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Though the words “green” and “sustainable” are often used interchangeably, there are several differences
between them, meaning that a “green” building is not always “sustainable.”
A building is green when it helps reduce the footprint it leaves on the natural environment and on the health of
its inhabitants.

(Green means: using less. Saving. While sustainable deals about how to help mother nature? Climate change?)
Green home design includes building for energy efficiency, including the use of renewable energy sources such
as wind, water, or solar; creating a healthy indoor environment; implementing natural ventilation systems; and
using construction materials that minimise the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the home.
The use of materials and resources that are sustainable, have low embodied energy, and produce a minimal
environmental impact are key elements in green construction, as is the efficient use of water by appliances,
faucets and shower heads, the recycling of grey water, and the reuse of rain water for landscaping and other
non-potable purposes.
While the definition of green is relatively simple, sustainability has a more precise meaning derived from the
term “sustainable agriculture,” which is the production of any plant or animal products using farming techniques
that protect the environment, public health, human communities, and animal welfare without compromising
future generations’ ability to do the same.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability “creates and maintains the
conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social,
economic and other requirements of present and future generations.”
The importance of sustainability lies in the “future” factors, which set a higher standard than those used to
define green building.
Sustainable products reduce the impact on the environment by using responsibly-sourced products; those that
are either completely renewable or sustainably harvested. A sustainably harvested source material is gathered
in a way that does not affect the surrounding area, pollute the air or permanently reduce the supply.

In ecology, the word “sustainable” describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time.
For humans, it describes the potential for long-term maintenance of well-being, which in turn depends on the
well-being of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources
A very clear example of the difference between “green” and “sustainable,” can be the popular “green” bamboo
flooring. There is no doubt that a lumber product made from a renewable resource is green, but most bamboo
flooring is made in China and transported by ships and trucks to different countries all around the world. The
air pollution caused and the fuel used to transport the material turn it into the opposite of a sustainable material,
since it contributes to global climate change.
Another example can be the wood used to build a house. While wood is generally considered an eco-friendly or
green product because it is natural and durable, it is not always sustainable. Wood is sustainable if the company
that cuts down the trees does not permanently deplete the forest. If it is harvested in an environmentally
irresponsible way, it is not sustainable at all.

Following this reasoning, it is very important to evaluate the way materials are produced and transported. Using
reclaimed wood or FSC Controlled wood, can be both “green” and “sustainable.”
Only a house that meets zero energy standards – with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions
– can be considered sustainable. Buildings that contribute to urban sprawl and large homes which consume high
levels of energy and resources can not be considered sustainable.
Architect Robert Stern, Dean of the Yale School of Architecture, noted that “in ten years we are not going to talk
about sustainability anymore, because it is going to be built into the core processes of architecture.”
With its growth in the architecture industry, claiming a building is sustainable will eventually be like an architect
getting up in front of an audience to “proudly proclaim how his buildings did not fall down.”
My personal definition of “green” is relatively simple. A home’s design is “green” if its serves to reduce many of
the harmful impacts buildings have on our environment and our home’s inhabitants. So “green” home design
revolves around four key issues:
1. Designing for energy efficiency including the use of renewal energy sources such as wind, geothermal, and solar.
2. Creating a healthy indoor air environment with adequate ventilation and making material choices that minimize
volatile organic compound (VOC’s) outgassing within the home.
3. Specifying building materials and resources that are sustainable, have low embodied energy, and produce a
minimal amount of upstream environmental impact.
4. Providing for the efficient use of water via appliance, faucet, and shower head choices and in arid climates by
xeroscaping and recycling grey water and capturing rain water for landscaping and other non-potable uses.

In the context of our built environment sustainable takes its meaning from “sustainable agriculture“, or “the
ability…to produce food indefinitely, without causing irreversible damage to ecosystem health”.


Sustainability is a broad discipline, giving students and graduates insights into most aspects of the human world
from business to technology to environment and the social sciences. The core skills with which a graduates
leaves college or university are highly sought after, especially in a modern world looking to drastically reduce
carbon emissions and discover and develop the technologies of the future. Sustainability draws on politics,
economics and, philosophy and other social sciences as well as the hard sciences. Sustainability skills and
environmental awareness is a priority in many corporate jobs at graduate level and over as businesses seek to
adhere to new legislation. Therefore, Sustainability graduates will go into many fields but most commonly civic
planning, environmental consultancy (built and natural environment), agriculture, not for profit, corporate
strategies, health assessment and planning, and even into law and decision making. Entry-level jobs are growing
and over the coming years, bachelors graduates can expect more and more options and opportunities.
Sustainability is one the newest degree subjects that attempts to bridge social science with civic engineering
and environmental science with the technology of the future. When we hear the word “sustainability” we tend
to think of renewable fuel sources, reducing carbon emissions, protecting environments and a way of keeping
the delicate ecosystems of our planet in balance. In short, sustainability looks to protect our natural
environment, human and ecological health, while driving innovation and not compromising our way of life.
Because of this growing requirement, a master's will not necessarily be required for most jobs as bachelor's
programs (and in some cases lower than this) prepares people for a career in sustainability. Read more about
the various sustainability degrees and education.

The definition of “sustainability” is the study of how natural systems function, remain diverse and produce
everything it needs for the ecology to remain in balance. It also acknowledges that human civilisation takes
resources to sustain our modern way of life (1). There are countless examples throughout human history where
a civilisation has damaged its own environment and seriously affected its own survival chances (some of which
Jared Diamond explores in his book Collapse: How Complex Societies Choose to Fail or Survive (10)).
Sustainability takes into account how we might live in harmony with the natural world around us, protecting it
from damage and destruction.
We now live in a modern, consumerist and largely urban existence throughout the developed world and we
consume a lot of natural resources every day. In our urban centres, we consume more power than those who
live in rural settings (2, p3-4) and urban centres use a lot more power than average, keeping our streets and
civic buildings lit, to power our appliances, our heating and other public and household power requirements.
That's not to say that sustainable living should only focus on people who live in urban centres though, there are
improvements to be made everywhere - it is estimated that we use about 40% more resources every year than
we can put back and that needs to change (3, p2). Sustainability and sustainable development focuses on
balancing that fine line between competing needs - our need to move forward technologically and economically,
and the needs to protect the environments in which we and others live. Sustainability is not just about the
environment (4), it's also about our health as a society in ensuring that no people or areas of life suffer as a
result of environmental legislation, and it's also about examining the longer term effects of the actions humanity
takes and asking questions about how it may be improved (2).

The Three Pillars of Sustainability

In 2005, the World Summit on Social Development identified three core areas that contribute to the philosophy
and social science of sustainable development. These “pillars” in many national standards and certification
schemes, form the backbone of tackling the core areas that the world now faces. The Brundtland Commission
described it as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs" (6). We must consider the future then, in making our decisions about the

Economic Development
This is the issue that proves the most problematic as most people disagree on political ideology what is and is
not economically sound, and how it will affect businesses and by extension, jobs and employability (2, p4). It is
also about providing incentives for businesses and other organisations to adhere to sustainability guidelines
beyond their normal legislative requirements. Also, to encourage and foster incentives for the average person
to do their bit where and when they can; one person can rarely achieve much, but taken as a group, effects in
some areas are cumulative. The supply and demand market is consumerist in nature and modern life requires a
lot of resources every single day (6); for the sake of the environment, getting what we consume under control
is the paramount issue. Economic development is about giving people what they want without compromising
quality of life, especially in the developing world, and reducing the financial burden and “red tape” of doing the
right thing.
Social Development
There are many facets to this pillar. Most importantly is awareness of and legislation protection of the health of
people from pollution and other harmful activities of business and other organisations (6). In North America,
Europe and the rest of the developed world, there are strong checks and programmes of legislation in place to
ensure that people's health and wellness is strongly protected. It is also about maintaining access to basic
resources without compromising the quality of life. The biggest hot topic for many people right now is
sustainable housing and how we can better build the homes we live in from sustainable material. The final
element is education - encouraging people to participate in environmental sustainability and teaching them
about the effects of environmental protection as well as warning of the dangers if we cannot achieve our
goals (7, p7-12).
Environmental Protection
We all know what we need to do to protect the environment, whether that is recycling, reducing our power
consumption by switching electronic devices off rather than using standby, by walking short journeys instead of
taking the bus. Businesses are regulated to prevent pollution and to keep their own carbon emissions low. There
are incentives to installing renewable power sources in our homes and businesses. Environmental protection is
the third pillar and to many, the primary concern of the future of humanity. It defines how we should study and
protect ecosystems, air quality, integrity and sustainability of our resources and focusing on the elements that
place stress on the environment (6). It also concerns how technology will drive our greener future; the EPA
recognized that developing technology is key to this sustainability, and protecting the environment of the future
from potential damage that technological advances could potentially bring (1).
What are the Primary Goals of Sustainability?
The sustainable development professional network thinks, acts and works globally. In 2012, the United Nations
Conference on Sustainable Development met to discuss and develop a set of goals to work towards; they grew
out of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that claimed success in reducing global poverty while
acknowledging there was still much more to do. The SDG eventually came up with a list of 17 items (8) which
included amongst other things:
 The end of poverty and hunger
 Better standards of education and healthcare - particularly as it pertains to water quality and better sanitation
 To achieve gender equality
 Sustainable economic growth while promoting jobs and stronger economies
 All of the above and more while tackling the effects of climate change, pollution and other environmental factors
that can harm and do harm people's health, livelihoods and lives.
 Sustainability to include health of the land, air and sea
Finally, it acknowledged the concept of nature having certain rights - that people have stewardship of the world
and the importance of putting people at the forefront of solving the above global issues (9) through
management of the environment and of consumption (for example, reducing packaging and discouraging food
waste as well as promoting the use of recyclable materials).
History of Sustainability
Humans have, since the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution and maybe even before then, been a consumer rather
than a replenisher of environmental resources. From hunter-gatherer societies that moved into an area to use
up its resources in a season before setting up camp or moving on, only to return the following year to do the
same, the development of a surplus economy saw permanent settlements. Slash and burn farming replaced
natural wilderness often with uniform crop plantation (11, p2483) and camps gave way to settlements, then
eventually villages, towns and cities which would put pressure on the environment.
Sometimes, the environmental pressures forced people into making these changes in the first place (growing
human population being one of those pressures) and often eventually they had to move on to somewhere new
where the environmental could better sustain them and their practices, or make further changes to their
existing environment. There was no real concept of sustainable living, even if the people of the distant past
understood that soil had a maximum fertility that could be exhausted and replenished with livestock.
It is widely acknowledged that many societies collapsed due to an inability to adapt to the conditions brought
on by these unsustainable practices (10). Whether that was introducing alien species that upset the balance of
the ecosystem, cutting down too many trees at once or even a failure to adapt to natural fluctuations in the
climate, we are far more aware in the modern world about the potential damage caused by human action.
Cultural change often led to survival of those societies beyond what might have been expected under the
circumstances (11, p2485).
Though some Renaissance and Enlightenment philosophers would express concern about resources and over-
population and whether these were sustainable in the long term, these people were not taken seriously at the
time other than as a hypothetical question. It would take until the 20 th century before we would understand the
impact that we could have on our environment. Environmental damage, pollution, destabilising soils by cutting
down trees, fossil fuels and other environmental issues led to a growing concern about the environment and
whether we were or could damage our own ecosystem. The United Nations was founded after World War II and
in 1945, UNESCO was established to promote the importance of human culture and of science (14). Today, their
remit is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and
intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information" (15).
By the late 20th century, the science of climate change was firmly established. We knew by the 1980s about the
problems of the greenhouse effect and the destruction of the ozone layer (12) and coming very late in the
century, an awareness of the notion that some of our resources - particularly fossil fuels - were finite and that
we should make efforts to move to renewable methods of power. It was then that we saw the the social,
economic and scientific birth of the environmental movement.
A Sustainable Future
It is not yet clear what our sustainable future will look like but with emerging technologies and the improvement
of older cleaner fuel sources, many people now look to a post fossil fuel world - including businesses. Since the
1950s, we have experienced unprecedented growth including intensive farming, a technological revolution and
a massive increase in our power needs (13, p2) putting even greater pressure and strain on the planet's
resources. We are also far more aware of the plight of the developing world and that facing our planet as we
now observe both natural and human-caused disasters and the effects that these can have on the ecosystems
and on human population. It's vital that we develop new, cleaner technologies to cope with our energy demands
but sustainability is not just about the environment.
The biggest social activism movement related to the social development side of sustainability, has been
programs such as Fair Trade and the Rainforest Alliance in encouraging good farming practices while ensuring
farmers who produce luxury goods such as coffee and cocoa receive a decent living wage (14). Activist and
sustainability professionals hope to remove trade barriers in future so that they may benefit everyone,
contributing to the economic and social development core of sustainability while promoting good
environmental practice (16).

In ecology, sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and
productive indefinitely. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological
systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing
principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains:
ecology, economics, politics and culture. Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and
environmental science.
Sustainability can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common
ideal. An ideal is by definition unattainable in a given time/space but endlessly approachable and it is this endless
pursuit that forms a sustainable system in the process (ibid). Healthy ecosystems and environments are
necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact
are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental
protection. Information is gained from green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation
biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and
natural ecosystems.

Moving towards sustainability is also a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban
planning and transport, local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably
can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions (e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable
cities), reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or work practices
(sustainable architecture), using science to develop new technologies (green technologies, renewable
energy and sustainable fission and fusion power), or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, and
adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources.
"The term 'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium
(homeostasis), while 'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead
us to the end point of sustainability." Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability",
the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, and continues to be,
questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, overconsumption, population growth and
societies' pursuit of indefinite economic growth in a closed system.

Wind Turbines
turbine that it says will be less noisy and bird friendly. The cylindrical turbine generates electricity by harnessing
the vibration caused by the wind. A generator then converts the resulting kinetic energy into electricity. “Wind
turbines now are too noisy for people’s backyard,” says David Suriol, co-founder of the company. “We want to
bring wind power generation to people’s houses like solar power.”

Wind turbines
The use of undersized wind turbines in energy production in sustainable structures requires the consideration
of many factors. In considering costs, small wind systems are generally more expensive than larger wind turbines
relative to the amount of energy they produce. For small wind turbines, maintenance costs can be a deciding
factor at sites with marginal wind-harnessing capabilities. At low-wind sites, maintenance can consume much
of a small wind turbine's revenue.[7] Wind turbines begin operating when winds reach 8 mph, achieve energy
production capacity at speeds of 32-37 mph, and shut off to avoid damage at speeds exceeding 55 mph.[7] The
energy potential of a wind turbine is proportional to the square of the length of its blades and to the cube of
the speed at which its blades spin. Though wind turbines are available that can supplement power for a single
building, because of these factors, the efficiency of the wind turbine depends much upon the wind conditions
at the building site. For these reasons, for wind turbines to be at all efficient, they must be installed at locations
that are known to receive a constant amount of wind (with average wind speeds of more than 15 mph), rather
than locations that receive wind sporadically.[8] A small wind turbine can be installed on a roof. Installation issues
then include the strength of the roof, vibration, and the turbulence caused by the roof ledge. Small-scale rooftop
wind turbines have been known to be able to generate power from 10% to up to 25% of the electricity required
of a regular domestic household dwelling.[9] Turbines for residential scale use are usually between 7 feet (2 m)
to 25 feet (8 m) in diameter and produce electricity at a rate of 900 watts to 10,000 watts at their tested wind
speed.[10] Building integrated wind turbine performance can be enhanced with the addition of an aerofoil wing
on top of a roof mounted turbine

Solar water heating

Solar water heaters, also called solar domestic hot water systems, can be a cost-effective way to generate hot
water for a home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use—sunshine—is free.[12]
There are two types of solar water systems- active and passive. An active solar collector system can produce
about 80 to 100 gallons of hot water per day. A passive system will have a lower capacity.[13]
There are also two types of circulation, direct circulation systems and indirect circulation systems. Direct
circulation systems loop the domestic water through the panels. They should not be used in climates with
temperatures below freezing. Indirect circulation loops glycol or some other fluid through the solar panels and
uses a heat exchanger to heat up the domestic water.
The two most common types of collector panels are Flat-Plate and Evacuated-tube. The two work similarly
except that evacuated tubes do not convectively lose heat, which greatly improves their efficiency (5%-25%
more efficient). With these higher efficiencies, Evacuated-tube solar collectors can also produce higher-
temperature space heating, and even higher temperatures for absorption cooling systems.[14]
Electric-resistance water heaters that are common in homes today have an electrical demand around
4500 kW·h/year. With the use of solar collectors, the energy use is cut in half. The up-front cost of installing
solar collectors is high, but with the annual energy savings, payback periods are relatively short

Heat pumps
Air-source heat pumps (ASHP) can be thought of as reversible air conditioners. Like an air conditioner, an ASHP
can take heat from a relatively cool space (e.g. a house at 70 °F) and dump it into a hot place (e.g. outside at
85 °F). However, unlike an air conditioner, the condenser and evaporator of an ASHP can switch roles and absorb
heat from the cool outside air and dump it into a warm house.
Air-source heat pumps are inexpensive relative to other heat pump systems. However, the efficiency of air-
source heat pumps decline when the outdoor temperature is very cold or very hot; therefore, they are only
really applicable in temperate climates.[14]
For areas not located in temperate climates, ground-source (or geothermal) heat pumps provide an efficient
alternative. The difference between the two heat pumps is that the ground-source has one of its heat
exchangers placed underground—usually in a horizontal or vertical arrangement. Ground-source takes
advantage of the relatively constant, mild temperatures underground, which means their efficiencies can be
much greater than that of an air-source heat pump. The in-ground heat exchanger generally needs a
considerable amount of area. Designers have placed them in an open area next to the building or underneath a
parking lot.
Energy Star ground-source heat pumps can be 40% to 60% more efficient than their air-source counterparts.
They are also quieter and can also be applied to other functions like domestic hot water heating. [14]
In terms of initial cost, the ground-source heat pump system costs about twice as much as a standard air-source
heat pump to be installed. However, the up-front costs can be more than offset by the decrease in energy costs.
The reduction in energy costs is especially apparent in areas with typically hot summers and cold winters. [14]
Other types of heat pumps are water-source and air-earth. If the building is located near a body of water, the
pond or lake could be used as a heat source or sink. Air-earth heat pumps circulate the building's air through
underground ducts. With higher fan power requirements and inefficient heat transfer, Air-earth heat pumps are
generally not practical for major construction.

Solar control glass

Solar control glass is a hi-tech product developed by the glass industry to allow sunlight to pass through a
window or façade while radiating and reflecting away a large degree of the sun’s heat. The indoor space stays
bright and much cooler than would be the case if normal glass were used.
 Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range
from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down
even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
This geothermal power plant generates electricity for the Imperial Valley in California. Credit: Warren Gretz
Most power plants need steam to generate electricity. The steam rotates a turbine that activates a generator,
which produces electricity. Many power plants still use fossil fuels to boil water for steam. Geothermal power
plants, however, use steam produced from reservoirs of hot water found a couple of miles or more below the
Earth's surface. There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle.
Dry steam power plants draw from underground resources of steam. The steam is piped directly from
underground wells to the power plant, where it is directed into a turbine/generator unit. There are only two
known underground resources of steam in the United States: The Geysers in northern California and
Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, where there's a well-known geyser called Old Faithful. Since Yellowstone
is protected from development, the only dry steam plants in the country are at The Geysers.
Flash steam power plants are the most common. They use geothermal reservoirs of water with temperatures
greater than 360°F (182°C). This very hot water flows up through wells in the ground under its own pressure. As
it flows upward, the pressure decreases and some of the hot water boils into steam. The steam is then separated
from the water and used to power a turbine/generator. Any leftover water and condensed steam are injected
back into the reservoir, making this a sustainable resource.
Binary cycle power plants operate on water at lower temperatures of about 225°-360°F (107°-182°C). These
plants use the heat from the hot water to boil a working fluid, usually an organic compound with a low boiling
point. The working fluid is vaporized in a heat exchanger and used to turn a turbine. The water is then injected
back into the ground to be reheated. The water and the working fluid are kept separated during the whole
process, so there are little or no air emissions.
Small-scale geothermal power plants (under 5 megawatts) have the potential for widespread application in rural
areas, possibly even as distributed energy resources. Distributed energy resources refer to a variety of small,
modular power-generating technologies that can be combined to improve the operation of the electricity
delivery system.
In the United States, most geothermal reservoirs are located in the western states, Alaska, and Hawaii.

 Ocean (Tidal) Energy

Tidal power is taken from the Earth's oceanic tides. Tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction
exerted by celestial bodies. These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. Due
to the strong attraction to the oceans, a bulge in the water level is created, causing a temporary increase in sea
level. When the sea level is raised, water from the middle of the ocean is forced to move toward the shorelines,
creating a tide. This occurrence takes place in an unfailing manner, due to the consistent pattern of the moon’s
orbit around the earth.[6] The magnitude and character of this motion reflects the changing positions of the
Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the effects of Earth's rotation, and local geography of the sea floor and
Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics of the Earth–
Moon system, and to a lesser extent in the Earth–Sun system. Other natural energies exploited by human
technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, including fossil fuel, conventional
hydroelectric, wind, biofuel, wave and solar energy. Nuclear energy makes use of Earth's mineral deposits
of fissionable elements, while geothermal power taps the Earth's internal heat, which comes from a
combination of residual heat from planetary accretion (about 20%) and heat produced through radioactive
decay (80%).[7]
A tidal generator converts the energy of tidal flows into electricity. Greater tidal variation and higher tidal
current velocities can dramatically increase the potential of a site for tidal electricity generation.
Because the Earth's tides are ultimately due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun and the Earth's
rotation, tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy resource. Movement of
tides causes a loss of mechanical energy in the Earth–Moon system: this is a result of pumping of water through
natural restrictions around coastlines and consequent viscousdissipation at the seabed and in turbulence. This
loss of energy has caused the rotation of the Earth to slow in the 4.5 billion years since its formation. During the
last 620 million years the period of rotation of the earth (length of a day) has increased from 21.9 hours to
24 hours;[8] in this period the Earth has lost 17% of its rotational energy. While tidal power will take additional
energy from the system, the effect[clarification needed] is negligible and would only be noticed over millions of years.[9]
 Hydropower
power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful
purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable
energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such
as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe, which
produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance.
In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland
was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878[1] and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant
was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower.
Since the early 20th century, the term has been used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern
development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a
means for development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere,[2] but dams can have
significant negative social and environmental impacts.[3]

 Biomass
We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"—the energy from plants and plant-derived materials—since
people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource
today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants,
residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial
wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as
a biomass energy source.
Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels.
In such scenarios, biomass can provide an array of benefits. For example:
The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Burning biomass
releases about the same amount of carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon
dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago—an essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Biomass, on
the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth
(depending how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel). However, recent studies have
found that clearing forests to grow biomass results in a carbon penalty that takes decades to recoup, so it is best
if biomass is grown on previously cleared land, such as under-utilized farm land.
The use of biomass can reduce dependence on foreign oil because biofuels are the only renewable liquid
transportation fuels available.
Biomass energy supports U.S. agricultural and forest-product industries. The main biomass feedstocks for power
are paper mill residue, lumber mill scrap, and municipal waste. For biomass fuels, the most common feedstocks
used today are corn grain (for ethanol) and soybeans (for biodiesel). In the near future—and with NREL-
developed technology—agricultural residues such as corn stover (the stalks, leaves, and husks of the plant) and
wheat straw will also be used. Long-term plans include growing and using dedicated energy crops, such as fast-
growing trees and grasses, and algae. These feedstocks can grow sustainably on land that will not support
intensive food crops.

 Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

Cogeneration (cogen) through combined heat and power (CHP) is the simultaneous production of electricity
with the recovery and utilisation heat. Cogeneration is a highly efficient form of energy conversion and it can
achieve primary energy savings of approximately 40% by compared to the separate purchase of electricity from
the national electricity grid and a gas boiler for onsite heating. Combined heat and power plants are typically
embedded close to the end user and therefore help reduce transportation and distribution losses, improving
the overall performance of the electricity transmission and distribution network (see district energy for more
details). For power users where security of supply is an important factor for their selection of power production
equipment and gas is abundant, gas-based cogeneration systems are ideally suited as captive power plants (i.e.
power plants located at site of use).

Benefits of Gas Engine CHP

The high efficiency of a CHP plant compared with conventional bought in electricity and site-produced heat
provides a number of benefits including
 On site production of power
 Reduced energy costs
 Reduction in emissions compared to conventional electrical generators and onsite boilers
Heat Sources from a Gas Engine
The heat from the generator is available in from 5 key areas:
1. Engine jacket cooling water
2. Engine lubrication oil cooling
3. First stage air intake intercooler
4. Engine exhaust gases
5. Engine generator radiated heat, second stage intercooler
1, 2 and 3 are recoverable in the form of hot water, typically on a 70/90˚C flow return basis and can be interfaced
with the site at a plate heat exchanger.
The engine exhaust gases typically leave the engine at between 400 and 500˚C. This can be used directly for
drying, in a waste heat boiler to generate steam, or via an exhaust gas heat exchanger combining with the heat
from the cooling circuits. 5. The heat from the second stage intercooler is also available for recovery as a lower
grade heat. Alternatively new technologies are available for the conversion of heat to further electricity, such
as the Organic Rankine Cycle Engine.
CHP applications
A variety of different fuels can be used to facilitate cogeneration. In gas engine applications CHP equipment is
typically applied to natural gas (commercial, residential and industrial applications), biogas and coal
gas applications.


Established: 1993
Country: US
Net zero: 2050

A Green Building Council (GBC) is national non-profit, non-government organization that is part of a
global network recognized by the World Green Building Council . GBCs are "transparent, consensus-based, not-
for-profit coalition-based organizations with no private ownership and diverse and integrated representation
from all sectors of the property industry;" and their overarching goal is promote a transformation of the built
environment towards one that is sustainable (buildings and cities that are environmentally sensitive,
economically viable, socially just and culturally significant).
The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), co-founded by current CEO Rick Fedrizzi, Mike Italiano, and
David Gottfried in 1993, is a private 501(c)3, membership-based non-profit organization that promotes
sustainability in buildings design, construction, and operation. USGBC is best known for its development of
the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating systems and its annual
Greenbuild International Conference and Expo, the world’s largest conference and expo dedicated to green
building. USGBC was one of eight national councils that helped found the World Green Building
Council (WorldGBC), of which USGBC CEO Rick Fedrizzi is the current chair, in 1999.[1]
Through its partnership with the Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI), USGBC offers a suite of LEED
professional credentials that denote expertise in the field of green building. USGBC incentivizes LEED
certification by awarding extra certification points to building projects completed with a LEED-certified
professional on staff.

The World Green Building Council announced last week that it had joined the effort to ensure that all buildings
around the world are net zero—meaning that they produce as much energy as they consume over their life
cycles—by 2050.
At the Paris climate conference last year, WorldGBC, its 74 national green building councils, and their 27,000
member companies committed to an 84-gigatonne carbon dioxide cut by 2050 through net zero buildings and
“deep renovation” practices. The program will begin with national councils in Australia, Brazil, Canada,
Germany, India, The Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden working with Architecture 2030 as technical
“The success of our ambitions to keep global warming to within 1.5 to 2° will depend on our ability to advance
net zero buildings—those which generate clean energy and produce no net emissions,” WorldGBC CEO Terri
Wills told the Business and Climate Summit in London last week. “Getting down to zero won’t be easy. This will
be a long and challenging road,” but “we can create a thriving market for highly efficient buildings and make net
zero the new normal.”
The WorldGBC plan calls for new buildings to hit the net zero standard by 2030, and all buildings to follow suit
by 2050. That will mean training 75,000 net zero building professionals world-wide by 2030 and 300,000 by
2050, and ensuring that all national green building councils with certification schemes introduce net zero tools
by 2030.
“Under this new project, WorldGBC and Architecture 2030 will work directly with participating GBCs to
transform these commitments into actions,” Architecture 2030 commented. “This collaboration marks a critical
inception point that will align disparate efforts across the industry and set the stage for global adoption of net
zero standards.” (h/t to Architecture 2030 for pointing us to this story)

Established: by USGBC in 1994
Country: US
NET zero:
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green
building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U.S. Green Building
Council (USGBC) it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of
green buildings, homes, and neighborhoods that aims to help building owners and operators
be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently.

From 1994 to 2015, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of
interrelated standards covering aspects from the design and construction to the maintenance and operation of
buildings. LEED also has grown from six volunteers on one committee to 119,924 staff, volunteers and
professionals.[9] LEED standards have been applied to approximately 83,452 registered and certified LEED
projects worldwide, covering around 13.8 billion square feet (1.28 billion square meters).
Many U.S. federal agencies and states and local governments require or reward LEED certification. However,
four states (Alabama, Georgia, Maine, and Mississippi) have effectively banned the use of LEED in new public
buildings, preferring other industry standards that the USGBC considers too lax.
Unlike model building codes, such as the International Building Code, only members of the USGBC and specific
"in-house" committees may add to, subtract from, or edit the standard, subject to an internal review process.
Proposals to modify the LEED standards are offered and publicly reviewed by USGBC's member organizations,
which number almost 12,216.
USGBC's Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI) offers various accreditation to people who demonstrate
knowledge of the LEED rating system, including LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP), LEED Green Associate
and since 2011, LEED Fellows, the highest designation for LEED professionals. GBCI also certifies projects
pursuing LEED.

What is LEED certification?

 LEED projects earn points by adhering to prerequisites and credits across nine measurements for building
excellence from integrative process to indoor environmental quality.Prerequisites are required elements, or
green-building strategies that must be included in any LEED certified project. Credits are optional elements, or
strategies that projects pursue to gain points toward LEED certification.
 Credits are developed through several rounds of public comments and in collaboration with the USGBC board,
broader membership and staff. As market readiness increases and new technologies become widely available,
credits adapt to improve the value and environmental integrity of building projects.
 Based on the number of credits achieved, a project earns one of four LEED rating levels: LEED Certified, LEED
Silver, LEED Gold or LEED Platinum. The LEED rating systems work for all buildings at all phases of development
and are meant to challenge project teams and inspire outside-the-box solutions.
 The Green Business Certification Inc., or GBCI, provides third-party technicians the training and expertise
necessary to review and verify building quality and integrity.
 LEED is driving international green building practices with more than 82,000 projects participating in LEED across
162 countries and territories worldwide and 1.85 million square feet of construction space certifying everyday.
USGBC estimates that nearly five million people experience a LEED building on a daily basis.
The benefits of LEED are clear
 LEED certification guarantees that new and existing green buildings achieve high performance in key areas of
human and environmental health.
 LEED buildings consistently set the market rate for commercial real estate in highly competitive markets,
demonstrating that sustainability now rates as a key factor in market valuations of real estate portfolios.
 LEED projects save energy and resources and are responsible for diverting over 80 million tons of waste from
landfills. Compared to the average commercial building in the General Services Administration’s portfolio, LEED
Gold buildings consume a quarter less energy and generate 34 percent lower greenhouse gas emissions.
 By letting in clean air and access to daylight, LEED creates healthy spaces that increase recruitment, retention
and productivity rates amongst employees.
 LEED buildings attract tenants with LEED building lease-up rates ranging from average to 20 percent above
 And between 2008 and 2012, firms increased green building from 17 percent to 30 percent with the primary
purpose of achieving lower operating costs.
 LEED buildings can be compared across the globe — a LEED certified building in India is the same level and high
quality structure as a LEED certified building in the U.S., in China or anywhere else.
 A recent economic impact study, 2015 Green Building Economic Impact Study, released by USGBC and prepared
by Booz Allen Hamilton found that by 2018, the total impact of green construction will reach more than 3.3
million U.S. jobs and $190.3 billion in labor earnings, with LEED projects responsible for contributing to 1.1
million green construction jobs.
LEED is flexible
 LEED provides building owners and operators with a framework for identifying and implementing practical and
measurable green building strategies for all building types from commercial buildings to entire neighborhood
 There are five primary LEED Rating Systems: LEED Building Design and Construction (BD+C); LEED for Interior
Design and Construction (ID+C); LEED for Building Operations and Maintenance (O+M), LEED for Neighborhood
Development (LEED ND) and LEED Homes. Each of the five primary LEED rating systems are broken down into
subsections based on the type of building project.
 The LEED green building rating system has gone through several evolutions since it was originally introduced in
2000. With its initial launch, LEED opened a new chapter in building design, construction, management and
operation that led to the advent of new energy efficiency and environmental sustainability technologies and
gave rise to a full blown industry dedicated to supporting green buildings.
 LEED was developed with a philosophy that recognizes buildings function more like living, breathing
organisms. Modern buildings are a collection of systems working together in order to help the building perform.
Just as is the case with the human body, if any of these systems are not working well together, the building as a
whole suffers. LEED v4 represents the most innovative approach to integrating these systems in order to ensure
optimal standards in human health and environmental sustainability.
 LEED v4 is the newest version of the world's premier benchmark for high-performance green buildings. With
contiguous improvement as an integral part of its DNA, LEED is a market driven green building rating
system. LEED v4 has ushered in substantial changes to make LEED more accessible to a wider range of building
and space types so they can achieve higher levels of environmental sustainability, while also making more
flexible for projects outside of the United States to adopt LEED and achieve LEED certification. Changes include:
o A focus on materials that goes beyond how much is used to get to a better understanding of what is in the
materials, and the effect these components have on human health and the environment.
o A more performance-based approach to indoor environmental quality to ensure improved occupant comfort.
o Brings the benefits of smart-grid thinking to the forefront with a credit that rewards projects for participating in
demand response programs
o Provides a clearer picture of water efficiency by evaluating total building water use

Benefits and disadvantages

LEED certified buildings are intended to use resources more efficiently when compared to conventional
buildings simply built to code. However, analysis of energy and water use data from New York City shows that
LEED certification does not necessarily make a building more energy or water efficient.[58]
Often, when a LEED rating is pursued, the cost of initial design and construction rises. There may be a lack of
abundant availability of manufactured building components that meet LEED specifications. Pursuing LEED
certification for a project is an added cost in itself as well. This added cost comes in the form of USGBC
correspondence, LEED design-aide consultants, and the hiring of the required Commissioning Authority (CxA)—
all of which would not necessarily be included in an environmentally responsible project, unless it also sought a
LEED rating.
However, these higher initial costs can be effectively mitigated by the savings incurred over time due to the
lower-than-industry-standard operational costs typical of a LEED certified building. This Life cycle costing is a
method for assessing the total cost of ownership, taking into account all costs of acquiring, owning and
operating, and the eventual disposal of a building. Additional economic payback may come in the form of
employee productivity gains incurred as a result of working in a healthier environment. Studies suggest that an
initial up-front investment of 2% extra yields over ten times that initial investment over the life cycle of the
Further, the USGBC has stated support for the Architecture 2030, an effort that has set a goal of using no fossil-
fuel, greenhouse-gas-emitting energy to operate by 2030.
In the progression of sustainable design from simply meeting local buildings codes to USGBC LEED (Certified,
Silver, Gold and Platinum) to the Architecture 2030 Challenge, the Living Building Challenge is currently the most
stringent sustainable design protocol. The LBC sets 20 imperatives that compel building owners, designers,
operators and tenants beyond current USGBC LEED rating levels.
LEED is a design tool and not a performance measurement tool. It is also not yet climate-specific, although the
newest version hopes to address this weakness partially. Because of this, designers may make materials or
design choices that garner a LEED point, even though they may not be the most site- or climate-appropriate
choice available. On top of this, LEED is also not energy-specific. Since it only measures the overall performances,
builders are free to choose how to achieve points under various categories. A USA TODAY review showed that
7,100 certified commercial building projects targeted easy and cheap green points, such as creating healthy
spaces and providing educational displays in the building. Few builders would really adopt renewable energy
because the generators for those energy resources, such as solar photovoltaic, are costly. Builders game the
rating system and use certain performances to compensate for the others, making energy conservation the
weakest part in the overall evaluation.
LEED is a measurement tool for green building in the United States and it is developed and continuously
modified by workers in the green building industry, especially in the ten largest metro areas in the U.S.; however,
LEED certified buildings have been slower to penetrate small and mid-major markets. Also, some criticism
suggests that the LEED rating system is not sensitive and does not vary enough with regard to local
environmental conditions. For instance, a building in Maine would receive the same credit as a building
in Arizona for water conservation, though the principle is more important in the latter case. Another complaint
is that its certification costs require money that could be used to make the building in question even more
sustainable. Many critics have noted that compliance and certification costs have grown faster than staff
support from the USGBC.
For existing buildings LEED has developed LEED-EB. Research has demonstrated that buildings that can achieve
LEED-EB equivalencies can generate a tremendous ROI[citation needed]. In a 2008 white paper by the Leonardo
Academy comparing LEED-EB buildings vs. data from BOMA's Experience Exchange Report 2007 demonstrated
LEED-EB certified buildings achieved superior operating cost savings in 63% of the buildings surveyed ranging
from $4.94 to $15.59 per square foot of floor space, with an average valuation of $6.68 and a median valuation
of $6.07.
In addition the overall cost of LEED-EB implementation and certification ranged from $0.00 to $6.46 per square
foot of floor space, with an average of $2.43 per square foot demonstrating that implementation is not
expensive, especially in comparison to cost savings. These costs should be significantly reduced if automation
and technology are integrated into the implementation.

What is LEED?
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is an internationally recognized green building
certification system, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built
using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water
efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and
sensitivity to their impacts.
Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), LEED provides building owners and operators a concise
framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction,
operations and maintenance solutions.
LEED is flexible enough to apply to all building types – commercial as well as residential. It works throughout the
building lifecycle – design and construction, operations and maintenance, tenant fitout, and significant retrofit.
And LEED for Neighborhood Development extends the benefits of LEED beyond the building footprint into the
neighborhood it serves.
LEED provides a point system to score green building design and construction. The system is categorized in five
basic areas: Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and Resources, and Indoor
Environmental Quality. Buildings are awarded points based on the extent various sustainable strategies are
achieved. The more points awarded the higher the level of certification achieved from Certified, Silver, Gold, to
At Boston University sustainability is becoming integrated into the design and construction process. Rather than
a point system, LEED provides a sustainability framework for design, construction, operations, and maintenance
of new and existing buildings. Four LEED certification systems apply to the BU campus including Building Design
and Construction, Core and Shell, Interior Design and Construction, and Operations and Maintenance.


A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE) building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net
zero building, is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the
building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site,[1][2] or in
other definitions by renewable energy sources elsewhere.[3] These buildings consequently contribute less
overall greenhouse gas to the atmosphere than similar non-ZNE buildings. They do at times consume non-
renewable energy and produce greenhouse gases, but at other times reduce energy consumption and
greenhouse gas production elsewhere by the same amount.
Most zero net energy buildings get half or more of their energy from the grid, and return the same amount at
other times. Buildings that produce a surplus of energy over the year may be called "energy-plus buildings" and
buildings that consume slightly more energy than they produce are called "near-zero energy buildings" or "ultra-
low energy houses".
Traditional buildings consume 40% of the total fossil fuel energy in the US and European Union and are
significant contributors of greenhouse gases.[4][5] The zero net energy consumption principle is viewed as a
means to reduce carbon emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels and although zero-energy buildings
remain uncommon even in developed countries, they are gaining importance and popularity.
Most zero-energy buildings use the electrical grid for energy storage but some are independent of the grid.
Energy is usually harvested on-site through energy producing technologies like solar and wind, while reducing
the overall use of energy with highly efficient HVAC and lighting technologies. The zero-energy goal is becoming
more practical as the costs of alternative energy technologies decrease and the costs of traditional fossil fuels
The development of modern zero-energy buildings became possible not only through the progress made in new
energy and construction technologies and techniques, but it has also been significantly improved by academic
research, which collects precise energy performance data on traditional and experimental buildings and
provides performance parameters for advanced computer models to predict the efficacy of engineering designs.
Zero-energy buildings can be part of a smart grid. Some advantages of these buildings are as follows:
 Integration of renewable energy resources
 Integration of plug-in electric vehicles
 Implementation of zero-energy concepts
The net zero concept is applicable to a wide range of resources due to the many options for producing
and conserving resources in buildings (e.g. energy, water, waste). Energy is the first resource to be targeted
because it is highly managed, expected to continually become more efficient, and the ability to distribute and
allocate it will improve disaster resiliency

Established: 1990 by Building Research Establishment
Country: UK
Net Zero:
BREEAM is the world's leading sustainability assessment method for master planning projects, infrastructure
and buildings. It addresses a number of lifecycle stages such as New Construction, Refurbishment and In-
Use. Globally there are more than 552,600 BREEAM certified developments, and almost 2,254,100 buildings
registered for assessment since it was first launched in 1990.
BREEAM inspires developers and creators to excel, innovate and make effective use of resources. The focus on
sustainable value and efficiency makes BREEAM certified developments attractive property investments and
generates sustainable environments that enhance the well-being of the people who live and work in them.

BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method), first published by the Building
Research Establishment (BRE) in 1990,[1] is the world’s longest established method of assessing, rating, and
certifying the sustainability of buildings. More than 250,000 buildings have been BREEAM certified and over a
million are registered for certification – many in the UK and others in more than 50 countries around the world

BREEAM works to raise awareness amongst owners, occupiers, designers and operators of the benefits of taking
a sustainability approach. It helps them to successfully and cost effectively adopt sustainable solutions, and
provides market recognition of their achievements.
Using independent, licensed assessors, BREEAM assesses scientifically based criteria covering a range of issues
in categories that evaluate energy and water use, health and wellbeing, pollution, transport, materials, waste,
ecology and management processes. Buildings are rated and certified on a scale of ‘Pass’, ‘Good’, ‘Very Good’,
‘Excellent’ and ‘Outstanding’. By setting sustainability benchmarks and targets that continue to stay ahead of
regulatory requirements – and by encouraging the use of innovative means of achieving these targets – BREEAM
drives greater sustainability and innovation in the built environment.
BREEAM has expanded from its original focus on individual new buildings at the construction stage to
encompass the whole life cycle of buildings from planning to in-use and refurbishment. Its regular revisions and
updates are driven by the ongoing need to improve sustainability, respond to feedback from industry and
support the UK’s sustainability strategies and commitments.
Highly flexible, the BREEAM standard can be applied to virtually any building and location, with versions for new
buildings, existing buildings, refurbishment projects and large developments:
BREEAM New Construction is the BREEAM standard against which the sustainability of new, non-residential
buildings in the UK is assessed. Developers and their project teams use the scheme at key stages in the design
and procurement process to measure, evaluate, improve and reflect the performance of their buildings.
BREEAM International New Construction is the BREEAM standard for assessing the sustainability of new
residential and non-residential buildings in countries around the world, except for the UK and other countries
with a national BREEAM scheme (see below). This scheme makes use of assessment criteria that take account
of the circumstances, priorities, codes and standards of the country or region in which the development is
BREEAM In-Use is a scheme to help building managers reduce the running costs and improve the environmental
performance of existing buildings. It has three parts – Parts 1 (building asset) and 2 (building management) are
relevant to all non-domestic, commercial, industrial, retail and institutional buildings. Part 3 (occupier
management) of the BREEAM In-Use certification scheme is currently restricted to offices. BREEAM In-Use is
widely used by members of the International Sustainability Alliance (ISA) which provides a platform for
certification against the scheme.
BREEAM Refurbishment provides a design and assessment method for sustainable housing refurbishment
projects, helping to cost effectively improve the sustainability and environmental performance of existing
dwellings in a robust way. A scheme for non-housing refurbishment projects is being developed and is targeted
for launch in early 2014. The launch date will be announced once the piloting and independent peer review
processes has been completed.
BREEAM Communities focusses on the masterplanning of whole communities.[2][3] It is aimed at helping
construction industry professionals to design places that people want to live and work in, are good for the
environment and are economically successful.
BREEAM includes several sustainability categories for the assessment, generally
Health & wellbeing
Land use and ecology
Home Quality Mark was launched in 2015 as part of the BREEAM family of schemes. It rates new homes on their
overall quality and sustainability, then provides further indicators on the homes impact upon the occupants
'Running costs', 'Health and wellbeing' and 'Environmental footprint'.

Established: 2001
Country: Japan
Net Zero:
CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) is the green
building management system in Japan.

The upcoming spring semester will be an exciting and important semester for me. My big goal for the semester
is to complete my master’s research project, which aims to study the adoption and diffusion of CASBEE in the
Japanese building market. In particular, this study examines the issue from the perspectives of the project
stakeholders of CASBEE.
Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) is a green building rating system
developed and widely used in Japan. Although CASBEE is well-known and respected amongst the international
green building community, its practical application has been limited in Japan. Language barrier appears to be
the primary reason; most CASBEE standards and tools are only available in Japanese.
My interest in CASBEE stems from my professional experience as a mechanical engineer and LEED accredited
professional in California before enrolling in Tokyo Tech. The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) assessment system, developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), is the most widely adopted
green building standard in the current U.S. market. Since the release of its pilot program (LEED 1.0) in 1998,
LEED has been transformed into the “world’s biggest green-building brand name” due to the successful
marketing efforts by USGBC.
During my first semester, in search of a research topic, I started reading and learning about CASBEE. At first
glance, CASBEE appears to be the “Japanese equivalent of LEED”. As I delved more into this subject, I realized
the differences between CASBEE and LEED are more than just the language. CASBEE is fundamentally an
‘architectural’ design tool, but LEED standards comprise or could be dissected into various architectural and
engineering elements. CASBEE is most commonly utilized as a ‘checklist for sustainable design, and an official
CASBEE certification is rarely pursued [1]; LEED certification is customarily pursued by project owners for
marketing and promotional purposes and LEED certified buildings are growing every day. The other impression
I get is that many evaluation items in CASBEE are subjective and are not as clearly defined compared to LEED.
While I endorse the holistic approach of CASBEE, which looks to evaluate the interactions between a building
and its surrounding, I wonder if some wordings in the standards are too academic to comprehend and the
measures too difficult to quantify.
On a different note, I wonder how my peers – architects, engineers, contractors etc. – in Japan ‘feel’ about
CASBEE and how motivated are they in the application CASBEE in their daily work. Even though some companies
have adopted CASBEE as their in-house design standards, are their staffs enjoying working with the CASBEE
tools, or are they simply following directive from the management? Are the tools truly effective in terms of time,
cost and practicality, or could it just be a greenwashing campaign when a company claims CASBEE adoption as
part of their green practice? I had the same questions about LEED and other green standards while I myself was
immersed in the ‘green building industry’ in the US. I had encountered people who were truly passionate about
green buildings and eco-design; I also had friends in the business who did not believe in global warming and
sustainable design, yet unabashed about putting LEED accreditation on their resume for the sole purpose of
marketing. Newer generations appear more enthusiastic about sustainable building and the role of LEED in that
subject; older generations prefer conventional practices and are more risk averse when it comes to new
technologies and changes.
In Japan, a sustainable building is often defined as one that is designed “to save energy and resources, recycle
materials and minimize the emission of toxic substances throughout its life cycle, to harmonize with the local
climate, traditions, culture and the surrounding environment, and to be able to sustain and improve the quality
of human life while maintaining the capacity of the ecosystem at the local and global levels” [4]. While the
emphasis on energy, resources and recycling are commonly the focus subjects in sustainable building, which is
obvious within the LEED guidelines, the concept of harmoniz[ing] with the local climate, traditions, culture and
the surrounding environment is somewhat unfamiliar to the American culture. My experience in living in
California tells me that, for the people in that region, comfort comes first when it comes to the living
environment but the meaning of comfort varies by individuals; it could mean big yard for their children, central
air conditioning for personal well-being, prime location in a city for access convenience, or anything that bring
them contentment. This understanding of the differences between two cultures makes me wonder: is there a
fundamental attitude differences towards sustainable building between the building professionals in the two
countries? Across the Pacific Ocean, do people think alike, or differently? With any luck, I will get some answers
upon the completion of my research.

Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) is a method for evaluating and
rating the environmental performance of buildings and the built environment. CASBEE was developed by a
research committee established in 2001 through the collaboration of academia, industry and national and local
governments, which established the Japan Sustainable Building Consortium (JSBC) under the auspice of the
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT).
CASBEE has been designed to both enhance the quality of people's lives and to reduce the life-cycle resource
use and environmental loads associated with the built environment, from a single home to a whole city.
Consequently, various CASBEE schemes are now deployed all over Japan and supported by national and local
governments. This website provides overall information about CABEE, associated with presentative green
buildings with CASBEE evaluation.

Research and development of CASBEE have been carried out as a cooperative project between industry,
government and academia with the assistance of Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.
CASBEE is composed of four assessment tools corresponding to the building lifecycle. "CASBEE Family" is the
collective name for these four tools and the expanded tools for specific purposes, which are listed below. The
CASBEE assessment tools are CASBEE for Predesign, CASBEE for New Construction, CASBEE for Existing Building
and CASBEE for Renovation, to serve at each stage of the design process. Each tool is intended for a separate
purpose and target user, and is designed to accommodate a wide range of uses (offices, schools, apartments,
etc.) in the evaluated buildings.

Characteristics of the CASBEE for Cities (Pilot version for worldwide use (2015)) are as follows:
1. An assessment tool aligned with international documents such as UN SDGs and ISO 37120, etc.
2. A tool adopting the concept of environmental efficiency (= Quality (Q) / Load (L))
3. A tool that can be applied to various types of cities including those in developed countries(they tend to have
a good score for Q and a bad score for L) and cities in developing countries (they tend to have a bad score for Q
and a good score for L)
4. A tool that supports tool users in understanding their local conditions and to devise their future action plans
5. A tool that helps achieve sustainable development through visualizing assessment results CASBEE for Cities
was initially developed for Japanese municipalities to support the understanding of local characteristics and to
support developing future action plans. Development of the tool started in 2008 and the first version was
published in 2011. Revised versions were published in 2012 and 2013, and the tool has recently been used in
the “FutureCity initiative” by the Japanese government to monitor the development of Future Cities. Entire
municipalities in Japan (n=1,750) are also assessed by using the tool and results are published in a research
paper. The new tool, CASBEE for Cities (Pilot version for worldwide use (2015)), which was published at COP 21,
is a tool that expands the assessment target cities from Japanese cities to entire cities throughout the world.

ESTIDAMA “sustainability”
Established: 2008
Country: UAE
Net Zero: 2030

The Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) is recognized internationally for large-scale sustainable urban
planning and for rapid growth. Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 urban master plan addresses sustainability as a core
principle. Estidama, which is the Arabic word for sustainability, is an initiative developed and promoted by the
UPC. Estidama is the intellectual legacy of the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan and a manifestation of
visionary governance promoting thoughtful and responsible development. The leadership of Abu Dhabi are
progressing the principles and imperatives for sustainable development, through Estidama, while recognizing
that the unique cultural, climatic and economic development needs of the region require a more localized
definition of sustainability.
Estidama is not just a rating method or something people do, it is a vision and a desire to achieve a new
sustainable way of life in the Arab world. The ultimate goal of Estidama is to preserve and enrich Abu Dhabi's
physical and cultural identity, while creating an always improving quality of life for its residents on four equal
pillars of sustainability: environmental, economic, social, and cultural. This touches all aspects of life in Abu
Dhabi - the way we build, the way we resource, the way we live, the choices we make - all in an effort to attain
a sustainable state of living.
Estidama arose from the need to properly plan, design, construct and operate sustainable developments with
respect to the traditions embedded within the rich local culture on one hand and the harsh climatic nature of
the region on the other. To this end, project owners, developers, design teams and even residents need to think
differently about how they approach the design and planning process.
Estidama began two years ago and is the first program of its kind that is tailored to the Middle East region. In
the immediate term, Estidama is focused on the rapidly changing built environment. It is in this area that the
UPC is making significant strides to influence projects under design, development or construction within the
Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
Estidama will continually evolve to embrace the rapidly changing concepts for sustainability, and ground them
in the environmental, social, cultural, and economic needs of the GCC region. Estidama sets the path for a bright
future for the Emirate, its citizens, its residents and the generations to follow. Consequently, the success of
Estidama will depend on everyone in the Emirate to create a better future for all.

Estidama is a building design methodology for constructing and operating buildings and communities more
sustainably. The program is a key aspect of the "Abu Dhabi Vision 2030" drive to build the Abu Dhabi
emirate according to innovative green standards. "Estidama" is the Arabic word for sustainability. [1] The
program is not itself a green building rating system like LEED or BREEAM, but rather a collection of ideals that
are imposed in an elective building code type of format.
Within Estidama, however is a green building rating system called the Pearl Rating System[2] that is utilized to
evaluate sustainable building development practices in Abu Dhabi.
The Estidama program is mandatory in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates - all buildings must achieve a minimum
1 Pearl Rating, and all government-funded buildings must achieve a minimum 2 Pearl Rating.

“Launched in May 2008, Estidama – which means ‘sustainability’ in Arabic – is Abu Dhabi’s contribution to the
global debate on how to create sustainable communities, cities and enterprises. Based on the four pillars of
sustainability – environmental, economic, social and cultural – it aims to pull off the admittedly difficult trick of
balancing all these concerns against the simple pursuit of progress and a better life for all.
Custom-tailored for the Abu Dhabi Emirate, Estidama was initially conceived as part of “Plan Abu Dhabi 2030”,
under the direction of the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council, in collaboration with a number of agencies and
developers who share a common vision to make Abu Dhabi a model of sustainable urbanization, recognized
around the world.
This plan led in turn to “Community Sustainable Responsibility”, a totally pragmatic initiative that takes the
impetus even beyond existing sustainability initiatives, by bringing in a strict program of monitoring, enforcing
clear procedures and taking on the all-important task of clarifying and delegating responsibilities.”1
The key drivers which led to the initiation of this program was primarily the need to cater for huge, world-class
developments such as Masdar City, among others, which are projected to increase the size of Abu Dhabi City
from about 930,00 to 3 million people by the year 2030! The rising demographics are slated to pose a significant
challenge in terms of energy consumption, natural resource impacts, housing affordability, traffic congestion,
pollution, water conservation, and social harmony, just to mention a few.3
Estidama evaluated
Now in this light it is important to understand the underlying dynamics of the Middle East as a region, and the
drivers that have led to the development of Estidama as a concept. The combination of a need for a set of
guidelines which are specific to the region in addition to the fast-decision-making regime (unlike the
bureaucratic system in the west) is what makes the implementation of something as intense and path breaking
as Estidama easily achievable. The present economic situation which has given a time for reorganizing the
practices I reckon gives an additional impetus to focusing on quality over the quantity boom which was on say
a couple of years back across the emirates.
Putting it in perspective, Abu Dhabi is an oil rich economy (9% of total reserves) but has an arid ecology with
over 200 islands and huge coastline. It is expected to witness a huge population boom in the next two decades
and thus it is definitely taking the steps in the right direction by focusing on a systematic and sustainable path
of urban development. The formulation of the Estidama code in line with the 2030 Master plan highlights its
strategic objective of making it a sustainable place to live for its future generations and for people and investors
who flock to this emirate from all over the world. The fact that the oil reserves are finite and the communities
that will be built today will last for decades if not centuries is a realization that has encouraged them to look at
development form the eye of building a sustainable habitat which I am sure will be a benchmark for the rest of
gulf which faces a similar dilemma of balancing rapid urban expansion for its growing populations.
Taking a deeper look the program has six main elements that are being carried out and complied simultaneously:
1. New Green Building Guidelines
2. Institutions and Pearls Rating System
3. Existing Building Guidelines
4. Public Building Guidelines
5. Industrial Buildings Guidelines
6. Community Guidelines
Each of these main elements has a series of sub elements which as I understand are being comprehensively
drafted to provide a local best practice manual for sustainable growth.
Pearl Vs LEED: breaking it down
The Pearls Design System (PDS) (Analogous to LEED) that I am focusing on this article is a voluntary green build
rating tool for master plans and individual developments. This is the rating tool that has been developed under
estidama for the local ecology. PDS has a 1 to 5 (best) Pearl Rating and has six main categories each with a
different % age contribution to the total just like the broad categorization in LEED. The six categories are: living
systems (12%), livable communities/buildings (30%), precious water (22%), resourceful energy (22%),
stewarding materials (12%) and innovative practice (2%).
Reflecting the importance of energy conservation similar to the Energy and Atmosphere Credit category ( 35%
weight in V3.0 for New Construction) in LEED the PDS “Resourceful energy” category has the maximum sway of
22% of the overall rating with three pre-required points and seven additional credit areas with one of those a
necessity for reaching a fifth Pearl rating.The Pearl Rating system similar to LEED is a voluntary program,
available to developers who want to achieve recognition for pursuing a higher level of green building and
An important advantage of Pearl vs. LEED is that the Prerequisites for Pearl Ratings will be embedded in the
development codes and regulations, as opposed to being isolated in the rating criteria, which effectively moves
them towards becoming a requirement rather than an option.
This is a unique innovation and implies that every project developed in Abu Dhabi will achieve a higher level of
sustainability by meeting the code. It will thus also provide greater support and encouragement for those
developers who positively aim for a higher quality of sustainable development.2
Pearl also has a well-concieved “Alternate Compliance Path”. It recognizes that significant industry knowledge
and capability has already been created around widely adopted green building programs such as BREEAM, LEED
and Green Star. Rather than create yet another set, the Pearl Rating system endeavors to harmonize the criteria
that currently exist within these programs. So developers and consultants can work with a program they are
already comfortable and familiar with and still achieve a Pearl Rating. This adds a layer of flexibility and
harmonizes it with the developments in rating systems globally. In sum it is a positive step and shows leadership
and commitment on the part of the government of Abu Dhabi.
“How well is it implemented on the ground? How well is it accepted by the communities? How much of an
impact does it make? How fast is it adapted by other stakeholders in the Middle East? How much is it backed
by the government? Answers to these questions will unlock the doors to the future of sustainability as a way of
life in the Middle East!

Established: 2003
Country: Australia
Net Zero:

Green Star is a voluntary sustainability rating system for buildings in Australia. It was launched in 2003 by
the Green Building Council of Australia.
The Green Star rating system assesses the sustainability of projects at all stages of the built environment
lifecycle. Ratings can be achieved at the planning phase for communities, during the design, construction or
fitout phase of buildings, or during the ongoing operational phase.
The system considers assesses and rates buildings, fitouts and communities against a range of environmental
impact categories, and aims to encourage leadership in environmentally sustainable design and construction,
showcase innovation in sustainable building practices, and consider occupant health, productivity and
operational cost savings.
In 2013, the GBCA released a report, The Value of Green Star, which analysed data from 428 Green Star-certified
projects occupying 5,746,000 million square metres across Australia and compared it to the ‘average’ Australian
building and minimum practice benchmarks. The research found that, on average, Green Star-certified buildings
produce 62% fewer greenhouse gas emissions and use 66% less electricity than average Australian buildings.
Green Star buildings use 51% less potable water than average buildings. Green Star-certified buildings also have
been found to recycle 96 per cent of their construction and demolition waste, compared to the average 58% for
new construction projects.

Green Star benchmarks projects against the nine Green Star categories of: Management; Indoor Environment
Quality; Energy; Transport; Water; Materials; Land Use & Ecology; Emissions and Innovation.[2]
Within each category are credits which address specific aspects of sustainable building design, construction or
performance. Ratings for buildings are available at the design stage ('Design' ratings), at the post-construction
phase (known as 'As Built' ratings) or for interior fitouts (‘Interiors’ ratings).
Green Star - Communities rates projects at the community or precinct scale against the categories of: Liveability;
Economic Prosperity; Environment; Design; Governance and Innovation.
Green Star certification is a formal process in which an independent assessment panel reviews documentary
evidence that a project meets Green Star benchmarks within each credit. The assessment panel awards points,
with a Green Star rating determined by comparing the overall score with the rating scale:
Score Rating Category
10-19 One Star Minimum Practice
20-29 Two Star Average Practice
30-44 Three Star Good Practice
45-59 Four Star Best Practice
60-74 Five Star Australian Excellence
75+ Six Star World Leadership
Green Star rating tools for building, fitout and community design and construction reward projects that achieve
best practice or above, which means ratings of 1, 2 or 3 are not awarded. Ongoing performance of a building
can be rated at any of the 6 star ratings.
Buildings assessed using the Green Star – Performance rating tool will be able to achieve a Green Star rating
from 1 – 6 Star Green Star

The Green Building Council of Australia released the first Green Star rating tool for offices in 2003, and
subsequently released rating tools for office interiors, education, healthcare and industrial facilities, public
buildings, multi-unit residential developments and retail centres. A rating tool for communities was released in
2012. The Green Star – Interiors rating tool was released in 2013 to assess the interior fitouts of any building
type (beyond offices) and a rating tool for the operational performance of existing buildings is expected to be
released in 2013.
Special Green Star rating tools have been developed for buildings that fall outside the scope of Green Star rating
tools, including supermarkets, restaurants and mixed-use developments.
The system assesses and rates buildings, fitouts and communities against a range of environmental impact
categories, and aims to encourage leadership in environmentally-sustainable design and construction, showcase
innovation in sustainable building practices, and consider occupant health, productivity and operational cost

SGBC (Singapore Green Building Council)

Established: 2009
Country: Singapore
Net Zero:
The Singapore Green Building Council forges public-private partnerships to germinate innovative industry
solutions across the entire building and construction value chain. Through its green building product and
services labelling programmes, SGBC sets high standards and benchmarks for green building solutions both
locally and regionally to help build more sustainable cities for better living. As Singapore’s representative on the
World Green Building Council, SGBC actively contributes to the global green building movement by sharing
expertise and knowledge during international conferences and events.
Officially launched on 28 October 2009 as the only non-profit organisation with a concerted private-public sector
partnership to achieve a world-class and sustainable built-environment in Singapore, our key role is to advocate
green building design, practices and technologies and drive environmental sustainability in the building and
construction industry.
The key areas of SGBC's focus include:
Profiling Singapore as a leading Sustainable Hub in the tropics through Public Education and Industry
SGBC has embarked on a pro-active programme of public education and industry promotion. These include
major industry and public events such as the annual Singapore International Green Building Conference (IGBC)
held in conjunction with the Singapore Green Building Week (SGBW) and BEX Asia, a regional exhibition to
engage industry players and promote green products and practices. The event is also open to the public, serving
as a key public education platform to highlight the trend towards building greener communities and sustainable
SGBC has also joined hands with leading organisations such as IBM and Ministry of Education (MOE) to launch
"Project Green Insights" to raise awareness of energy efficiency in schools. Under this programme, a network
of smart meters was installed in selected schools to capture data on energy usage for transmission using IBM's
cloud-based solution, to the Internet for sharing with all stakeholders. A dashboard of the data captured will
provide staff and students a comprehensive view of their energy usage patterns and allow them to identify best
practices and make optimal decisions on energy usage.
Providing a Dedicated Certification Body for Green Building-related Products and Services
SGBC launched its first Certification Scheme for green building products in January 2011.
We are the first dedicated Certification Body for Green Building-related Products and Services in Singapore to
support Singapore's Building and Construction Authority (BCA)'s Green Mark scheme.
SGBC's Certification scheme is a comprehensive listing of robustly assessed and certified green building products
that are meaningfully differentiated for safer, healthier, efficient and sustainable products in the building
industry. It provides construction industry professionals with a list of eco-friendly building products that are
resource-efficient, give potentially better efficiency and lower environmental impact, provide better indoor
environmental quality for a healthy, and productive workplace in buildings.
Creating International Collaboration, and Expanding Global Outreach
In 2010, SGBC became the first Asian member of the World Green Building Council (WorldGBC), to organize the
WorldGBC International Congress.
This demonstrates our commitment to the green building cause both locally and internationally.
Through the IGBC and BEX Asia events, we continually provide an excellent platform for international experts
and green building advocates, manufacturers and industry professionals to showcase a wide range of green
building, architecture, design, products and solutions as well as best practices in the industry. This offers a great
opportunity for Singaporean companies to network and collaborate with key international industry players.
SGBC has also initiated and sealed several Memoranda of Understanding (MOU)s with our overseas
counterparts such as the Green Building Council of Indonesia (GBCI) and the China Green Building Council
(CGBC), Such MOUs promote green building products and services, professional training programmes and co-
operation on enhancing recognition of certifications of Green Building Products and Services.
Enhancing Professionalism and Knowledge in Sustainable Development Via Knowledge Creation and Industry
The Council continually promotes green building design, practices and technologies, the integration of green
building initiatives into mainstream design, construction and operation of buildings as well as building capability
and professionalism to support wider adoption of green building development and practices in Singapore. We
regularly organise industry seminars, such as the SGBC Green Trends Seminar, for professionals, manufacturers,
distributors, estate and facilities managers, designers and developers to update on the latest trends and
innovative solutions. By sharing industry knowledge and research data on sustainable buildings, we hope to help
local industry players to make efficient and strategic decisions.
Inspiring Membership
SGBC membership is the best way for you to connect with and contribute to the green building cause.
Our members come from big companies and small businesses to non-profit organisations and governments. The
benefits of membership are indeed extensive.
Our members are a key priority for us. We are continuously enhancing the value of membership by offering
them new opportunities for connecting individuals and businesses with experts, partners. Also, we provide
members with access to information and ideas, solutions and best practices which they need for the rapidly
growing green building industry – both locally and overseas.

SGBC's Green Services Certification is the first of its kind in Singapore and aims to enhance green building
performance through the industry's delivery of services. The scheme recognises building consultants who are
committed to supporting the green movement. It aims to promote best practices to support environmental
sustainability among service firms in the industry. SGBC's Green Services Certification will commit building
consultants and practitioners to develop their in-house capabilities and competencies; adopt green corporate
practices; and deliver sustainable designs and services. As SGBC is a trusted brand, certified firms can expect
greater recognition and new business opportunities.
Established: 2007
Country: Philippines
Net Zero:

The Philippine Green Building Council (PHILGBC) is a national non-stock, non-profit organization that promotes
the sharing of knowledge on green practices to the property industry to ensure a sustainable environment. It
was organized to serve as a single voice in the promotion of holistic and market-based green building practices,
to facilitate the sharing of green building information and practices in the building industry, and to serve as a
non-partisan venue for the development of the BERDE Green Building Rating System.

In early 2006, a group of environmental advocates and business leaders convened to form PHILGBC with the
realization that an organization is needed to promote greener buildings and coordinate efforts to sustainability.
Incorporated in 2007, PHILGBC has been campaigning for the transformation of design, construction and
management methods of the industry into practices that are environmentally and socially responsible, safe and
healthy, and a prosperous environment that improves the quality of life. [4]
PHILGBC is an Emerging Member of the World Green Building Council (WorldGBC) and a member of the
WorldGBC - Asia Pacific Network.[5] The Council is also a member organization of the International Initiative for
a Sustainable Built Environment (iiSBE), and a global partner of the GLOBE Alliance.

The Building for Ecologically Responsive Design Excellence (BERDE) Program was developed by PHILGBC as an
appropriate response to the Philippine building industry’s need to proactively address the negative impacts of
climate change in the property sector.
The BERDE Green Building Rating System is developed under the BERDE Program. It is a tool to measure, verify
and monitor performance of buildings above and beyond existing mandatory building and environmental
regulations and standards. The rating tool is consensus driven and is achieved through a multi-stakeholder
consultation and collaboration process. BERDE Assessment and Certification is credible, unbiased, balanced and
impartial and is achieved through a third party certification process conforming with international standards.[7]
BERDE is recognized as the National Voluntary Green Building Rating System of the Philippines through the
Philippine Energy Efficiency Project: Efficient Building Initiative (PEEP-EBI) of the Department of Energy.

Started in 2007, Building Green is the series of conferences of the Philippine Green Building Council that
highlights the current green practices of the industry. It features the latest innovative trends in building
products, architecture, engineering and construction as initiated by the industry's best and brightest minds. The
conference series was started as a venue for green building dialogue and to further develop and promote BERDE,
as the National Green Building Rating System.



 Shanghai Tower is in Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone of Pudong, with Shanghai World Financial Center to the
east and Jin Mao Tower to the north. At present, the tower has been finished, standing 2,073 feet (about 632
meters) high and ranking as China's tallest building and second only to the world at large. The foot print takes
up 326,878 square feet (about 30,368 square meters) with floor space of about 6,200,012 square feet (about
576,000 square meters), with 5 basement levels, 127 floors above ground and 5 podium floors. Currently, the
tower is under test run. Visitors can take the express elevator to the sightseeing deck on the 119th floor directly
and a whole ride only takes 55 seconds.

Note: During the commissioning period, the price for taking the elevator to the sightseeing deck is CNY 160 per
adult, CNY 90 for children between 3.3 and 4.6 feet (1 and 1.4 meters). And this service is available from 9:00
am to 9:00 pm.

As Shanghai is on a seismic belt and the construction site is in a river basin, a firm foundation for this skyscraper
is very important. To firm up the ground, engineers first put 980 foundation piles underground to a depth of
282 feet, and then poured 2.15 million cube feet of concrete to set a 20-feet-thick baseboard for anchoring the
main building.

The exterior of the building spirals upward like a snake. It twists about one degree per floor to offset the wind
effect on higher altitude. This is very important to a super tall building in Shanghai to withstand frequent

The tower sports two glass facades, an inner one and an outer one, like overlapping "tubes". The space between
the two "tubes" varies from 3 to 33 feet wide, providing more public space inside the building. At the mean
time, the space functions as a heat insulation layer like in a thermos flask. This is environment-friendly and
costing less.

As a complex super tall building, Shanghai Tower is subdivided into five main functional areas: 24-hour offices
for multinational companies and financial services; super five-star hotels and support facilities, offering
personalized service and amenities; high end retail shops etc; recreation zone, forming a new business and
cultural center in Shanghai, a clear departure from ghost town image of Lujiazui after working hours; conference
facilities, including sightseeing rooms in upper floors, and a multifunction conference center measuring over
2,000 square meters (about 21,528 square feet) and a multifunction banquet hall measuring more than 1,000
square meters (about 10,764 square feet) in podium building.

The building is serviced by 149 elevators, of which 108 are lifts. Three of the lifts can send passengers up to the
1,640-foot (about 500 meters) high sightseeing platform from street level within one minute, which is a world
record holder.

the Shanghai Tower incorporates numerous green architecture elements; its owners received certifications
from the China Green Building Committee and the U.S. Green Building Council for the building's sustainable
design. In 2013, a Gensler spokesman described the tower as "the greenest super high-rise building on earth at
this point in time".

The design of the tower's glass facade, which completes a 120° twist as it rises, is intended to reduce wind loads
on the building by 24%. This reduced the amount of construction materials needed; the Shanghai Tower used
25% less structural steel than a conventional design of a similar height. As a result, the building's constructors
saved an estimated US$58 million in material costs. Construction practices were also optimised for
sustainability. Though the majority of the tower's energy will be provided by conventional power systems,
vertical-axis wind turbines located near the top of the tower are capable of generating up to 350,000 kWh of
supplementary electricity per year. The double-layered insulating glass façade was designed to reduce the need
for indoor air conditioning, and is composed of an advanced reinforced glass with a high tolerance for shifts in
temperature. In addition, the building's heating and cooling systems use geothermal energy sources

2. Bahrain World Trade Center

The Bahrain World Trade Center (also called Bahrain WTC or BWTC) is a 240-metre-high (787 ft), 50-floor, twin
tower complex located in Manama, Bahrain. The towers were built in 2008 by the multi-national architectural
firm Atkins. It is the first skyscraper in the world to integrate wind turbines into its design. The wind turbines
were developed, built and installed by Danish company Norwin A/S.
The structure is constructed close to the King Faisal Highway, near popular landmarks such as the towers
of Bahrain Financial Harbour (BFH), NBB and Abraj Al Lulu. It currently ranks as the second-tallest building in
Bahrain, after the twin towers of the Bahrain Financial Harbour. The project has received several awards
for sustainability, including:
1. The 2006 LEAF Award for Best Use of Technology within a Large Scheme.
2. The Arab Construction World for Sustainable Design Award.[2]

The Bahrain World Trade Center is the world’s first building to integrate large-scale wind turbines; and together
with numerous energy reducing and recovery systems, this development shows an unequivocal commitment to
raising global awareness for sustainable design. This building is pioneering a new direction for designers and
owners acting as a technological precedent. The BWTC has shown that commercial developments can be
created with a strong environmental agenda and addresses the needs of our future generations. The BWTC
encapsulates the essence of a sustainable philosophy engaging all of the social, economic and environmental
impacts of the project. As well as making significant strides in environmentally balanced architecture, the
building is now considered a source of national pride for Bahrain residents, and is attributed with generating
economic prosperity within the capital of Manama.

The BWTC forms the focal point of a master plan to rejuvenate the 30-year-old existing hotel and shopping mall
on the site. The planning of the site became constrained by the existing buildings and the road network around
the site. By extending the main axis of the existing shopping mall towards the sea and creating a secondary axis
from the Hotel, “Retail Streets” were established. The twin towers’ natural location was therefore positioned
on the main axis, facing the Arabian Gulf and creating the entrance for the development.
The inspiration for the 42-story twin towers originated from regional “Wind Towers” and their ability to funnel
wind, and the vast sails of the traditional Arabian Dhow as they harness the breeze in driving them forward.
After careful Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and extensive wind tunnel testing, the towers’
shape was literally carved out by the wind to create optimum airflow around the buildings. The elliptical plan
forms act as aerofoils, funneling the onshore breeze between them, creating a negative pressure behind, thus
accelerating wind velocity between the two towers. Vertically, the sculpting of the towers is also a function of
airflow dynamics.

As they taper skywards, the aerofoil sections reduce. This effect, combined with the increasing onshore wind
velocity at higher altitudes creates a near equal regime of wind speed on each of the three turbines, irrespective
of height, allowing them to rotate at the same speed and generate the same energy levels. The three 29-meter
(95-foot)-diameter, 11 ton wind turbines are supported on 31.5-meter (103-foot), 70 ton bridges between the
towers. Each turbine generates 225kW. The buildings have been sculpted to funnel the uninterrupted on-shore
breeze onto the turbines and create a perpendicular slip stream that corrects the wind direction to take
advantage of 70% of Bahrain’s wind energy.
The premium on this project for including the wind turbines was less than 3% of project value. Based on the
energy savings and the increased value of the building having wind turbines, the payback period is extremely
favorable. The initial energy yields during the design phase was approximately 15%, therefore 1300MWh per
year; however, from early commissioning results the turbines are estimated to generate substantially more
energy due to the reduced occupancy profile of the building and the wider operational period of the turbines.

The Bahrain World Trade Center (BWTC) in Manama, Bahrain is a beautiful example of sustainability meets
It was designed by Atkins with the goals of using renewable energy sources intertwined with sustainable
architecture but inspired by traditional Arabian wind towers to direct the wind sources to wind turbines
attached to the building’s façade.
The towers were designed so that they will funnel the onshore wind between them, while simultaneously
creating a negative pressure behind in order to accelerate the wind velocity, creating more energy.
The building is two 50-storey sail shaped office towers surrounded by landscaping and a business park all
designed with the environment in mind.

The turbines are creating 11-15 percent of the towers’ total electrical consumption.
Besides the mounted turbines, the commercial park is sustainable in many ways. It incorporates the use of:
 Concrete flooring
 Gravel roofs
 Glass as shading
 Operable windows
 Heat recovery system
 Variable-volume chilled water pump
 Energy efficient fluorescent lighting
 Solar powered road and amenity lighting
 Reflective pools
The reflective pools are located at the entrances to provide local evaporative cooling.

This is a sustainable detail not used very often and a system sometimes overlooked.
This beautiful building encompasses unique design, advanced technologies and sustainable attributes all while
providing a necessary working environment that all office buildings and commercial parks require.

Vancouver Convention Centre West

The Vancouver Convention Centre (formerly known as the Vancouver Convention & Exhibition Centre, or
VCEC), is a convention centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; it is one of Canada's largest convention
centres. With the opening of the new West Building in 2009, it now has 466,500 ft² (43,340 m²) of meeting
space. It is owned by the British Columbia Pavilion Corporation, a crown corporation owned by the government
of British Columbia.

The West Building is directly adjacent to Canada Place and consists of 220,500 square feet (20,490 m2) of
convention space, 90,000 square feet (8,400 m2) of retail space along a public waterfront promenade, and 440
parking stalls. Surrounding the building are 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2) of walkways, bikeways, public open
space and plazas, for a total project area of 14 acres (57,000 m2) of land and 8 acres (32,000 m2) over water.
The project also supplies infrastructure for future water based developments including an expanded marina, a
float plane terminal, and water-based retail opportunities. The design architect for the expansion is LMN
Architects of Seattle, in association with Vancouver firms MCM Architects and DA Architects +
Planners. Morrison Hershfield ensured quality assurance and conducted enhanced field review during
construction of all building envelope components including innovative curtain wall glazing and green roof.[1] On
February 9, 2010 the building was certified LEED Platinum by the Canada Green Building Council.
The West Building opened to the public on April 4, 2009. It effectively tripled the capacity of the convention
centre. The building hosted the International Broadcast Centre for the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter
Paralympics. Connecting to the centre is the Fairmont Pacific Rim hotel.
Adjacent to the West building is the Jack Poole Plaza (formerly known as Thurlow Plaza),[3] in honour of Jack
Poole, who died of pancreatic cancer in 2009. He was responsible for securing the bid of the 2010 Winter
Olympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics to Vancouver.
The new west Building expansion is certified LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum
and is designated a PowerSmart Convention Centre by BC Hydro. It was awarded a "GO GREEN" certificate from
the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) for industry-approved, environmental best practices in
building management. The living roof, seawater heating and cooling, on-site water treatment and fish habitat
built into the foundation of the West Building make it one of the greenest convention centres in the world. The
Centre recycles an average of 180,000 kilograms of materials annually, nearly half of the total volume of waste
generated. It avoids canned goods, disposable utensils and dishes, and donates leftover food to local charities.
The 6-acre (24,000 m2) "living roof" is the largest in Canada and the largest non-industrial living roof in North
America. The roof landscape is designed as a self-sustaining grassy habitat characteristic of coastal British
Columbia, including 400,000 native plants and 4 colonies of 60,000 bees each which provide honey for the public
plaza restaurant. No public access is allowed to the roof, which made it possible to create a fully functional
ecosystem with natural drainage and seed migration patterns using the roof's architectural topography. The
landscape functionally connects to nearby Stanley Park via a corridor of waterfront parks. Irrigation to the roof
is provided by the building's wastewater treatment plant. In the event that the roof irrigation demands exceed
the capacity of the wastewater treatment plant, make-up water can be provided by a reverse osmosis
desalinization plant drawing and treating seawater pumped from the harbour as well as municipal water
through an air gap connection to the storage tanks, as needed.
All wastewater generated in the building is treated and recycled for use in toilet and urinal flushing, as well as
green roof irrigation. The treatment facility uses a membrane bioreactor process, manufactured and supplied
by GE/Zenon, consisting of two bioreactor tanks and an ultrafiltration (hollow fibre) membrane tank, followed
by chlorination to remove colour and disinfect the reclaimed water. The treatment system is designed for an
average daily flow of 75 cubic metres per day (20,000 gpd), and maximum flows of up to 150 cubic metres per
day (40,000 gpd). With the City of Vancouver 2012 commercial metered water and sewer rates at $2.803 and
$1.754, respectively, the convention centre can save over $21,000 per month in utility fees through water reuse.
One of the biggest operating challenges is to maintain the treatment plant bacteria in a healthy condition during
lengthy periods (e.g. late December through mid-January) of no or limited convention activity and concurrent
wastewater generation within the building.
The building's heating and cooling system feeds through the deep water of the harbor, using it as a constant
temperature base to reduce the amount of energy used for heating and cooling.
Along the waterfront, the shoreline ecology is fully restored from its previous brownfield state and supports a
historic salmon migration path. An artificial reef structure rings the building perimeter, consisting of a series of
concrete steps. Each step is planted with marine species adapted to a specific depth below the water, resulting
in a kelp forest characteristic of the natural shoreline and supporting a diversity of harbor fauna. Underneath
the building, which is set on pier foundations, runnels are set into the tide flats creating a tidal ecosystem zone
that flushes daily and feeds the reef.
The site of the expansion is a former marine and rail industrial area, most of which was covered in impervious
surfaces and contaminated. The decrease in site impervious surfaces is almost 30%, mitigating total suspended
solids and phosphorus content from stormwater and reducing the site’s heat island contribution.


The design architect is Handel Architects; LLP and GF & Partners Architects Co. is the other architect of record.
Manny Samson & Associates designs the interiors.
Shangri-La at the Fort, Manila, is a landmark, mixed-use development in the heart of Bonifacio Global City (BGC),
an emerging contemporary lifestyle district at the centre of Metro Manila and one of the fastest growing urban
developments in Asia. It features Shangri-La Hotel and Residences; Horizon Homes, a collection of distinct
homes situated on the top floors with unhampered views of the metropolis; retail shops; and Kerry Sports
Manila, a comprehensive lifestyle and leisure club.
Rising 250 metres high, Shangri-La at the Fort, Manila, will be one of the tallest towers in the Philippines and is
a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) gold-certified green development, committed to
achieving and maintaining the highest standard of sustainable design.
The development’s location reflects a contemporary lifestyle, comprising a colourful eclectic matrix of state-of
the-art office buildings, high-rise residences, upmarket retail brands, activity areas and expansive green spaces.
Within easy reach are the international airport, international schools, embassies, a world-class medical facility,
the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club.
The hotel features 576 contemporary and spacious guestrooms and suites with a minimum of 45 square metres
and unparalleled city and bay views.
The complex features 97 residences, with a choice of one-, two- or three-bedrooms, measuring between 90 to
124 square metres. Each residence is fitted with a kitchenette, a living room/dining zone, walk-in wardrobe and
modern amenities.
With one of the largest portfolios of conference and meeting venues in the city, Shangri-La at the Fort, Manila’s
event spaces can suit any occasion. The pillarless Grand Ballroom measures 1,650 square metres and can
accommodate up to 1,200 guests at any given time. The junior ballroom, the Bonifacio Hall, measures 780
square metres and can accommodate up to 715 guests. A total of 19 multifunction rooms are available on
multiple floors of the hotel, defining versatility and flexibility to meet all event needs.
Explore a variety of innovative cuisines from around the world at Shangri-La at the Fort, Manila, with seven
dining concepts. High Street Café is a modern-day marketplace concept with nine kitchens featuring daily
international dishes cooked according to one’s preference. High Street Lounge, adjacent to the café, serves a
wide selection of teas and beverages in a refined modern setting overlooking BGC’s High Street. On Level 3,
Canton Road offers Cantonese and Huaiyang cuisine, while Raging Bull Chophouse & Bar offers dry-aged steaks
and Western grilled items. Set on the 8th level, Samba Poolside offers a collection of South American dishes by
the pool. At street level, Limitless is an entertainment club that features an extensive mix of artisan cocktails,
trendy music and private VIP suites. Also on 30th Street is Raging Bull Burgers, a shop that serves the finest
handmade burgers for diners on the go.
Kerry Sports Manila will be the city’s most comprehensive indoor lifestyle and recreation destination, with an
expanse of 8,000 square metres and two dedicated floors of fitness facilities. Located on Levels 5 and 6 of
Shangri-La at the Fort, Kerry Sports Manila will offer an NBA-grade indoor basketball court, two tennis courts,
two squash courts, an outdoor lap pool with an entertainment and dining area, extensive gym facilities, exercise
studios, and a wellness spa with nine treatment rooms. The complex will also house an Adventure Zone, a multi-
level indoor playground for children, with activities for three age levels and children’s party rooms.
True to its brand name, Shangri-La, at the Fort, Manila, will operate on a simple yet powerful philosophy of
Shangri-La hospitality from warm, caring people. With its lifestyle hubs that reshape living, dining and shopping
experiences, it is truly a dynamic destination for contemporary lifestyle and accessible luxury and a prime
example of BGC’s motto - a Home of Passionate Minds.

The Horizon Homes, a collection of limited highly customized residential units situated on the highest floors, will
crown the Shangri-La Hotel. It is a truly unique concept that provides homeowners the opportunity to create
their own dwelling spaces according to their individual styles and personalities.
Each of the 98 exclusive residences will have luxurious floor-to-ceiling windows with panoramic views of the city
and spacious open-plan layout designed to bring family members and friends closer.
Horizon Homes residential units will be fitted with white marble countertops and deep walnut veneers. To make
cooking at home more enjoyable, there will be two kitchens—one main and the other wet—both fully equipped
with branded appliances and modern utensils.
A mixed-used lifestyle complex is being developed on a 1.5-hectare prime property in the urban hub that is
Bonifacio Global City (BGC).
Shangri-La at The Fort, Manila is thus far the newest and most dynamic property of the Shangri-La Group, which
is known not only for its rich heritage of hospitality but for its warm, caring people as well.
Located at the corner of 3rd Avenue and 30th Street, Shangri-La at The Fort is rising 250 meters high, with 62
stories, one of the country’s tallest buildings. It is also a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
gold-certified green development, committed to achieving and maintaining the highest standards of sustainable

The design architect is Handel Architects; LLP and GF & Partners Architects Co. is the other architect of record.
Manny Samson & Associates designs the interiors.
Truly unique concept
The Horizon Homes, a collection of limited highly customized residential units situated on the highest floors, will
crown the Shangri-La Hotel. It is a truly unique concept that provides homeowners the opportunity to create
their own dwelling spaces according to their individual styles and personalities.
Each of the 98 exclusive residences will have luxurious floor-to-ceiling windows with panoramic views of the city
and spacious open-plan layout designed to bring family members and friends closer.
Horizon Homes residential units will be fitted with white marble countertops and deep walnut veneers. To make
cooking at home more enjoyable, there will be two kitchens—one main and the other wet—both fully equipped
with branded appliances and modern utensils.
Premium on privacy
On the 61st floor, there will be three penthouse units, with sizes ranging from 473 to 797 square meters. The
roofdeck is on the 62nd floor. Horizon Homes puts premium on privacy, providing on each floor only five units:
one two-bedroom unit, three three-bedroom units and one four-bedroom unit.
Four high-speed elevators will service residents using their own access cards. Household helps can access the
service elevators through a biometrics system.
Residents will have their private driveway and lobby, separate from the rest of the development. They will also
have these private amenities: swimming pool with lounge areas, outdoor barbecue area, private indoor and
outdoor dining, as well as entertaining rooms, gym room, male and female changing rooms, and children’s play
Horizon Homes residents will be provided with management services by the Shangri-La Hotel, dedicated
reception and concierge, and 24-hour security integrated with the hotel security system. They can purchase
parking slots at a basement parking level exclusively for them.
The mixed-use property features the hotel which has 576 contemporary and spacious guestrooms and suites
with unparalleled views of the city and the bay. The minimum room size is 45 sqm.
Also featured in the entire lifestyle complex are the Kerry Sports Center and a retail arcade where shoppers can
experience a fashion forward feel.
Kerry Sports Manila offers an NBA-grade indoor basketball court, two tennis courts, two squash courts, an
indoor lap pool with an entertainment and dining area, extensive gym facilities, exercise studios and a wellness
spa with nine treatment rooms. With such fitness facilities occupying 8,000 sqm in two dedicated floors, it will
be the most comprehensive indoor lifestyle and recreation destination in BGC.
Also to be housed in the complex is Adventure Zone, a multilevel indoor playground for children with activities
for three age levels and four rooms for children’s parties.
Within the mixed-use complex is the Shangri-La Residences featuring 97 one-, two- and three-bedroom homes,
measuring between 90 and 239 sqm. Each residence is fitted with a kitchenette, a living room/dining area, a
walk-in wardrobe and modern amenities.
Event spaces at Shangri-La at The Fort can suit any occasion. For instance, the pillarless Grand Ballroom,
measuring 1,800 sqm., can accommodate up to 1,800 guests. There’s also the Bonifacio Hall, a junior ballroom
measuring 780 sqm that can accommodate up to 715 guests. Also available are 19 multifunction rooms located
on the hotel’s multiple floors that can address any event needs.
7 dining concepts
Seven dining concepts can satisfy one’s cravings for various innovative cuisines from all over the world. These
are the following:
 High Street Café is a modern-day marketplace concept with nine kitchens featuring daily international dishes
cooked according to one’s preference.
 High Street Lounge, adjacent to the café, serves a wide selection of teas and beverages in a refined modern
setting overlooking BGC’s High Street.
 Canton Road offers Cantonese and Huaiyang cuisine.
 Raging Bull Chophouse & Bar offers dry-aged steaks and western grill items.
 Samba Poolside offers a collection of South American dishes by the pool.
 Limitless is an entertainment club that features extensive mixes of artisan cocktails, trendy music and private
VIP suites.
 Raging Bull Burgers is a shop serving the finest handmade burgers for diners on the go.
The project is a joint venture between Shangri-La Asia Ltd. and Shang Properties Inc., the property development
arm of the Kuok Group in the Philippines. Its soft opening is expected this yearend.
No stranger to PH
At the helm of the soon-to-open Shangri-La at The Fort is GM John Rice. Prior to his appointment about five
months ago, he was area general manager at China World Hotel, Beijing (Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts). Rice is
no stranger to the Philippines, this post being his second. He was GM at Edsa Shangri-La Manila for one year
and six months.
Rice says: “This will be an entire lifestyle complex, where the Shangri-La will engage and work with all the
components, and not just the hotel. From the Horizon Homes perspective, we will take the standards and values
of Shangri-La—our service from the heart—and offer this to our homeowners.”
Looking forward to one of the most anticipated property openings in the hotel group, Rice will uphold the same
standards of hospitality and service from the heart that guests have come to expect from Shangri-La hotels and
resorts all over the world.