
d
f
,
d
1y
1y
2y
2y
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
29
Shape
Functions
1
(
3
2
3
)
N
=
2xˆ
3xˆ
L
+
L
1
3
L
1
(
3
2
2
3
)
N
=
L
2
L
+ xˆL
2
3
L
1
(
3
2
)
N
=
− 2xˆ
+
3xˆ
L
3
3
L
1
(
3
2
2
)
N
=
L
L
4
3
L
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

30

Shape
Functions
1.000
N
N
1
3
0.500
N
2
L
0.000
0
N
4
-0.500
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
31
Consistent
Mass
Matrix
[
]
][
T
m
ρ
[
N
N dV
]
= ∫∫∫
V
156
22
L
54
13 L ⎤
2
2
22
L
4
L
13 L
− 3
L
[
]
m
m
=
420
54
13 L
156
22
L
2
2
13 L
3 L
− 22 L
4
L
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
32
Lumped
Mass Matrix
1
0
0
0
2
α
L
0
0
0
m
[
]
210
m
=
2
0
0
1
0
2
α
L
0
0
0
210 ⎦
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

33

2

2

Lumped

Mass Matrix

2nd and
α
α
= 17.5

4th terms

is

account for rotary inertia.

= 0 if this

ignored.

if mass moment of inertia

of bar

one end is

selected

m ⎞ ⎛ L

2

I =

3

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

34

Consistent
Mass
Matrix
- CST
Q
0 ⎤
[
m
]
=
0
Q
⎡ 2
1
1 ⎤ u
1
m
[
Q
]
=
1
u
1 2
⎢ ⎢ 2
12
1
⎥ u
⎢ ⎣ 1
2 3
For each degree of
freedom
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
35
Consistent Mass
Matrix
-
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
2
0
1
0
1
ρ
At
1
0
2
0
1
0
[
m =
]
12
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
0
1
0
2
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

CST

36

[

[

=

=

0

m

3

1

Lumped

Mass Matrix -

CST

]

]

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Q 0

m

Q

0 u

3

Q

u 2

1 u

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

37

Lumped Mass Matrix -
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
ρ
At
0
0
1
0
0
0
[
m
]
=
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

CST

38

Consistent Mass Matrix -
Q
0
[
m
]
=
0
Q
4
2
1
2
2
4
2
1
[
m
Q
]
=
36 ⎢
1
2
4
2
2
1
2
4
m =ρ At
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
39

Consistent Mass Matrix -
4
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
4
0
2
0
1
0
2
2
0
4
0
2
0
1
0
m
0
2
0
4
0
2
0
1
[
m =
]
36
1
0
2
0
4
0
2
0
0
1
0
2
0
4
0
2
2
0
1
0
2
0
4
0
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
4
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

40

41

Hybrid

Methods

to

Attempts have been made

to combine

consistent and lumped mass approaches

achieve some

of the benefits

of each!

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

HRZ

Lumping

1.
2.
3.

4.

Hinton, Rock,

and Z

ienkiewicz

Compute

the

diagonal terms

of consistent

matrix.

mass

Compute

total mass of

element,

m

Compute

ss by adding diagonal

coefficients

associated with translational in same direction.

D-O-F that

are

5. Scale

all diagonal coefficients by

multiplying

by m/s

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

42

7/29/2005

-
ρ
A L ⎡
2
1
[
]
=
6
⎣ 1
2
m =ρ A L
ρ A L
s =
4
×
6
m
3
=
s
2
ρ
A L ⎡
3
0
[
]
=
6
0
3
Dynamic Analysis

HRZ

Bar Element

43

HRZ -
Beam
Element
156
22
L
54
13 L
2
2
22
L
4
L
13
L
3 L
[
m
m
]
=
420 ⎢
54
13 L
156
22 L ⎥
2
2
13 L
3 L
− 22 L
4
L
m =ρ AL
ρ AL
s
=
312 ×
420
m
420
=
s
312
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

44

HRZ -
Beam
Element
⎡ 420
× 156
0
0
0
312
39
420
2
0
× 4
L
0
0
2
L
m
m
[
]
312
=
=
420
420
78
39
0
0
× 156
0
312
2
420
L
2
0
0
0
× 4L
312
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
45
HRZ –
Serendipity
3
1
76
36
16
8
76
36
3
x
3
Gauss
Rule
2 x 2
Gauss Rule
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
46
HRZ – Quadratic Lagrangian
1
1
36
36
4
4
16
16
36
36
36
36
3 x
Gauss
3
Rule
2 x 2
Gauss Rule
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
47
%
error
in natural frequencies of a thick
simply-supported plate.
Half
of the
plate
modeled with
8-noded
24
d-o-f elements
Mode
Type of Mass
Matrix
m n
Consistent (%)
HRz Lumping (%)
Lumping (%)
1 1
0.11
0.32
0.32
2 1
0.4
0.45
0.45
2
2
0.35
2.75
4.12
3
1
5.18
0.05
5.75
3
2
4.68
2.96
10.15
3
3
13.78
5.18
19.42
4
2
16.88
1.53
31.7
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
48
Optimal
Lumping
Only
translational d-o-f
Based
on
consistent mass matrix
Use appropriate
Chose
integration
points
to coincide
with
nodal locations
[m] will
be
diagonal
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
49
Let
p be the
highest
order complete
polynomial in
shape function
N
let m
be the
highest
order derivative
in
strain energy
(m = 1
elasticity, m
=
2
bending)
with
degree of
precision
2(p-m)
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
50

f

2

Three noded bar element p = 2

m = 1

2(p-m)

= 2

Three point quadrature rule.

Newton -Cotes has

points

at the nodes.

(Simpson’ Rule)

b

a

(

)

(

)

1

(

)

1

b + a

4

⎟ +

f( x)dx =

b a

f a

+

f b

6

6

6

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

51

1
m
A
N N dx =
N N
J d
ξ
ij
i
j
i
j
1
L
J =
2
L
1
4
1
m
A
(
1 −− 1
(
)
)
N
(
1 N
)( j
− 1 +
)
N
()
0 N
()
0
+
N
()
1 N
()
1
ij
i
i
j
i
j
2
6
6
6
i ≠ j
m
=
0
ij
1
3
2
1
0
0
ρ
AL
[
m
]
=
0
1
0
6
0
0
4
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
52
Serendipity
1
12
1
3
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
53
Lagrangian
1
36
1
4
9
9
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
54
Mass Matrices
Product [m]{a}
must yield
the correct
total force
on
an element (F = ma) when {a}
represents
a
rigid-
body translational
acceleration.
Consistent
mass matrices,
[m] and [M] are positive
definite.
Lumped
mass matrix is positive semi-definite when
zero terms
appear on
main diagonal.
Lumped
mass matrix is indefinite
when negative
terms
appear on main
diagonal.
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
55

Mass Matrices

Special treatment

may be needed

handle the last

two cases.

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

to

56

Best

Type ?

1.

2.

Consistent

matrices usually

more accurate

for

flexural

problems. Consistent bounds on

matrices give upper

natural

frequencies.

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

57

Best
Type ?
1.
Lumped
matrices
usually give
natural
frequencies
less
than
exact
values.
2.
Simpler
to
form.
3.
Occupy less
storage.
4.
Require
less computational
effort.
5.
Usually more important
in time-history than
in
vibration problems.
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
58
Damping
1.
Structural
damping is
not
2.
Due
to mechanisms
such
viscous.
as hysteresis and
slip in
connections.
3.
Mechanisms not well understood.
4.
Awkward to
incorporate
into structural
dynamic equations.
5.
Makes equations computationally
difficult.
6.
Effects usually approximated by viscous
damping.
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
59

Types of Damping

Models

Phenomenological

Damping

Methods

(models

actual

dissipative mechanisms)

Elastic-Plastic Hysteresis Loss

Structural Joint Friction

Material

Micro-cracking

Spectral

Damping

Methods

Introduce Viscous Relies on Fraction

Damping of Critical

Damping

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

60

61

Critical

Damping

ξ

Fraction

of Critical

Damping

ξ = 1

Critical Damping

Critical Damping marks the transition between

a

oscillatory and structure

non- oscillatory

response of

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

Critical
Damping
Ratio
0. 5% ≤ξ
2% ≤ ξ≤
2% ≤ ξ≤
5%
15%
Steel Piping
Bolted or riveted
steel structures
15%
Reinforced or Prestresse s Concrete
Actual value
may
depend on
stress level.
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
62

[

[

Rayleigh

or Proportional Damping

Damping matrix

is a

linear combination of

stiffness

and mass

matrices:

]

]

[]M

C

K

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

63

Rayleigh

or Proportional Damping

[C]

is orthogonal

damping

matrix.

Modes

may be uncoupled by eigenvectors

associated

with

undamped problem.

1

⎜ α

β ⎞

ξ=

ω−

2

ω

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

64

If
critical damping
at two
frequencies
1
β ⎞
ξ=
⎜ α
ω−
2
ω
( 2
ξ
ω ξ
ω
)
2
1
1
α
= 2
(
2
)
ω 2
ω
2
1
(
ξ
ω
−ξ
ω
)
2
2
1
β
= 2 ω
ω 1
1
2
(
2
ω
−ω
2
1 2 )
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

ratio is known

then:

65

Natural
Frequencies
and
Mode
Undamped, Unforced
Response
{ }
D
=
{
D
}
sin ω t
{ }
&
D
{
D
}
cos ω t
{
&&
}
2
D
= −ω
{
D
}
sin
ω
t
{
D
}
amplitudes of nodal d - o -
f
ω
circular
frequency
ω
f =
( Hz )
2 π
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

Shapes

66

Results in

generalized

eigenproblem

(

[

]

{

0

}

[]

K

){ }

−λ

M

D

=

2

λ = ω

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

67

Trivial
Solution:
[]
K
λ
[
M
]
0
{
D
}
= 0
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

68

Nontrivial Solution:
[]
K
−λ
[
M
]
= 0
{
}
D
≠ 0
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

69

λ
Roots of
Characteri stic
i
Polynomial
(eigenvalues)
{
D
}
Associated
Eigenvectors
i
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
70
ω
Natural
Frequencies
i
{
D
}
Normal
Modes
i
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

71

Natural
Frequencies
[K]
and [M] n x n then
there are
n eigenvalues
and n eigenvectors
[K]
and [M] positive definite
then eigenvalues
are
all positive
0
infinite eigenvalue
M ii =
M ii <
0
negative eigenvalue - imaginary
frequency
Use condensation to
remove
i th equation if M ii
= 0
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
72
Rayleigh
Quotient
{
}[
T
]{
}
D
K
D
λ=
{
}
T
D
[
]{
}
M
D
[
K
]
symmetric
[
M
]
positive definite
{
}
th
D
approximat
ion
to i
eigenvector
th
λ
approximat ion to
i
eigenvalue
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

73

 Rayleigh Quotient ≤ { v } T [ K ]{ v } ≤ λ λ min { v } T [ M ]{ v } max λ min smallest eigenvalue λ max l arg est eigenvalue Dynamic Analysis

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74

Modal
Methods
When
[K], [C],
[M] are
known
and time
independent the problem is
linear.
[
]{ }
&&
]{ }
&
{
ext
}
M
D
+
[
C
D
+
[
K
] {
D
}
=
R
{
&
D
(
) }
0
, {
D
(
0
)
}
given as
initial
conditions
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
75
 Modal Methods { } [ T i M ] { } D D j = 0 { } T i [ ]{ D K D } j = 0 { T i [ ]{ } j D } C D = 0 i ≠ j Dynamic Analysis
Assume

orthogonal damping, such as

Rayleigh Damping. Modes can

be uncoupled:

7/29/2005

76

{
D
} T
[
M
]{
D
}
=
1
i
i
{
D
} T
[
]{
2
K
D
}
i
i
i
{
}
T
D
[
C
]
{
D
}
=
2
ξ
ω
i
i
i
i
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis

77

Eigenvectors
are
linearly independent
[
φ
]
= matrix of
(mode
eigenvectors
shapes)
{
D
}
=
[ ]{
φ
Z
}
{
Z
}
modal
amplitudes
7/29/2005
Dynamic Analysis
78

[

)

,

{

Substitute

into:

[
]{
&&
M
D

[

}

}

{

] {

}

}

&

D

]{

}

ext

C

K

D

R

+

+

=

&

D

(

{

( ) }

0

0

D

given

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

79

[

&

}

}

}

[

φ

[

{

}

=

{

[

][
]{
&&
M
φ
Z

]{ }

&

Z

][

{

&

][ ]{

φ

(

)

ext

C

]

K

D

}

Z

R

+

+

}

φ

Z( 0)

}

=

{

0

=

[ ]{

φ

()

0

Z ( 0)

D

given

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

80

2

Mode

Displacement

Method

I

[

&&

[

[

}

]{ }

Z

]{ }

&

Z

]{

{}p

+ ξ

Z

+ ω

=

7/29/2005

Dynamic Analysis

81

φ

[

φ

& &

Z

=

}

}

]

0

)

}

Mode

Displacement

Method

T
φ

[

Pre-multiply by [φ] T

]

{

[

}

=

φ

]