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VTU

Common to All Branches


1 & 2 Semester
Physics Cycle
2010 Scheme

Elements of Civil Engineering &


Engineering Mechanics

[10CIV13]

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Branch Name: Common to all branches
SEM: 1/2
University: VTU
Syllabus: 2010

Table of Contents:
Elements of Civil Engg. & Engg. Mechanics (10CIV13):

Sl. No. Units


1 (a) Introduction(Building the Future)
(b) Roads
(c) Bridges & Dams
2 Engineering Mechanics
3 (a) Composition of Forces
(b) Coplanar Non-Concurrent Force
Systems
4 Centroid
5 Equilibrium of Forces
6 Supports & Beams
7 Friction
8 Moment of Inertia

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Unit-I
CIVIL ENGINEERING – BUILDING THE FUTURE
By
Prof. P. Nanjundaswamy, SJCE, Mysore

Civil engineers have one of the world's most important jobs: they build our quality of life.
With creativity and technical skill, civil engineers plan, design, construct and operate the
facilities essential to modern life, ranging from bridges and highway systems to water
treatment plants and energy efficient buildings. Civil engineers are problem solvers,
meeting the challenges of pollution, traffic congestion, drinking water and energy needs,
urban development and community planning.

During the past century, clean water supplies have extended general life expectancies.
Transportation systems serve as an economic and social engine. New bridges, blending
strength and beauty, speed transport and bring communities closer together. Public and

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private construction, for which engineers provide the essential underpinnings of design
and project oversight, produces hundreds of thousands of jobs and drives community
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development. From the functional and beautiful Golden Gate Bridge in the United
States, Petronas Towers in Malaysia, and Pont du Gard in France to the largely hidden
water supply and sanitary sewer systems, civil engineers have made their mark in many
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aspects of the daily life of essentially everyone around the globe.

The American Society of Civil Engineers defines civil engineering as “…the profession
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in which a knowledge of the mathematical and physical sciences gained by study,


experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize,
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economically, the materials and forces of nature for the progressive well-being of
humanity in creating, improving and protecting the environment, in providing facilities for
community living, industry and transportation, and in providing structures for the use of
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humanity.”

Entrusted by society to create a sustainable world and enhance the global quality of life,
civil engineers serve competently, collaboratively, and ethically as master:
• Planners, designers, constructors, and operators of society’s economic and
social engine – the built environment
• Stewards of the natural environment and its resources
• Innovators and integrators of ideas and technology across the public, private,
and academic sectors
• Managers of risk and uncertainty caused by natural events, accidents, and other
threats and
• Leaders in discussions and decisions shaping public environmental and
infrastructure policy.

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world. Whatever area you choose, be it design, construction, research, planning,


teaching or management, civil engineering offers you a wide range of career choices.
And there's no limit to the personal satisfaction you will feel from helping to make our
world a better place to live.

Civil engineering is an umbrella field comprised of many related specialties. The


following figure shows the broad categories of fields under civil engineering.

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Building materials technology deals with proper use of desired material for construction
economically and safely. Brick, tiles, soil, cement, stone, sand, steel, aggregates, glass,
wood, plastics etc. include construction materials. Some are natural and many are
manmade. The mechanical properties of these materials shall be sufficient to avoid
failure and excessive deformation and provide durability. The chemical properties shall
be to maintain good environment.

Structural engineers face the challenge of designing structures that support their own
weight and the loads they carry, and that resist extreme forces from wind, earthquakes,
bombings, temperature and others. Bridges, buildings, amusement park rides and many
other kinds of projects are included within this speciality. Structural engineers develop
appropriate combinations of steel, concrete, timber, plastic and new exotic materials.
They also plan and design, and visit project sites to make sure work is done properly.

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The skills of environmental engineers have become increasingly important as we


protect our fragile resources. Environmental engineers translate physical, chemical and
biological processes into systems to destroy toxic substances, remove pollutants from
water, reduce nonhazardous solid waste volumes, eliminate contaminants from the air
and develop groundwater supplies. Environmental engineers are called upon to resolve
the problems of providing safe drinking water, cleaning up contaminated sites with
hazardous materials, disposing of wastewater and managing solid wastes.

Geotechnical engineering is required in all aspects of civil engineering because most


projects are supported by the ground. A geotechnical engineer may develop projects
below the ground, such as tunnels, foundations and offshore platforms. They analyse
the properties of soil and rock that support and affect the behaviour of these structures.
They evaluate potential settlements of buildings, the stability of slopes and fills, the
seepage of ground water and the effects of earthquakes. They investigate rocks and
soils at a project site and determine the best way to support a structure in the ground.

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They also take part in the design and construction of dams, embankments and retaining
walls.

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Water is essential to our lives, and water resources engineers deal with the physical
control of water. They work with others to prevent floods, supply water for cities,
industry and agriculture, to protect beaches or to manage and redirect rivers. They
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design, construct and maintain hydroelectric power facilities, canals, dams, pipelines,
pumping stations, locks, seaport facilities or even waterslides.
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The quality of a community is directly related to the quality of its transportation system.
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Transportation engineers work to move people, goods and materials safely and
efficiently. They find ways to meet our ever-increasing travel needs on land, air and sea.
They design, construct and maintain all types of transportation facilities, including
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airports, highways, railroads, mass transit systems and ports. An important part of
transportation engineering is upgrading our transportation capability by improving traffic
control and mass transit systems, and by introducing highspeed trains, people movers
and other intermodal transportation methods.

The construction phase of a project represents the first tangible result of a design. Using
technical and management skills, construction engineers turn designs into reality on
time and within budget. They apply their knowledge of construction methods and
equipment, along with the principles of financing, planning and managing, to turn the
designs of other engineers into successful facilities.

Planners are concerned with the full development of a community. They analyse a
variety of information to co-ordinate projects, such as projecting street patterns,
identifying park and recreation areas, and determining areas for industrial and
residential growth. They employ their technical and people skills to co-ordinate with
other authorities to integrate freeways, airports and other related facilities.

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Infrastructure

It is the framework of supporting system consisting of transportation, energy,


communication, lifeline facilities, irrigation facilities, etc., for the economic development
of a country by the growth of industrial and agricultural fields. Economic infrastructure
contributes directly to the economic development of the country while social
infrastructure like education & training, social welfare, housing, water supply, etc., will
have indirect influence on the economic development. Urban growth only can lead to
population drift from rural sectors leading to explosion in population in cities and
inadequate development of villages and improper care for agricultural sector. Use of
infrastructural facility only by upper class leads to imbalance. Demands for sustainable
energy, fresh water, clean air, and safe waste disposal drive global infrastructure
development.

The infrastructural development has the following major impacts on a country

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• Increase in food production
• Protection from drought, famine, flood


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Healthy and comfortable housing facility
Safe domestic and industrial water supply
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• Safe and scientific waste disposal
• Improvement in communication and transportation
• Generation of electricity from, nuclear, hydel, thermal, solar or wind energy
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Improved, wealth, prosperity, standard of living


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• Overall growth of a nation
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Large-scale budget allocation for infrastructure leads to agricultural and industrial


developments. It provides employment, eradicates poverty and enhances per capita
income.

Role of Civil engineers in Infrastructural development are


• Construction of roads, railway, ports, harbors and airports
• Construction of dams and proper utilization of water resources
• Construction of Housing, commercial and industrial complexes
• Maintenance of facilities
• Rebuilding, Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Repair

Concluding Remarks

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 Civil engineers served, serving and will serve as master builders, environmental
stewards, innovators and integrators, managers of risk and uncertainty, and
leaders in shaping public policy.

 Civil Engineering is about community service, development, and improvement

 In essence, Civil Engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the
world a more agreeable place to live

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Roads

Transportation is a non-separable part of any society and is responsible for the


development of civilizations. It meets travel requirement of people and transport
requirement of goods and it is one of the key infrastructures of a country & considered a
mark of its progress.

The roles of transportation in society are:

 Advancement of community
 Economic prosperity and general development of a country
 Strategic movement in emergency
 Safety, Pollution, Energy consumption
 Other impacts

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Roadways or Highways are one of the primary modes of transportation. Roads provide
best bet for achieving inclusive growth of our society than any other modes of transport.
Following are the characteristics of roadways

 Maximum flexibility for travel


sy
ea
 Route, Direction, Time and Speed
 Safety decreases
 Door to door service
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 Feeder system for other modes


 Used by various types of vehicles
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 For short distance travel – saves time


 Requires relatively small investment
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India has the second largest road network in the world, next only to USA. However,
large stretches of our roads still suffer from deficiencies in road geometry and riding
quality resulting in hazardous conditions and poor road safety. Civil engineers face the
challenge of designing safe highways and at the same time improving the operational
speeds of the vehicles to reduce the travel time.

Classification of Roads

Based on road pavement


 Paved roads
 Unpaved roads
Based on use during different seasons
 All-weather roads
 Fair-weather roads
Based on traffic volume

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 Heavy
 Medium and
 Light traffic
Based on tonnage
 Class I, II etc. or Class A, B etc.
Based on location and function
Non-Urban Roads – as per Nagpur Road Plan
 National Highways (NH)
 State Highways (SH)
 Major District Roads (MDR)
 Other District Roads (ODR)
 Village Roads (VR)
Non-Urban Roads – as per third road development plan
 Primary system – Expressways and NH
 Secondary system – SH and MDR

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 Tertiary system or rural roads – ODR and VR
Urban Roads
 Arterial roads
 Sub-arterial roads
 Collector streets
sy
 Local streets
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Components of a Road
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Typical section of a roadway


A roadway consists of Geometric Elements and Structural Elements. The geometric
elements are the visible elements across the roadway while the various layers in the
carriage way constitute the structural elements. The geometric elements include Cross
section Elements, Sight distance considerations, Horizontal and Vertical alignment
details, and Intersection elements. The structural elements consist of typical layers of
varying thicknesses and materials. The common layers in a roadway are: Soil
Subgrade, Sub-base course, Base course and Surface course.

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A bridge is a structure built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad track, river, body of
water, or any other physical obstacle. A bridge is designed for trains, pedestrian or road
traffic, or pipeline or waterway for water transport or barge traffic. A road-rail bridge
carries both road and rail traffic.

Types of Bridges

Based on Action
• Beam bridges

• Cantilever bridges

• Arch bridges

• Suspension bridges

• Cable-stayed bridges

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• Truss bridges

Based on Material used

• Concrete Bridge
sy
ea
• Steel Bridge

• Timber Bridge
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• Composite Bridge
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Based on purpose

• Road Bridge
st

• Rail Bridge

• Rail & Road Bridge

• Pedestrian Bridge

• Aqueduct

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Basic Bridge Types

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Culverts
Culverts are smaller bridges, normally with one span built across small streams, drains

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or sewer carrying road on top

sy
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Bridge Components
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• Foundation
• Abutment
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• Bridge Pier
• Bearing
• Deck Slab
• Roadway
• Railing

References
1) ASCE (2007), The Vision for Civil Engineering in 2025, American Society of Civil
Engineers
2) Syed Shakeeb Ur Rahman and Madhava Rao V (2006), Elements of Civil
Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Sanguine Technical Publishers.
--------------------------

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Unit-II
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
By Prof. V. Madhava Rao, SJCE, Mysore
MECHANICS
It’s a branch of science, which deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest or
in motion.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
It deals with the principles of mechanics as applied to the problems in
engineering.

BASIC CONCEPTS

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1. Matter: Anything which has mass and requires space to occupy is called matter.
2. Mass: It is a measure of quality of matter contained by the body.
SI unit: Kg. sy
3. Volume: It is a measure of space occupied by the body.
Unit: m3
ea
Note: Liter  Unit of volume
1000 liters = 1 m3
y

TMS – Thousand million cubic feet.


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 109 ft3
 10009 ft x 10000 ft x 1000 ft
st

4. State of rest and motion: State of rest and state of motion are relative and depend
on the frame of reference. A body is said to be in a state of rest w.r.t. a frame of
reference if the position of the body w.r.t. that frame of reference is not changing
with time. A body is laid to be in a state of motion w.r.t. a frame of reference if the
position of the body w.r.t. that frame of reference is changing with time.
5. Scalar and Vector Quantities: Quantities which require only magnitude to
represent them are called scalar quantities.
Eg: Mass, Time interval.
Quantitites which require both magnitude and direction to represent them are called
vector quantities.
Eg: Force, Velocity, etc.

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6. Displacement and distance travelled: The total linear movement made by a body
to change its position from one point to another is called distance travelled by the
body. It is a scalar quantity.
Unit: Meter (m)
mm – Millimeter  10-3m B
Displacement
km – Kilo Meter  103m
The total linear movement made by a
body to change its position from one A
point to another moving along a particular
Distance
direction is called displacement.
Displacement is a vector quantity.
Unit: Meter (m).

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7. Speed and Velocity: The distance travelled in a unit time is speed.
Unit: m/s  ms-1
sy
The displacement in unit time is called velocity.
Unit: m/s  ms-1
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8. Uniform motion and non-uniform motion: If the velocity of the moving body
remains constant then the motion is said to be uniform. If the velocity is changing
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with time, the motion is laid to be non-uniform.


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9. Acceleration and retardation: The time rate of change of velocity is called


acceleration.
If the velocity is increasing with time then acceleration is positive. If the velocity is
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decreasing with time then acceleration is negative. Negative acceleration is called


retardation or deceleration.
Unit: m/s2  ms-2
10. Momentum: It is the capacity of a moving body to impart motion to other bodies.
Momentum of a moving body is given by the product of mass and velocity of the
moving body.
Momentum = Mass X Velocity
Unit: kg m/s or kg ms-1.
11. Newton’s I Law of Motion: “Everybody continues to be in its state of rest or uniform
motion unless compelled by an external agency”.

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12. Inertia: It is the inherent property of a body by virtue of which it can retain its state of
rest or uniform motion unless compelled by an external agency.
13. Force: It is an external agency, which overcomes or tends to overcome the inertia of
a body. It is a vector quantity.
14. Elements of a force: There are four elements:
a. Magnitude
b. Direction
c. Line of action
d. Point of action or application
15. Newton’s II Law of motion: “The rate of change of moment of a body is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the force applied and takes place in the direction of
the force applied”.

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Explanation:
Initial momentum = mu
Final momentum = mv
sy
Change in momentum over a time interval ‘t’ = mv – mu
ea
mv − mu
Rate of change of momentum =
t

According to Newton’s II law,


y

mv − mu
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t m V
m
F u
 v −u 
F α m 
st

 t  Time interval = t

F α ma

F = K ma

In SI, unit force is defined as that force which acts on a body of unit mass producing
unit acceleration.
i.e., F = 1 when m = 1 and a = 1
then 1 = k . 1 . 1
∴k=1
F = ma
Unit of force: newton (N) is the unit of force. One newton is that force which acts on
a body of mass 1 kg producing an acceleration of 1 m/s2.

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kN – Kilo newton – 103N


MN – Mega newton – 106N
GN – Giga newton – 109N
16. Newton’s III law of motion: “For every action there is equal and opposite reaction”.
17. Branches of Mechanics:

Mechanics

Solid Mech. Fluid Mech.

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Rigid Mech. of Fluid Fluid Fluid
Body Deformable Statics Kinematics Dynamics
Mech. Bodies
sy
ea
Statics Dynamics
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Kinematics Kinetics
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Statics: Statics deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest or in equilibrium.
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Dynamics: Dynamics deals with the action of forces on bodies in motion.


Kinematics: It deals with the study of geometry of motion without considering the
cause of motion.
Kinetics: Kinetics deals with a study of motion considering the course of motion.
18. Rigid body: The concept of rigid body is purely theoretical or imaginary. A rigid body
is said to undergo, no deformation under the action of any external agency such as
force and moments.
In other words relative positions of the modules of a rigid body are fixed in space.
19. Particle: Concept of particle is purely theoretical or imaginary. A particle is said to
have mass but requires no space to occupy. In other words, a particle is a point
mass.

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The concept of particle cannot be used if the shape and size of the body is
influencing the motion.
Eg: i) Motion of a swimmer.
ii) Motion of a body along a curved path.
20. Continuum: The concept of continuum is purely theoretical or imaginary.
Continuum is said to be made up of infinite number of molecules packed in such a
way that, there is no gap between the molecules so that property functions remain
same at all the points.
21. Point force: The concept of point force in purely theoretical or imaginary, here the
force is assumed to be acting at a point or over infinity small area.
22. Principle physical independence of forces:

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M
F1 a1

F1
sy M
a2
ea
M
F2 F1 a1, a2
y
ud

M
F1 F2 a1, a2
st

Action of forces on bodies are independent, in other words the action of forces on a
body is not influenced by the action of any other force on the body.
23. Principle of superposition of forces:

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M
F1 a1

M
F1 a2

M
F2 F1 (a1+a2)

M
F1 F2 (a2+a1)

Net effect of forces applied in any sequence on a body is given by the algebraic sum
of effect of individual forces on the body.

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24. Principle of transmissibility of forces:

sy M
a=
F
M
ea
A Rigid body
F
F
Line of action a=
M
y

Line of action
ud

M F
B
Rigid body
st

The point of application of a force on a rigid body can be changed along the same
line of action maintaining the same magnitude and direction without affecting the
effect of the force on the body.
Limitation of principle of transmissibility: Principle of transmissibility can be used
only for rigid bodies and cannot be used for deformable bodies.
25. Assumptions made in Engineering Mechanics
i) All bodies are rigid.
ii) Particle concept can be used wherever applicable.
iii) Principle of physical independence of forces is valid.
iv) Principle of superposition of forces is valid.
v) Principle of transmissibility of forces is valid.

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SYSTEM OF FORCES
A group or set of forces is called system of forces.
Types:
1. Coplanar force system:

F1
F2
F3

If the lines of action of forces forming the system lie in the same plane, then the
system is said to be coplanar.

2. Non-coplanar forces:

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F1
F2
F4 F6

F5
sy F3
ea
If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not lie in the same plane then
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the system is said to be non-coplanar.


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Note: Our study is restricted to coplanar forces.


3. Collinear force system:
F1 F2 F3
st

A B C

If the forces forming the system have common line of action then the system is said
to be collinear.

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4. Concurrent force system:


x x
D A
F4
F1
0
F2
B
C
F1 F2
F3 F3
F2
F4 O O
F3 F4 F1

If the line of action of forces forming the system pass through a common point (point

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of concurrence) then the system is said to be concurrent.
5. Non-concurrent force system:
sy F1

F4
ea
F2
F3
If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not pass through a common
y

point, then the system is said to be non-concurrent.


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6. Parallel force system:


st

F2 F4

F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 F3

Like Unlike

It is a particular case of non-concurrent force system in which the line of action of


forces forming the system are parallel.

RESOLUTION OF A FORCE
Y

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Y Displacement

X
F X Displacement

The force F is producing, simultaneous x displacement and y-displacement. The


part of the force F which is producing x displacement is called x component or
horizontal component of the force F (Fx). The part of the force F which produces y –
displacement is called y component of the force or vertical component of force F (Fy).

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The technique of finding a component of a force along any direction is called
resolution of force. The component of a force along any direction is called the resolved
sy
component. The components of a force determined along two mutually perpendicular
direction are called rectangular components.
ea
To resolve a force along any direction
Y
y
ud

A2 A
Fy F
st

θ
FX A1 X

OA represents the force F both in magnitude and direction ‘θ’ is the acute angle
mode by the force w.r.t. x direction.
We have,
OA 1
Cos θ =
OA
Fx
Cos θ =
F

Fx = F Cos θ ()
AA 1
Sin θ =
OA
AA 2
Sin θ =
OA
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Fy
Sin θ =
F

Fy = F Sin θ ()

X component of a force is given by the product of magnitude of the force and


cosine of acute angle made by the force w.r.t. x-direction.

Y component of a force is given by the product of magnitude of the force and


sine of acute angle made by the force w.r.t. x-direction.

Note:
1. Sign convention for the direction of components.

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+
sy –

+
ea


y

2. θ = 0
ud

Fx = F Cos O

=F
st

Fy = F Sin O

=O
The horizontal component or ‘X’ component of a force acting along x direction is the
force itself. Whereas, its vertical component or y-component is zero.

3. Fx = F Cos 90

=O
Fy = F Sin 90

=F

‘x’ component of a force acting along Y direction is zero. Whereas, its ‘y’ component
is equal to itself.

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4. If a force is inclined at 45o w.r.t. x axis or y axis then its x component will be equal to
y component (Fx = Fy).

Problems
1. Find X and Y components of forces in the following cases.
a)
100 kN
Fx = + 100 Cos 30
30o
= + 86 . 60 kN
= 86 . 60 kN ()

Fy = + 100 Sin 30
= + 50 . 00 kN

.in
= 50 . 00 kN ()

b)
Fx = + 20 Cos 70
sy 20 kN

30o
ea
= + 6 . 840 kN
= 6 . 840 kN ()
y
ud

Fy = + 20 Sin 70
= + 18 . 79 kN
= 18 . 79 kN ()
st

c)
Method-I 4
3 3
tan θ =
4

θ = 36.87 o 200 N

Fx = - 200 Cos 36.87o


= – 160 N
= 160 N ()

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Fy = - 200 Cos 36.87o


= – 120 N
= 120 N ()
Method-II
4
Cos θ = = 0.8
5
3
Sin θ = = 0.6
5

Fx = - 200 Cos θ
= – 200 x 0.8
= – 160 N

.in
= 160 N ()

Fy = – 200 Sin θ
= – 200 x 0.6
sy
ea
= – 120 N
= 120 N ()
y
ud
st

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RESULTANT FORCE OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES


α
F1

F2

F3

F4 α

The resultant of a system of forces is a single calculated force which is capable

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of producing the same effect as that of system of forces on the body. It is the vector
sum of forces of the system.

COMPOSITION OF FORCES
sy
ea
The technique of finding the resultant of forces is called composition of forces.

MOMENT OF A FORCE
y

It is the capacity of a force to produce rotator motion. In other words moment of a


ud

force is its rotating capacity.


A F F A
st

Moment of F about A in Moment of F about A in


clockwise anticlockwise
Based on the direction of rotation produced moment of a force can be classified
into
a) Clockwise moment
b) Anticlockwise moment / counter clockwise moment.

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Calculation of Moment of a Force about a Point


Moment of a force about any point is given by the product of magnitude of force
and perpendicular distance between the line of action of a force and the point about
which moment is considered.
X

MA = FL
Unit: Nm
F

Sign Convention for Moment of a Force

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Clockwise moment positive and anticlockwise moment negative.
1) Find moment of force ‘F’ about ‘A’ in the following cases.
a)
sy
F = 10 kN
ea
XA
2m
y
ud

b)
F = 10 kN
st

X
A 2m

c)

3m

X
A
F = 20 kN

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d)
2m

A 50 kN

2) Find moment of the force about A and B in the following


a)

X
A 2m

.in
X
4m B
F = 10 kN
sy
ea
b)
B F = 20 kN
y

3m
ud

A
4m
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Unit-III
ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
by
Prof. Karisiddappa, MCE, Hassan

COMPOSITION OF FORCES: The reduction of a given system of forces


to the simplest system that will be its equivalent is called the problem of
composition of forces.

• RESULTANT FORCE: It is possible to find a single force which


will have the same effect as that of a number of forces acting on a

.in
body. Such a single force is called resultant force.
• The process of finding out the resultant force is called composition of
forces. sy
ea
COMPOSITION OF CO-PLANAR CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM
y
ud

COMPOSITION OF TWO FORCES: It is possible to reduce a given


system of forces i.e., two forces to the simplest system as its equivalent
(resultant force) with the help of parallelogram law of forces.
st

• LAW OF PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES:


If two forces, which act at a point be represented in magnitude and
direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram drawn from one of its
angular points, their resultant is represented by the diagonal of the
parallelogram passing through that angular point, in magnitude and
direction.

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B C

RR

α
θ

.in
O A

sy
ea
R = F1 2 + F 22 + 2 F1 F 2 cos α
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

PROOF:

B C

RR

α
θ α

D
O A

.in
sy
Consider two forces F1 and F2 acting at point O as shown in
figure. Let α be the angle between the two forces.
ea
Complete the parallelogram ACBO .Drop perpendicular CD to
OA produced. Let R be the resultant force of forces and
.Let θ be the inclination of the resultant force with the
y

line of action of the force.


ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

From triangle OCD,

OC 2 = OD 2 + CD 2
OC 2 = (OA + AD ) 2 + CD 2
OA = F1 , AD = F2 cos α , CD = F2 sin α , OC = R
R 2 = ( F1 + F2 cos α ) 2 + ( F2 sin α ) 2
2 2
R 2 = F12 + 2 F1 F2 cos α + F2 cos 2 α + F2 sin 2 α
2
R 2 = F1 + 2 F1 F2 cos α + F22

.in
R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos α
CD
tan θ =

tan θ =
OD
F2 sin α
sy
F1 + F2 cos α
ea
 F2 sin α 
θ = tan −1  
F
 1 + F cos α 
y

2
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

R
F2
0
IF α = 90 , R = F1 + F2
F1
0
IF α = 0 , R = F1 + F2
F1 F2
IF α = 1800 , R = F1 − F2
F1 F2

.in
• TRIANGLE LAW OF FORCES: sy
If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are
ea
represented by the sides of a triangle taken in order,
their resultant is represented by the closing side of
y

the triangle taken in the opposite order.


ud
st

B
F2

F2

O O A
F1 F1

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

• POLYGON LAW OF FORCES:


If a number of concurrent forces acting simultaneously on a body ,are
represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon,
taken in order , then the resultant is represented in magnitude and
direction by the closing side of the polygon, taken in opposite order.

C
D F4
F3
F3

.in
F2 R2
R
O
R1 B

F4
F1
sy O

F1 F2
ea
A
y

COMPOSITON OF FORCES BY
ud

RESOLUTION(Principle of resolved parts)


st

• The components of each force in the system in two mutually


perpendicular directions are found.

• Then, the components in each direction are algebraically


added to obtain the two components.

• These two component forces which are mutually


perpendicular are combined to obtain the resultant force.

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F2
F1

θ2 θ1
X

θ3 θ4

.in
F4
F3

Algebraic sum of the components of forces in X


direction
sy
ea

∑F = F1 cos θ1 − F2 cos θ 2 − F3 cos θ 3 + F4 cos θ 4


y

x
ud

Algebraic sum of the components of forces in Y


st

f direction
∑F y = F1 sin θ1 +F2 sin θ 2 − F3 sin θ 3 − F4 sin θ 4

Now the system of forces is equal to two


mutually perpendicular forces ,∑ ∑ FX & FY

R= ∑F +∑F
X
2
Y
2

θ = tan  ∑ 
−1
 F  Y

 ∑ F  X

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NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

1. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the


two forces of magnitude 12 N and 9 N acting at a point ,if the
angle between the two forces is
GIVEN:

.in
F1 = 12 N F2 = 9 N α = 30 0
sy
R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos α
ea
R = 12 2 + 9 2 + 2 × 12 × 9 × cos 30 0
R = 20.3 N
y

 F2 sin α 
θ = tan −1  
ud

F
 1 + F 2 cos α 
 9 sin 30 0 
θ = tan −1  
0 
st

 12 + 9 cos 30 
θ = 12.810

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

2.Find the magnitude of two equal forces acting at a point with an


angle of 600 between them, if the resultant is equal to 30 3N
GIVEN:

F1 = F2 = F , say

R = 30 3 N , α = 60 0

R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos α


R = F 2 + F 2 + 2 F × F × cos 60 0
R = F2 + F2 + F2
R = 3F

.in
F = 30 N

sy
3.The resultant of two forces when they act at right angles is 10 N
.Whereas, when they act at a angle of 600 , the resultant is 148
ea
N. Determine the magnitude of the two forces.

Let F1 and F2 be the two forces,


y

Given – when α =900 R = 10N


ud

When α =600 R = N
148

We have, R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1F2 cos α


st

When α =900 10 = F1 2 + F 22

Squaring both sides 100= F12 + F22 (1)

When α =600
148 = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos 60 0
F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 × 0.5

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squaring both sides

148 = F12 + F22 (2)

substituting (1) in (2)

148 = 100+F1F2

.in
F1F2 = 48 (3)
sy
squaring equation (3),we get
ea
F12 + F22 = 482 (4)
y

From (1) F22 = 100 – F12 (5)


ud

Subtracting (5) in (4)


st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(
F12 100 − F12 = 482 )
F14 − 100 F12 = −482
2
(F 1
2
)
− 50 = −482 + 50 2
2
(F 1
2
− 50) = 196
F12 − 50 = 14
F12 = 64
F1 = 8 N & F2 = 6 N

.in
4.Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant sy
force for the system of concurrent forces shown Y

below.
ea
25 N
∑ FX = 20 cos 300 − 30 cos 450 − 35 cos 400 30 N

∑F X = −30.70 N 20 N
y

450
300
∑F Y = 20 sin 30 0 + 25 + 30 sin 450 − 35 sin 400
ud

∑F Y = 33.72 N X
400

R= ∑F +∑F 2
X Y
2

35 N
st

R= (− 30.70)2 + (33.72)2
R = 45.60 N

∑FY

θ = tan −1  ∑
 FY  R


∑ X F
 33. 72 
θ = tan −1   θ
 30.70 
θ = 47.680

∑F
0
X

5.The 26 KN force is the resultant of two forces. One of the force is as


shown in figure .Determine the other force.

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y 26kN

12
5 10kN
3
4
X
0

Let F be magnitude of unscnorm force with Fx and Fy as its


components in x and y directions.

.in
Component of R in x directions 13 θ1 12
Rx = 26 x cos θ1
= 26 x 5/13 = 10kN sy 5

Component of R in y direction
ea
Ry = 26 x sin θ1 = 26 x 12/13 = 24kN

Component F and 10kN in X direction


y

= Fx +10 cos θ2 5
ud

= Fx + 10x 4/5 = Fx +8 θ2 3

4
Component of F and 10kN in y direction
st

= Fx + 10 x Sin θ2 = Fy + 10 x 3/5
= Fy + 6
Using R/x = /Fx

10 = Fx +8
24 = Fy + 6
Fx = 2kN, Fy = 18kN

But F = √Fx2+Fy2 = √22 + 182


F = 18.11kN
θ2 = tan -1 (Fy /Fx) = tan -1 (18/2) = 83.660

θ2 = 83.660 ( inclination of F w.r.t x – axis)

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6.Three forces act at a point in a plate as shown in figure. If the


resultant of these forces is vertical, find the resultant force and
angle α..
100N
160N
α.

120 N α
0

.in
Since the resultant force is vertical, algebraic sum of horizontal components of these must
be equal to zero.

160 cos α – 120 – 100 sin α = 0


sy
120 + 100 sin α = 160 cos α
ea
6 + 5 sin α = 8cos α
Squaring both the sides
y

(6+5 sine α )2 = (8 cos α )2


ud

36 + 60 sin α + 25 sin2α = 64 (1-sin2 α)


25 sin2 α +64 sin2 α + 60sin α = 64-36
st

89 sin2 α + 60 sin α = 28
Sin2 α + 0.674 sin α =0.315
(sin α + 0.337)2 = 0.315 + 0.3372
= 0.428
sin α + 0.337 = √0.428 = 0.654
sin α = 0.654 – 0.337 = 0.317
α = sin-1 (0.317) = 18.50
Resultant force R = Σ Fy
= 160 sin α + 100 cos α
= 160sin 18.50 + 100 cos 18.50

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R = 145.60 N

7.ABCDE is a regular hexagon. Forces 90 N,P,Q,240 N and 180 N act along


AB,CA,AD,AE and FA respectively as shown in the figure. Find the forces
P and Q such that the resultant force is zero.

C D

B
P Q E
90N 300 300
240N
300

.in
600 300
A 180N F X

sy
Since the resultant force is equal to zero, Σ Fx = 0 and Σ Fy = 0
Σ Fx = -180 +240 cos 300 + Q cos 600 – p cos 900 + 90 cos 1200 = 0
ea
-180 + 207.85 + 0.5 Q – 45 =0
0.5Q = 17.15
y

Q = 34.308N
ud

Σ Fy = 180 sin00+240 sin300 + Q sin600 – P + 90 sin1200 = 0


st

120 + 34.308 x sin 600 – P + 90 sin 1200 = 0

P = 227.654 N

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COMPOSITION OF COPLANAR NON-


CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM
MOMENT OF A FORCE: Moment is
defined as the product of the magnitude of the force and
perpendicular distance of the point from the line of
action of the force.
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOMENT
Consider a force F represented ,in magnitude and direction
by the line AB. Let O be a point about which the moment
of the force F is required. Let OC be the perpendicular

.in
drawn. Join OA and OB O

sy A
F
a
B
ea
c
Moment of force F about O= F x a
= AB x OC
y

= twice the area of triangle OAB


ud

Thus moment of F about O= 2 x Area of triangle OAB


st

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VARIGNON’S PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS:


If a number of coplanar forces are acting simultaneously on a particle, the algebraic sum
of the moments of all the forces about any point is equal to the moment of their resultant
force about the same point.

PROOF:
For example, consider only two forces F1 and F2
represented in magnitude and direction by AB and AC as shown in figure below.

C
O
D

R
F2

.in
A B
F1

sy
Let O be the point, about which the moments are taken. Construct the parallelogram
ea
ABCD and complete the construction as shown in fig.
By the parallelogram law of forces, the diagonal AD represents, in magnitude and
direction, the resultant of two forces F1 and F2, let R be the resultant force.
y

By geometrical representation of moments


ud

the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOB


the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOC
the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOD
But,
st

Area of triangle AOD=Area of triangle AOC + Area of triangle ACD


Also, Area of triangle ACD=Area of triangle ADB=Area of triangle AOB
Area of triangle AOD=Area of triangle AOC + Area of triangle AOB

Multiplying throughout by 2, we obtain


2 Area of triangle AOD =2 Area of triangle AOC+2 Area of triangle AOB
i.e., Moment of force R about O=Moment of force F1 about O + Moment of force F2
about O

Similarly, this principle can be extended for any number of forces.

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NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
1.For the non-concurrent coplanar system shown in fig below,
determine the magnitude , direction and position of the resultant
force with reference to A.
50 N

∑F X = 25 − 20 = 5 N (→ )
∑F Y = −50 − 35 = −85 N
25 N
C
B

= 85 N (↓ )

20 N D

.in
A

∑ FX2 + ∑ FY2 = 52 + (− 85) = 85.15 N


2
R= R

35 N

sy
ea
R × d = 35 × 4 + 25 × 3 ∑F
X
140 + 75
d= = 2.525m θ
85.15
y
ud

or

∑F
st

85 × x = 35 × 4 + 25 × 3
140 + 75
x= = 2.53m
85

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

2.Determine the resultant of the force system acting on the plate


as
shown in figure given below wirh respect to AB and AD.

10N 5N

0 D 0
60 10Nm 30
C

3m

.in
A 4m B
14.14N 1
1 20 N

Σ Fx = 5cos300 + 10cos600 + 14.14cos450


sy
ea
= 19.33N
Σ Fy = 5sin300 - 10sin600 + 14.14sin450
= -16.16N
R = √( Σ Fx2 + Σ Fy2) = 25.2N ∑F X
y

θ
ud

R
θ= Tan-1(Σ Fx/ Σ Fy)
θ= Tan-1(16.16/19.33) = 39.890 ∑ FY
st

D C

y Θ
19.33N
19.33N
A x θ B

R 16.16N

Tracing moments of forces about A and applying varignon’s principle of moments we get

+16.16X = 20x4 + 5cos300x3-5sin300x4 + 10 + 10cos600x3

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X = 107.99/16.16 = 6.683m

Also tan39.89 = y/6.83


y = 5.586m.

3.The system of forces acting on a crank is shown in figure


below. Determine the magnitude , direction and the point
of application of the resultant force.

500 N 150 700N


150

600 600

.in
150mm 150 mm 150 Cos600=75mm

Σ Fx = 500cos600 – 700
= 450N
Σ Fy = 500sin600
sy
= -26.33N
ea
R = √( Σ Fx2 + Σ Fy2) = √(-450)2 + (-2633)2
R = 267.19N (Magnitude) Σ Fx
y

θ
θ= Tan-1(Σ Fx/ Σ Fy)
ud

= Tan-1(2633/450) R Σ Fy
θ= 80.300 (Direction)
st

ΣFx

Θ x
R ΣFy

Tracing moments of forces about O and applying varignon’s principle of moments


we get
-2633x x= -500x sin600x300-1000x150+1200x150cos600 -700x300sin600
X = -371769.15/-2633
X = 141.20mm from O towards left (position).

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4.For the system of parallel forces shown below, determine the magnitude of the resultant
and also its position from A .
100N 200N 50N 400N

R
A B C D
1m 1.5m 1m

Σ Fy = +100 -200 -50 +400


= +250N
ie. R = Σ Fy =250N ( ) Since Σ Fx = 0

.in
Taking moments of forces about A and applying varignon’s principle of moments

-250 x = -400 x 3.5 + 50 x 2.5 + 200 x 1 – 100 x 0

X = -1075/ -250 = 4.3m


sy
ea
5.The three like parallel forces 100 N,F and 300 N are acting as shown in figure below. If
the resultant R=600 N and is acting at a distance of 4.5 m from A ,find the magnitude of
y

force F and position of F with respect to A.


ud

100N F 600 N 300N


st

A B C D
4.5m 2.5m

Let x be the distance from A to the point of application of force F

Here R = Σ Fy
600=100+F+300
F = 200 N

Taking moments of forces about A and applying varignon’s principle of moments,


we get

600 x 4.5 = 300 x 7 + F x


200 x = 600 x 4.5 -300 x 7

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

X = 600/200 = 3m from A

6.A beam is subjected to forces as shown in the figure given below. Find the magnitude ,
direction and the position of the resultant force.

17kN 10kN 20kN 10kN 5kN


α
θ 4kN
A B C D E
2m 3m 2m 1m

Given tan θ = 15/8 sin θ = 15/ 17 cos θ = 8/17

tan α = 3/4 sin α = 3/5 cos α = 4/5

Σ Fx = 4 +5 cos α – 17 cos θ

.in
= 4+5 x 4/5 – 17 x 8/17

Σ Fx = 0

Σ Fy = 5 sin α -10 +20 – 10 + 17 sin θ


sy
= 5 x 3/5 -10+20 – 10 + 17 x 15/17
ea
Σ Fy = 18 kN ( )

Resultant force R = √ 2Fx 2 + Σ Fy2 = √ 0+182


y

R = 18 kN ( )
ud

Let x = distance from A to the point of application R


st

Taking moments of forces about A and applying Varignon’s theorem of


moments
-18 x = -5 x sin α x 8 +10 x 7 -20 x 5 + 10 x 2
= -3 x 8 +10 x7 – 20 x 5 + 10 x 2
X = -34/-18 = 1.89m from A (towards left)

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
COPLANAR NON-CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEMS
By
Prof. G. Ravi
Overview of System of forces
It is well known that a system of coplanar forces can occur in different configurations some of
the possibilities are

• Coplanar, Collinear, Concurrent


• Coplanar and Concurrent
• Coplanar and Non Concurrent
To determine the resultant of any system of forces we adopt the principle of Resolution
and Composition.
The following figures depict the principles involved.

.in
sy
y ea
ud

.Composition of system of forces


st

R = ( ∑ f xi ) 2 + ( ∑ f y i ) 2

α R = tan −1 ( ff )


yi

xi

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Equilibrium: Equilibrium is the status of the body when it is subjected to a system of forces. We
know that for a system of forces acting on a body the resultant can be determined. By Newton’s
2nd Law of Motion the body then should move in the direction of the resultant with some
acceleration. If the resultant force is equal to zero it implies that the net effect of the system of
forces is zero this represents the state of equilibrium. For a system of coplanar concurrent forces
for the resultant to be zero, hence

∑ f x i
= 0

∑ f y
i
= 0

Equilibriant : Equilbriant is a single force which when added to a system of forces brings the
status of equilibrium . Hence this force is of the same magnitude as the resultant but opposite in
sense. This is depicted in Fig 4.

.in
sy
y ea
ud

Free Body Diagram: Free body diagram is nothing but a sketch which shows the various forces
acting on the body. The forces acting on the body could be in form of weight, reactive forces
contact forces etc. An example for Free Body Diagram is shown below.
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Equilibrium of 3 Forces: When a set of three forces constituting coplanar concurrent system act
on a body Lami’s theorem can be made use of for examining the status of equilibrium. This is
depicted in the following figure.

F1 F F
= 2 = 3
Sinα Sinβ Sinγ

.in
sy
ea
Example 1 : A spherical ball of weight 75N is attached to a string and is suspended from the
ceiling. Compute tension in the string if a horizontal force F is applied to the ball. Compute the
angle of the string with the vertical and also tension in the string if F =150N
y
ud

∑ f xi = 0
st

f − T cos θ = 0
150 − T cos θ = 0
T cos θ = 150

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 2: A string or cable is hung from a horizontal ceiling from two points A and D. The string AD, at two
points B and C weights are hung. At B, which is 0.6 m from a weight of 75 N is hung. C, which is 0.35 m from D, a
weight of wc is hung. Compute wc such that the string portion BC is horizontal.

FBD of B
∑f =0

.in
xi

TBC − TAB cos θ1 = 0


∑f y
i
=0
sy
TAB sin θ1 − 75 = 0
TAB = 75 2 N , TBC = 75 N
y ea
ud

FBD of C
∑f xi =0
st

− TBC + TCD cosθ 2 = 0


TCD = 148.85 N
∑f y
i
=0
TCD sin θ 2 − Wc = 0
Wc = 128.57 N

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 3: A block of weight 120N is kept on a smooth inclined plane. The plane makes an angle of
320 with horizontal and a force F allied parallel to inclined plane. Compute F and also normal
reaction.

• LAMI’S Theorem

120 F NR
= =
Sin90 o
Sin(180 − 32) o
Sin(90 + 32) o
F = 63.59 N
N R= 101.76 N

.in
sy
ea
Example 4: Three smooth circular cylinders are placed in an arrangement as shown. Two
cylinders are of radius 052mm and weight 445 N are kept on a horizontal surface. The centers of
these cylinders are tied by a string which is 406 mm long. On these two cylinders, third cylinder
y

of weight 890N and of same diameter is kept. Find the force S in the string and also forces at
points of contact.
ud

• LAMI’S Theorem
st

FBD of B

FBD of A
∑f xi =0

FAC = 598N ∑f y
i
=0

FBA = 598 N FBC = 399.5 N


RD = 890 N

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Transformation of force to a force couple system:

It is well known that moment of a force represents its rotatary effect about an axis or a point.
This concept is used in determining the resultant for a system of coplanar non-concurrent forces.
For ay given force it is possible to determine an equivalent force – couple system. This concept
is shown in Fig below.

.in
sy
y ea
ud

Resultant for a coplanar non-concurrent system:


By using the principles of resolution composition & moment it is possible to determine
st

analytically the resultant for coplanar non-concurrent system of forces.


The procedure is as follows:
1. Select a Suitable Cartesian System for the given problem.
2. Resolve the forces in the Cartesian System

3. Compute ∑ fxi and ∑fyi

4. Compute the moments of resolved components about any point taken as the moment

centre O. Hence find ∑ M0

 ∑ fy 
2  i 
2
  α R = tan -1 
R =  ∑ f x  +  ∑ f y  
 ∑ fxi 
 i  i  

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

5. Compute moment arm dR =


∑M o

6. Also compute x- intercept as XR =


∑M o

∑f
xi

∑ Mo
7. And Y interceptyRas
=
∑ fx i

Example 1: Compute the resultant for the system of forces shown in Fig 2 and hence compute
the Equilibriant.

∑f xi = 44.8 - 32 cos 60o


= 28.8 KN

.in
∑f yi = 8 - 14.4 - 32 sin 60 o
= - 34.11 KN
R = 44.6 KN
sy
α R = 49.83o
ea
ς + ∑ M o = −14.4(3) + 32 cos 60o (4) − 32 sin 60o (3)
= −62.34 KNM
y

62.34
dR = = 1.396 m
44.64
ud

62.34
xR = = 1.827 m
34.11
62.34
st

yR = = 2.164 m
28.8

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 2: Find the Equilibriant for the rigid bar shown in Fig 3 when it is subjected to forces.

ς + ∑ M A = −430(1) + 172(2) − 344(4)


= - 1462 KNM

.in
• Resultant and Equilibriant
sy
ea

∑f xi =0
y

∑f y = −516 KN
ud

α R = 90o ;
st

Equilibrium: The concept of equilibrium is the same as explained earlier. For a system of
Coplanar Non concurrent forces for the status of equilibrium the equations to be satisfied are

∑f xi = 0; ∑ f yi = 0; ∑ M o = 0;

The above principles are used in solving the following examples.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 3: A bar AB of length 3.6 m and of negligible weight is acted upon by a vertical force
F1 = 336kN and a horizontal force F2 = 168kN shown in Fig 4. The ends of the bar are in
contact with a smooth vertical wall and smooth incline. Find the equilibrium position of the bar
by computing the angle θ.

tan α = 0.9
1.2
α = 36.87 o

∑f xi =0
H A− F2 − RB cos 53.13o = 0............(1)
∑f yi =0
RB sin 53.13o − F1 = 0

.in
RB = 420 KN ;

• Eq. 1 gives HA=420 KN


ς + ∑ M B = 0;
sy
ea
− H A (3.6 sin θ ) + 336(2.1 cos θ ) - 168 (1.2 sin θ ) = 0
- 1310.4 sin θ + 705.6 cos θ = 0
tan θ = 0.538
y

θ = 28.3o
ud

• Beams – Laterally loaded bending

• Supports – Hinge, Roller, Fixed


st

• Equilibrium Concept for support reactions

• Equations are ∑f xi = 0; ∑ f yi = 0; ∑ M o = 0;

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

SUPPORT REACTIONS IN BEAMS: Beams are structural members which are generally

horizontal. They are subjected to lateral forces which act orthogonal to the length of the member.

There are various types of mechanisms used for supporting the beams. At these supports the

reactive forces are developed which are determined by using the concept of equilibrium. The

different types of supports are depicted in the table below.

SUPPORT REACTION NO.OF REACTIONS

(1)

.in
ROLLER VA

HINGE
sy (2)
y ea

FIXED
ud

(3)
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
TYPES OF LOADS ACTING ON BEAMS: There are various types of forces or loads which act on beams. They are
(a) Concentrated or point load (b) Uniformly distributed load (UDL) (c) Uniformly varying load (UVL) (d)
Arbitrary distributed load. The methodology of converting UDL, UVL to equivalent point load is shown in the Fig
below.
Some example problems of determining support reactions in beams are illustrated next.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 4: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 7 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0;
∑f yi = 0;

∑M o = 0;
VA − 10 − 25 − 32 + VB = 0
VA + VB = 67 KN ;
ς +∑MA = 0
− 10(2) − 25(5) − 32(9) + VB (10) = 0
VB = 43.3KN
VA = 23.7 KN

.in
sy
Example 5: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 8 at A and B.

∑f = 0; H A = 0
ea
xi

∑f yi = 0;V A - 40 - 40 + VB = 0
VA + VB = 80
y

ςM A = 0 − 40(2) − 40(7) + VB (8) = 0


ud

VB = 45 KN
VA = 35 KN ;
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 6: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 9 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0;
H A − 17.32 = 0
H A = 17.32 KN

∑f yi =0
V A − 10 − 20 − 15 − 10 + VB = 0
VA + VB = 55
ς +∑MA = 0
− 10 × 2 + 25 − 20(6) + VB (8) − 15(9) − 10(11) = 0
VB = 45 KN; V A = 10 KN

.in
Example 7: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 10 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0; sy
H A − RB sin300 = 0
ea
H A = 0.5RB
∑f yi = 0;VA − 20+ RB cos30o = 0
y

VA + 0.866RB = 20
ud

ς + ∑MB = 0;
−VA (10) + 20(6) = 0
st

−VA = 12KN;
RB = 9.24KN;
H A = 4.62KN;

Review
• Coplanar system of Forces.
• Concurrent, Non Concurrent.
• Resultant, Equilibrium.
• Concept of Equilibrium.
• Examples.
• Analysis of Trusses

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ANALYSIS OF PLANE TRUSSES: Trusses are special structures which are formed by joining
different members. Trusses are used as part of roofing systems in industrial buildings, factories
workshops etc. Prominent features of trusses are

• Trusses are articulated Structures.


• The basic Geometry used in a truss is a triangle.
• Every member is pin connected at ends.
• Trusses carry loads only at joints. Joints are junctions where members meet.
• Self weight is neglected.
• The forces in various members of the truss are axial in nature.

A typical figure of a plane truss and the scheme by which truss configuration is arrived at is
shown by the following figures.

Plane Trusses

.in
sy
y ea
ud

Truss configuration
st


• A truss is said to be perfect if m= 2 j – 3 where m  Members; j  Joints

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Compiled
Analysis of Trusses: Analysis of trusses by www.studyeasy.in
would imply determining forces in various members. These forces
will be in the form of Axial Tension (or) Compression. The
Equilibrium concept is made use of for analyzing the trusses. The two methods of analysis are

1. Method of Joints.
2. Method of Sections.
These two methods of analysis are illustrated by the following examples

Example 1:
• Analyse the truss shown in Figure and hence
compute member forces
• Step 1: Draw FBD
• Step 2: Compute support Reactions (HA, VA,
VB).
• Draw FBD’s of Joints to compute member
forces.

.in
• ∑fxi=0
• ∑fyi=0
sy • HA= - 10 KN
• VA+VB =27.32
ea
• ζ + ∑MA = 0
• -17.32(3) - 10(3) - 10(2.25) + 6VB=0
y

• VB = 17.41 KN; VA= 9.91 KN


ud

CD 2.25
tan θ = =
AD 3
st

θ = 36.87 o ;
• FBD of joint A
• ∑fxi=0
• -10+PAC cos θ + PAD = 0
• ∑fyi=0; VA + PACsin θ =0
• PAC =-16.52 KN
• PAD=23.21 KN

• ∑fxi=0
• -PAD + PDB = 0

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
• PDB = 23.21 KN
• ∑fyi=0
• -10+PCD = 0
• PCD = 10 KN

• ∑fxi=0
• -PBD – PBC cos θ =0
• PBC = -29.02 KN
• ∑fyi=0
• VB +PBC sin θ = 0
• 17.41 – 29.02 sin θ = 0

.in
Sl.No
1
Member
AC
Force
16.52
Nature
C
sy
ea
2 AD 23.21 T
3 CB 29.02 C
4 CD 10 T
y

5 DB 23.21 T
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 2 : Analyse the truss shown in figure and hence compute member forces.
• ∑fxi=0
• HA-10+10=0; HA = 0
• ∑fyi=0
• VA+ VB – 20= 0
• VA+ VB= 20

• ζ + ∑MA = 0
• 10(4)-20(3)+10(4)+VE(6)=0
• VE = 10 KN;
• VA =10 KN;
• Symmetrical
o Geometry ;

.in
o Loads
• ∑fxi = 0 sy
• PAC=0
• ∑fyi = 0
ea
• PAB + 10 =0
• PAB = - 10KN
y
ud

• tan θ = 4/3
• θ=53.13o
st

• ∑fxi = 0
• -10 + PBD+PBC cos θ =0
• PBD +0.6PBC =10
• ∑fyi = 0
• -PBA− PBC sin θ =0
• -(-10)-0.8 PBC = 0
• PBC= 12.5 KN
• PBD =2.5 KN

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
• ∑fxi = 0
• -PDF – PDB = 0
• PDF = -2.5 KN
• ∑fyi = 0
• PDC=0
• Symmetrical

Sl.No Member Force Nature

1 AB, EF 10 KN C

2 AC, CE 0 -

3 BC, FC 12.5 KN T

.in
4 BD, FD 2.5 KN T

5 DC 0 -
sy
Example 3: Analyse the truss shown in figure and hence compute member forces.
y ea
ud
st

a C d
= = ;
sin 30 o
sin 90 o
sin 60 o
• Isosceles triangle;
c = 2a

• CD = DB = a
• ∑fxi = 0 HA = 0
• ∑fyi = 0
• VA+VB = 5
• + ∑MA=0
• -5(2a)+VB(3a) = 0
• VB = 3.33 KN; VA = 1.67 KN

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
• ∑fxi = 0
• PAC cos 300 + PAD = 0
• ∑fyi = 0
• 1.67+PAC sin 300 = 0
• PAC = -3.34 KN
• PAD = 2.89 KN
• ∑fxi = 0
• -PDC cos 600 -2.89 +PDB = 0
• ∑fyi = 0
• PDC sin 600 – 5 = 0
• PDC = 5.77 KN
• PDB = 5.77 KN

.in
• ∑fxi = 0 – PBC cos 300 –5.77 = 0
• PBC = -6.66 KN

sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Sl. No Member Force Nature

1 AC -3.34 KN C

2 AD 2.89 KN T

3 BC 6.66 KN C

4 BD 5.77 KN T

5 CD 5.77 KN T

• Method of Sections: Another method of analysis of trusses is method of sections wherein


which the concept of equilibrium of a system of coplanar non concurrent forces is made use

.in
of. The concept of free body diagram is an important part in this method. This method will be
very useful when only few member forces are required. The equation of moment equilibrium
sy
becomes an important tool in this method. The method is illustrated in following figure.
y ea
ud
st

PROCEDURE FOR METHOD OF SECTIONS


• Step 1: Compute support reactions (if need be).
• Step 2: Place the section to cut not more than three members.
• Step 3: Write FBD, unknown forces away from section(T).
• Step 4: Use equilibrium concept to get member forces
This procedure is used for analyzing some examples as shown below.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 4 : Compute the forces in members EC, FC and FD of the truss shown in
figure.

• tan θ = ¾; sin θ = 0.6; cos θ = 0.8


• ∑MF = 0
• - 20(3)+PEC(4) = 0
• PEC = 15 KN (T)
• ∑fxi = 0; 20-PFC cos θ = 0
• PFC = 25 KN (T);
• ∑fyi = 0; -PEC - PFC sin θ – PFD = 0;
• PFD = - 30 KN
• = 30 KN (C)

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 5 : Compute the forces in members BE, BD and CD of truss shown in Figure.


• ζ + ∑MB =0
• -20(3)-PCD(BC) = 0
• PCD = -34.64 KN = 34.64 KN (C)
• ∑fxi=0

.in
• - PCD –PBD cos300 - PBE cos300 =0
• PBD+PBE=40
• ∑fyi=0
sy
• PBE − PBD=80
ea
• Solve to get PBE = 60 KN; PBD = -20=20 KN (C)
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Example 6: Compute the forces in members BD, CD and CE of the truss shown in figure.

• Support reactions
• ∑fxi=0; HA + 24 =0
• HA = -24 KN
• ∑fyi=0; VA + VB = 40+31+40=111 KN
• ζ + ∑MA=0
• -40(3.6)-31(2)(3.6)-40(3)3.6-24(2.7)+4(3.6)VB = 0

.in
• VB = 60 KN; VA = 51 KN
• ζ + ∑MC=0
• -VA (3.6)- PBD(2.7) = 0
sy
• PBD= - 68 KN;
ea
• = 68 KN (c)
• ζ + ∑MD=0
y

• - VA(2)(3.6)+2.7HA+40(3.6)+PCE(2.7)=0
ud

• PCE=106.67 KN (T)
• ∑fyi=0; 51 -40 + PCD sin θ =0; PCD = -
st

18.33 KN=18.33 KN(C).

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
1 CHAPTER – II
RESULTANT OF COPLANAR NON CONCURRENT
FORCE SYSTEM

Coplanar Non-concurrent Force System:

.in
This is the force system in which lines of action of

sy
individual forces lie in the same plane but act at different

ea
points of application.
y
ud
F2 F1 F2
st

F1

F5 F3
F3 F4

Fig. 1 Fig. 2
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
2 TYPES

1. Parallel Force System – Lines of action of individual


forces are parallel to each other.

.in
2. Non-Parallel Force System – Lines of action of the
forces are not parallel to each other.

sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
3 MOMENT OF A FORCE ABOUT AN AXIS

The applied force can also tend to rotate the body about
an axis, in addition to causing translatory motion. This
rotational tendency is known as moment.

.in
sy
Definition: Moment is the tendency of a force to make a

ea
rigid body rotate about an axis.

y
ud
This is a vector quantity.
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
4

Moment Axis: This is the axis about which


rotational tendency is determined. It is

.in
perpendicular to the plane comprising the

sy
moment arm and line of action of the force.

ea
Moment Center (B): This is the point at A B
d
y
which the moment axis intersects the plane of
ud
the coplanar system. F
Moment Arm: The perpendicular distance
st

from the moment center to the line of action


of the force.
Distance AB = d.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
5 EXAMPLE FOR MOMENT

Consider the example of a pipe wrench.


The force applied which is

.in
perpendicular to the handle of the

sy
wrench tends to rotate the pipe about

ea
its vertical axis. The magnitude of
y
ud
this tendency depends both on the
st

magnitude of the force and the


moment arm ‘d’.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
6 MAGNITUDE OF MOMENT

It is computed as the product of the


the perpendicular distance to the line
of action of the force from the

.in
B
moment center and the magnitude of d A

sy
the force.
MA = d×F F

y ea
Unit – Unit of Force × Unit of distance
ud
kN-m, N-mm etc.
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
7 SENSE OF THE MOMENT

The sense is obtained by the ‘Right Hand Thumb’ rule.


‘If the fingers of the right hand are curled in the

.in
direction of rotational tendency of the body, the extended
thumb represents the +ve sense of the moment vector’.

sy
ea
M M

y
ud
st

For the purpose of additions, the moment direction may


be considered by using a suitable sign convention such as +ve
for counterclockwise and –ve for clockwise rotations or vice-
versa.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
8 VARIGNON’S THEOREM
(PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS)
Statement: The moment of a force about a moment center
(axis) is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the
component forces about the same moment center (axis).

.in
Proof (by Scalar Formulation):

sy
Let ‘R’ be the given force. Y

ea
‘P’ & ‘Q’ be the component forces
of ‘R’. y
ud
Ry Q
‘O’ be the moment center. R
st

p, r, and q be the moment arms of Qy


P, R, and Q respectively from ‘O’. q r P
α, β, and γ be the inclinations of Py β γ p
α
‘P’, ‘R’, and ‘Q’ respectively w.r.t.
A O X
the X – axis. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
9

We have, Y
Ry = Py + Qy Ry
R Sinβ = P Sinα + Q Sin γ ----(1) Q R
From ∆le AOB, p/AO = Sin α

.in
Qy
From ∆le AOC, r/AO = Sin β γ r q

sy
P
Py β
From ∆le AOD, q/AO = Sin γ α
p

ea
From (1), A O X
∴ R ×(r/AO) = P ×(p/AO) + Q ×(q/AO)
y
ud
i.e., R × r = P × p + Q × q
st

Moment of the resultant R about ‘O’ = algebraic


sum of moments of the component forces P & Q
about same moment center ‘O’.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

VARIGNON’S THEOREM – PROOF BY VECTOR


10 FORMULATION
Consider three forces F1, F2, and F3
concurrent at point ‘A’ as shown in fig.

.in
Let r be the position vector of ‘A’ w.r.t

sy
‘O’. The sum of the moments about ‘O’
for these three forces by cross-product is,

ea
Mo = ∑(r×F) = (r×F1) + (r×F2) + (r×F3).
y
By the property of cross product,
ud
Mo = r × (F1+F2+F3)
st

=r×R
where, R is the resultant of the three
forces.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
11 APPLICATIONS OF VARIGNON’S
THEOREM

1. It simplifies the computation of moments by


judiciously selecting the moment center. The

.in
moment can be determined by resolving a force into X
& Y components, because finding x & y distances in

sy
many circumstances may be easier than finding the

ea
perpendicular distance (d) from the moment center to
y
the line of action.
ud
2. Location of resultant - location of line of action of the
st

resultant in the case of non-concurrent force systems,


is an additional information required, which can be
worked out using Varignon’s theorem.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
12
COUPLE
Two parallel, non collinear forces (separated by a
certain distance) that are equal in magnitude and opposite
in direction form a ‘couple’.

.in
The algebraic summation of the
F

sy
two forces forming the couple is zero.
Hence, a couple does not produce any

ea
translation, but produces only rotation. d
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
13

Moment of a Couple: Consider two equal and opposite


forces separated by a distance ‘d’. Let ‘O’ be the moment
center at a distance ‘a’ from one
F

.in
of the forces. The sum of moments

sy
of two forces about the point ‘O’ is, d
a

ea
+ ∑ Mo = -F × ( a + d) + F × a = -F× d
F O
y
ud
Thus, the moment of the couple about ‘O’ is independent
st

of the location, as it is independent of the distance ‘a’.


The moment of a couple about any point is a
constant and is equal to the product of one of the forces
and the perpendicular Compiled
distance between them.
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14 RESOLUTIONCompiled
OFbyAwww.studyeasy.in
FORCE INTO A
FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM

F F
F
F
d

.in
Q Q
= M=F × d
=

sy
P P

ea
F
Fig. (b)
Fig. (a)
y Fig. (c)
ud
A given force F applied at a point can be replaced
st

by an equal force applied at another point Q, together with


a couple which is equivalent to the original system.
Two equal and opposite forces of same magnitude F
and parallel to the force F at P are introduced at Q.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
15

F F F F
M=F × d
d
Q Q

.in
= =
P P

sy
Fig. (a) F Fig. (b) Fig. (c)

ea
Of these three forces, two forces i.e., one at P and the
y
ud
other oppositely directed at Q form a couple.
st

Moment of this couple, M = F × d.


The third force at Q is acting in the same direction as that at P.
The system in Fig. (c) is equivalent to the system in Fig. (a).
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
16

Thus, the force F acting at a point such as P on a rigid


body can be moved to any other given point Q, by adding a

.in
couple M. The moment of the couple is equal to moment of

sy
the force in its original position about Q.

y ea
ud
st

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RESULTANT OF Compiled
COPLANAR by www.studyeasy.in
NON-CONCURRENT
17
FORCE SYSTEMS

The resultant of coplanar, non-concurrent force


systems is the one which will produce same rotational and

.in
translational effect as that of the given system. It may be a

sy
force and a moment or a pure moment.

ea
F1

y
Let F1, F2 and F3 constitute
ud
a non concurrent system as F2
shown in the fig.
st

O
‘O’ – be any convenient reference
point in the plane.
F3

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
18

F1
F1 R
F2
∑Mo

.in
∑Mo
O F2 O
O

sy
ea
F3 F3 Fig. C
Fig. A Fig. B
y
ud
Each force can be replaced by a force of the same magnitude
and acting in the same direction at ‘O’ and a moment about
st

‘O’ as in Fig B. The non concurrent forces can be combined


as in the case of concurrent system to get the resultant force
R. Thus, the resultant of the system is equal to a force R at
‘O’ and a moment ‘∑Mo’ as shown in fig.C.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

19

R
R

.in
∑Mo
O
O

sy
ea
Fig. C Fig. D
∑ Ry
tan θ =
The single force ∑RRx and
the moment ‘∑Mo’ shown in the fig.C
y
ud
can be replaced by a single force R acting at a distance ‘d’
st

from ‘O’, which gives the same effect. Thus, d=


∑the
Mo resultant can
R
be reduced to a single force acting at a certain distance from
‘O’. Mathematically,
R = Rx + Ry
2 2
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

20

X and Y intercepts of Resultant:


In some problems, it may be required to determine

.in
distances of the resultant R along x-axis and y-axis i.e., X
and Y intercepts. Let ‘d’ be the perpendicular distance of the

sy
resultant from ‘O’ as shown in the fig.

ea
Let Rx=∑Fx and Ry=∑Fy be the
y
components of the resultant in X and Y Y-axis
ud
directions.
st

By Varignon’s theorem, A Rx
R×d= ∑Mo Y d
Rx
At B, ∑Mo = Rx×0 + Ry×X R
X-axis
O B
X
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ry Ry
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

21

Therefore,
X= ∑Mo/Ry

.in
Similarly, at A,
Ry×0 + Rx×Y = ∑Mo

sy
Therefore, Y-axis

ea
Y= ∑Mo/Rx
y A Rx
ud
Rx
Y d
R
st

X-axis
O B
X
Ry Ry

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

22 TYPES OF LOADS ON BEAMS


1. Concentrated Loads – This is the load acting for a very
small length of the beam.
2. Uniformly distributed load – This is the load acting for a

.in
considerable length of the beam with same intensity of W
kn/m throughout its spread.

sy
W kN/m
Total intensity = W × L

ea
(acts at L/2 from one end of the spread) L
y
ud
3. Uniformly varying load – This load acts for a considerable
st

length of the beam with intensity varying linearly from ‘0’


at one end to W kN/m to the other representing a triangular
distribution. Total intensity of load = area of triangular
W kN/m
spread of the load = 1/2× W × L. (acts at 2×L/3 from
‘Zero’ load end) Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
L
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

23 PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

1. Determine the resultant of the parallel coplanar


force system shown in fig. Take radius of the
circle=1860mm

.in
(Ans. R=2000N towards left, d=626.9mm)

sy
y ea
600 N 1000 N
ud
60º o
30º
st

2000 N 10º 60º

400 N

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

24

2. Four forces of magnitudes 10N, 20N, 30N and 40N


acting respectively along the four sides of a square
ABCD as shown in the figure. Determine the

.in
magnitude, direction and position of resultant w.r.t. A.

sy
(Ans:R=28.28N, θ=45º, X=1.77a)

ea
20N
D
30N
y C
ud
a
st

A 10N
a B

40N

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

25

3. Four parallel forces of magnitudes 100N, 150N, 25N


and 200N acting at left end, 0.9m, 2.1m and
2.85m respectively from the left end of a horizontal

.in
bar of length 2.85m. Determine the magnitude of

sy
resultant and also the distance of the resultant from

ea
the left end.
(Ans:R=125N, X=3.06m)
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

26

4. Reduce the given forces into a single force and a


couple at A.
(Ans:F=320kN, θ=14.48º, M=284.8kNm)

.in
sy
ea
70.7kN
200kN
45º
y 30º
ud
1.5m
st

A
1m 30º
100KN
80KN

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

27

5. Determine the resultant w.r.t. point A.


(Ans:R=450kN, X=7.5kNm)

.in
150Nm

sy
150N
3m 1.5m

ea
1.5m

A
y
ud
100N 500N
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTROID

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

.in
Centre of gravity : of a body is the point at
which the whole weight of the body may be

sy
assumed to be concentrated.

y ea
ud
A body is having only one center of gravity for
st

all positions of the body.

It is represented by CG. or simply G or C.


Contd.
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1
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

Consider a three dimensional


body of any size and shape,

.in
having a mass m.

sy
ea
If we suspend the body as shown in
y
figure, from any point such as A, the
ud
body will be in equilibrium under the
st

action of the tension in the cord and


the resultant W of the gravitational
forces acting on all particles of the
body. Contd.
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2
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

Cord

.in
Resultant W is collinear with

sy
the Cord

y ea Assume that we mark its


ud
position by drilling a
st

hypothetical hole of negligible


size along its line of action
Resultant
Contd.
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3
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

To determine mathematically the location of the


centre of gravity of any body,

.in
we apply the principle of moments to the parallel

sy
system of gravitational forces.

y ea
Centre of gravity is that point about which the
ud
summation of the first moments of the weights of
st

the elements of the body is zero.

Contd.
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6
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

We repeat the experiment by


suspending the body from other

.in
points such as B and C, and in
each instant we mark the line of

sy
action of the resultant force.

y ea
ud
st

For all practical purposes these lines of action will be


concurrent at a single point G, which is called the
centre of gravity of the body.
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4
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY
Example:

.in
B

sy
ea
C
A A
B G B
y G A
ud
C A A
C
st

B
A
w
w B

w
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5
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY
The moment of the the algebraic sum of the
resultant gravitational = moments about the same
force W, about any axis of the gravitational

.in
axis forces dW acting on all
infinitesimal elements of

sy
the body.

y ea
if, we apply principle
∫ dW of moments, (Varignon’s Theorem)
ud
about y-axis, for example,
st

The moment of the The sum of moments of its


resultant about y-axis = components about y-axis
x ⋅W = ∫ x × dW
7 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Where W =
x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

where x = x- coordinate of centre of gravity

∫ x ⋅ dW

.in
x=
W

sy
ea
x

y
ud
Similarly, y and z coordinates of the centre of gravity are
st

y=
∫ y ⋅ dW
and z=
∫ z ⋅ dW
----(1)
W W
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
8
x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

x=
∫ x ⋅ dW
y=
∫ y ⋅ dW
∫ z ⋅ dW
W , W
, z= ----(1)
W

.in
With the substitution of W= m g and dW = g dm

sy
ea
(if ‘g’ is assumed constant for all particles, then )

y
the expression for the coordinates of centre of gravity become
ud
∫ x ⋅ dm ∫ y ⋅ dm ∫ z ⋅ dm
st

x= , y=
, z= ----(2)
m m m

Contd.
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9
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

The density ρ of a body is mass per unit volume. Thus,


the mass of a differential element of volume dV
becomes dm = ρ dV .

.in
sy
If ρ is not constant throughout the body, then we may

ea
write the expression as

∫ x ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV
y
ud
x= , y=
∫ y ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV
and z=
∫ z ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV
----(3)
∫ ρ ⋅ dV
st

∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV

Contd.
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10
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

x=
∫ x ⋅ dm
, y=
∫ y ⋅ dm
, z=
∫ z ⋅ dm ----(2)
m m m

.in
Equation 2 is independent of g and therefore define a

sy
unique point in the body which is a function solely of the

ea
distribution of mass.
y
ud
This point is called the centre of mass and clearly
coincides with the centre of gravity as long as the gravity
st

field is treated as uniform and parallel.

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11
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTROID

x=
∫ x ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV
y=
∫ y ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ z ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV
, and z = ----(3)
∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV

.in
sy
When the density ρ of a body is uniform throughout,

ea
it will be a constant factor in both the numerators and
y
denominators of equation (3) and will therefore
ud
cancel.
st

The remaining expression defines a purely


geometrical property of the body.

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12
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

When speaking of an actual physical body, we use the


term “centre of mass”.

.in
sy
The term centroid is used when the calculation concerns

ea
a geometrical shape only.
y
ud
Calculation of centroid falls within three distinct
st

categories, depending on whether we can model the


shape of the body involved as a line, an area or a
Contd.
volume.
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13
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The centroid “C” of the line segment,

LINES: for a slender rod or a wire of length L, cross-


sectional area A, and density ρ, the body approximates a
line segment, and dm = ρA dL. If ρ and A are constant over

.in
the length of the rod, the coordinates of the centre of mass

sy
also becomes the coordinates of the centroid, C of the line

ea
segment, which may be written as

y
ud
x=
∫ x ⋅ dL ∫ y ⋅ dL
∫ z ⋅ dL
st

, y= , z=
L L L

Contd.
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14
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The centroid “C” of the Area segment,

AREAS: when the density ρ, is constant and the


body has a small constant thickness t, the body can be
modeled as a surface area.

.in
The mass of an element becomes dm = ρ t dA.

sy
If ρ and t are constant over entire area, the

ea
coordinates of the ‘centre of mass’ also becomes
y
the coordinates of the centroid, C of the surface
ud
area and which may be written as
st

x=
∫ x ⋅ dA
y=
∫ y ⋅ dA
, z=
∫ z ⋅ dA
A
, A A
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Contd.
15
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The centroid “C” of the Volume segment,

VOLUMES: for a general body of volume V and density ρ,


the element has a mass dm = ρ dV .

.in
If the density is constant the coordinates of the centre of
mass also becomes the coordinates of the centroid, C of the

sy
volume and which may be written as

∫ x ⋅ dV yea
∫ y ⋅ dV ∫
ud
z ⋅ dV
x= , y= , z=
st

V V V

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16
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Centroid of Simple figures: using method of


moment ( First moment of area)

.in
 Centroid of an area may or may not lie on the

sy
area in question.

ea
 It is a unique point for a given area
y
ud
regardless of the choice of the origin and the
orientation of the axes about which we take
st

the moment.

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17
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The coordinates of the centroid of the surface area


about any axis can be calculated by using the equn.

.in
(A) x = (a1) x1 + (a2) x2 + (a3) x3 +

sy
……….+(an) xn

ea
= First moment of area
y
ud
Moment of Algebraic Sum of
st

Total area ‘A’ = moment of elemental


about y-axis ‘dA’ about the same
axis
where (A = aCompiled
1 + aby + a3 + a4 + ……..+ an)
2 www.studyeasy.in
18
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

AXIS of SYMMETRY:

It is an axis w.r.t. which for an elementary area on one

.in
side of the axis , there is a corresponding elementary

sy
area on the other side of the axis (the first moment of

ea
these elementary areas about the axis balance each
other) y
ud
If an area has an axis of symmetry, then the centroid
st

must lie on that axis.


If an area has two axes of symmetry, then the centroid
must lie at the point of intersection of these axes.
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Contd.
19
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

For example:

The rectangular shown in


the figure has two axis of

.in
symmetry, X-X and Y-Y.
da
Therefore intersection of

sy
da
these two axes gives the

ea
x x
centroid of the rectangle.
y
ud
da × x = da × x
st

Moment of areas,da
about y-axis cancel
each other
da × x + da × x = 0 Contd.
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20
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

AXIS of SYMMETYRY

‘C’ must lie


on the axis
of symmetry

.in
‘C’ must lie on

sy
the axis of
symmetry

y ea
ud
‘C’ must lie at the intersection
st

of the axes of symmetry

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21
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.1:

Locate the centroid of the shaded area shown

.in
sy
10

ea
50

10
y
ud
40
st

Ans: x=12.5, y=17.5

22
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22
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.2:
Locate the centroid of the shaded area shown

.in
sy
ea
500 300

300
D=600
y
1000 mm

r=600
ud
500
st

1000 mm

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Ans: x=474mm, y=474mm
23
23
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EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.3:
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
sy
y-axis
90

ea
20
120

r=40

y
ud 20

x-axis
60

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ans: x=34.4, y=40.324


24
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.4:
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
sy
ea
y-axis

250 mm

y20
ud
10

380
st

10 10
200 mm x-axis

25
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x= -5mm, y=282mm
25
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EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.5

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

.in
axes shown

sy
ea
y 30
50 30
y
ud
40

40
x
20 20
st

r=20

26 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ans:x26 =38.94, y=31.46


Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.6
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
y

sy
y ea 2.4 m
1.0

r=0.6
ud
1.0 x
1.0
1.5

st

1.5

27
27 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ans: x=0.817, y=0.24
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.7
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x= -30.43, y= +9.58
28
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.8
Locate the centroid of the shaded area.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

20

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x= 0, y= 67.22(about base)
29
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.9
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
base line.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x=5.9, y= 8.17
30
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.10
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x=21.11, y= 21.11
31
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
Problem No.11
Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the
axes shown

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Ans: x= y= 22.22
32
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 1

.in
sy
FORCES IN SPACE
ea
(Noncoplanar System of Forces)
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 2
Forces in space
A Force in space: A Force is said to be in space if its line of
action makes an angle α, β and γ with respect to rectangular
co-ordinate axes X, Y and Z respectively as shown the Fig. 1.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

F Fig. 1. A Force in space

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 3

Noncoplanar system of forces (Forces in Space) and


Their Classifications
System of forces which do not lie in a single plane is called

.in
noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space ). A typical
noncoplanar system of forces (forces in space) is shown in the

sy
Fig. 2. below

y ea
ud
st

Fig. 2 Forces in space (noncoplanar system of forces)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 4
Forces in space

.in
Noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space) can be

sy
broadly classified into three categories. They are

ea
1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces
y
ud
2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces
3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 5
Forces in space

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces which

.in
meet at a point with their lines of action do not lie in a
plane are called “Concurrent noncoplanar system of

sy
forces”. A typical system of Concurrent noncoplanar

ea
system of forces is shown in the Fig.3.
y
ud
st

Fig. 3. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 6

Forces in space
2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces
which do not meet at a point and their lines of action do not
lie in a plane, such forces are called “Nonconcurrent

.in
noncoplanar system of forces”. A typical system of

sy
nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces is shown in the
Fig.4.

y ea
ud
st

Fig. 4. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 7
Forces in space
3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces: If lines of action of all
the forces in a system are parallel and they do not lie in a

.in
plane such a system is called Non-coplanar parallel system

sy
of forces. If all the forces are pointing in one direction then
they are called Like parallel forces otherwise they are called

ea
unlike parallel forces as shown in the Fig.5.
y
ud
st

Fig. 5 Noncoplanar parallel system of forces


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Forces in space
FS - 8

Rectangular components of a force in space

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Fig. 6. Resolving a force in space into rectangular components


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 9
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space
In the Fig.6(a) a force F is acting at the origin O of the system
of rectangular coordinate axes X,Y,Z. Consider OBAC plane

.in
passing through the force F. This plane makes an angle φ with

sy
respect to XOY plane. Force F makes an angle θy with

ea
respect to Y-axis.

y
ud
st

Fig.6(a)
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 10
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space

.in
sy
ea
Fig.6(b)
y
ud
st

In the Fig.6(b), the force F is resolved in the vertical (Y- axis) and
horizontal direction (X – axis) as
Fy = F Cosθy and
Fh = F Sinθy respectively.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 11
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space

.in
sy
y ea Fig.6(c)
ud
st

In the Fig 6(c) the horizontal component Fh is again resolved in the X and
Z axes directions. These components are
Fx = Fh cosφ = F sinθy cosφ
Fz = Fh Sinφ =Compiled
F sinθ y sinφ
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 12

Now applying Pythagorean theorem to the triangles OAB


and OCD
F2 = (OA)2 = OB2 + BA2 = Fy2 +Fh2 ----------------(1)

.in
Fh2 = OC2 = OD2 + DC2 = Fx2 +Fz2 ----------------(2)

sy
Substituting equation (2) into the equation (1), we get

ea
F2 = Fx2 +Fy2 + Fz2
F = √ Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2y
ud
----------------(3)
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 13
Forces in space
The relationship existing between the force F and its three components Fx,
Fy, Fz is more easily visualized if a box having Fx, Fy, Fz for edges is drawn
as shown below. The force F is then represented by the original OA of this
box.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Fig. 7 Relationship between Force F and its components Fx, Fy and Fz


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 14

From the above Figure (Fig. 7)

Fx = F Cos θx, Fy = F Cosθy, Fz = F Cosθz ------------(4)

Where θx, θy, θz are the angles formed by the force F with X, Y, Z axes respectively.

.in
Fx,Fy,Fz are the rectangular components of the force F in the directions of X, Y, Z

sy
axes respectively.

ea
Cos θx = Fx/F; Cosθy = Fy/F; Cosθz = Fz/F

y
Substituting equation (4) into the equation (3), we get
ud
F = √ Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2
st

F = √ F2Cos2θx + F2Cos2θy + F2Cos2θz


F2 = F2 ( Cos2θx + Cos2θy + Cos2θz )

1 = Cos2θx + Cos2θy + Cos2θz -------------(5)


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Forces in space FS - 15

Force Defined by its magnitude and two points on its line of action

From the adjacent Fig. 8.

.in
dx= d Cos θx, dy = d Cosθy,

sy
dz = d Cosθz
----(6)

ea
d = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2
---(7)
y
ud
Dividing member by
member the relations (4) and
st

(6), we obtain

Fx /dx = Fy/dy = Fz/dz = F/d


----------------------------(8) Fig 8
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 16

Resultant of concurrent forces in Space:-


Resolve all the forces into their rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions.
Adding algebraically all the horizontal components in the x direction gives

.in
Rx = ∑ Fx,

sy
Similarly adding algebraically all the components in y and z directions yield the
following relations

ea
Ry = ∑ Fy,
Rz = ∑ Fz
y
ud
Thus magnitude of resultant
st

R = √ Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2

Angles θx, θy, θz resultant forms with the axes of coordinates are obtained by
Rx Ry Rz
Cosθ x = ; Cosθ y = ; Cosθ z =
R R R
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 17

Problems:
(1) A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A is shown in the following
Figure. The tension in the wire is 6000N. Determine
(a) The components Fx, Fy, Fz of the forces acting on the bolt.

.in
(b) The angles θx, θy, θz defining the direction of the force.

sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 18

Solution: (a) Here dx = 50m, dy = 200m, dz = -100m


Total distance A to B

.in
d = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2

sy
= √ (50)2 + (200)2 + (-100)2

ea
= 229.13 m
y
ud
Using the equation (8) Fx /dx = Fy/dy = Fz/dz = F/d
st

∴Fx = dx . (F/d) = (50 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 1309.3 N


Fy = dy . (F/d) = (200 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 5237.20 N
Fz = dz . (F/d) = (-100 x 6000)/ 229.13 = -2618.6 N
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 19

(b) Directions of the force:

Cos θx = dx /d , θx = Cos–1 (50/229.13) = 77.4°

.in
θy = Cos–1 (dy /d) = Cos–1 (200/229.13) = 29.2°

sy
ea
θz = Cos–1 (dz /d) = Cos–1 (-100/229.13) = 115.88°
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 20

Problem(2) Determine (a) the x , y and z components of the 250 N


force acting as shown below
(b) the angles θx, θy, θz that the force forms with the coordinate

.in
axes.

sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 21

.in
sy
Fh = 250 Cos60 = 125 N Fy = 250 Sin60 = 216.5 N

ea
Fx = 125 Cos25 = 113.29 N Fz = 125Sin25 = -52.83 N

y
θx = Cos–1 ( Fx /F) = Cos–1 (113.29/250) = 63°
ud
θy = Cos–1 ( Fy /F) = Cos–1 (216.5/250) = 30°
θz = Cos–1 ( Fz /F) = Cos–1 (-52.83/250) = 102.11o
st

∴Components of 250 N in the x, y, z axes directions are

Fx = 113.29N Fy = 216.5 N Fz = -52.83N


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Forces in space FS - 22

Problem 3. Find the resultant of the system of forces as shown


below

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space  FS - 23

Solution

.in
sy
y ea
ud
Components of Force F1 = 3000 N:
st

Fy1 = 3000 x Cos40o = 2298.13 N


Fh1 = 3000 x Sin40o = 1928.36 N
o
Fx1 = 1928.36 x Cos30 =1670 N
Fz1 = 1928.36 x Sin30o = 964.18 N
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 24

.in
sy
y ea
ud
Components of Force F2 = 2000 N:
st

Fy2 = 2000 x Cos20 = 1879.39 N


Fh2 = 2000 x Sin20 = 684.04 N
Fx2 = 684.04 x Sin35° = 392.35 N
Fz2 = 684.04 x Cos35° = 560.33N
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 25

Rx = ∑ Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 = 1670 – 392.35 = 1277.65


Ry = ∑ Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 = 2298.13 + 1879.39 = 4177.52 N

.in
Rz = ∑ Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 = 964.18 + 560.33 = 1524.51 N

sy
Resultant R = √Rx2 + Ry2 +Rz2

ea
= √1277.652 +4177.522 +1524.512
y
= 4626.9 N
ud
Its inclinations with respect to x, y and z axes are
st

calculated as
θx = Cos–1 (1277.65 /4626.9) = 73° 58' 13.1"
θy = Cos–1 (4177.52/4626.9) = 25° 27'
θz = Cos–1 (1526.51/4626.9) = 70o45’36”
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 26

Problem 4. In the Fig shown below, the forces in the cables AB and AC
are 100 kN and 150 kN respectively. At the joint ‘A’ loading is as
shown in the Fig. Find the resultant of system of forces in space and its
inclination with rectangular coordinates x,y and z axes.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 27

Solution: Force in the cable AB = 100 kN

Force in the cable AC=150 kN

.in
For the cable AB

sy
dx = -20 m
dy = 15m

ea
dz = 5m
y
dAB = √ dx2 +dy2 + dz2
ud
= √ (-20)2 +(15)2 + (5)2 = √ 650 = 25.5 m
st

For the cable AC


dx = -20 m
dy = 25m
dz = -10m
dAc = √(-20) 2 +(25)2 + (-10)2 = √1125 = 33.54 m
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 28

For the cable AB (1)


Fx1/dx1 = Fy1/dy1 = Fz1/dz1 = F/d
Fx1/-20 = Fy1/15 = Fz1/5 = 100/25.5

.in
∴Fx1 = -78.41 kN

sy
Fy1 = 58.82 kN

ea
Fz1 = 19.61 kN

y
ud
For the Cable AC (2)
st

Fx2/-20 = Fy2/25 = Fz2/-10 = 150/33.54

Fx2 = - 89.45 kN
Fy2 = 111.81 kN
Fz2 = - 44.72 kN Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 29

Component of force 60 kN

Fx3 = 60 x Cos(70°) = 20.52 kN

.in
Fy3 = 60 x Cos(30o) = 51.96 kN

sy
Fz3 = 60 x Cos(111°23)= - 21.88 kN

ea
Component of the force 50KN
y
ud
Fx4 = 50 kN
st

Fy4 = 0
Fz4 = 0

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 30

Algebraic summation of Rectangular Components in X, Y and Z


axes directions yield:
Rx = Σ Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4
= -78.43 - 89.45 + 20.52 + 50

.in
= -97.36 kN

sy
Ry = Σ Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 + Fy3 + Fy4
= 58.82 + 111.81 + 51.96 + 0

ea
= 222.59 kN
y
ud
Rz = Σ Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 + Fz3 + Fz4
= 19.61 – 44.72 – 21.88 + 0
st

= -46.99 kN

∴ Resultant R = √ Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2


= √ (-97.36)2 + (222.59)2 + (-46.99)2
= 247.45 Compiled
kN by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 31

Inclinations of the resultant with X,Y and Z axes:


θx = Cos-1(Rx / R) = Cos-1 (-97.36/247.45) = 113° 10’
θy = Cos-1(Ry / R) = Cos-1 (222.59/247.45) = 25° 54’
θz = Cos-1(Rz / R) = Cos-1 (-46.99/247.45) = 100° 56’ 47”

.in
sy
Check:

ea
Cos2θx + Cos2θy + Cos2θz = 1
y
Cos2(113°10’) + Cos2(25°54’) + Cos2(100°56°) = 1
ud
1 = 1
st

Hence OK

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 32
Forces in space

Problem 5. a) Forces F1, F2, and F3 pass through the origin and
points whose coordinates are given. Determine the

.in
resultant of the system of forces.

sy
F1 = 20 kN, (3,-2,1)

ea
F2 = 35 kN, (-2,4,0)
F3= 25 kN, (1,2,-3)
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 33

Solution:

.in
sy
yea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 34

Force F1 = 20 kN
d = √ 32 + (-2)2 + 12 = √ 14 = 3.74
Cos θx1 = dx / d = 3/3.74 = 0.802
Cos θy1 = -2/3.74 = -0.535; Cos θz1 = 1/3.74 = 0.267

.in
sy
Force F2 = 35 kN

ea
d = √ (-2)2 + 42 +0 = √20 = 4.47
Cos θx2 = -2/4.47 = -0.45
y
Cos θy2 = 4/4.47 = 0.9; Cos θz2 = 0
ud
st

Force F3 = 25 kN
d = √ (1)2 + 22 +(-3)2 = √14 = 3.74
Cos θx3 = 1/3.74 = 0.267
Cos θy3 = 2/3.74 = 0.535; Cos θz3 = -3/3.74 = -0.802
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 35

Summation of the rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions


yield:
Rx = ΣFx = 20 x 0.802 + 35 x (-0.45) +25 x 0.267 = 6.965 kN
Ry = Σ Fy = 20 x (-0.535) + 35 x 0.9 + 25 x 0.535 = 34.175 kN

.in
Rz = Σ Fz = 20 x 0.267 + 35 x 0 + 25 x (-0.802) = -14.71 kN

sy
ea
Resultant R = √ Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2
= √ 6.9652 + 34.1752 + (-14.71)2
= 37.85 kN y
ud
st

Inclination of the resultant R with respect to X, Y and Z axes are


calculated as
θx = Cos–1(Rx / R) = Cos-1(6.965/37.85 ) = 79.4°
θy = Cos–1(Ry /R) = Cos-1(34.175/37.85) = 25.46°
θz = Cos–1(Rz /R) = Cos -1(-14.71/37.85) = 112.87°
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 36

Equilibrium of Concurrent non-coplanar system of forces:


When a rigid body subjected to concurrent noncoplanar system of forces
F1, F2…. ..FN as shown in the Fig. given below, is in equilibrium, then

.in
algebraic summation of all the components of the forces in three mutually
perpendicular directions must be equal to zero.

sy
i.e. ∑ Fx = 0

ea
∑ Fy = 0
∑ Fz = 0 y
ud
(1)
Above equations represent the static
st

conditions of equilibrium for concurrent


noncoplanar system of forces

Fig. A rigid body subjected to concurrent


Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
noncoplanar system of forces
Forces in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 37
space
Problem (1) Find the forces in the rods AB , AC and AO subjected to
loading as shown below

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Forces in space FS - 38

Solution:

For the cable AB:

.in
dx1 = 0 - 4 = - 4

sy
dy1= 8 - 0 = 8

ea
dz1 = 15 – 0 =15

y
d1 = √ (-4)2 +(8)2 +(15)2 = 17.46 m
ud
st

Fx1/-4 = Fy1/8 = Fz1/15 = FAB/17.46

Fx1 = -0.23FAB,
Fy1 = 0.46FAB,
Fz1 = 0.86FAB
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Forces in space FS - 39

For the Cable AC:


dx2 = 0 - 4 = -4m
dy2 = 8 - 0 = 8m
dz2 = -20 – 0 = -20m

.in
sy
d2 = √ (-4)2 +(8)2 +(-20)2 = √480 = 21.91m
Fx2/-4 = Fy2/8 = Fz2/-20 = FAC/21.91

ea
Fx2 = -0.18FAC, Fy2 = 0.365FAc, Fz2 = -0.91FAc
y
ud
For the Force 120 N:
Fx3 = 120 N, Fy3 = 0, Fz3 = 0
st

For the force Fx4 = 300 N:


Fx4 = 0, Fy4 = -300N, Fz4 = 0

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 40

Conditions of Equilibrium
∑ Fx = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑ Fz = 0

Considering ∑ Fx = 0

.in
Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 + Fx5= 0

sy
-FAD-0.23F – 0.18FAC + 120 + 0 = 0
FAD + 0.23FAB + 0.183FAC = 120 ----------------------(1)

ea
∑ Fy = 0
y
ud
0.46FAB + 0.365FAC + 0 +0 – 300 = 0
0.46FAB + 0.365FAC = 300 ------------------------------(2)
st

∑ Fz = 0
0.86 FAB – 0.91 FAC + 0 = 0 -----------------------(3)

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 41

.in
Solving Equations (1), (2) and (3), we get,

sy
FAB = 372.675 N; FAC = 352.25 N ; FAO = - 30.18 N

y ea
Force in the rod AB , FAB = 372.675 N (Tensile)
ud
Force in the rod AC, FAC = 352.25 N (Tensile)
Force in the rod AO, FAO = 30.18 N (Compressive)
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 42

2) Three cables are connected at D and support, the 400


kN load as shown in the Fig given below. Determine the
tensions in each cable

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 43

Let FDA, FDB and FDC are the forces in the cables AD, BD,
and CD respectively.
For Cable DA:

.in
dx1 = (0 – 3) = -3m

sy
dy1 = (6 - 4) =2 m

ea
dz1 = (6 – 0 = 6 m
dAD = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2 y
ud
dAD = √ (-3)2 + (2)2 + (6)2 = √9 + 4 + 36 = 7 m
st

Fx1/dx1 = Fy1/dy1 = Fz1/dz1 = FDA/dDA


Fx1/(-3) = Fy1/2 = Fz1/6 = FDA/7
∴ Fx1 = -0.43FDA, Fy1 =0.286FDA, Fz1 = 0.857FDA
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 44

For Cable DB:


dx2= (0 – 3) = -3m
dy2 = (6 - 4) =2 m

.in
dz2 = (-6 – 0 = -6 m

sy
dBD = d2 = √(-3)2 + (2)2 + (-6)2 = √ 49 = 7 m

ea
Fx2/dx2 = Fy2/dy2 = Fz2/dz2 = FDB/dDB
y
ud
Fx2/(-3) = Fy2/2 = Fz2/-6 = FDB/7
st

∴Fx2 = -0.43FDB,
Fy2 =0.286FDB,
Fz2 = -0.857FDB
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 45

For Cable DC:


dx3 (0 – 3) = -3m
dy3= (0- 4) = -4m

.in
dz3= (0 0 = 0m

sy
dDC= d3= √ (-3)2 + (-4) + (0)2
= √ 9 + 16

ea
= 5m
y
ud
Fx3/dx3 = Fy3/dy3 = Fz3/dz3 = FDC/d DC
st

Fx3/(-3) = Fy3/-4 = Fz3/0 = FDC/5

∴Fx3 = -0.6FDC,
Fy3 =-0.8FDC,
Fz3 = 0 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 46

For the force 400KN


dx4 = 12m
dy4= -4m

.in
dz4= 3m
d4= d400 = √ (12)2 + (4) + (3)2

sy
= √144 +16 + 9

ea
= √69 = 13m
y
Fx4/dx4 = Fy4/dy4 = Fz4/dz4 = F400/d4
ud
Fx4/(12) = Fy4/-4 = Fz4/3 = 400/13
st

∴Fx4 = 369.23 kN,


Fy4 = -123.08 kN,
Fz4 = +92.31 kN
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 47

For Equilibrium, the algebraic summation of resolved


component in a particular direction is equal to zero.
i.e. ∑ Fx = 0 -------------(1)

.in
∑ Fy = 0 ------------- (2)

sy
∑ Fz = 0 --------------(3)

y ea
(1) Σ Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 = 0
ud
+ 0.43FDA + 0.43FDB + 0.6FDC = 369.23 ---------(1)
st

+ 0.286FDA + 0.286FDB – 0.8FDC = 123.08 ------(2)


+ 0.857FDA - 0.857FDB + 0 = 92.31 ------------(3)
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 48

Solving equations (1), (2) and (3), we get

.in
FDB = 304.1kN

sy
FDA = 411.8 kN

ea
FDC = 102 kN
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 49
Forces in space
Practice Questions
1. A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A as shown below.
The tension in the wire is 2500 N. Determine (a) the components Fx, Fy

.in
and Fz of the force acting on the bolt, (b) the angles θx, θy, θz defining
the direction of the force

sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: Fx= -1060 N , Fy = 2120 N, Fz= + 795 N


Θx = 115.1 o ; Θy= 32.0 o ; Θz= 71.5 o )
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FS - 50
Forces in space
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice
2. Determine Questions
(a) x, y and z the components of the force 500 N in the below
Figure. (b) the angles θx, θy, θz that the force forms with the
coordinate axes

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: Fx= + 278 N , Fy = + 383 N, Fz= + 160.7


N
Θx = 56.2 o ; Θy= 40.0 o ; Θz= 71.3 o )
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FS - 51
Forces in space
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice
3. Questions
In order to move a wrecked truck, two cables are attached at A and
pulled by winches B and C as shown. Knowing that the tension in the
cable AB is 10 kN, determine the components of the force exerted by
the cable AB on the truck

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: Fx= -6.30 kN , Fy = 6.06 kN, Fz= + 4.85


kN)
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 52
Forces in space
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice
4. Questions
A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of two cables AB and AC, which are
attached to the top of a vertical wall. A horizontal force P perpendicular
to the wall holds the cylinder in the position shown. Determine the
magnitude of the force P and the tension in each cable

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: P = 235 N , TAB = 1401 N, TAC= + 1236 N


)
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Forces in space
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
FS - 53

Practice
5. Three cablesQuestions
are connected at A, where the forces P and Q are applied as
shown. Determine the tension in each cable when P = 0 and Q = 7.28
kN

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: TAB= 2.88 kN , TAC = 5.76 kN, TAD= 3.6


kN)
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 54
Forces in space Practice Questions
6. A container of weight w = 400 N is supported by cables AB and AC which
are tied to ring A. Knowing that Q = 0, determine (a) the magnitude of
the force P which must be applied to the ring to maintain the container
in the position shown in figure below, (b) the corresponding the values

.in
of the tension in cables AB and AC

sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: P = 138 N ,
TAB = 270N,
TAC = 196N )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 55
Forces in space Practice Questions
7. A container supported by three cables as shown below. Determine the
weight of the container, knowing that the tension in the cable AB is 4 kN

.in
sy
 Ans: 9.32 kN

y ea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 56
Forces in space Practice Questions
8. Determine the resultant of the two forces shown below.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

(Ans: R = 498 N ,
Θx = 68.9 o ; Θy= 26.3 o ; Θz= 75.1 o )
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 57
Forces in space Practice Questions
9. A container of weight W = 1165 N is supported by three cables as shown
below. Determine the tension in each cable.

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Ans: TAB = 500 N


TAC = 459 N
TAD = 516 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in
sy
y ea
ud
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
EQUILIBRIUM OF NON-CONCURRENT
COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEM

When a body is in equilibrium, it has neither translatory


nor rotatory motion in any direction. Thus the resultant

.in
force R and the resultant couple M are both zero, and we

sy
have the equilibrium equations for two dimensional force

ea
system
y
ud
∑ Fx = 0; ∑ Fy = 0 Eq(1)
st

∑M = 0
These requirements are both necessary and sufficient
conditions for equilibrium.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Supports: A structure is subjected to external forces


and transfers these forces through the supports on to the
foundation. Therefore the support reactions and the

.in
external forces together keep the structure in equilibrium.

sy
Types of supports

ea
There are different types of supports. Some of them are
y
a) Roller Support b) Hinged or pinned support c) Fixed
ud
or built in support
st

Some supports are shown in the figure along with the


reactions that can be mobilised.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Types of Supports Action on body

(a) Flexible cable ,belt ,chain,

.in
rope BODY

sy
BODY T

ea
Force exerted by cable is

y always a tension away from


ud
the body in the direction of
cable
st

Contact forces are normal to


(b) Smooth surfaces the surfaces

F
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 3
F
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in
(c) Roller

sy
support Contact force is normal to the

ea
surface on which the roller moves.
The reaction will always be
y
ud
perpendicular to the plane of the
roller . Roller support will offer
st

only one independent reaction


component.(Whose direction is
known.)
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

( d )pinned Support / hinged support

Rh
θ

.in
sy
R Rv

ea
This support does not allow any translatory movement of
y
the rigid body. There will be two independent reaction
ud
components at the support. The resultant reaction can be
st

resolved into two mutually perpendicular components.


Or it can be shown as resultant reaction inclined at an
angle with respect to a reference direction.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(e) Fixed or Built-in Support

M
RH

.in
sy
Rv

ea
M
y
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(contd .)

.in
This type of support not only prevents the translatory
movement of the rigid body, but also the rotation of the

sy
rigid body. Hence there will be 3 independent reaction

ea
components of forces. Hence there will be 3 unknown
y
ud
components of forces, two mutually perpendicular
reactive force component and a reactive moment as
st

shown in the figure.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

TYPES OF BEAMS
A member which is subjected to predominantly transverse loads
and supported in such a way that rigid body motion is prevented
is known as beam. It is classified based on the support

.in
conditions. A beam generally supported by a hinge or roller at
the ends having one span(distance between the support) is

sy
called as simply supported beam. A beam which is fixed at one

ea
end and free at another end is called as a cantilever beam.
y
ud
A B
HA
st

MA

span VA
span
(a) Simply supported beam (b) Cantilever beam
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

If one end or both ends of the beam project beyond the support
it is known as overhanging beam.

.in
A cantilever with a simple support anywhere along its length is

sy
a propped cantilever.

ea
A
y B
ud
HA MA
st

VA
(c) Overhanging beam span
(right overhang) (d) Propped Cantilever
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beam
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

A beam which is fixed at both ends is called a fixed beam.


A beam with more than one span is called continuous beam.

.in
sy
ea
HA HA
HB
MA MB
y
ud
span
st

VA VB VA VB VC

(e) Fixed beam (f) Two Span continuous beam

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Statically determinate beam and statically indeterminate


beam:

.in
Using the equations of equilibrium given in EQ(1) ,if all the

sy
reaction components can be found out, then the beam is a

ea
statically determinate beam ,and if all the reaction
y
components can not be found out using equations of
ud
equilibrium only, then the beam is a statically indeterminate
st

beam.
In the above fig (a),(b)and ( c ) are statically determinate
beams ,where as (d),(e) and ( f) are statically Indeterminate
beams . Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

If the number of reaction components is more than the


number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then

.in
such a beam is a statically indeterminate beam.

sy
ea
If the number of reaction components is equal to the
number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then
y
ud
such a beam is a statically determinate beam
st

If the number of reaction components is less than the


number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then
such a beam is an unstable beam.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Determination of Beam reactions


Since three equilibrium equations are available, for a planar
structure a maximum of three unknown independent reaction
components can be determined using these equations.

.in
sy
Step I: Draw the free body diagram of the structure showing
the given loadings and the reactions at the supports.

ea
Step 2: Apply the equations ∑ Fx = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑M = 0.
y
ud
Assuming some directions and senses for unknown forces
st

and moments.
Step 3: solve for unknown reactions. If any of them is positive,
it is along the sense initially assumed while drawing the FBD.
If it is negative, it is opposite to the initially assumed sense
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Problems for practice

(1)Find the reactions at A,B,C and D for the beam loaded


as shown in the figure(Ans.RA=RB =34kN;RC=28.84kN;

.in
MC=-140kNm ; θC=-33.69 ˚ )

sy
ea
12kN/m 20 kN 12kN/m

y 4kN/m
ud
4kN/m
30kN
st

A 3
B 4
C
40kNm

1m 2m 1m 1m 2m 1m 1m 2m
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(2)A uniform bar AB of weight 50N shown in the figure


supports a load of 200N at its end. Determine the

.in
tension developed in the string and the force supported

sy
by the pin at B.(Ans. T=529.12N;RB=807.15N, θB=64.6˚)

y ea string
ud

2.5m
st

A 60˚

200N
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 2.5m
2.5m
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(3)Find the position of the hinged support (x),such that the


reactions developed at the supports of the beam are equal..

.in
(Ans.x=2m.)

sy
ea
15kN
18kN/m
10kN/m
y
ud
x
st

2.0m 1.0m 0.6 1.4m 3.0m

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(4)A right angled bar ABC hinged at A as shown in fig


carries two loads W and 2W applied at B &C .Neglecting

.in
self weight of the bar find the angle made by AB with

sy
vertical(Ans:θ =18.44˚)

ea
A
Lm
y θ
ud
st

W
C
0.5L
2W
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 1 FRICTION

Friction is defined as the contact resistance exerted by


one body upon another body when one body moves or
tends to move past another body. This force which opposes

.in
the movement or tendency of movement is known as

sy
frictional resistance or friction. Friction is due to the

ea
resistance offered by minute projections at the contact
y
surfaces. Hence friction is the retarding force, always
ud
opposite to the direction of motion. Friction has both
st

advantages & disadvantages.


Disadvantages ---- Power loss, wear and tear etc.
Advantages ---- Brakes, traction for
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
vehicles etc.
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 2

.in
sy
F (Friction)

ea
N Hills & Vales Magnified Surface

y
ud
Frictional resistance is dependent on the amount of wedging
st

action between the hills and vales of contact surfaces. The


wedging action is dependent on the normal reaction N.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 3

Frictional resistance has the remarkable property of


adjusting itself in magnitude of force producing or tending

.in
to produce the motion so that the motion is prevented.

sy
When P = 0, F = 0  block under equilibrium

y ea
ud
When P increases, F also increases proportionately to
st

maintain equilibrium. However there is a limit beyond


which the magnitude of this friction cannot increase.

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 4

When the block is on the verge of motion(motion of the


block is impending) F attains maximum possible value,

.in
which is termed as Limiting Friction. When the applied

sy
force is less than the limiting friction, the body remains at

ea
rest and such frictional resistance is called the static friction.

y
ud
Further if P is increased, the value of F decreases rapidly
st

and then remains fairly a constant thereafter. However at


high speeds it tends to decrease. This frictional resistance
experienced by the body while in motion is known as
Dynamic friction OR Kinetic Friction.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 5

Sliding friction friction experienced


when a body slides over another
Dynamic Friction surface.

.in
Rolling friction  friction experienced

sy
by a body when it rolls over a surface.

yea
ud
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 6

FαN
W
Fmax = µN
P

.in
Where Fmax = Limiting Friction

sy
Fmax N= Normal Reaction between the

ea
contact surfaces
(limiting friction)
φ µ =Coefficient of friction
y
ud
R
N
st

∴ µ = Fmax
N

Note : Static friction varies from zero to a maximum value. Dynamic


friction is fairly a constant. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 7 Angle of Friction


The angle between N & R W
depends on the value of F. This
angle θ, between the resultant P

.in
R and the normal reaction N is

sy
termed as angle of friction. As
F increases, θ also increases Fmax

ea
(limiting friction)
and will reach to a maximum φ
y
value of φ when F is Fmax
ud
R
(limiting friction) N
st

i.e. tanφ = (Fmax )/N = µ

Angle φ is known as Angle of limiting Friction.


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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 8

Angle of limiting friction is defined as the angle between the


resultant reaction (of limiting friction and normal reaction)
and the normal to the plane on which the motion of the body

.in
is impending.

sy
ea
Angle of repose
y
ud
When granular material is heaped, there exists a limit for the
st

inclination of the surface. Beyond that angle, the grains start


rolling down. This limiting angle upto which the grains
repose (sleep) is called the angle of repose of the granular
material. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 9

Significance of Angle of repose:

.in
The angle that an inclined plane makes with
the horizontal, when the body supported on the

sy
plane is on the verge of motion due to its self -

ea
weight is equal to the angle of repose.
y
ud
Angle of repose is numerically equal to
Angle of limiting friction
st

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 10 Laws of dry friction


1. The magnitude of limiting friction bears a constant ratio
to the normal reaction between the two surfaces.
(Experimentally proved)

.in
sy
2. The force of friction is independent of the area of

ea
contact
between the two surfaces.
y
ud
3. For low velocities the total amount of friction that can
st

be developed is practically independent of velocity.


It is less than the frictional force corresponding
to impending motion.
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 11 FRICTION IN BELT/ ROPE DRIVES


The transmission of power by means of belts or rope drives
is possible only because of friction between the wheels and
the belt. Tension in the belt is more on the side it is pulled

.in
and less on the other side. Accordingly they are called as

sy
tight side and slack side.

y ea β
ud
st

T2 (Tight side)
Pull
T1 (Slack side)
W
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIGHTSIDE AND
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 12 SLACKSIDE FORCES IN A ROPE

A load W is being pulled by a force P over a fixed drum. Let the force
on tight side be T2 and on slack side be T1. (T2>T1 because of
frictional force between drum and the rope). Let β be the angle of

.in
contact in radians between rope and the drum. Consider an elemental
length of rope as shown. Let T be the force on slack side and T+dT

sy
on tight side. There will be normal reaction N on the rope in the radial
direction and frictional force F= µN in the tangential direction.

y ea
ud
st

β F dβ/2
T
T+dT N F

w T2 T1
P
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Friction 13

Σ Forces in radial direction = 0


N-T Sin dβ/2 – (T+dT)Sin dβ/2 = 0 { Sin dβ/2 = dβ/2 as dβ is small }
∴ N-T dβ/2- (T+dT) dβ/2 = 0 i.e. N = ( T+dT/2) dβ ------(1)

.in
We know that F = µN ∴ F = µ ( T+dT/2) dβ-----(2)

sy
Σ Forces in tangential direction = 0

ea
(T+dT) Cos dβ/2 = F + T Cos dβ/2 { Cos dβ/2 = 1 as dβ is small }
∴ T + dT = F + T y
i.e. dT = F------(3)
ud
From (2) & (3) dT = µ ( T+dT/2) dβ
st

Neglecting small quantity of higher order, dT = µT dβ


dT/T = µ dβ

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Friction 14

Integrating both sides,


T2 β
∫ dT/T = ∫ µ dβ

.in
T 0
1

sy
T2 β
(log T) = µ(β)

ea
T 0
1
y
ud
Log (T2/T1) = µβ
st

∴ T2/ T1 = eµβ where T = Force on tightside


2
T = Force on slackside
1
β = Angle of contact in radians

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction15 EXERCISE PROBLEMS

1 ) For the block shown in fig., determine the smallest


force P required

.in
a) to start the block up the plane

sy
b) to prevent the block moving down the plane.

ea
Take μ = 0.20
y
[Ans.: (a) Pmin = 59.2N (b) Pmin = 23.7N θ = 11.3o]
ud
P
st

θ
100N
25°

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 16

2) A block of weight 2000 N is attached to a cord


passing over a frictionless pulley and supporting a
weight of 800N as shown in fig. If μ between the block

.in
and the plane is 0.35, determine the unknown force P

sy
for impending motion
(a) to the right

ea
(b) to the left
y
[Ans.: (a) P = 132.8N (b) P = 1252N]
ud
st

30° 800N
2000N
P
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 17

3) Determine value of angle θ to cause the motion of


500N block to impend down the plane, if μ for all

.in
contact surfaces is 0.30.

sy
[Ans.: θ = 28.4°]

y ea
ud
st

200N

500N

θ=?

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 18

4) In Figure, μ between rope and the fixed drum and


between all contact surfaces is 0.20. Determine the

.in
minimum weight W to prevent the downward motion

sy
of the 1000N body.

ea
[Ans. : T1 = 0.76W, T2 = 1.424W, W = 253N]
y
ud
st

W
1000N
3
4
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 19

5) A horizontal bar 10m long and of negligible weight


rests on rough inclines as shown in fig. If angle of
friction is 15o, how close to B may the 200N force be

.in
applied before the motion impends.

sy
[Ans.: x = 3.5m]

y ea
100N 200N
ud
X=?
2m
st

A B

30° 60°

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 20

6) Determine the vertical force P required to drive the


wedge B downwards in the arrangements shown in fig.

.in
Angle of friction for all contact surfaces is 12o.

sy
ea
[Ans.: P = 328.42N]
P
y
ud
st

1600N
B
20°
A

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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 21

7) Determine the force P which is necessary to start the


wedge to raise the block A weighing 1000N. Self
weight of the wedge may be ignored. Take angle of

.in
friction, φ = 15o for all contact surfaces.

sy
ea
[Ans.: P = 1192N]

y
ud
st

20°
P
wedge

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 22

8) A ladder of weight 200N, 6m long is supported as shown


in fig. If μ between the floor and the ladder is 0.5 &
between the wall and the ladder is 0.25 and it supports a

.in
vertical load of 1000N, determine
a) the least value of α at which the ladder may be placed

sy
ea
without slipping
b) the reactions at A & B
y
[Ans.: (a) α = 56.3o (b) RA = 1193 N, RB = 550N]
ud
1000N
st

5m

α
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 22
A
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 23

9) An uniform ladder of weight 250N is placed against a


smooth vertical wall with its lower end 5m from the wall. μ

.in
between the ladder and the floor is 0.3. Show that the ladder

sy
remains in equilibrium in this position. What is the frictional

ea
resistance on the ladder at the point of contact between the
ladder and the floor?
y
ud
Smooth wall
[Ans.: FA = 52N] B
st

12m

A
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 23
5m
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 24

10)A ladder of length 5m weighing 500N is placed at 45o


against a vertical wall. μ between the ladder and the
wall is 0.20 & between ladder and ground is 0.50. If a

.in
man weighing 600N ascends the ladder, how high will

sy
he be when the ladder just slips. If a boy now stands on

ea
the bottom rung of the ladder, what must be his least
weight so that the man can go to the top of the ladder.
y
ud
[Ans.: (a) x = 2.92m (b) Wboy = 458N]
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-1

MOMENT OF INERTIA
Moment of Inertia:
The product of the elemental area and square of the

.in
perpendicular distance between the centroid of area and the
axis of reference is the “Moment of Inertia” about the

sy
reference axis. y

ea
dA
Ixx = ∫dA. y2

Iyy = ∫dA. x2 y x
ud
st

x
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-2

.in
sy
It is also called second moment of area because first

ea
moment of elemental area is dA.y and dA.x; and if it is
y
again multiplied by the distance,we get second
ud
moment of elemental area as (dA.y)y and (dA.x)x.
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-3
Polar moment of Inertia
(Perpendicular Axes theorem)
The moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpendicular
to the plane of the area is called “Polar Moment of Inertia”

.in
and it is denoted by symbol Izz or J or Ip. The moment of
inertia of an area in xy plane w.r.to z. axis is Izz = Ip = J =

sy
∫r2dA = ∫(x2 + y2) dA = ∫x2dA + ∫y2dA = Ixx +Iyy

ea
Y x
y
ud
st

r
y
O
z
x
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-4
PERPENDICULAR AXIS THEOREM

.in
Hence polar M.I. for an area w.r.t. an axis perpendicular to

sy
its plane of area is equal to the sum of the M.I. about any

ea
two mutually perpendicular axes in its plane, passing
y
through the point of intersection of the polar axis and the
ud
area.
st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-5
Parallel Axis Theorem

.in
sy
dA

ea
x0 y´ x0
y*G
ud
st

_
y d

x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
x
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-6
Ixx = ∫dA. y2
_
= ∫dA (d +y')2
_ _
= ∫dA (d2+ y'2 + 2dy')
_

.in
= ∫dA. d2 + ∫dAy΄2 + ∫ 2d.dAy'

sy
_
d2 ∫dA = A.(d)2

ea
∫dA. y'2 = Ix0x0
_ y
ud
2d ∫ dAy’ = 0
st

( since Ist moment of area about centroidal axis = 0)


_
∴Ix x = Ix x +Ad2
0 0 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-7

Hence, moment of inertia of any area about an axis xx is


equal to the M.I. about parallel centroidal axis plus the
product of the total area and square of the distance

.in
between the two axes.

sy
ea
Radius of Gyration
y
ud
It is the perpendicular distance at which the whole area may be
st

assumed to be concentrated, yielding the same second


moment of the area above the axis under consideration.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-8

y
Iyy = A.ryy2
Ixx = A.rxx2

.in
∴ryy = √ Iyy/A

sy
A
And rxx = √ Ixx /A

ea
ryy
y
ud
y
x x
st

rxx and ryy are called the radii of gyration

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-9
MOMENT OF INERTIA BY DIRECT INTEGRATION
M.I. about its horizontal centroidal axis :
RECTANGLE :
+d/2
IXoXo = -d/2 ∫ dAy2

.in
.
+d/2
=-d/2∫ (b.dy)y2

sy
= bd3/12

ea
dy
About its base d/2
y
IXX=IXoXo +A(d)2 yx0 d
ud
x0
G
Where d = d/2, the
st

distance between axes xx


and xoxo x x
=bd3/12+(bd)(d/2)2 b
=bd3/12+bd3/4=bd3/3 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-10

(2) TRIANGLE :

.in
(a) M.I. about its base :
Ixx = ∫ dA.y2 = ∫ (x.dy)y2

sy
From similar triangles

ea
b/h = x/(h-y) (h-y)
∴ x = b . (h-y)/h y h dy
ud
x
h x0 y
st

Ixx = ∫ (b . (h-y)y2.dy)/h x0
0 h/3
= b[ h (y3/3) – y4/4 ]/h x
= bh3/12 b
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
T-11

.in
(b) Moment of inertia about its centroidal axis:
_

sy
Ixx = Ix x + Ad2

ea
0 0
_
Ix x = Ixx – Ad2 y
ud
0 0

= bh3/12 – bh/2 . (h/3)2 = bh3/36


st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-12
3. CIRCULAR AREA:
Ix x = ∫ dA . y2
0 0 dθ
R 2π
= ∫ ∫ (x.dθ.dr) r2Sin2θ

.in
0 0
r y=rSinθ
θ

sy
R 2π
=∫ ∫ r3.dr Sin2θ dθ x0 x0

ea
0 0 R

=∫
R
r3

y
dr ∫ {(1- Cos2θ)/2} dθ x x
ud
0 0
R 2π
st

=[r4/4] [θ/2 – Sin2θ/4]


0 0

= R4/4[π - 0] = πR4/4
IXoXo = π R4/4 = πD 4/64
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-13
4. SEMI CIRCULAR AREA:

Ixx = ∫ dA . y2
R π
= ∫ ∫ (r.dθ.dr) r2Sin2θ

.in
0 0 y0
R π
=∫ r3.dr ∫ Sin2θ

sy

0 0

ea
R π
=∫ ∫ r3 dr (1- Cos2θ)/2) dθ
y R
ud
0 0 x0 x0
π 4R/3π
x x
st

=[R4/4] [θ/2 – Sin2θ/4]


0

= R4/4[π/2 - 0] = πR4/8 y0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-14

.in
About horizontal centroidal axis:

sy
Ixx = Ix + A(d)2

ea
x
0 0

Ix = Ixx – A(d) 2
y
ud
x
0 0

= π R4/8 πR2/2 . (4R/3π)2


st

Ix x = 0.11R4
0 0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-15

QUARTER CIRCLE:
y y0
Ixx = Iyy
R π/2

.in
Ixx = ∫ ∫ (r.dθ.dr). r2Sin2θ

sy
0 0

R π/2 x0 x0

ea
=∫ r3.dr ∫ Sin2θ dθ 4R/3π
0 0
y x x
ud
R π/2 y y0
=∫ r3 dr ∫ (1- Cos2θ)/2) dθ
st

0 0
π/2 4R/3π
=[R4/4] [θ/2 – (Sin2 θ)/4]
0

= R4 (π/16 – 0) = πR4/16
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-16

Moment of inertia about Centroidal axis,


_

.in
Ix x = Ixx - Ad2
0 0

sy
= πR4/16 - πR2. (0. 424R)2

ea
= 0.055R4
y
ud
st

The following table indicates the final values of M.I.


about X and Y axes for different geometrical figures.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-17
Sl.No Figure Ix Iy I xx I yy
b -x
0 0
-y
0 0
Y
1
d
x0 x0 bd3/12 - bd3/3 -
d/2
x x
Y Xo
2

.in
h
x0 bh3/36 - bh3/12 -
x0

sy
h/3
x x
b

ea
3 y0
R
x0 x0 πR4/4 πR4/4 - -
O
y
ud
y0
4 y0 4R/3π
st

x0 0.11R4 πR4/8 πR4/8 -


x0
x y0 x
5 y y0
x0 4R/3π 0.055R4 0.055R4 πR4/16 πR4/16
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in
4R/3π
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-1

EXERCISE PROBLEMS ON M.I.


Q.1. Determine the moment of inertia about the centroidal
axes.

.in
30mm

sy
ea
30mm
20
y
ud
30mm
st

100mm

[Ans: Y = 27.69mm Ixx = 1.801 x 106mm4


I = 1.855 x 10 6mm4]
yyby www.studyeasy.in
Compiled
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-2

Q.2. Determine second moment of area about the centroidal


horizontal and vertical axes. 300mm

.in
300mm

sy
200

y ea
ud
200mm
st

900mm
[Ans: X = 99.7mm from A, Y = 265 mm
109mm
Ixx = 10.29 xCompiled 4, I = 16.97 x 109mm4]
yy
by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-3

Q.3. Determine M.I. Of the built up section about the


horizontal and vertical centroidal axes and the radii of
gyration. 200mm

.in
20

sy
ea
140mm
y 60
ud
st

20
100mm
[Ans: Ixx = 45.54 x 106mm4, Iyy = 24.15 x 106mm4
r = 62.66mm, r by www.studyeasy.in
Compiled = 45.63mm]
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-4

Q.4. Determine the horizontal and vertical centroidal M.I. Of


the shaded portion of the figure.

.in
sy
60

ea
20
X X
20

y
ud
st

60 60
[Ans: X = 83.1mm
4mmby4,www.studyeasy.in
I = 2228.94 x 10Compiled I = 4789.61 x 104mm4]
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-5

Q.5. Determine the spacing of the symmetrically placed


vertical blocks such that Ixx = Iyy for the shaded area.

.in
200mm

sy
y ea
400mm
ud
200mm d 200mm
st

200mm
600mm
[Ans: d/2 = 223.9mm d=447.8mm]
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-6

Q.6. Find the horizontal and vertical centroidal moment of


inertia of the section shown in Fig. built up with R.S.J. (I-
Section) 250 x 250 and two plates 400 x 16 mm each attached

.in
one to each.

sy
Properties of I section are 160mm

ea
Ixx = 7983.9 x 104mm4
2500mm
y
ud
Iyy = 2011.7 x 104mm4
2
st

Cross sectional area=6971mm


160mm
4000mm
107mm
[Ans: I = 30.653 x Compiled 4, I = 19.078 x 107mm4]
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-7

Q.7. Find the horizontal and vertical centroidal moment of


inertia of built up section shown in Figure. The section
consists of 4 symmetrically placed ISA 60 x 60 with two

.in
plates 300 x 20 mm2.

sy
Properties of ISA

ea
Cross sectional area = 4400mm2
y
ud
Ixx = Iyy ;Cxx = Cyy =18.5mm
18.5mm
200mm
st

18.5mm
20mm

300mm
107mm
[Ans: I = 111.078 xCompiled 4, I = 39.574 x 107mm4]
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Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-8

Q.8. The R.S. Channel section ISAIC 300 are placed back to
back with required to keep them in place. Determine the
clear distance d between them so that Ixx = Iyy for the

.in
composite section.

sy
Properties of ISMC300 Lacing
Y

ea
C/S Area = 4564mm2
Ixx = 6362.6 x 104mm4 y
ud
23.6mm

Iyy = 310.8 x 104mm4


st

X X 380mm
Cyy = 23.6mm
d

[Ans: d = 183.1mm]
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Y
Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-9

Q9. Determine horizontal and vertical centroidal M.I. for the


section shown in figure.

.in
40mm

sy
ea
160mm
y
ud
40mm
st

40mm

90mm
x 104bymm
[Ans: I = 2870.43 Compiled 4, I = 521.64 x 104mm4]
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