0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 32255 стр.Jan 19, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 32

© All Rights Reserved

- The Woman in Cabin 10
- Life of Pi
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- Into the Raging Sea: Thirty-Three Mariners, One Megastorm, and the Sinking of the El Faro
- Manhattan Beach: A Novel
- The Sins of the Father
- The Law of Empowerment: Lesson 12 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Law of Navigation: Lesson 4 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Island of the Lost: An Extraordinary Story of Survival at the Edge of the World
- Over the Edge of the World
- Into the Raging Sea: Thirty-Three Mariners, One Megastorm, and the Sinking of El Faro
- The Other Miss Bridgerton: A Bridgertons Prequel
- Indianapolis: The True Story of the Worst Sea Disaster in U.S. Naval History and the Fifty-Year Fight to Exonerate an Innocent Man
- Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Capetown
- Pirate Latitudes: A Novel
- Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time
- The Emerald Mile: The Epic Story of the Fastest Ride in History Through the Heart of the Grand Canyon
- The Moscow Offensive: A Novel

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 255

1 & 2 Semester

Physics Cycle

2010 Scheme

Engineering Mechanics

[10CIV13]

Compiled by studyeasy.in

www.studyeasy.in

Branch Name: Common to all branches

SEM: 1/2

University: VTU

Syllabus: 2010

Table of Contents:

Elements of Civil Engg. & Engg. Mechanics (10CIV13):

1 (a) Introduction(Building the Future)

(b) Roads

(c) Bridges & Dams

2 Engineering Mechanics

3 (a) Composition of Forces

(b) Coplanar Non-Concurrent Force

Systems

4 Centroid

5 Equilibrium of Forces

6 Supports & Beams

7 Friction

8 Moment of Inertia

www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Unit-I

CIVIL ENGINEERING – BUILDING THE FUTURE

By

Prof. P. Nanjundaswamy, SJCE, Mysore

Civil engineers have one of the world's most important jobs: they build our quality of life.

With creativity and technical skill, civil engineers plan, design, construct and operate the

facilities essential to modern life, ranging from bridges and highway systems to water

treatment plants and energy efficient buildings. Civil engineers are problem solvers,

meeting the challenges of pollution, traffic congestion, drinking water and energy needs,

urban development and community planning.

During the past century, clean water supplies have extended general life expectancies.

Transportation systems serve as an economic and social engine. New bridges, blending

strength and beauty, speed transport and bring communities closer together. Public and

.in

private construction, for which engineers provide the essential underpinnings of design

and project oversight, produces hundreds of thousands of jobs and drives community

sy

development. From the functional and beautiful Golden Gate Bridge in the United

States, Petronas Towers in Malaysia, and Pont du Gard in France to the largely hidden

water supply and sanitary sewer systems, civil engineers have made their mark in many

ea

aspects of the daily life of essentially everyone around the globe.

The American Society of Civil Engineers defines civil engineering as “…the profession

y

experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize,

ud

economically, the materials and forces of nature for the progressive well-being of

humanity in creating, improving and protecting the environment, in providing facilities for

community living, industry and transportation, and in providing structures for the use of

st

humanity.”

Entrusted by society to create a sustainable world and enhance the global quality of life,

civil engineers serve competently, collaboratively, and ethically as master:

• Planners, designers, constructors, and operators of society’s economic and

social engine – the built environment

• Stewards of the natural environment and its resources

• Innovators and integrators of ideas and technology across the public, private,

and academic sectors

• Managers of risk and uncertainty caused by natural events, accidents, and other

threats and

• Leaders in discussions and decisions shaping public environmental and

infrastructure policy.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

teaching or management, civil engineering offers you a wide range of career choices.

And there's no limit to the personal satisfaction you will feel from helping to make our

world a better place to live.

following figure shows the broad categories of fields under civil engineering.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Building materials technology deals with proper use of desired material for construction

economically and safely. Brick, tiles, soil, cement, stone, sand, steel, aggregates, glass,

wood, plastics etc. include construction materials. Some are natural and many are

manmade. The mechanical properties of these materials shall be sufficient to avoid

failure and excessive deformation and provide durability. The chemical properties shall

be to maintain good environment.

Structural engineers face the challenge of designing structures that support their own

weight and the loads they carry, and that resist extreme forces from wind, earthquakes,

bombings, temperature and others. Bridges, buildings, amusement park rides and many

other kinds of projects are included within this speciality. Structural engineers develop

appropriate combinations of steel, concrete, timber, plastic and new exotic materials.

They also plan and design, and visit project sites to make sure work is done properly.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

protect our fragile resources. Environmental engineers translate physical, chemical and

biological processes into systems to destroy toxic substances, remove pollutants from

water, reduce nonhazardous solid waste volumes, eliminate contaminants from the air

and develop groundwater supplies. Environmental engineers are called upon to resolve

the problems of providing safe drinking water, cleaning up contaminated sites with

hazardous materials, disposing of wastewater and managing solid wastes.

projects are supported by the ground. A geotechnical engineer may develop projects

below the ground, such as tunnels, foundations and offshore platforms. They analyse

the properties of soil and rock that support and affect the behaviour of these structures.

They evaluate potential settlements of buildings, the stability of slopes and fills, the

seepage of ground water and the effects of earthquakes. They investigate rocks and

soils at a project site and determine the best way to support a structure in the ground.

.in

They also take part in the design and construction of dams, embankments and retaining

walls.

sy

Water is essential to our lives, and water resources engineers deal with the physical

control of water. They work with others to prevent floods, supply water for cities,

industry and agriculture, to protect beaches or to manage and redirect rivers. They

ea

design, construct and maintain hydroelectric power facilities, canals, dams, pipelines,

pumping stations, locks, seaport facilities or even waterslides.

y

The quality of a community is directly related to the quality of its transportation system.

ud

Transportation engineers work to move people, goods and materials safely and

efficiently. They find ways to meet our ever-increasing travel needs on land, air and sea.

They design, construct and maintain all types of transportation facilities, including

st

airports, highways, railroads, mass transit systems and ports. An important part of

transportation engineering is upgrading our transportation capability by improving traffic

control and mass transit systems, and by introducing highspeed trains, people movers

and other intermodal transportation methods.

The construction phase of a project represents the first tangible result of a design. Using

technical and management skills, construction engineers turn designs into reality on

time and within budget. They apply their knowledge of construction methods and

equipment, along with the principles of financing, planning and managing, to turn the

designs of other engineers into successful facilities.

Planners are concerned with the full development of a community. They analyse a

variety of information to co-ordinate projects, such as projecting street patterns,

identifying park and recreation areas, and determining areas for industrial and

residential growth. They employ their technical and people skills to co-ordinate with

other authorities to integrate freeways, airports and other related facilities.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Infrastructure

communication, lifeline facilities, irrigation facilities, etc., for the economic development

of a country by the growth of industrial and agricultural fields. Economic infrastructure

contributes directly to the economic development of the country while social

infrastructure like education & training, social welfare, housing, water supply, etc., will

have indirect influence on the economic development. Urban growth only can lead to

population drift from rural sectors leading to explosion in population in cities and

inadequate development of villages and improper care for agricultural sector. Use of

infrastructural facility only by upper class leads to imbalance. Demands for sustainable

energy, fresh water, clean air, and safe waste disposal drive global infrastructure

development.

.in

• Increase in food production

• Protection from drought, famine, flood

•

•

sy

Healthy and comfortable housing facility

Safe domestic and industrial water supply

ea

• Safe and scientific waste disposal

• Improvement in communication and transportation

• Generation of electricity from, nuclear, hydel, thermal, solar or wind energy

y

ud

•

• Overall growth of a nation

st

developments. It provides employment, eradicates poverty and enhances per capita

income.

• Construction of roads, railway, ports, harbors and airports

• Construction of dams and proper utilization of water resources

• Construction of Housing, commercial and industrial complexes

• Maintenance of facilities

• Rebuilding, Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Repair

Concluding Remarks

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Civil engineers served, serving and will serve as master builders, environmental

stewards, innovators and integrators, managers of risk and uncertainty, and

leaders in shaping public policy.

In essence, Civil Engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the

world a more agreeable place to live

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

--------------------------

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Roads

development of civilizations. It meets travel requirement of people and transport

requirement of goods and it is one of the key infrastructures of a country & considered a

mark of its progress.

Advancement of community

Economic prosperity and general development of a country

Strategic movement in emergency

Safety, Pollution, Energy consumption

Other impacts

.in

Roadways or Highways are one of the primary modes of transportation. Roads provide

best bet for achieving inclusive growth of our society than any other modes of transport.

Following are the characteristics of roadways

sy

ea

Route, Direction, Time and Speed

Safety decreases

Door to door service

y

Used by various types of vehicles

ud

Requires relatively small investment

st

India has the second largest road network in the world, next only to USA. However,

large stretches of our roads still suffer from deficiencies in road geometry and riding

quality resulting in hazardous conditions and poor road safety. Civil engineers face the

challenge of designing safe highways and at the same time improving the operational

speeds of the vehicles to reduce the travel time.

Classification of Roads

Paved roads

Unpaved roads

Based on use during different seasons

All-weather roads

Fair-weather roads

Based on traffic volume

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Heavy

Medium and

Light traffic

Based on tonnage

Class I, II etc. or Class A, B etc.

Based on location and function

Non-Urban Roads – as per Nagpur Road Plan

National Highways (NH)

State Highways (SH)

Major District Roads (MDR)

Other District Roads (ODR)

Village Roads (VR)

Non-Urban Roads – as per third road development plan

Primary system – Expressways and NH

Secondary system – SH and MDR

.in

Tertiary system or rural roads – ODR and VR

Urban Roads

Arterial roads

Sub-arterial roads

Collector streets

sy

Local streets

ea

Components of a Road

y

ud

st

A roadway consists of Geometric Elements and Structural Elements. The geometric

elements are the visible elements across the roadway while the various layers in the

carriage way constitute the structural elements. The geometric elements include Cross

section Elements, Sight distance considerations, Horizontal and Vertical alignment

details, and Intersection elements. The structural elements consist of typical layers of

varying thicknesses and materials. The common layers in a roadway are: Soil

Subgrade, Sub-base course, Base course and Surface course.

--------------------------

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

A bridge is a structure built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad track, river, body of

water, or any other physical obstacle. A bridge is designed for trains, pedestrian or road

traffic, or pipeline or waterway for water transport or barge traffic. A road-rail bridge

carries both road and rail traffic.

Types of Bridges

Based on Action

• Beam bridges

• Cantilever bridges

• Arch bridges

• Suspension bridges

• Cable-stayed bridges

.in

• Truss bridges

• Concrete Bridge

sy

ea

• Steel Bridge

• Timber Bridge

y

• Composite Bridge

ud

Based on purpose

• Road Bridge

st

• Rail Bridge

• Pedestrian Bridge

• Aqueduct

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Culverts

Culverts are smaller bridges, normally with one span built across small streams, drains

.in

or sewer carrying road on top

sy

y ea

Bridge Components

ud

• Foundation

• Abutment

st

• Bridge Pier

• Bearing

• Deck Slab

• Roadway

• Railing

References

1) ASCE (2007), The Vision for Civil Engineering in 2025, American Society of Civil

Engineers

2) Syed Shakeeb Ur Rahman and Madhava Rao V (2006), Elements of Civil

Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Sanguine Technical Publishers.

--------------------------

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Unit-II

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

By Prof. V. Madhava Rao, SJCE, Mysore

MECHANICS

It’s a branch of science, which deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest or

in motion.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

It deals with the principles of mechanics as applied to the problems in

engineering.

BASIC CONCEPTS

.in

1. Matter: Anything which has mass and requires space to occupy is called matter.

2. Mass: It is a measure of quality of matter contained by the body.

SI unit: Kg. sy

3. Volume: It is a measure of space occupied by the body.

Unit: m3

ea

Note: Liter Unit of volume

1000 liters = 1 m3

y

ud

109 ft3

10009 ft x 10000 ft x 1000 ft

st

4. State of rest and motion: State of rest and state of motion are relative and depend

on the frame of reference. A body is said to be in a state of rest w.r.t. a frame of

reference if the position of the body w.r.t. that frame of reference is not changing

with time. A body is laid to be in a state of motion w.r.t. a frame of reference if the

position of the body w.r.t. that frame of reference is changing with time.

5. Scalar and Vector Quantities: Quantities which require only magnitude to

represent them are called scalar quantities.

Eg: Mass, Time interval.

Quantitites which require both magnitude and direction to represent them are called

vector quantities.

Eg: Force, Velocity, etc.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

6. Displacement and distance travelled: The total linear movement made by a body

to change its position from one point to another is called distance travelled by the

body. It is a scalar quantity.

Unit: Meter (m)

mm – Millimeter 10-3m B

Displacement

km – Kilo Meter 103m

The total linear movement made by a

body to change its position from one A

point to another moving along a particular

Distance

direction is called displacement.

Displacement is a vector quantity.

Unit: Meter (m).

.in

7. Speed and Velocity: The distance travelled in a unit time is speed.

Unit: m/s ms-1

sy

The displacement in unit time is called velocity.

Unit: m/s ms-1

ea

8. Uniform motion and non-uniform motion: If the velocity of the moving body

remains constant then the motion is said to be uniform. If the velocity is changing

y

ud

acceleration.

If the velocity is increasing with time then acceleration is positive. If the velocity is

st

retardation or deceleration.

Unit: m/s2 ms-2

10. Momentum: It is the capacity of a moving body to impart motion to other bodies.

Momentum of a moving body is given by the product of mass and velocity of the

moving body.

Momentum = Mass X Velocity

Unit: kg m/s or kg ms-1.

11. Newton’s I Law of Motion: “Everybody continues to be in its state of rest or uniform

motion unless compelled by an external agency”.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

12. Inertia: It is the inherent property of a body by virtue of which it can retain its state of

rest or uniform motion unless compelled by an external agency.

13. Force: It is an external agency, which overcomes or tends to overcome the inertia of

a body. It is a vector quantity.

14. Elements of a force: There are four elements:

a. Magnitude

b. Direction

c. Line of action

d. Point of action or application

15. Newton’s II Law of motion: “The rate of change of moment of a body is directly

proportional to the magnitude of the force applied and takes place in the direction of

the force applied”.

.in

Explanation:

Initial momentum = mu

Final momentum = mv

sy

Change in momentum over a time interval ‘t’ = mv – mu

ea

mv − mu

Rate of change of momentum =

t

y

mv − mu

ud

Fα

t m V

m

F u

v −u

F α m

st

t Time interval = t

F α ma

F = K ma

In SI, unit force is defined as that force which acts on a body of unit mass producing

unit acceleration.

i.e., F = 1 when m = 1 and a = 1

then 1 = k . 1 . 1

∴k=1

F = ma

Unit of force: newton (N) is the unit of force. One newton is that force which acts on

a body of mass 1 kg producing an acceleration of 1 m/s2.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

MN – Mega newton – 106N

GN – Giga newton – 109N

16. Newton’s III law of motion: “For every action there is equal and opposite reaction”.

17. Branches of Mechanics:

Mechanics

.in

Rigid Mech. of Fluid Fluid Fluid

Body Deformable Statics Kinematics Dynamics

Mech. Bodies

sy

ea

Statics Dynamics

y

Kinematics Kinetics

ud

Statics: Statics deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest or in equilibrium.

st

Kinematics: It deals with the study of geometry of motion without considering the

cause of motion.

Kinetics: Kinetics deals with a study of motion considering the course of motion.

18. Rigid body: The concept of rigid body is purely theoretical or imaginary. A rigid body

is said to undergo, no deformation under the action of any external agency such as

force and moments.

In other words relative positions of the modules of a rigid body are fixed in space.

19. Particle: Concept of particle is purely theoretical or imaginary. A particle is said to

have mass but requires no space to occupy. In other words, a particle is a point

mass.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The concept of particle cannot be used if the shape and size of the body is

influencing the motion.

Eg: i) Motion of a swimmer.

ii) Motion of a body along a curved path.

20. Continuum: The concept of continuum is purely theoretical or imaginary.

Continuum is said to be made up of infinite number of molecules packed in such a

way that, there is no gap between the molecules so that property functions remain

same at all the points.

21. Point force: The concept of point force in purely theoretical or imaginary, here the

force is assumed to be acting at a point or over infinity small area.

22. Principle physical independence of forces:

.in

M

F1 a1

F1

sy M

a2

ea

M

F2 F1 a1, a2

y

ud

M

F1 F2 a1, a2

st

Action of forces on bodies are independent, in other words the action of forces on a

body is not influenced by the action of any other force on the body.

23. Principle of superposition of forces:

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

M

F1 a1

M

F1 a2

M

F2 F1 (a1+a2)

M

F1 F2 (a2+a1)

Net effect of forces applied in any sequence on a body is given by the algebraic sum

of effect of individual forces on the body.

.in

24. Principle of transmissibility of forces:

sy M

a=

F

M

ea

A Rigid body

F

F

Line of action a=

M

y

Line of action

ud

M F

B

Rigid body

st

The point of application of a force on a rigid body can be changed along the same

line of action maintaining the same magnitude and direction without affecting the

effect of the force on the body.

Limitation of principle of transmissibility: Principle of transmissibility can be used

only for rigid bodies and cannot be used for deformable bodies.

25. Assumptions made in Engineering Mechanics

i) All bodies are rigid.

ii) Particle concept can be used wherever applicable.

iii) Principle of physical independence of forces is valid.

iv) Principle of superposition of forces is valid.

v) Principle of transmissibility of forces is valid.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

SYSTEM OF FORCES

A group or set of forces is called system of forces.

Types:

1. Coplanar force system:

F1

F2

F3

If the lines of action of forces forming the system lie in the same plane, then the

system is said to be coplanar.

2. Non-coplanar forces:

.in

F1

F2

F4 F6

F5

sy F3

ea

If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not lie in the same plane then

y

ud

3. Collinear force system:

F1 F2 F3

st

A B C

If the forces forming the system have common line of action then the system is said

to be collinear.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

x x

D A

F4

F1

0

F2

B

C

F1 F2

F3 F3

F2

F4 O O

F3 F4 F1

If the line of action of forces forming the system pass through a common point (point

.in

of concurrence) then the system is said to be concurrent.

5. Non-concurrent force system:

sy F1

F4

ea

F2

F3

If the lines of action of forces forming the system do not pass through a common

y

ud

st

F2 F4

F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 F3

Like Unlike

forces forming the system are parallel.

RESOLUTION OF A FORCE

Y

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Y Displacement

X

F X Displacement

part of the force F which is producing x displacement is called x component or

horizontal component of the force F (Fx). The part of the force F which produces y –

displacement is called y component of the force or vertical component of force F (Fy).

.in

The technique of finding a component of a force along any direction is called

resolution of force. The component of a force along any direction is called the resolved

sy

component. The components of a force determined along two mutually perpendicular

direction are called rectangular components.

ea

To resolve a force along any direction

Y

y

ud

A2 A

Fy F

st

θ

FX A1 X

OA represents the force F both in magnitude and direction ‘θ’ is the acute angle

mode by the force w.r.t. x direction.

We have,

OA 1

Cos θ =

OA

Fx

Cos θ =

F

Fx = F Cos θ ()

AA 1

Sin θ =

OA

AA 2

Sin θ =

OA

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Fy

Sin θ =

F

Fy = F Sin θ ()

cosine of acute angle made by the force w.r.t. x-direction.

sine of acute angle made by the force w.r.t. x-direction.

Note:

1. Sign convention for the direction of components.

.in

+

sy –

+

ea

–

y

2. θ = 0

ud

Fx = F Cos O

=F

st

Fy = F Sin O

=O

The horizontal component or ‘X’ component of a force acting along x direction is the

force itself. Whereas, its vertical component or y-component is zero.

3. Fx = F Cos 90

=O

Fy = F Sin 90

=F

‘x’ component of a force acting along Y direction is zero. Whereas, its ‘y’ component

is equal to itself.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4. If a force is inclined at 45o w.r.t. x axis or y axis then its x component will be equal to

y component (Fx = Fy).

Problems

1. Find X and Y components of forces in the following cases.

a)

100 kN

Fx = + 100 Cos 30

30o

= + 86 . 60 kN

= 86 . 60 kN ()

Fy = + 100 Sin 30

= + 50 . 00 kN

.in

= 50 . 00 kN ()

b)

Fx = + 20 Cos 70

sy 20 kN

30o

ea

= + 6 . 840 kN

= 6 . 840 kN ()

y

ud

Fy = + 20 Sin 70

= + 18 . 79 kN

= 18 . 79 kN ()

st

c)

Method-I 4

3 3

tan θ =

4

θ = 36.87 o 200 N

= – 160 N

= 160 N ()

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

= – 120 N

= 120 N ()

Method-II

4

Cos θ = = 0.8

5

3

Sin θ = = 0.6

5

Fx = - 200 Cos θ

= – 200 x 0.8

= – 160 N

.in

= 160 N ()

Fy = – 200 Sin θ

= – 200 x 0.6

sy

ea

= – 120 N

= 120 N ()

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

α

F1

F2

F3

F4 α

.in

of producing the same effect as that of system of forces on the body. It is the vector

sum of forces of the system.

COMPOSITION OF FORCES

sy

ea

The technique of finding the resultant of forces is called composition of forces.

MOMENT OF A FORCE

y

ud

A F F A

st

clockwise anticlockwise

Based on the direction of rotation produced moment of a force can be classified

into

a) Clockwise moment

b) Anticlockwise moment / counter clockwise moment.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Moment of a force about any point is given by the product of magnitude of force

and perpendicular distance between the line of action of a force and the point about

which moment is considered.

X

MA = FL

Unit: Nm

F

.in

Clockwise moment positive and anticlockwise moment negative.

1) Find moment of force ‘F’ about ‘A’ in the following cases.

a)

sy

F = 10 kN

ea

XA

2m

y

ud

b)

F = 10 kN

st

X

A 2m

c)

3m

X

A

F = 20 kN

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

d)

2m

A 50 kN

a)

X

A 2m

.in

X

4m B

F = 10 kN

sy

ea

b)

B F = 20 kN

y

3m

ud

A

4m

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Unit-III

ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

by

Prof. Karisiddappa, MCE, Hassan

to the simplest system that will be its equivalent is called the problem of

composition of forces.

will have the same effect as that of a number of forces acting on a

.in

body. Such a single force is called resultant force.

• The process of finding out the resultant force is called composition of

forces. sy

ea

COMPOSITION OF CO-PLANAR CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM

y

ud

system of forces i.e., two forces to the simplest system as its equivalent

(resultant force) with the help of parallelogram law of forces.

st

If two forces, which act at a point be represented in magnitude and

direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram drawn from one of its

angular points, their resultant is represented by the diagonal of the

parallelogram passing through that angular point, in magnitude and

direction.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

B C

RR

α

θ

.in

O A

sy

ea

R = F1 2 + F 22 + 2 F1 F 2 cos α

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

PROOF:

B C

RR

α

θ α

D

O A

.in

sy

Consider two forces F1 and F2 acting at point O as shown in

figure. Let α be the angle between the two forces.

ea

Complete the parallelogram ACBO .Drop perpendicular CD to

OA produced. Let R be the resultant force of forces and

.Let θ be the inclination of the resultant force with the

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

OC 2 = OD 2 + CD 2

OC 2 = (OA + AD ) 2 + CD 2

OA = F1 , AD = F2 cos α , CD = F2 sin α , OC = R

R 2 = ( F1 + F2 cos α ) 2 + ( F2 sin α ) 2

2 2

R 2 = F12 + 2 F1 F2 cos α + F2 cos 2 α + F2 sin 2 α

2

R 2 = F1 + 2 F1 F2 cos α + F22

.in

R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos α

CD

tan θ =

tan θ =

OD

F2 sin α

sy

F1 + F2 cos α

ea

F2 sin α

θ = tan −1

F

1 + F cos α

y

2

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

R

F2

0

IF α = 90 , R = F1 + F2

F1

0

IF α = 0 , R = F1 + F2

F1 F2

IF α = 1800 , R = F1 − F2

F1 F2

.in

• TRIANGLE LAW OF FORCES: sy

If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are

ea

represented by the sides of a triangle taken in order,

their resultant is represented by the closing side of

y

ud

st

B

F2

F2

O O A

F1 F1

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

If a number of concurrent forces acting simultaneously on a body ,are

represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon,

taken in order , then the resultant is represented in magnitude and

direction by the closing side of the polygon, taken in opposite order.

C

D F4

F3

F3

.in

F2 R2

R

O

R1 B

F4

F1

sy O

F1 F2

ea

A

y

COMPOSITON OF FORCES BY

ud

st

perpendicular directions are found.

added to obtain the two components.

perpendicular are combined to obtain the resultant force.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

F2

F1

θ2 θ1

X

θ3 θ4

.in

F4

F3

direction

sy

ea

y

x

ud

st

f direction

∑F y = F1 sin θ1 +F2 sin θ 2 − F3 sin θ 3 − F4 sin θ 4

mutually perpendicular forces ,∑ ∑ FX & FY

R= ∑F +∑F

X

2

Y

2

θ = tan ∑

−1

F Y

∑ F X

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

two forces of magnitude 12 N and 9 N acting at a point ,if the

angle between the two forces is

GIVEN:

.in

F1 = 12 N F2 = 9 N α = 30 0

sy

R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos α

ea

R = 12 2 + 9 2 + 2 × 12 × 9 × cos 30 0

R = 20.3 N

y

F2 sin α

θ = tan −1

ud

F

1 + F 2 cos α

9 sin 30 0

θ = tan −1

0

st

12 + 9 cos 30

θ = 12.810

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

angle of 600 between them, if the resultant is equal to 30 3N

GIVEN:

F1 = F2 = F , say

R = 30 3 N , α = 60 0

R = F 2 + F 2 + 2 F × F × cos 60 0

R = F2 + F2 + F2

R = 3F

.in

F = 30 N

sy

3.The resultant of two forces when they act at right angles is 10 N

.Whereas, when they act at a angle of 600 , the resultant is 148

ea

N. Determine the magnitude of the two forces.

y

ud

When α =600 R = N

148

st

When α =900 10 = F1 2 + F 22

When α =600

148 = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos 60 0

F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 × 0.5

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

148 = 100+F1F2

.in

F1F2 = 48 (3)

sy

squaring equation (3),we get

ea

F12 + F22 = 482 (4)

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(

F12 100 − F12 = 482 )

F14 − 100 F12 = −482

2

(F 1

2

)

− 50 = −482 + 50 2

2

(F 1

2

− 50) = 196

F12 − 50 = 14

F12 = 64

F1 = 8 N & F2 = 6 N

.in

4.Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant sy

force for the system of concurrent forces shown Y

below.

ea

25 N

∑ FX = 20 cos 300 − 30 cos 450 − 35 cos 400 30 N

∑F X = −30.70 N 20 N

y

450

300

∑F Y = 20 sin 30 0 + 25 + 30 sin 450 − 35 sin 400

ud

∑F Y = 33.72 N X

400

R= ∑F +∑F 2

X Y

2

35 N

st

R= (− 30.70)2 + (33.72)2

R = 45.60 N

∑FY

θ = tan −1 ∑

FY R

∑ X F

33. 72

θ = tan −1 θ

30.70

θ = 47.680

∑F

0

X

shown in figure .Determine the other force.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

y 26kN

12

5 10kN

3

4

X

0

components in x and y directions.

.in

Component of R in x directions 13 θ1 12

Rx = 26 x cos θ1

= 26 x 5/13 = 10kN sy 5

Component of R in y direction

ea

Ry = 26 x sin θ1 = 26 x 12/13 = 24kN

y

= Fx +10 cos θ2 5

ud

= Fx + 10x 4/5 = Fx +8 θ2 3

4

Component of F and 10kN in y direction

st

= Fx + 10 x Sin θ2 = Fy + 10 x 3/5

= Fy + 6

Using R/x = /Fx

10 = Fx +8

24 = Fy + 6

Fx = 2kN, Fy = 18kN

F = 18.11kN

θ2 = tan -1 (Fy /Fx) = tan -1 (18/2) = 83.660

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

resultant of these forces is vertical, find the resultant force and

angle α..

100N

160N

α.

120 N α

0

.in

Since the resultant force is vertical, algebraic sum of horizontal components of these must

be equal to zero.

sy

120 + 100 sin α = 160 cos α

ea

6 + 5 sin α = 8cos α

Squaring both the sides

y

ud

25 sin2 α +64 sin2 α + 60sin α = 64-36

st

89 sin2 α + 60 sin α = 28

Sin2 α + 0.674 sin α =0.315

(sin α + 0.337)2 = 0.315 + 0.3372

= 0.428

sin α + 0.337 = √0.428 = 0.654

sin α = 0.654 – 0.337 = 0.317

α = sin-1 (0.317) = 18.50

Resultant force R = Σ Fy

= 160 sin α + 100 cos α

= 160sin 18.50 + 100 cos 18.50

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

R = 145.60 N

AB,CA,AD,AE and FA respectively as shown in the figure. Find the forces

P and Q such that the resultant force is zero.

C D

B

P Q E

90N 300 300

240N

300

.in

600 300

A 180N F X

sy

Since the resultant force is equal to zero, Σ Fx = 0 and Σ Fy = 0

Σ Fx = -180 +240 cos 300 + Q cos 600 – p cos 900 + 90 cos 1200 = 0

ea

-180 + 207.85 + 0.5 Q – 45 =0

0.5Q = 17.15

y

Q = 34.308N

ud

st

P = 227.654 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM

MOMENT OF A FORCE: Moment is

defined as the product of the magnitude of the force and

perpendicular distance of the point from the line of

action of the force.

GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOMENT

Consider a force F represented ,in magnitude and direction

by the line AB. Let O be a point about which the moment

of the force F is required. Let OC be the perpendicular

.in

drawn. Join OA and OB O

sy A

F

a

B

ea

c

Moment of force F about O= F x a

= AB x OC

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

If a number of coplanar forces are acting simultaneously on a particle, the algebraic sum

of the moments of all the forces about any point is equal to the moment of their resultant

force about the same point.

PROOF:

For example, consider only two forces F1 and F2

represented in magnitude and direction by AB and AC as shown in figure below.

C

O

D

R

F2

.in

A B

F1

sy

Let O be the point, about which the moments are taken. Construct the parallelogram

ea

ABCD and complete the construction as shown in fig.

By the parallelogram law of forces, the diagonal AD represents, in magnitude and

direction, the resultant of two forces F1 and F2, let R be the resultant force.

y

ud

the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOC

the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOD

But,

st

Also, Area of triangle ACD=Area of triangle ADB=Area of triangle AOB

Area of triangle AOD=Area of triangle AOC + Area of triangle AOB

2 Area of triangle AOD =2 Area of triangle AOC+2 Area of triangle AOB

i.e., Moment of force R about O=Moment of force F1 about O + Moment of force F2

about O

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

1.For the non-concurrent coplanar system shown in fig below,

determine the magnitude , direction and position of the resultant

force with reference to A.

50 N

∑F X = 25 − 20 = 5 N (→ )

∑F Y = −50 − 35 = −85 N

25 N

C

B

= 85 N (↓ )

20 N D

.in

A

2

R= R

35 N

sy

ea

R × d = 35 × 4 + 25 × 3 ∑F

X

140 + 75

d= = 2.525m θ

85.15

y

ud

or

∑F

st

85 × x = 35 × 4 + 25 × 3

140 + 75

x= = 2.53m

85

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

as

shown in figure given below wirh respect to AB and AD.

10N 5N

0 D 0

60 10Nm 30

C

3m

.in

A 4m B

14.14N 1

1 20 N

sy

ea

= 19.33N

Σ Fy = 5sin300 - 10sin600 + 14.14sin450

= -16.16N

R = √( Σ Fx2 + Σ Fy2) = 25.2N ∑F X

y

θ

ud

R

θ= Tan-1(Σ Fx/ Σ Fy)

θ= Tan-1(16.16/19.33) = 39.890 ∑ FY

st

D C

y Θ

19.33N

19.33N

A x θ B

R 16.16N

Tracing moments of forces about A and applying varignon’s principle of moments we get

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

X = 107.99/16.16 = 6.683m

y = 5.586m.

below. Determine the magnitude , direction and the point

of application of the resultant force.

150

600 600

.in

150mm 150 mm 150 Cos600=75mm

Σ Fx = 500cos600 – 700

= 450N

Σ Fy = 500sin600

sy

= -26.33N

ea

R = √( Σ Fx2 + Σ Fy2) = √(-450)2 + (-2633)2

R = 267.19N (Magnitude) Σ Fx

y

θ

θ= Tan-1(Σ Fx/ Σ Fy)

ud

= Tan-1(2633/450) R Σ Fy

θ= 80.300 (Direction)

st

ΣFx

Θ x

R ΣFy

we get

-2633x x= -500x sin600x300-1000x150+1200x150cos600 -700x300sin600

X = -371769.15/-2633

X = 141.20mm from O towards left (position).

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4.For the system of parallel forces shown below, determine the magnitude of the resultant

and also its position from A .

100N 200N 50N 400N

R

A B C D

1m 1.5m 1m

= +250N

ie. R = Σ Fy =250N ( ) Since Σ Fx = 0

.in

Taking moments of forces about A and applying varignon’s principle of moments

sy

ea

5.The three like parallel forces 100 N,F and 300 N are acting as shown in figure below. If

the resultant R=600 N and is acting at a distance of 4.5 m from A ,find the magnitude of

y

ud

st

A B C D

4.5m 2.5m

Here R = Σ Fy

600=100+F+300

F = 200 N

we get

200 x = 600 x 4.5 -300 x 7

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

X = 600/200 = 3m from A

6.A beam is subjected to forces as shown in the figure given below. Find the magnitude ,

direction and the position of the resultant force.

α

θ 4kN

A B C D E

2m 3m 2m 1m

Σ Fx = 4 +5 cos α – 17 cos θ

.in

= 4+5 x 4/5 – 17 x 8/17

Σ Fx = 0

sy

= 5 x 3/5 -10+20 – 10 + 17 x 15/17

ea

Σ Fy = 18 kN ( )

y

R = 18 kN ( )

ud

st

moments

-18 x = -5 x sin α x 8 +10 x 7 -20 x 5 + 10 x 2

= -3 x 8 +10 x7 – 20 x 5 + 10 x 2

X = -34/-18 = 1.89m from A (towards left)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

COPLANAR NON-CONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEMS

By

Prof. G. Ravi

Overview of System of forces

It is well known that a system of coplanar forces can occur in different configurations some of

the possibilities are

• Coplanar and Concurrent

• Coplanar and Non Concurrent

To determine the resultant of any system of forces we adopt the principle of Resolution

and Composition.

The following figures depict the principles involved.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

R = ( ∑ f xi ) 2 + ( ∑ f y i ) 2

α R = tan −1 ( ff )

∑

∑

yi

xi

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Equilibrium: Equilibrium is the status of the body when it is subjected to a system of forces. We

know that for a system of forces acting on a body the resultant can be determined. By Newton’s

2nd Law of Motion the body then should move in the direction of the resultant with some

acceleration. If the resultant force is equal to zero it implies that the net effect of the system of

forces is zero this represents the state of equilibrium. For a system of coplanar concurrent forces

for the resultant to be zero, hence

∑ f x i

= 0

∑ f y

i

= 0

Equilibriant : Equilbriant is a single force which when added to a system of forces brings the

status of equilibrium . Hence this force is of the same magnitude as the resultant but opposite in

sense. This is depicted in Fig 4.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

Free Body Diagram: Free body diagram is nothing but a sketch which shows the various forces

acting on the body. The forces acting on the body could be in form of weight, reactive forces

contact forces etc. An example for Free Body Diagram is shown below.

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Equilibrium of 3 Forces: When a set of three forces constituting coplanar concurrent system act

on a body Lami’s theorem can be made use of for examining the status of equilibrium. This is

depicted in the following figure.

F1 F F

= 2 = 3

Sinα Sinβ Sinγ

.in

sy

ea

Example 1 : A spherical ball of weight 75N is attached to a string and is suspended from the

ceiling. Compute tension in the string if a horizontal force F is applied to the ball. Compute the

angle of the string with the vertical and also tension in the string if F =150N

y

ud

∑ f xi = 0

st

f − T cos θ = 0

150 − T cos θ = 0

T cos θ = 150

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 2: A string or cable is hung from a horizontal ceiling from two points A and D. The string AD, at two

points B and C weights are hung. At B, which is 0.6 m from a weight of 75 N is hung. C, which is 0.35 m from D, a

weight of wc is hung. Compute wc such that the string portion BC is horizontal.

FBD of B

∑f =0

.in

xi

∑f y

i

=0

sy

TAB sin θ1 − 75 = 0

TAB = 75 2 N , TBC = 75 N

y ea

ud

FBD of C

∑f xi =0

st

TCD = 148.85 N

∑f y

i

=0

TCD sin θ 2 − Wc = 0

Wc = 128.57 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 3: A block of weight 120N is kept on a smooth inclined plane. The plane makes an angle of

320 with horizontal and a force F allied parallel to inclined plane. Compute F and also normal

reaction.

• LAMI’S Theorem

120 F NR

= =

Sin90 o

Sin(180 − 32) o

Sin(90 + 32) o

F = 63.59 N

N R= 101.76 N

.in

sy

ea

Example 4: Three smooth circular cylinders are placed in an arrangement as shown. Two

cylinders are of radius 052mm and weight 445 N are kept on a horizontal surface. The centers of

these cylinders are tied by a string which is 406 mm long. On these two cylinders, third cylinder

y

of weight 890N and of same diameter is kept. Find the force S in the string and also forces at

points of contact.

ud

• LAMI’S Theorem

st

FBD of B

FBD of A

∑f xi =0

FAC = 598N ∑f y

i

=0

RD = 890 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

It is well known that moment of a force represents its rotatary effect about an axis or a point.

This concept is used in determining the resultant for a system of coplanar non-concurrent forces.

For ay given force it is possible to determine an equivalent force – couple system. This concept

is shown in Fig below.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

By using the principles of resolution composition & moment it is possible to determine

st

The procedure is as follows:

1. Select a Suitable Cartesian System for the given problem.

2. Resolve the forces in the Cartesian System

4. Compute the moments of resolved components about any point taken as the moment

∑ fy

2 i

2

α R = tan -1

R = ∑ f x + ∑ f y

∑ fxi

i i

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

∑M o

∑M o

∑f

xi

∑ Mo

7. And Y interceptyRas

=

∑ fx i

Example 1: Compute the resultant for the system of forces shown in Fig 2 and hence compute

the Equilibriant.

= 28.8 KN

.in

∑f yi = 8 - 14.4 - 32 sin 60 o

= - 34.11 KN

R = 44.6 KN

sy

α R = 49.83o

ea

ς + ∑ M o = −14.4(3) + 32 cos 60o (4) − 32 sin 60o (3)

= −62.34 KNM

y

62.34

dR = = 1.396 m

44.64

ud

62.34

xR = = 1.827 m

34.11

62.34

st

yR = = 2.164 m

28.8

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 2: Find the Equilibriant for the rigid bar shown in Fig 3 when it is subjected to forces.

= - 1462 KNM

.in

• Resultant and Equilibriant

sy

ea

∑f xi =0

y

∑f y = −516 KN

ud

α R = 90o ;

st

Equilibrium: The concept of equilibrium is the same as explained earlier. For a system of

Coplanar Non concurrent forces for the status of equilibrium the equations to be satisfied are

∑f xi = 0; ∑ f yi = 0; ∑ M o = 0;

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 3: A bar AB of length 3.6 m and of negligible weight is acted upon by a vertical force

F1 = 336kN and a horizontal force F2 = 168kN shown in Fig 4. The ends of the bar are in

contact with a smooth vertical wall and smooth incline. Find the equilibrium position of the bar

by computing the angle θ.

tan α = 0.9

1.2

α = 36.87 o

∑f xi =0

H A− F2 − RB cos 53.13o = 0............(1)

∑f yi =0

RB sin 53.13o − F1 = 0

.in

RB = 420 KN ;

ς + ∑ M B = 0;

sy

ea

− H A (3.6 sin θ ) + 336(2.1 cos θ ) - 168 (1.2 sin θ ) = 0

- 1310.4 sin θ + 705.6 cos θ = 0

tan θ = 0.538

y

θ = 28.3o

ud

st

• Equations are ∑f xi = 0; ∑ f yi = 0; ∑ M o = 0;

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

SUPPORT REACTIONS IN BEAMS: Beams are structural members which are generally

horizontal. They are subjected to lateral forces which act orthogonal to the length of the member.

There are various types of mechanisms used for supporting the beams. At these supports the

reactive forces are developed which are determined by using the concept of equilibrium. The

(1)

.in

ROLLER VA

HINGE

sy (2)

y ea

FIXED

ud

(3)

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

TYPES OF LOADS ACTING ON BEAMS: There are various types of forces or loads which act on beams. They are

(a) Concentrated or point load (b) Uniformly distributed load (UDL) (c) Uniformly varying load (UVL) (d)

Arbitrary distributed load. The methodology of converting UDL, UVL to equivalent point load is shown in the Fig

below.

Some example problems of determining support reactions in beams are illustrated next.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 4: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 7 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0;

∑f yi = 0;

∑M o = 0;

VA − 10 − 25 − 32 + VB = 0

VA + VB = 67 KN ;

ς +∑MA = 0

− 10(2) − 25(5) − 32(9) + VB (10) = 0

VB = 43.3KN

VA = 23.7 KN

.in

sy

Example 5: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 8 at A and B.

∑f = 0; H A = 0

ea

xi

∑f yi = 0;V A - 40 - 40 + VB = 0

VA + VB = 80

y

ud

VB = 45 KN

VA = 35 KN ;

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 6: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 9 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0;

H A − 17.32 = 0

H A = 17.32 KN

∑f yi =0

V A − 10 − 20 − 15 − 10 + VB = 0

VA + VB = 55

ς +∑MA = 0

− 10 × 2 + 25 − 20(6) + VB (8) − 15(9) − 10(11) = 0

VB = 45 KN; V A = 10 KN

.in

Example 7: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig 10 at A and B.

∑f xi = 0; sy

H A − RB sin300 = 0

ea

H A = 0.5RB

∑f yi = 0;VA − 20+ RB cos30o = 0

y

VA + 0.866RB = 20

ud

ς + ∑MB = 0;

−VA (10) + 20(6) = 0

st

−VA = 12KN;

RB = 9.24KN;

H A = 4.62KN;

Review

• Coplanar system of Forces.

• Concurrent, Non Concurrent.

• Resultant, Equilibrium.

• Concept of Equilibrium.

• Examples.

• Analysis of Trusses

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

ANALYSIS OF PLANE TRUSSES: Trusses are special structures which are formed by joining

different members. Trusses are used as part of roofing systems in industrial buildings, factories

workshops etc. Prominent features of trusses are

• The basic Geometry used in a truss is a triangle.

• Every member is pin connected at ends.

• Trusses carry loads only at joints. Joints are junctions where members meet.

• Self weight is neglected.

• The forces in various members of the truss are axial in nature.

A typical figure of a plane truss and the scheme by which truss configuration is arrived at is

shown by the following figures.

Plane Trusses

.in

sy

y ea

ud

Truss configuration

st

•

• A truss is said to be perfect if m= 2 j – 3 where m Members; j Joints

•

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled

Analysis of Trusses: Analysis of trusses by www.studyeasy.in

would imply determining forces in various members. These forces

will be in the form of Axial Tension (or) Compression. The

Equilibrium concept is made use of for analyzing the trusses. The two methods of analysis are

1. Method of Joints.

2. Method of Sections.

These two methods of analysis are illustrated by the following examples

Example 1:

• Analyse the truss shown in Figure and hence

compute member forces

• Step 1: Draw FBD

• Step 2: Compute support Reactions (HA, VA,

VB).

• Draw FBD’s of Joints to compute member

forces.

.in

• ∑fxi=0

• ∑fyi=0

sy • HA= - 10 KN

• VA+VB =27.32

ea

• ζ + ∑MA = 0

• -17.32(3) - 10(3) - 10(2.25) + 6VB=0

y

ud

CD 2.25

tan θ = =

AD 3

st

θ = 36.87 o ;

• FBD of joint A

• ∑fxi=0

• -10+PAC cos θ + PAD = 0

• ∑fyi=0; VA + PACsin θ =0

• PAC =-16.52 KN

• PAD=23.21 KN

• ∑fxi=0

• -PAD + PDB = 0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

• PDB = 23.21 KN

• ∑fyi=0

• -10+PCD = 0

• PCD = 10 KN

• ∑fxi=0

• -PBD – PBC cos θ =0

• PBC = -29.02 KN

• ∑fyi=0

• VB +PBC sin θ = 0

• 17.41 – 29.02 sin θ = 0

•

.in

Sl.No

1

Member

AC

Force

16.52

Nature

C

sy

ea

2 AD 23.21 T

3 CB 29.02 C

4 CD 10 T

y

5 DB 23.21 T

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 2 : Analyse the truss shown in figure and hence compute member forces.

• ∑fxi=0

• HA-10+10=0; HA = 0

• ∑fyi=0

• VA+ VB – 20= 0

• VA+ VB= 20

• ζ + ∑MA = 0

• 10(4)-20(3)+10(4)+VE(6)=0

• VE = 10 KN;

• VA =10 KN;

• Symmetrical

o Geometry ;

.in

o Loads

• ∑fxi = 0 sy

• PAC=0

• ∑fyi = 0

ea

• PAB + 10 =0

• PAB = - 10KN

y

ud

• tan θ = 4/3

• θ=53.13o

st

• ∑fxi = 0

• -10 + PBD+PBC cos θ =0

• PBD +0.6PBC =10

• ∑fyi = 0

• -PBA− PBC sin θ =0

• -(-10)-0.8 PBC = 0

• PBC= 12.5 KN

• PBD =2.5 KN

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

• ∑fxi = 0

• -PDF – PDB = 0

• PDF = -2.5 KN

• ∑fyi = 0

• PDC=0

• Symmetrical

1 AB, EF 10 KN C

2 AC, CE 0 -

3 BC, FC 12.5 KN T

.in

4 BD, FD 2.5 KN T

5 DC 0 -

sy

Example 3: Analyse the truss shown in figure and hence compute member forces.

y ea

ud

st

a C d

= = ;

sin 30 o

sin 90 o

sin 60 o

• Isosceles triangle;

c = 2a

• CD = DB = a

• ∑fxi = 0 HA = 0

• ∑fyi = 0

• VA+VB = 5

• + ∑MA=0

• -5(2a)+VB(3a) = 0

• VB = 3.33 KN; VA = 1.67 KN

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

• ∑fxi = 0

• PAC cos 300 + PAD = 0

• ∑fyi = 0

• 1.67+PAC sin 300 = 0

• PAC = -3.34 KN

• PAD = 2.89 KN

• ∑fxi = 0

• -PDC cos 600 -2.89 +PDB = 0

• ∑fyi = 0

• PDC sin 600 – 5 = 0

• PDC = 5.77 KN

• PDB = 5.77 KN

.in

• ∑fxi = 0 – PBC cos 300 –5.77 = 0

• PBC = -6.66 KN

•

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

1 AC -3.34 KN C

2 AD 2.89 KN T

3 BC 6.66 KN C

4 BD 5.77 KN T

5 CD 5.77 KN T

which the concept of equilibrium of a system of coplanar non concurrent forces is made use

.in

of. The concept of free body diagram is an important part in this method. This method will be

very useful when only few member forces are required. The equation of moment equilibrium

sy

becomes an important tool in this method. The method is illustrated in following figure.

y ea

ud

st

• Step 1: Compute support reactions (if need be).

• Step 2: Place the section to cut not more than three members.

• Step 3: Write FBD, unknown forces away from section(T).

• Step 4: Use equilibrium concept to get member forces

This procedure is used for analyzing some examples as shown below.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 4 : Compute the forces in members EC, FC and FD of the truss shown in

figure.

• ∑MF = 0

• - 20(3)+PEC(4) = 0

• PEC = 15 KN (T)

• ∑fxi = 0; 20-PFC cos θ = 0

• PFC = 25 KN (T);

• ∑fyi = 0; -PEC - PFC sin θ – PFD = 0;

• PFD = - 30 KN

• = 30 KN (C)

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 5 : Compute the forces in members BE, BD and CD of truss shown in Figure.

•

• ζ + ∑MB =0

• -20(3)-PCD(BC) = 0

• PCD = -34.64 KN = 34.64 KN (C)

• ∑fxi=0

.in

• - PCD –PBD cos300 - PBE cos300 =0

• PBD+PBE=40

• ∑fyi=0

sy

• PBE − PBD=80

ea

• Solve to get PBE = 60 KN; PBD = -20=20 KN (C)

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Example 6: Compute the forces in members BD, CD and CE of the truss shown in figure.

• Support reactions

• ∑fxi=0; HA + 24 =0

• HA = -24 KN

• ∑fyi=0; VA + VB = 40+31+40=111 KN

• ζ + ∑MA=0

• -40(3.6)-31(2)(3.6)-40(3)3.6-24(2.7)+4(3.6)VB = 0

.in

• VB = 60 KN; VA = 51 KN

• ζ + ∑MC=0

• -VA (3.6)- PBD(2.7) = 0

sy

• PBD= - 68 KN;

ea

• = 68 KN (c)

• ζ + ∑MD=0

y

• - VA(2)(3.6)+2.7HA+40(3.6)+PCE(2.7)=0

ud

• PCE=106.67 KN (T)

• ∑fyi=0; 51 -40 + PCD sin θ =0; PCD = -

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

1 CHAPTER – II

RESULTANT OF COPLANAR NON CONCURRENT

FORCE SYSTEM

.in

This is the force system in which lines of action of

sy

individual forces lie in the same plane but act at different

ea

points of application.

y

ud

F2 F1 F2

st

F1

F5 F3

F3 F4

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

2 TYPES

forces are parallel to each other.

.in

2. Non-Parallel Force System – Lines of action of the

forces are not parallel to each other.

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

3 MOMENT OF A FORCE ABOUT AN AXIS

The applied force can also tend to rotate the body about

an axis, in addition to causing translatory motion. This

rotational tendency is known as moment.

.in

sy

Definition: Moment is the tendency of a force to make a

ea

rigid body rotate about an axis.

y

ud

This is a vector quantity.

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4

rotational tendency is determined. It is

.in

perpendicular to the plane comprising the

sy

moment arm and line of action of the force.

ea

Moment Center (B): This is the point at A B

d

y

which the moment axis intersects the plane of

ud

the coplanar system. F

Moment Arm: The perpendicular distance

st

of the force.

Distance AB = d.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

5 EXAMPLE FOR MOMENT

The force applied which is

.in

perpendicular to the handle of the

sy

wrench tends to rotate the pipe about

ea

its vertical axis. The magnitude of

y

ud

this tendency depends both on the

st

moment arm ‘d’.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

6 MAGNITUDE OF MOMENT

the perpendicular distance to the line

of action of the force from the

.in

B

moment center and the magnitude of d A

sy

the force.

MA = d×F F

y ea

Unit – Unit of Force × Unit of distance

ud

kN-m, N-mm etc.

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

7 SENSE OF THE MOMENT

‘If the fingers of the right hand are curled in the

.in

direction of rotational tendency of the body, the extended

thumb represents the +ve sense of the moment vector’.

sy

ea

M M

y

ud

st

be considered by using a suitable sign convention such as +ve

for counterclockwise and –ve for clockwise rotations or vice-

versa.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

8 VARIGNON’S THEOREM

(PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS)

Statement: The moment of a force about a moment center

(axis) is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the

component forces about the same moment center (axis).

.in

Proof (by Scalar Formulation):

sy

Let ‘R’ be the given force. Y

ea

‘P’ & ‘Q’ be the component forces

of ‘R’. y

ud

Ry Q

‘O’ be the moment center. R

st

P, R, and Q respectively from ‘O’. q r P

α, β, and γ be the inclinations of Py β γ p

α

‘P’, ‘R’, and ‘Q’ respectively w.r.t.

A O X

the X – axis. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

9

We have, Y

Ry = Py + Qy Ry

R Sinβ = P Sinα + Q Sin γ ----(1) Q R

From ∆le AOB, p/AO = Sin α

.in

Qy

From ∆le AOC, r/AO = Sin β γ r q

sy

P

Py β

From ∆le AOD, q/AO = Sin γ α

p

ea

From (1), A O X

∴ R ×(r/AO) = P ×(p/AO) + Q ×(q/AO)

y

ud

i.e., R × r = P × p + Q × q

st

sum of moments of the component forces P & Q

about same moment center ‘O’.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

10 FORMULATION

Consider three forces F1, F2, and F3

concurrent at point ‘A’ as shown in fig.

.in

Let r be the position vector of ‘A’ w.r.t

sy

‘O’. The sum of the moments about ‘O’

for these three forces by cross-product is,

ea

Mo = ∑(r×F) = (r×F1) + (r×F2) + (r×F3).

y

By the property of cross product,

ud

Mo = r × (F1+F2+F3)

st

=r×R

where, R is the resultant of the three

forces.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

11 APPLICATIONS OF VARIGNON’S

THEOREM

judiciously selecting the moment center. The

.in

moment can be determined by resolving a force into X

& Y components, because finding x & y distances in

sy

many circumstances may be easier than finding the

ea

perpendicular distance (d) from the moment center to

y

the line of action.

ud

2. Location of resultant - location of line of action of the

st

is an additional information required, which can be

worked out using Varignon’s theorem.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

12

COUPLE

Two parallel, non collinear forces (separated by a

certain distance) that are equal in magnitude and opposite

in direction form a ‘couple’.

.in

The algebraic summation of the

F

sy

two forces forming the couple is zero.

Hence, a couple does not produce any

ea

translation, but produces only rotation. d

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

13

forces separated by a distance ‘d’. Let ‘O’ be the moment

center at a distance ‘a’ from one

F

.in

of the forces. The sum of moments

sy

of two forces about the point ‘O’ is, d

a

ea

+ ∑ Mo = -F × ( a + d) + F × a = -F× d

F O

y

ud

Thus, the moment of the couple about ‘O’ is independent

st

The moment of a couple about any point is a

constant and is equal to the product of one of the forces

and the perpendicular Compiled

distance between them.

by www.studyeasy.in

14 RESOLUTIONCompiled

OFbyAwww.studyeasy.in

FORCE INTO A

FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM

F F

F

F

d

.in

Q Q

= M=F × d

=

sy

P P

ea

F

Fig. (b)

Fig. (a)

y Fig. (c)

ud

A given force F applied at a point can be replaced

st

a couple which is equivalent to the original system.

Two equal and opposite forces of same magnitude F

and parallel to the force F at P are introduced at Q.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

15

F F F F

M=F × d

d

Q Q

.in

= =

P P

sy

Fig. (a) F Fig. (b) Fig. (c)

ea

Of these three forces, two forces i.e., one at P and the

y

ud

other oppositely directed at Q form a couple.

st

The third force at Q is acting in the same direction as that at P.

The system in Fig. (c) is equivalent to the system in Fig. (a).

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

16

body can be moved to any other given point Q, by adding a

.in

couple M. The moment of the couple is equal to moment of

sy

the force in its original position about Q.

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

RESULTANT OF Compiled

COPLANAR by www.studyeasy.in

NON-CONCURRENT

17

FORCE SYSTEMS

systems is the one which will produce same rotational and

.in

translational effect as that of the given system. It may be a

sy

force and a moment or a pure moment.

ea

F1

y

Let F1, F2 and F3 constitute

ud

a non concurrent system as F2

shown in the fig.

st

O

‘O’ – be any convenient reference

point in the plane.

F3

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

18

F1

F1 R

F2

∑Mo

.in

∑Mo

O F2 O

O

sy

ea

F3 F3 Fig. C

Fig. A Fig. B

y

ud

Each force can be replaced by a force of the same magnitude

and acting in the same direction at ‘O’ and a moment about

st

as in the case of concurrent system to get the resultant force

R. Thus, the resultant of the system is equal to a force R at

‘O’ and a moment ‘∑Mo’ as shown in fig.C.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

19

R

R

.in

∑Mo

O

O

sy

ea

Fig. C Fig. D

∑ Ry

tan θ =

The single force ∑RRx and

the moment ‘∑Mo’ shown in the fig.C

y

ud

can be replaced by a single force R acting at a distance ‘d’

st

∑the

Mo resultant can

R

be reduced to a single force acting at a certain distance from

‘O’. Mathematically,

R = Rx + Ry

2 2

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

20

In some problems, it may be required to determine

.in

distances of the resultant R along x-axis and y-axis i.e., X

and Y intercepts. Let ‘d’ be the perpendicular distance of the

sy

resultant from ‘O’ as shown in the fig.

ea

Let Rx=∑Fx and Ry=∑Fy be the

y

components of the resultant in X and Y Y-axis

ud

directions.

st

By Varignon’s theorem, A Rx

R×d= ∑Mo Y d

Rx

At B, ∑Mo = Rx×0 + Ry×X R

X-axis

O B

X

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ry Ry

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

21

Therefore,

X= ∑Mo/Ry

.in

Similarly, at A,

Ry×0 + Rx×Y = ∑Mo

sy

Therefore, Y-axis

ea

Y= ∑Mo/Rx

y A Rx

ud

Rx

Y d

R

st

X-axis

O B

X

Ry Ry

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

1. Concentrated Loads – This is the load acting for a very

small length of the beam.

2. Uniformly distributed load – This is the load acting for a

.in

considerable length of the beam with same intensity of W

kn/m throughout its spread.

sy

W kN/m

Total intensity = W × L

ea

(acts at L/2 from one end of the spread) L

y

ud

3. Uniformly varying load – This load acts for a considerable

st

at one end to W kN/m to the other representing a triangular

distribution. Total intensity of load = area of triangular

W kN/m

spread of the load = 1/2× W × L. (acts at 2×L/3 from

‘Zero’ load end) Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

L

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

force system shown in fig. Take radius of the

circle=1860mm

.in

(Ans. R=2000N towards left, d=626.9mm)

sy

y ea

600 N 1000 N

ud

60º o

30º

st

400 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

24

acting respectively along the four sides of a square

ABCD as shown in the figure. Determine the

.in

magnitude, direction and position of resultant w.r.t. A.

sy

(Ans:R=28.28N, θ=45º, X=1.77a)

ea

20N

D

30N

y C

ud

a

st

A 10N

a B

40N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

25

and 200N acting at left end, 0.9m, 2.1m and

2.85m respectively from the left end of a horizontal

.in

bar of length 2.85m. Determine the magnitude of

sy

resultant and also the distance of the resultant from

ea

the left end.

(Ans:R=125N, X=3.06m)

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

26

couple at A.

(Ans:F=320kN, θ=14.48º, M=284.8kNm)

.in

sy

ea

70.7kN

200kN

45º

y 30º

ud

1.5m

st

A

1m 30º

100KN

80KN

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

27

(Ans:R=450kN, X=7.5kNm)

.in

150Nm

sy

150N

3m 1.5m

ea

1.5m

A

y

ud

100N 500N

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTROID

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

.in

Centre of gravity : of a body is the point at

which the whole weight of the body may be

sy

assumed to be concentrated.

y ea

ud

A body is having only one center of gravity for

st

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

1

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

body of any size and shape,

.in

having a mass m.

sy

ea

If we suspend the body as shown in

y

figure, from any point such as A, the

ud

body will be in equilibrium under the

st

the resultant W of the gravitational

forces acting on all particles of the

body. Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

2

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

Cord

.in

Resultant W is collinear with

sy

the Cord

ud

position by drilling a

st

size along its line of action

Resultant

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

3

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

centre of gravity of any body,

.in

we apply the principle of moments to the parallel

sy

system of gravitational forces.

y ea

Centre of gravity is that point about which the

ud

summation of the first moments of the weights of

st

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

6

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

suspending the body from other

.in

points such as B and C, and in

each instant we mark the line of

sy

action of the resultant force.

y ea

ud

st

concurrent at a single point G, which is called the

centre of gravity of the body.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

Example:

.in

B

sy

ea

C

A A

B G B

y G A

ud

C A A

C

st

B

A

w

w B

w

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

5

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

The moment of the the algebraic sum of the

resultant gravitational = moments about the same

force W, about any axis of the gravitational

.in

axis forces dW acting on all

infinitesimal elements of

sy

the body.

y ea

if, we apply principle

∫ dW of moments, (Varignon’s Theorem)

ud

about y-axis, for example,

st

resultant about y-axis = components about y-axis

x ⋅W = ∫ x × dW

7 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Where W =

x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

∫ x ⋅ dW

.in

x=

W

sy

ea

x

y

ud

Similarly, y and z coordinates of the centre of gravity are

st

y=

∫ y ⋅ dW

and z=

∫ z ⋅ dW

----(1)

W W

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

8

x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

x=

∫ x ⋅ dW

y=

∫ y ⋅ dW

∫ z ⋅ dW

W , W

, z= ----(1)

W

.in

With the substitution of W= m g and dW = g dm

sy

ea

(if ‘g’ is assumed constant for all particles, then )

y

the expression for the coordinates of centre of gravity become

ud

∫ x ⋅ dm ∫ y ⋅ dm ∫ z ⋅ dm

st

x= , y=

, z= ----(2)

m m m

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

9

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

the mass of a differential element of volume dV

becomes dm = ρ dV .

.in

sy

If ρ is not constant throughout the body, then we may

ea

write the expression as

∫ x ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV

y

ud

x= , y=

∫ y ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV

and z=

∫ z ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV

----(3)

∫ ρ ⋅ dV

st

∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

10

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTRE OF MASS

x=

∫ x ⋅ dm

, y=

∫ y ⋅ dm

, z=

∫ z ⋅ dm ----(2)

m m m

.in

Equation 2 is independent of g and therefore define a

sy

unique point in the body which is a function solely of the

ea

distribution of mass.

y

ud

This point is called the centre of mass and clearly

coincides with the centre of gravity as long as the gravity

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

11

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

CENTROID

x=

∫ x ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV

y=

∫ y ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ z ⋅ ρ ⋅ dV

, and z = ----(3)

∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV ∫ ρ ⋅ dV

.in

sy

When the density ρ of a body is uniform throughout,

ea

it will be a constant factor in both the numerators and

y

denominators of equation (3) and will therefore

ud

cancel.

st

geometrical property of the body.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

12

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

term “centre of mass”.

.in

sy

The term centroid is used when the calculation concerns

ea

a geometrical shape only.

y

ud

Calculation of centroid falls within three distinct

st

shape of the body involved as a line, an area or a

Contd.

volume.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

13

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

sectional area A, and density ρ, the body approximates a

line segment, and dm = ρA dL. If ρ and A are constant over

.in

the length of the rod, the coordinates of the centre of mass

sy

also becomes the coordinates of the centroid, C of the line

ea

segment, which may be written as

y

ud

x=

∫ x ⋅ dL ∫ y ⋅ dL

∫ z ⋅ dL

st

, y= , z=

L L L

Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

14

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

body has a small constant thickness t, the body can be

modeled as a surface area.

.in

The mass of an element becomes dm = ρ t dA.

sy

If ρ and t are constant over entire area, the

ea

coordinates of the ‘centre of mass’ also becomes

y

the coordinates of the centroid, C of the surface

ud

area and which may be written as

st

x=

∫ x ⋅ dA

y=

∫ y ⋅ dA

, z=

∫ z ⋅ dA

A

, A A

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Contd.

15

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

the element has a mass dm = ρ dV .

.in

If the density is constant the coordinates of the centre of

mass also becomes the coordinates of the centroid, C of the

sy

volume and which may be written as

∫ x ⋅ dV yea

∫ y ⋅ dV ∫

ud

z ⋅ dV

x= , y= , z=

st

V V V

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

16

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

moment ( First moment of area)

.in

Centroid of an area may or may not lie on the

sy

area in question.

ea

It is a unique point for a given area

y

ud

regardless of the choice of the origin and the

orientation of the axes about which we take

st

the moment.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

17

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

about any axis can be calculated by using the equn.

.in

(A) x = (a1) x1 + (a2) x2 + (a3) x3 +

sy

……….+(an) xn

ea

= First moment of area

y

ud

Moment of Algebraic Sum of

st

about y-axis ‘dA’ about the same

axis

where (A = aCompiled

1 + aby + a3 + a4 + ……..+ an)

2 www.studyeasy.in

18

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

AXIS of SYMMETRY:

.in

side of the axis , there is a corresponding elementary

sy

area on the other side of the axis (the first moment of

ea

these elementary areas about the axis balance each

other) y

ud

If an area has an axis of symmetry, then the centroid

st

If an area has two axes of symmetry, then the centroid

must lie at the point of intersection of these axes.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Contd.

19

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

For example:

the figure has two axis of

.in

symmetry, X-X and Y-Y.

da

Therefore intersection of

sy

da

these two axes gives the

ea

x x

centroid of the rectangle.

y

ud

da × x = da × x

st

Moment of areas,da

about y-axis cancel

each other

da × x + da × x = 0 Contd.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

20

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

AXIS of SYMMETYRY

on the axis

of symmetry

.in

‘C’ must lie on

sy

the axis of

symmetry

y ea

ud

‘C’ must lie at the intersection

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

21

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.1:

.in

sy

10

ea

50

10

y

ud

40

st

22

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

22

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.2:

Locate the centroid of the shaded area shown

.in

sy

ea

500 300

300

D=600

y

1000 mm

r=600

ud

500

st

1000 mm

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x=474mm, y=474mm

23

23

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.3:

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

sy

y-axis

90

ea

20

120

r=40

y

ud 20

x-axis

60

st

24

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.4:

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

sy

ea

y-axis

250 mm

y20

ud

10

380

st

10 10

200 mm x-axis

25

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x= -5mm, y=282mm

25

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.5

.in

axes shown

sy

ea

y 30

50 30

y

ud

40

40

x

20 20

st

r=20

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.6

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

y

sy

y ea 2.4 m

1.0

r=0.6

ud

1.0 x

1.0

1.5

st

1.5

27

27 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Ans: x=0.817, y=0.24

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.7

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x= -30.43, y= +9.58

28

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.8

Locate the centroid of the shaded area.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

20

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x= 0, y= 67.22(about base)

29

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.9

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

base line.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x=5.9, y= 8.17

30

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.10

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x=21.11, y= 21.11

31

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

Problem No.11

Locate the centroid of the shaded area w.r.t. to the

axes shown

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ans: x= y= 22.22

32

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 1

.in

sy

FORCES IN SPACE

ea

(Noncoplanar System of Forces)

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 2

Forces in space

A Force in space: A Force is said to be in space if its line of

action makes an angle α, β and γ with respect to rectangular

co-ordinate axes X, Y and Z respectively as shown the Fig. 1.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 3

Their Classifications

System of forces which do not lie in a single plane is called

.in

noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space ). A typical

noncoplanar system of forces (forces in space) is shown in the

sy

Fig. 2. below

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 4

Forces in space

.in

Noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space) can be

sy

broadly classified into three categories. They are

ea

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces

y

ud

2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces

3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 5

Forces in space

.in

meet at a point with their lines of action do not lie in a

plane are called “Concurrent noncoplanar system of

sy

forces”. A typical system of Concurrent noncoplanar

ea

system of forces is shown in the Fig.3.

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 6

Forces in space

2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces

which do not meet at a point and their lines of action do not

lie in a plane, such forces are called “Nonconcurrent

.in

noncoplanar system of forces”. A typical system of

sy

nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces is shown in the

Fig.4.

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 7

Forces in space

3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces: If lines of action of all

the forces in a system are parallel and they do not lie in a

.in

plane such a system is called Non-coplanar parallel system

sy

of forces. If all the forces are pointing in one direction then

they are called Like parallel forces otherwise they are called

ea

unlike parallel forces as shown in the Fig.5.

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space

FS - 8

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 9

Forces in space

Rectangular components of a force in space

In the Fig.6(a) a force F is acting at the origin O of the system

of rectangular coordinate axes X,Y,Z. Consider OBAC plane

.in

passing through the force F. This plane makes an angle φ with

sy

respect to XOY plane. Force F makes an angle θy with

ea

respect to Y-axis.

y

ud

st

Fig.6(a)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 10

Forces in space

Rectangular components of a force in space

.in

sy

ea

Fig.6(b)

y

ud

st

In the Fig.6(b), the force F is resolved in the vertical (Y- axis) and

horizontal direction (X – axis) as

Fy = F Cosθy and

Fh = F Sinθy respectively.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 11

Forces in space

Rectangular components of a force in space

.in

sy

y ea Fig.6(c)

ud

st

In the Fig 6(c) the horizontal component Fh is again resolved in the X and

Z axes directions. These components are

Fx = Fh cosφ = F sinθy cosφ

Fz = Fh Sinφ =Compiled

F sinθ y sinφ

by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 12

and OCD

F2 = (OA)2 = OB2 + BA2 = Fy2 +Fh2 ----------------(1)

.in

Fh2 = OC2 = OD2 + DC2 = Fx2 +Fz2 ----------------(2)

sy

Substituting equation (2) into the equation (1), we get

ea

F2 = Fx2 +Fy2 + Fz2

F = √ Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2y

ud

----------------(3)

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 13

Forces in space

The relationship existing between the force F and its three components Fx,

Fy, Fz is more easily visualized if a box having Fx, Fy, Fz for edges is drawn

as shown below. The force F is then represented by the original OA of this

box.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Where θx, θy, θz are the angles formed by the force F with X, Y, Z axes respectively.

.in

Fx,Fy,Fz are the rectangular components of the force F in the directions of X, Y, Z

sy

axes respectively.

ea

Cos θx = Fx/F; Cosθy = Fy/F; Cosθz = Fz/F

y

Substituting equation (4) into the equation (3), we get

ud

F = √ Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

st

F2 = F2 ( Cos2θx + Cos2θy + Cos2θz )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 15

Force Defined by its magnitude and two points on its line of action

.in

dx= d Cos θx, dy = d Cosθy,

sy

dz = d Cosθz

----(6)

ea

d = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2

---(7)

y

ud

Dividing member by

member the relations (4) and

st

(6), we obtain

----------------------------(8) Fig 8

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Resolve all the forces into their rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions.

Adding algebraically all the horizontal components in the x direction gives

.in

Rx = ∑ Fx,

sy

Similarly adding algebraically all the components in y and z directions yield the

following relations

ea

Ry = ∑ Fy,

Rz = ∑ Fz

y

ud

Thus magnitude of resultant

st

Angles θx, θy, θz resultant forms with the axes of coordinates are obtained by

Rx Ry Rz

Cosθ x = ; Cosθ y = ; Cosθ z =

R R R

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Problems:

(1) A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A is shown in the following

Figure. The tension in the wire is 6000N. Determine

(a) The components Fx, Fy, Fz of the forces acting on the bolt.

.in

(b) The angles θx, θy, θz defining the direction of the force.

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Total distance A to B

.in

d = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2

sy

= √ (50)2 + (200)2 + (-100)2

ea

= 229.13 m

y

ud

Using the equation (8) Fx /dx = Fy/dy = Fz/dz = F/d

st

Fy = dy . (F/d) = (200 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 5237.20 N

Fz = dz . (F/d) = (-100 x 6000)/ 229.13 = -2618.6 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

θy = Cos–1 (dy /d) = Cos–1 (200/229.13) = 29.2°

sy

ea

θz = Cos–1 (dz /d) = Cos–1 (-100/229.13) = 115.88°

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 20

force acting as shown below

(b) the angles θx, θy, θz that the force forms with the coordinate

.in

axes.

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

sy

Fh = 250 Cos60 = 125 N Fy = 250 Sin60 = 216.5 N

ea

Fx = 125 Cos25 = 113.29 N Fz = 125Sin25 = -52.83 N

y

θx = Cos–1 ( Fx /F) = Cos–1 (113.29/250) = 63°

ud

θy = Cos–1 ( Fy /F) = Cos–1 (216.5/250) = 30°

θz = Cos–1 ( Fz /F) = Cos–1 (-52.83/250) = 102.11o

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 22

below

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 23

Solution

.in

sy

y ea

ud

Components of Force F1 = 3000 N:

st

Fh1 = 3000 x Sin40o = 1928.36 N

o

Fx1 = 1928.36 x Cos30 =1670 N

Fz1 = 1928.36 x Sin30o = 964.18 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 24

.in

sy

y ea

ud

Components of Force F2 = 2000 N:

st

Fh2 = 2000 x Sin20 = 684.04 N

Fx2 = 684.04 x Sin35° = 392.35 N

Fz2 = 684.04 x Cos35° = 560.33N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Ry = ∑ Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 = 2298.13 + 1879.39 = 4177.52 N

.in

Rz = ∑ Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 = 964.18 + 560.33 = 1524.51 N

sy

Resultant R = √Rx2 + Ry2 +Rz2

ea

= √1277.652 +4177.522 +1524.512

y

= 4626.9 N

ud

Its inclinations with respect to x, y and z axes are

st

calculated as

θx = Cos–1 (1277.65 /4626.9) = 73° 58' 13.1"

θy = Cos–1 (4177.52/4626.9) = 25° 27'

θz = Cos–1 (1526.51/4626.9) = 70o45’36”

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Problem 4. In the Fig shown below, the forces in the cables AB and AC

are 100 kN and 150 kN respectively. At the joint ‘A’ loading is as

shown in the Fig. Find the resultant of system of forces in space and its

inclination with rectangular coordinates x,y and z axes.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 27

.in

For the cable AB

sy

dx = -20 m

dy = 15m

ea

dz = 5m

y

dAB = √ dx2 +dy2 + dz2

ud

= √ (-20)2 +(15)2 + (5)2 = √ 650 = 25.5 m

st

dx = -20 m

dy = 25m

dz = -10m

dAc = √(-20) 2 +(25)2 + (-10)2 = √1125 = 33.54 m

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Fx1/dx1 = Fy1/dy1 = Fz1/dz1 = F/d

Fx1/-20 = Fy1/15 = Fz1/5 = 100/25.5

.in

∴Fx1 = -78.41 kN

sy

Fy1 = 58.82 kN

ea

Fz1 = 19.61 kN

y

ud

For the Cable AC (2)

st

Fx2 = - 89.45 kN

Fy2 = 111.81 kN

Fz2 = - 44.72 kN Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Component of force 60 kN

.in

Fy3 = 60 x Cos(30o) = 51.96 kN

sy

Fz3 = 60 x Cos(111°23)= - 21.88 kN

ea

Component of the force 50KN

y

ud

Fx4 = 50 kN

st

Fy4 = 0

Fz4 = 0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

axes directions yield:

Rx = Σ Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4

= -78.43 - 89.45 + 20.52 + 50

.in

= -97.36 kN

sy

Ry = Σ Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 + Fy3 + Fy4

= 58.82 + 111.81 + 51.96 + 0

ea

= 222.59 kN

y

ud

Rz = Σ Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 + Fz3 + Fz4

= 19.61 – 44.72 – 21.88 + 0

st

= -46.99 kN

= √ (-97.36)2 + (222.59)2 + (-46.99)2

= 247.45 Compiled

kN by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

θx = Cos-1(Rx / R) = Cos-1 (-97.36/247.45) = 113° 10’

θy = Cos-1(Ry / R) = Cos-1 (222.59/247.45) = 25° 54’

θz = Cos-1(Rz / R) = Cos-1 (-46.99/247.45) = 100° 56’ 47”

.in

sy

Check:

ea

Cos2θx + Cos2θy + Cos2θz = 1

y

Cos2(113°10’) + Cos2(25°54’) + Cos2(100°56°) = 1

ud

1 = 1

st

Hence OK

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 32

Forces in space

Problem 5. a) Forces F1, F2, and F3 pass through the origin and

points whose coordinates are given. Determine the

.in

resultant of the system of forces.

sy

F1 = 20 kN, (3,-2,1)

ea

F2 = 35 kN, (-2,4,0)

F3= 25 kN, (1,2,-3)

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Solution:

.in

sy

yea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Force F1 = 20 kN

d = √ 32 + (-2)2 + 12 = √ 14 = 3.74

Cos θx1 = dx / d = 3/3.74 = 0.802

Cos θy1 = -2/3.74 = -0.535; Cos θz1 = 1/3.74 = 0.267

.in

sy

Force F2 = 35 kN

ea

d = √ (-2)2 + 42 +0 = √20 = 4.47

Cos θx2 = -2/4.47 = -0.45

y

Cos θy2 = 4/4.47 = 0.9; Cos θz2 = 0

ud

st

Force F3 = 25 kN

d = √ (1)2 + 22 +(-3)2 = √14 = 3.74

Cos θx3 = 1/3.74 = 0.267

Cos θy3 = 2/3.74 = 0.535; Cos θz3 = -3/3.74 = -0.802

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

yield:

Rx = ΣFx = 20 x 0.802 + 35 x (-0.45) +25 x 0.267 = 6.965 kN

Ry = Σ Fy = 20 x (-0.535) + 35 x 0.9 + 25 x 0.535 = 34.175 kN

.in

Rz = Σ Fz = 20 x 0.267 + 35 x 0 + 25 x (-0.802) = -14.71 kN

sy

ea

Resultant R = √ Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2

= √ 6.9652 + 34.1752 + (-14.71)2

= 37.85 kN y

ud

st

calculated as

θx = Cos–1(Rx / R) = Cos-1(6.965/37.85 ) = 79.4°

θy = Cos–1(Ry /R) = Cos-1(34.175/37.85) = 25.46°

θz = Cos–1(Rz /R) = Cos -1(-14.71/37.85) = 112.87°

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

When a rigid body subjected to concurrent noncoplanar system of forces

F1, F2…. ..FN as shown in the Fig. given below, is in equilibrium, then

.in

algebraic summation of all the components of the forces in three mutually

perpendicular directions must be equal to zero.

sy

i.e. ∑ Fx = 0

ea

∑ Fy = 0

∑ Fz = 0 y

ud

(1)

Above equations represent the static

st

noncoplanar system of forces

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

noncoplanar system of forces

Forces in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 37

space

Problem (1) Find the forces in the rods AB , AC and AO subjected to

loading as shown below

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 38

Solution:

.in

dx1 = 0 - 4 = - 4

sy

dy1= 8 - 0 = 8

ea

dz1 = 15 – 0 =15

y

d1 = √ (-4)2 +(8)2 +(15)2 = 17.46 m

ud

st

Fx1 = -0.23FAB,

Fy1 = 0.46FAB,

Fz1 = 0.86FAB

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space FS - 39

dx2 = 0 - 4 = -4m

dy2 = 8 - 0 = 8m

dz2 = -20 – 0 = -20m

.in

sy

d2 = √ (-4)2 +(8)2 +(-20)2 = √480 = 21.91m

Fx2/-4 = Fy2/8 = Fz2/-20 = FAC/21.91

ea

Fx2 = -0.18FAC, Fy2 = 0.365FAc, Fz2 = -0.91FAc

y

ud

For the Force 120 N:

Fx3 = 120 N, Fy3 = 0, Fz3 = 0

st

Fx4 = 0, Fy4 = -300N, Fz4 = 0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Conditions of Equilibrium

∑ Fx = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑ Fz = 0

Considering ∑ Fx = 0

.in

Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 + Fx5= 0

sy

-FAD-0.23F – 0.18FAC + 120 + 0 = 0

FAD + 0.23FAB + 0.183FAC = 120 ----------------------(1)

ea

∑ Fy = 0

y

ud

0.46FAB + 0.365FAC + 0 +0 – 300 = 0

0.46FAB + 0.365FAC = 300 ------------------------------(2)

st

∑ Fz = 0

0.86 FAB – 0.91 FAC + 0 = 0 -----------------------(3)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

Solving Equations (1), (2) and (3), we get,

sy

FAB = 372.675 N; FAC = 352.25 N ; FAO = - 30.18 N

y ea

Force in the rod AB , FAB = 372.675 N (Tensile)

ud

Force in the rod AC, FAC = 352.25 N (Tensile)

Force in the rod AO, FAO = 30.18 N (Compressive)

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

kN load as shown in the Fig given below. Determine the

tensions in each cable

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Let FDA, FDB and FDC are the forces in the cables AD, BD,

and CD respectively.

For Cable DA:

.in

dx1 = (0 – 3) = -3m

sy

dy1 = (6 - 4) =2 m

ea

dz1 = (6 – 0 = 6 m

dAD = √ dx2 + dy2 + dz2 y

ud

dAD = √ (-3)2 + (2)2 + (6)2 = √9 + 4 + 36 = 7 m

st

Fx1/(-3) = Fy1/2 = Fz1/6 = FDA/7

∴ Fx1 = -0.43FDA, Fy1 =0.286FDA, Fz1 = 0.857FDA

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

dx2= (0 – 3) = -3m

dy2 = (6 - 4) =2 m

.in

dz2 = (-6 – 0 = -6 m

sy

dBD = d2 = √(-3)2 + (2)2 + (-6)2 = √ 49 = 7 m

ea

Fx2/dx2 = Fy2/dy2 = Fz2/dz2 = FDB/dDB

y

ud

Fx2/(-3) = Fy2/2 = Fz2/-6 = FDB/7

st

∴Fx2 = -0.43FDB,

Fy2 =0.286FDB,

Fz2 = -0.857FDB

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

dx3 (0 – 3) = -3m

dy3= (0- 4) = -4m

.in

dz3= (0 0 = 0m

sy

dDC= d3= √ (-3)2 + (-4) + (0)2

= √ 9 + 16

ea

= 5m

y

ud

Fx3/dx3 = Fy3/dy3 = Fz3/dz3 = FDC/d DC

st

∴Fx3 = -0.6FDC,

Fy3 =-0.8FDC,

Fz3 = 0 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

dx4 = 12m

dy4= -4m

.in

dz4= 3m

d4= d400 = √ (12)2 + (4) + (3)2

sy

= √144 +16 + 9

ea

= √69 = 13m

y

Fx4/dx4 = Fy4/dy4 = Fz4/dz4 = F400/d4

ud

Fx4/(12) = Fy4/-4 = Fz4/3 = 400/13

st

Fy4 = -123.08 kN,

Fz4 = +92.31 kN

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

component in a particular direction is equal to zero.

i.e. ∑ Fx = 0 -------------(1)

.in

∑ Fy = 0 ------------- (2)

sy

∑ Fz = 0 --------------(3)

y ea

(1) Σ Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 = 0

ud

+ 0.43FDA + 0.43FDB + 0.6FDC = 369.23 ---------(1)

st

+ 0.857FDA - 0.857FDB + 0 = 92.31 ------------(3)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

FDB = 304.1kN

sy

FDA = 411.8 kN

ea

FDC = 102 kN

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 49

Forces in space

Practice Questions

1. A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A as shown below.

The tension in the wire is 2500 N. Determine (a) the components Fx, Fy

.in

and Fz of the force acting on the bolt, (b) the angles θx, θy, θz defining

the direction of the force

sy

y ea

ud

st

Θx = 115.1 o ; Θy= 32.0 o ; Θz= 71.5 o )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 50

Forces in space

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice

2. Determine Questions

(a) x, y and z the components of the force 500 N in the below

Figure. (b) the angles θx, θy, θz that the force forms with the

coordinate axes

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

N

Θx = 56.2 o ; Θy= 40.0 o ; Θz= 71.3 o )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 51

Forces in space

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice

3. Questions

In order to move a wrecked truck, two cables are attached at A and

pulled by winches B and C as shown. Knowing that the tension in the

cable AB is 10 kN, determine the components of the force exerted by

the cable AB on the truck

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

kN)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 52

Forces in space

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Practice

4. Questions

A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of two cables AB and AC, which are

attached to the top of a vertical wall. A horizontal force P perpendicular

to the wall holds the cylinder in the position shown. Determine the

magnitude of the force P and the tension in each cable

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Forces in space

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

FS - 53

Practice

5. Three cablesQuestions

are connected at A, where the forces P and Q are applied as

shown. Determine the tension in each cable when P = 0 and Q = 7.28

kN

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

kN)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 54

Forces in space Practice Questions

6. A container of weight w = 400 N is supported by cables AB and AC which

are tied to ring A. Knowing that Q = 0, determine (a) the magnitude of

the force P which must be applied to the ring to maintain the container

in the position shown in figure below, (b) the corresponding the values

.in

of the tension in cables AB and AC

sy

y ea

ud

st

(Ans: P = 138 N ,

TAB = 270N,

TAC = 196N )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 55

Forces in space Practice Questions

7. A container supported by three cables as shown below. Determine the

weight of the container, knowing that the tension in the cable AB is 4 kN

.in

sy

Ans: 9.32 kN

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 56

Forces in space Practice Questions

8. Determine the resultant of the two forces shown below.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

(Ans: R = 498 N ,

Θx = 68.9 o ; Θy= 26.3 o ; Θz= 75.1 o )

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in FS - 57

Forces in space Practice Questions

9. A container of weight W = 1165 N is supported by three cables as shown

below. Determine the tension in each cable.

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

TAC = 459 N

TAD = 516 N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

sy

y ea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

EQUILIBRIUM OF NON-CONCURRENT

COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEM

nor rotatory motion in any direction. Thus the resultant

.in

force R and the resultant couple M are both zero, and we

sy

have the equilibrium equations for two dimensional force

ea

system

y

ud

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ Fy = 0 Eq(1)

st

∑M = 0

These requirements are both necessary and sufficient

conditions for equilibrium.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

and transfers these forces through the supports on to the

foundation. Therefore the support reactions and the

.in

external forces together keep the structure in equilibrium.

sy

Types of supports

ea

There are different types of supports. Some of them are

y

a) Roller Support b) Hinged or pinned support c) Fixed

ud

or built in support

st

reactions that can be mobilised.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

rope BODY

sy

BODY T

ea

Force exerted by cable is

ud

the body in the direction of

cable

st

(b) Smooth surfaces the surfaces

F

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 3

F

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

.in

(c) Roller

sy

support Contact force is normal to the

ea

surface on which the roller moves.

The reaction will always be

y

ud

perpendicular to the plane of the

roller . Roller support will offer

st

component.(Whose direction is

known.)

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Rh

θ

.in

sy

R Rv

ea

This support does not allow any translatory movement of

y

the rigid body. There will be two independent reaction

ud

components at the support. The resultant reaction can be

st

Or it can be shown as resultant reaction inclined at an

angle with respect to a reference direction.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

M

RH

.in

sy

Rv

ea

M

y

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

(contd .)

.in

This type of support not only prevents the translatory

movement of the rigid body, but also the rotation of the

sy

rigid body. Hence there will be 3 independent reaction

ea

components of forces. Hence there will be 3 unknown

y

ud

components of forces, two mutually perpendicular

reactive force component and a reactive moment as

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

TYPES OF BEAMS

A member which is subjected to predominantly transverse loads

and supported in such a way that rigid body motion is prevented

is known as beam. It is classified based on the support

.in

conditions. A beam generally supported by a hinge or roller at

the ends having one span(distance between the support) is

sy

called as simply supported beam. A beam which is fixed at one

ea

end and free at another end is called as a cantilever beam.

y

ud

A B

HA

st

MA

span VA

span

(a) Simply supported beam (b) Cantilever beam

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

If one end or both ends of the beam project beyond the support

it is known as overhanging beam.

.in

A cantilever with a simple support anywhere along its length is

sy

a propped cantilever.

ea

A

y B

ud

HA MA

st

VA

(c) Overhanging beam span

(right overhang) (d) Propped Cantilever

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

beam

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

A beam with more than one span is called continuous beam.

.in

sy

ea

HA HA

HB

MA MB

y

ud

span

st

VA VB VA VB VC

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

beam:

.in

Using the equations of equilibrium given in EQ(1) ,if all the

sy

reaction components can be found out, then the beam is a

ea

statically determinate beam ,and if all the reaction

y

components can not be found out using equations of

ud

equilibrium only, then the beam is a statically indeterminate

st

beam.

In the above fig (a),(b)and ( c ) are statically determinate

beams ,where as (d),(e) and ( f) are statically Indeterminate

beams . Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then

.in

such a beam is a statically indeterminate beam.

sy

ea

If the number of reaction components is equal to the

number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then

y

ud

such a beam is a statically determinate beam

st

number of non-trivial equilibrium equations available then

such a beam is an unstable beam.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Since three equilibrium equations are available, for a planar

structure a maximum of three unknown independent reaction

components can be determined using these equations.

.in

sy

Step I: Draw the free body diagram of the structure showing

the given loadings and the reactions at the supports.

ea

Step 2: Apply the equations ∑ Fx = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑M = 0.

y

ud

Assuming some directions and senses for unknown forces

st

and moments.

Step 3: solve for unknown reactions. If any of them is positive,

it is along the sense initially assumed while drawing the FBD.

If it is negative, it is opposite to the initially assumed sense

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

as shown in the figure(Ans.RA=RB =34kN;RC=28.84kN;

.in

MC=-140kNm ; θC=-33.69 ˚ )

sy

ea

12kN/m 20 kN 12kN/m

y 4kN/m

ud

4kN/m

30kN

st

A 3

B 4

C

40kNm

1m 2m 1m 1m 2m 1m 1m 2m

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

supports a load of 200N at its end. Determine the

.in

tension developed in the string and the force supported

sy

by the pin at B.(Ans. T=529.12N;RB=807.15N, θB=64.6˚)

y ea string

ud

2.5m

st

A 60˚

200N

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 2.5m

2.5m

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

reactions developed at the supports of the beam are equal..

.in

(Ans.x=2m.)

sy

ea

15kN

18kN/m

10kN/m

y

ud

x

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

carries two loads W and 2W applied at B &C .Neglecting

.in

self weight of the bar find the angle made by AB with

sy

vertical(Ans:θ =18.44˚)

ea

A

Lm

y θ

ud

st

W

C

0.5L

2W

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 1 FRICTION

one body upon another body when one body moves or

tends to move past another body. This force which opposes

.in

the movement or tendency of movement is known as

sy

frictional resistance or friction. Friction is due to the

ea

resistance offered by minute projections at the contact

y

surfaces. Hence friction is the retarding force, always

ud

opposite to the direction of motion. Friction has both

st

Disadvantages ---- Power loss, wear and tear etc.

Advantages ---- Brakes, traction for

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

vehicles etc.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 2

.in

sy

F (Friction)

ea

N Hills & Vales Magnified Surface

y

ud

Frictional resistance is dependent on the amount of wedging

st

wedging action is dependent on the normal reaction N.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 3

adjusting itself in magnitude of force producing or tending

.in

to produce the motion so that the motion is prevented.

sy

When P = 0, F = 0 block under equilibrium

y ea

ud

When P increases, F also increases proportionately to

st

which the magnitude of this friction cannot increase.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 4

block is impending) F attains maximum possible value,

.in

which is termed as Limiting Friction. When the applied

sy

force is less than the limiting friction, the body remains at

ea

rest and such frictional resistance is called the static friction.

y

ud

Further if P is increased, the value of F decreases rapidly

st

high speeds it tends to decrease. This frictional resistance

experienced by the body while in motion is known as

Dynamic friction OR Kinetic Friction.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 5

when a body slides over another

Dynamic Friction surface.

.in

Rolling friction friction experienced

sy

by a body when it rolls over a surface.

yea

ud

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 5

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 6

FαN

W

Fmax = µN

P

.in

Where Fmax = Limiting Friction

sy

Fmax N= Normal Reaction between the

ea

contact surfaces

(limiting friction)

φ µ =Coefficient of friction

y

ud

R

N

st

∴ µ = Fmax

N

friction is fairly a constant. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The angle between N & R W

depends on the value of F. This

angle θ, between the resultant P

.in

R and the normal reaction N is

sy

termed as angle of friction. As

F increases, θ also increases Fmax

ea

(limiting friction)

and will reach to a maximum φ

y

value of φ when F is Fmax

ud

R

(limiting friction) N

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 8

resultant reaction (of limiting friction and normal reaction)

and the normal to the plane on which the motion of the body

.in

is impending.

sy

ea

Angle of repose

y

ud

When granular material is heaped, there exists a limit for the

st

rolling down. This limiting angle upto which the grains

repose (sleep) is called the angle of repose of the granular

material. Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 9

.in

The angle that an inclined plane makes with

the horizontal, when the body supported on the

sy

plane is on the verge of motion due to its self -

ea

weight is equal to the angle of repose.

y

ud

Angle of repose is numerically equal to

Angle of limiting friction

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

1. The magnitude of limiting friction bears a constant ratio

to the normal reaction between the two surfaces.

(Experimentally proved)

.in

sy

2. The force of friction is independent of the area of

ea

contact

between the two surfaces.

y

ud

3. For low velocities the total amount of friction that can

st

It is less than the frictional force corresponding

to impending motion.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

The transmission of power by means of belts or rope drives

is possible only because of friction between the wheels and

the belt. Tension in the belt is more on the side it is pulled

.in

and less on the other side. Accordingly they are called as

sy

tight side and slack side.

y ea β

ud

st

T2 (Tight side)

Pull

T1 (Slack side)

W

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIGHTSIDE AND

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

A load W is being pulled by a force P over a fixed drum. Let the force

on tight side be T2 and on slack side be T1. (T2>T1 because of

frictional force between drum and the rope). Let β be the angle of

.in

contact in radians between rope and the drum. Consider an elemental

length of rope as shown. Let T be the force on slack side and T+dT

sy

on tight side. There will be normal reaction N on the rope in the radial

direction and frictional force F= µN in the tangential direction.

y ea

ud

st

β F dβ/2

T

T+dT N F

dβ

w T2 T1

P

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 13

N-T Sin dβ/2 – (T+dT)Sin dβ/2 = 0 { Sin dβ/2 = dβ/2 as dβ is small }

∴ N-T dβ/2- (T+dT) dβ/2 = 0 i.e. N = ( T+dT/2) dβ ------(1)

.in

We know that F = µN ∴ F = µ ( T+dT/2) dβ-----(2)

sy

Σ Forces in tangential direction = 0

ea

(T+dT) Cos dβ/2 = F + T Cos dβ/2 { Cos dβ/2 = 1 as dβ is small }

∴ T + dT = F + T y

i.e. dT = F------(3)

ud

From (2) & (3) dT = µ ( T+dT/2) dβ

st

dT/T = µ dβ

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 14

T2 β

∫ dT/T = ∫ µ dβ

.in

T 0

1

sy

T2 β

(log T) = µ(β)

ea

T 0

1

y

ud

Log (T2/T1) = µβ

st

2

T = Force on slackside

1

β = Angle of contact in radians

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

force P required

.in

a) to start the block up the plane

sy

b) to prevent the block moving down the plane.

ea

Take μ = 0.20

y

[Ans.: (a) Pmin = 59.2N (b) Pmin = 23.7N θ = 11.3o]

ud

P

st

θ

100N

25°

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 16

passing over a frictionless pulley and supporting a

weight of 800N as shown in fig. If μ between the block

.in

and the plane is 0.35, determine the unknown force P

sy

for impending motion

(a) to the right

ea

(b) to the left

y

[Ans.: (a) P = 132.8N (b) P = 1252N]

ud

st

30° 800N

2000N

P

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 17

500N block to impend down the plane, if μ for all

.in

contact surfaces is 0.30.

sy

[Ans.: θ = 28.4°]

y ea

ud

st

200N

500N

θ=?

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 18

between all contact surfaces is 0.20. Determine the

.in

minimum weight W to prevent the downward motion

sy

of the 1000N body.

ea

[Ans. : T1 = 0.76W, T2 = 1.424W, W = 253N]

y

ud

st

W

1000N

3

4

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 19

rests on rough inclines as shown in fig. If angle of

friction is 15o, how close to B may the 200N force be

.in

applied before the motion impends.

sy

[Ans.: x = 3.5m]

y ea

100N 200N

ud

X=?

2m

st

A B

30° 60°

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 20

wedge B downwards in the arrangements shown in fig.

.in

Angle of friction for all contact surfaces is 12o.

sy

ea

[Ans.: P = 328.42N]

P

y

ud

st

1600N

B

20°

A

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 21

wedge to raise the block A weighing 1000N. Self

weight of the wedge may be ignored. Take angle of

.in

friction, φ = 15o for all contact surfaces.

sy

ea

[Ans.: P = 1192N]

y

ud

st

20°

P

wedge

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 22

in fig. If μ between the floor and the ladder is 0.5 &

between the wall and the ladder is 0.25 and it supports a

.in

vertical load of 1000N, determine

a) the least value of α at which the ladder may be placed

sy

ea

without slipping

b) the reactions at A & B

y

[Ans.: (a) α = 56.3o (b) RA = 1193 N, RB = 550N]

ud

1000N

st

5m

α

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 22

A

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 23

smooth vertical wall with its lower end 5m from the wall. μ

.in

between the ladder and the floor is 0.3. Show that the ladder

sy

remains in equilibrium in this position. What is the frictional

ea

resistance on the ladder at the point of contact between the

ladder and the floor?

y

ud

Smooth wall

[Ans.: FA = 52N] B

st

12m

A

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in 23

5m

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Friction 24

against a vertical wall. μ between the ladder and the

wall is 0.20 & between ladder and ground is 0.50. If a

.in

man weighing 600N ascends the ladder, how high will

sy

he be when the ladder just slips. If a boy now stands on

ea

the bottom rung of the ladder, what must be his least

weight so that the man can go to the top of the ladder.

y

ud

[Ans.: (a) x = 2.92m (b) Wboy = 458N]

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-1

MOMENT OF INERTIA

Moment of Inertia:

The product of the elemental area and square of the

.in

perpendicular distance between the centroid of area and the

axis of reference is the “Moment of Inertia” about the

sy

reference axis. y

ea

dA

Ixx = ∫dA. y2

Iyy = ∫dA. x2 y x

ud

st

x

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-2

.in

sy

It is also called second moment of area because first

ea

moment of elemental area is dA.y and dA.x; and if it is

y

again multiplied by the distance,we get second

ud

moment of elemental area as (dA.y)y and (dA.x)x.

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-3

Polar moment of Inertia

(Perpendicular Axes theorem)

The moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpendicular

to the plane of the area is called “Polar Moment of Inertia”

.in

and it is denoted by symbol Izz or J or Ip. The moment of

inertia of an area in xy plane w.r.to z. axis is Izz = Ip = J =

sy

∫r2dA = ∫(x2 + y2) dA = ∫x2dA + ∫y2dA = Ixx +Iyy

ea

Y x

y

ud

st

r

y

O

z

x

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-4

PERPENDICULAR AXIS THEOREM

.in

Hence polar M.I. for an area w.r.t. an axis perpendicular to

sy

its plane of area is equal to the sum of the M.I. about any

ea

two mutually perpendicular axes in its plane, passing

y

through the point of intersection of the polar axis and the

ud

area.

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-5

Parallel Axis Theorem

.in

sy

dA

ea

x0 y´ x0

y*G

ud

st

_

y d

x Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

x

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-6

Ixx = ∫dA. y2

_

= ∫dA (d +y')2

_ _

= ∫dA (d2+ y'2 + 2dy')

_

.in

= ∫dA. d2 + ∫dAy΄2 + ∫ 2d.dAy'

sy

_

d2 ∫dA = A.(d)2

ea

∫dA. y'2 = Ix0x0

_ y

ud

2d ∫ dAy’ = 0

st

_

∴Ix x = Ix x +Ad2

0 0 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-7

equal to the M.I. about parallel centroidal axis plus the

product of the total area and square of the distance

.in

between the two axes.

sy

ea

Radius of Gyration

y

ud

It is the perpendicular distance at which the whole area may be

st

moment of the area above the axis under consideration.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-8

y

Iyy = A.ryy2

Ixx = A.rxx2

.in

∴ryy = √ Iyy/A

sy

A

And rxx = √ Ixx /A

ea

ryy

y

ud

y

x x

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-9

MOMENT OF INERTIA BY DIRECT INTEGRATION

M.I. about its horizontal centroidal axis :

RECTANGLE :

+d/2

IXoXo = -d/2 ∫ dAy2

.in

.

+d/2

=-d/2∫ (b.dy)y2

sy

= bd3/12

ea

dy

About its base d/2

y

IXX=IXoXo +A(d)2 yx0 d

ud

x0

G

Where d = d/2, the

st

and xoxo x x

=bd3/12+(bd)(d/2)2 b

=bd3/12+bd3/4=bd3/3 Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-10

(2) TRIANGLE :

.in

(a) M.I. about its base :

Ixx = ∫ dA.y2 = ∫ (x.dy)y2

sy

From similar triangles

ea

b/h = x/(h-y) (h-y)

∴ x = b . (h-y)/h y h dy

ud

x

h x0 y

st

Ixx = ∫ (b . (h-y)y2.dy)/h x0

0 h/3

= b[ h (y3/3) – y4/4 ]/h x

= bh3/12 b

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

T-11

.in

(b) Moment of inertia about its centroidal axis:

_

sy

Ixx = Ix x + Ad2

ea

0 0

_

Ix x = Ixx – Ad2 y

ud

0 0

st

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-12

3. CIRCULAR AREA:

Ix x = ∫ dA . y2

0 0 dθ

R 2π

= ∫ ∫ (x.dθ.dr) r2Sin2θ

.in

0 0

r y=rSinθ

θ

sy

R 2π

=∫ ∫ r3.dr Sin2θ dθ x0 x0

ea

0 0 R

=∫

R

r3

2π

y

dr ∫ {(1- Cos2θ)/2} dθ x x

ud

0 0

R 2π

st

0 0

= R4/4[π - 0] = πR4/4

IXoXo = π R4/4 = πD 4/64

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-13

4. SEMI CIRCULAR AREA:

Ixx = ∫ dA . y2

R π

= ∫ ∫ (r.dθ.dr) r2Sin2θ

.in

0 0 y0

R π

=∫ r3.dr ∫ Sin2θ

sy

dθ

0 0

ea

R π

=∫ ∫ r3 dr (1- Cos2θ)/2) dθ

y R

ud

0 0 x0 x0

π 4R/3π

x x

st

0

= R4/4[π/2 - 0] = πR4/8 y0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-14

.in

About horizontal centroidal axis:

sy

Ixx = Ix + A(d)2

ea

x

0 0

Ix = Ixx – A(d) 2

y

ud

x

0 0

st

Ix x = 0.11R4

0 0

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-15

QUARTER CIRCLE:

y y0

Ixx = Iyy

R π/2

.in

Ixx = ∫ ∫ (r.dθ.dr). r2Sin2θ

sy

0 0

R π/2 x0 x0

ea

=∫ r3.dr ∫ Sin2θ dθ 4R/3π

0 0

y x x

ud

R π/2 y y0

=∫ r3 dr ∫ (1- Cos2θ)/2) dθ

st

0 0

π/2 4R/3π

=[R4/4] [θ/2 – (Sin2 θ)/4]

0

= R4 (π/16 – 0) = πR4/16

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-16

_

.in

Ix x = Ixx - Ad2

0 0

sy

= πR4/16 - πR2. (0. 424R)2

ea

= 0.055R4

y

ud

st

about X and Y axes for different geometrical figures.

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in T-17

Sl.No Figure Ix Iy I xx I yy

b -x

0 0

-y

0 0

Y

1

d

x0 x0 bd3/12 - bd3/3 -

d/2

x x

Y Xo

2

.in

h

x0 bh3/36 - bh3/12 -

x0

sy

h/3

x x

b

ea

3 y0

R

x0 x0 πR4/4 πR4/4 - -

O

y

ud

y0

4 y0 4R/3π

st

x0

x y0 x

5 y y0

x0 4R/3π 0.055R4 0.055R4 πR4/16 πR4/16

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

4R/3π

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-1

Q.1. Determine the moment of inertia about the centroidal

axes.

.in

30mm

sy

ea

30mm

20

y

ud

30mm

st

100mm

I = 1.855 x 10 6mm4]

yyby www.studyeasy.in

Compiled

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-2

horizontal and vertical axes. 300mm

.in

300mm

sy

200

y ea

ud

200mm

st

900mm

[Ans: X = 99.7mm from A, Y = 265 mm

109mm

Ixx = 10.29 xCompiled 4, I = 16.97 x 109mm4]

yy

by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-3

horizontal and vertical centroidal axes and the radii of

gyration. 200mm

.in

20

sy

ea

140mm

y 60

ud

st

20

100mm

[Ans: Ixx = 45.54 x 106mm4, Iyy = 24.15 x 106mm4

r = 62.66mm, r by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled = 45.63mm]

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-4

the shaded portion of the figure.

.in

sy

60

ea

20

X X

20

y

ud

st

60 60

[Ans: X = 83.1mm

4mmby4,www.studyeasy.in

I = 2228.94 x 10Compiled I = 4789.61 x 104mm4]

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-5

vertical blocks such that Ixx = Iyy for the shaded area.

.in

200mm

sy

y ea

400mm

ud

200mm d 200mm

st

200mm

600mm

[Ans: d/2 = 223.9mm d=447.8mm]

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-6

inertia of the section shown in Fig. built up with R.S.J. (I-

Section) 250 x 250 and two plates 400 x 16 mm each attached

.in

one to each.

sy

Properties of I section are 160mm

ea

Ixx = 7983.9 x 104mm4

2500mm

y

ud

Iyy = 2011.7 x 104mm4

2

st

160mm

4000mm

107mm

[Ans: I = 30.653 x Compiled 4, I = 19.078 x 107mm4]

by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-7

inertia of built up section shown in Figure. The section

consists of 4 symmetrically placed ISA 60 x 60 with two

.in

plates 300 x 20 mm2.

sy

Properties of ISA

ea

Cross sectional area = 4400mm2

y

ud

Ixx = Iyy ;Cxx = Cyy =18.5mm

18.5mm

200mm

st

18.5mm

20mm

300mm

107mm

[Ans: I = 111.078 xCompiled 4, I = 39.574 x 107mm4]

by www.studyeasy.in

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-8

Q.8. The R.S. Channel section ISAIC 300 are placed back to

back with required to keep them in place. Determine the

clear distance d between them so that Ixx = Iyy for the

.in

composite section.

sy

Properties of ISMC300 Lacing

Y

ea

C/S Area = 4564mm2

Ixx = 6362.6 x 104mm4 y

ud

23.6mm

st

X X 380mm

Cyy = 23.6mm

d

[Ans: d = 183.1mm]

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in Y

Compiled by www.studyeasy.in EP-9

section shown in figure.

.in

40mm

sy

ea

160mm

y

ud

40mm

st

40mm

90mm

x 104bymm

[Ans: I = 2870.43 Compiled 4, I = 521.64 x 104mm4]

www.studyeasy.in

- phet the moving man simulationЗагружено:api-341972466
- Resonance DPPЗагружено:shambhavi26
- Kinematics ProblemsЗагружено:Gopal Vamssi
- AssignmentЗагружено:Haziq Khaliquzzaman
- Physics of Productivity - Newton's Laws of Getting Stuff DoneЗагружено:Andy Yong
- KinematicsЗагружено:Kevin Nguyen
- 5.154Загружено:ronald stiven bejarano larrahondo
- MotionЗагружено:sajisk
- 1DЗагружено:Sesha Sai Kumar
- How to Calculate Impact Force in the Simplest WayЗагружено:nuwan01
- Motion and EnergyЗагружено:keyur.gala
- Bahan Kuliah: Gerak Satu Dan Dua DimensiЗагружено:Ahmad Ridho
- Homework 2Загружено:kahwahcheong
- 02 - Displacement, Distance, Velocity, Speed.pptxЗагружено:Keith Smith
- 3.(a) Motion in One Dimension(Key Concept & Solved Example)Загружено:PriyankaMishra
- Lab 8a Rotation1Загружено:Kamran
- dynamics project two reportЗагружено:api-465519649
- GPFY_Chapter_18_VelocityAcceleration.docxЗагружено:انس اشرف
- 2.1 Kinematics Guided NotesЗагружено:bob
- فيرست فصل اول 2015-2016 مع الاجابه.pdfЗагружено:معاذ امجد ابو يحيى
- tes semester 1 cad.pdfЗагружено:Poedjoko Rebijantoro
- Maharashtra HSC Physics Paper 1Загружено:shrishti
- AQA Mechanics 1 Revision NotesЗагружено:Tubyle Metonoate
- Intro to VA Terms & Concepts.pdfЗагружено:vignesh_1981_s
- Intro to VA Terms & ConceptsЗагружено:Mohammed Abdalla
- Launch AnalysisЗагружено:Bolarinwa
- 06 uniform motionЗагружено:api-27085921
- Motion in One DimensionЗагружено:Arief B. Prayitno
- Calculating Uniformly Accelerated MotionЗагружено:Brianne Ventoso
- Balloon Powered Car.flvhj'Загружено:Dustinehlae Valdboyashikz

- DOH ProgramsЗагружено:Alyssandra Luceno
- madrasah.pdfЗагружено:Aizer Lorena
- Greater Mpls Council Churches - CEO ProfileЗагружено:Lars Leafblad
- description: tags: gteposepprepЗагружено:anon-943916
- Decolonizing MethodologiesЗагружено:oddodood
- RFP -Training Centre EvaluationЗагружено:ShowryHalder
- 4.Phases in Agricultural DevelopmentЗагружено:akuril
- Ncm 107 CompleteЗагружено:Kamx Mohammed
- Seminar 7Загружено:Света Хоменко
- opportunities to respondЗагружено:api-350339852
- math teksЗагружено:api-25564329
- Politics & PowerЗагружено:zaf
- Benoit de Lestoile, Colonial LegaciesЗагружено:sloz
- CFPS Application FormЗагружено:Khalil Maroun
- Literature Review DraftЗагружено:n_wildes
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ed3345.501.07s taught by Angela Mcnulty (mcnulty)Загружено:UT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Vivek Kr SinghЗагружено:Sai Printers
- Bangkok ServICE Conference ProgramЗагружено:teresattung
- Change Management.pdfЗагружено:elinzola
- resume 1Загружено:api-385501196
- Sap Hr Config AllЗагружено:Sushil Makee
- The Effect of Using the Learning Cycle Method in Teaching Science on the Educational Achievement of the Sixth GradersЗагружено:Witri H'yati
- 2019 COM UG HandbookЗагружено:Nombeko Mbava
- res 5+Загружено:krishnamavuri
- Financial AccountingЗагружено:Zeeshan Ali Anjum
- Dr. Sarvepalli RadhakrishnaЗагружено:Shawn Sriram
- Report on FreightЗагружено:Minhaz Uddin
- Ssg Club HuntingЗагружено:Mark Angelo S. Enriquez
- sustainable windmill lesson planЗагружено:api-451107393
- Bettelheim Psychoanalysis and EducationЗагружено:Ignacio Fuentes

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.