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Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures -

High Performance, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Special Loadings and Structural Applications- B. H. Oh, et al. (eds)
ⓒ 2010 Korea Concrete Institute, ISBN 978-89-5708-182-2

The effect of high temperature on color and residual compressive

strength of concrete
Joongwon Lee
Ansan College of Technology, Korea
Kwangho Choi
Namseoul University, Korea
Kappyo Hong
Yonsei University, Korea

ABSTRACT: When exposed to high temperature like in a fire, a concrete structure sees its compressive
strength and elasticity degraded, accompanying with a crack, a spalling and a change in color. The purpose of
this study is to identify the relationship between temperature change and a change in color and a decrease in
compressive strength in a heat exposed concrete structure. For this study, we manufactured a concrete
specimen and heated it until it hit the variable temperatures of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800℃,
whereupon the color change and the residual compressive strength were measured for analysis. The result of
the study shows that color change and residual compressive strength in a concrete structure exposed to high
temperature have a consistent relationship, therefore, it may be possible to know how much compressive
strength of the concrete reduces by measuring color changes and estimating heating temperature.

1 INTRODUCTION exposed to high temperature, with the temperature

To evaluate damage to concrete exposed to high
temperature such as in a fire, we first observe a
change in color, a crack and a burst with naked eyes. 2 COLOR ANALYSIS
The color of concrete tends to change to red at the
temperature between 300℃ and 600℃, to whitish 2.1 Color indicators
grey between 600℃-900℃, and buff between 900℃
The color changes can be quantified and expressed
and 1000℃.
by each factor on color space coordinates, and a
Particularly, the color change into red is most
particular color can be indicated on HSI coordinates
prominent in the concrete made with siliceous
with hue, saturation, and lightness values.
aggregate, and least prominent in calcareous
A color on a HSI coordinates means a kind of
aggregate. The reason why the color changes into
colors such as red, yellow or green, and is measured
red is that iron in the aggregate dehydrates or
oxidizes due to the high temperature. And the color
change is related to reduction in concrete strength,
and this could be very useful information to evaluate
In addition, as the color turns into red within a
certain temperature range as the temperature
changes, this will enable to improve the existing
subjective method of evaluating damage to concrete
due to high temperature and to create a new
quantitative method by quantifying a change in color
accordance with a change in temperature.
The purpose of this study is to identify the
quantitative relationship of a change in color and a
decrease in compressive strength of concrete, when Figure 1. HSI Coordinates.
by wavelength. A hue of a color is indicated by the (KS F 2403) when J = − Dmanufacturing
( h , T ) ∇h the concrete
location on a horizontal circle. Zero (0) value on the specimens. The size of the concrete specimens was
circle defines pure red and the hue is quantified by set to Φ100x200, and TheKproportionality
type thermocouples coefficient
were D(h,T)
angles. moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea
inserted in the center of the specimens in the depth
Saturation indicates an amount of white color of 3cm, 6cm, 9cm, of12cm,
the relative
and 15cm humidity andsurface
from hthe temperature
mixed in a pure color. Bright and deep red which is & Najjar 1972). The moisture mass
in order to measure temperature inside. The balanc
not mixed with white at all has a high saturation that the variation in time of the KS
specimens were capped after 24 hours following water mas
level, and on a HSI coordinates the circumference F 2403, de-molded volume of concrete
after another (waterand
24 hours content
curedw) be eq
means 100% of saturation and the center of the divergence
in water for 28 days in a thermal of thewater
moisture flux
bath of 20℃.
circle means 0%.
Lightness indicates an amount of light that a
− ∂w = ∇ • J Mix proportions (kg/m3)
Table 1. Concrete mix proportions.
material reflects, which is relative brightness and S/a Binder ∂water
darkness. On a HSI coordinates, it is indicated on a W/C t
(%) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) G S C FA
vertical axis of the circle plane. 0.45 48.5 338 The water content w can be expressed a
152 939 878 304 34
* G:Coarse aggregate, S:fine aggregate, C: cement, FA:
Admixture (fly ash) of the evaporable water we (capillary wa
2.2 Color measurement method vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e
(chemically bound) water wn (Mil
Generally, a spectral color measurement system is 3.2 Test methodsPantazopoulo & Mills 1995). It is reas
used to measure a color quantitatively, especially in
industries such as dying, stamping or construction In this study, weassume that theconcrete
manufactured evaporable water is a fu
interior to control colors. of Φ100x200 withrelative humidity,
variables h, temperatures,
of heating degree of hydration
degree of silica fume reaction,
heated them in an electric oven to measure color αs, i.e. we=w
In this study as well, the spectral color = age-dependent sorption/desorption
measurement was used to quantify color values and values and compressive strength, analyzed the result
analyze them on the color coordinates. comparing that of(Norling Mjonellconcrete
the controlled 1997). Under this assum
by substituting
to identify the relationship betweenEquation 1 intoat Equati
When a visible ray with the wavelength of 380㎚ obtains
- 780㎚ reflects from or is penetrated into an item which the concretes were exposed and color changes
due to chemicals on the surface of the item, it and residual compressive strength.
∂w ∂h an electric ∂woven ∂w
− e e α& +with e α& + w
changes spectral power distribution which means, it We also manufactured
+ ∇ • ( D ∇h ) =
changes distribution of light speed of an original width x length x depth ∂t 87cm xh 80cm∂xα 150cm∂to
∂h of c
α s
wave. Then, a different light is reached on the retina, heat the concrete specimens, and installed ca controls
producing stimulus which is conveyed to the brain box that controls temperature and heating speed.
through the optic nerve, and that’s how we can
where ∂we/∂h
The targeted temperatures is the
inside theslope of the
electric ovensorption/
distinguish different colors. were set between 100℃~800℃ and the oven was capac
isotherm (also called moisture
In this study, Spectrophotometer CM-2500d of set to get heated governing
at the speedequation (Equationuntil
of 13.33℃/min 3) must
it be
Japanese MINOLTA was used for shade analysis,
by appropriate boundary and
got to each targeted temperature and to remain for initial conditi
and as an analyzing program, SpectraWorks of an hour in order forThe relation between
the temperature insidethe amount of e
to reach
Dong-san Machinery, a Korean measuring instruments
water and
targeted temperature evenly. relative humidity is called ‘‘
producer, was used.
isotherm” if measured with increasing
humidity and ‘‘desorption isotherm” in th
4 RESULT ANDcase. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.
the following, ‘‘sorption isotherm” will be
4.1 Crack and color changesto both sorption and desorption c
3.1 Concrete mixing and test samples production
By the way, if the hysteresis of the
When seen with isotherm
naked would
eyes, beastaken into room
at the account, two
The cement used in this study is the ordinary temperature, no relation,
change evaporable
in any of water vs relative
specimen was humi
Portland Cement, as a coarse aggregate crushed be used according to the sign of the varia
found at the temperature between 100℃~200℃.
granite with maximum size limited to 20~25mm was relativity
The color of the humidity.
cement paste startedThe shapeat of the
to change
used and as a fine aggregate, filer sand with blend 300℃ into red, isotherm
and as thefor HPC is influenced by
temperature rose, themany p
ratio of 2.8 and absorption ratio of 0.6%. As an especially those that influence extent
change became worse up until 600℃. Especially at and
admixture, fly ash was used and set to have 10% 600℃, the color chemical reactions and, in turn, determ
of the aggregate changed into red.
of replacement ratio toward water-to-cement ratio. And the overall structure
color ofand the pore size distribution
specimen started to (water-
The water-to-cement ratio of the cement ratio, cement chemical composition, SF
change into grey at 700℃ or above.
specimen was planned at 0.45. The targeted slump curing
In terms of crack, no time
between mix
of the combination was set to 15cm and the targeted 100℃~500℃ with etc.). In the literature various formulatio
naked eyes. At the temperature
air capacity was set to 5.0% (with an error tolerance above 600℃, a found
crack to describe
started to bethedetected
of 1.5%). Refer the table 1. naked eyes and asconcrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th
the temperature rose, the crack
We followed "Method of making and curing became wider frompaper
0.2mmthe tosemi-empirical
1.0mm. expression pro
concrete specimens" of Korean Industry Standard Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted b

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

D (h, T )∇hin hue, saturation and lightness values
J = −Changes
4.2 (1) explicitly accounts for the evolution of hydration
Three factors on the color coordinates, which are
reaction and SF content. This sorption isotherm

The proportionality
lightness, saturation andcoefficient
hue, quantify D(h,T) is called
changes in
reads 12

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear

color of the heat-exposed-concrete. These properties function
of themeasured
relative humidity h and of temperature T (Bažant

were at the surfaces the two specimens, ⎡ ⎤

Saturation value
& Najjar
and we got1972). The moisture
all 6 values of each mass balanceand
temperature requires
their we (h α c α s ) = 8
G1 (α c , α s )⎢⎢1 − 1 ⎥
that the variation in time of the water mass per unit ∞
, ,

average value. (g α
c 10 − α c )h ⎥⎥
volume of concrete (water content
Figure 2 shows changes in the hue of the w ) be equal to the 6

⎣ 1
⎦ (4)
divergence of the moisture
specimen at each temperature. flux J 4 ⎡ (g α
∞ − α )h ⎤
As shown in the figure, there was only little K (α c α s ) e
, ⎢ c 10
c − 1

− w = ∇ • Jin the heated specimen below 200℃ with (2)
2 1

the∂tunheated specimen, but the changes got severe 0 100 200 300 400 500
600 700 800
Temperature( C)
between 300℃~600℃. And at the temperature where the first term (gel isotherm) represents the
The 700℃,
above water content
it showedw canirregularity
be expressedin aschanging
the sum physically
Figure bound
4. Change (adsorbed)
in Saturation Valuewater and the second
by Temperature.
of the
pattern. evaporable water w e (capillary water, water term (capillary isotherm) represents the capillary
It is and
known adsorbed
that thewater)
reasonand whythe non-evaporable
concrete exposed water. Thisat expression
changed 300℃ and is valid
aboveonlyandfor reversed
low content
to high temperature water wn (Mills
bound)of 300℃~600℃ sees its 1966,
color of SF. The coefficient G1 represents the amount of
700℃~800℃, but the variable breadth was not
change into red&isMills because1995).
of ironIt iscontained
in the to water per unit volume held in the gel pores at 100%
assume that the evaporable water
fine aggregate or the coarse aggregate, and the is a function of relative
4 shows and it caninbetheexpressed
changes saturation(Norling
of the
relative starts
hydrate humidity, h, degree
to dissolve and of thehydration,
iron startsαto c, and
get Mjornell 1997)
specimen at eachastemperature.
degree ofatsilica
oxidized fume reaction, αs, i.e. we=we(h,αc,αs)
this temperature. As shown in the figure, the saturation value
= Figure
3 shows changes sorption/desorption
in the lightnessisotherm
of the increased as the
(Norling Mjonell 1997).
specimen at each temperature. Under this assumption and G1 (the c temperature
)= k α c
α , αcontrolled
rose and exceeded that
+ k s α s at 300℃~500℃, where (5)
by Assubstituting
of c s vg c vg s specimen
shown in Equationthe figure,1 the into lightness
Equationsaw 2 oneno hue decreased and red color was detected. However,
significant change until 300℃, and started to the saturation value
decrease at 400℃~600℃ and bounced back at where
kcvg and
and hue
ksvg areplunged
the temperatureFrom the hit
∂w ∂and ∂w maximum amountbetween
of waterthe pertemperature
unit volumeofthat can
− The
e hoverall
+ ∇ • ( Dlightness e α& + ∂towedecrease
∇h) = started α&s + w&n as hue(3) fillIn apores
all nut shell,
(both capillary pores and gel 300℃
pores), one
∂h ∂t h c
∂α ∂α and 600℃, where
can calculate K as the
onered color is detected, the hue
c s value decreases1 as temperature rises, the lightness
shows no significant difference⎡ and ⎛saturation⎞ ⎤value
where ∂we/∂h is the slope of the sorption/desorption exceeds that of the controlled ⎜ g α − α ⎟At

c ⎠h ⎥⎥ the
α s + α s −G ⎢ −e ⎝ c

isotherm (also called moisture capacity). The
90 w −
temperature above c700℃,s the hue and the lightness
0.188 0.22 1

governing equation (Equation 3) must be completed ⎦ (6)

0 1
⎢ ⎥
values bounce
K (α c α s ) = back while the⎣ saturation plunges.
by appropriate boundary and initial conditions. ,

Therefore, it seems to⎜ gbe

c − α c ⎟⎠h −
α possible to estimate a
Hue value

80 1 ⎛ ∞ ⎞

The relation between the amount of evaporable


heating temperature ethe⎝ concrete

is exposed more 1

water and relative humidity is called ‘‘adsorption

accurately by comparing the hue value and the
isotherm” if measured with increasing relativity saturation value. parameters k vg and k vg and g1 can
The material c s

humidity and ‘‘desorption isotherm” in the opposite

60 be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994), in free (evaporable) water content in concrete at
the following, ‘‘sorption isotherm” will be used with
50 various
4.3 ages (Di
Relative hueLuzio & Cusatis
ratio and 2009b).
residual compressive
reference to both sorption 0
and desorption conditions.
100 200 300 400 500
600 700 800
strength by temperature
By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture
Temperature( C)
Figure 2. Change in Hue Value by Temperature. In
2.2order to figure evolution
Temperature out the relative hue ratio and the
isotherm would be taken into account, two different residual compressive strength ratio at each
relation, evaporable water vs relative humidity, must
100 Note that, at we
temperature, early age, since
measured thethe chemical
relative reactions
hue ratio and
be used according to the sign of the variation of the associated with cement hydration and
residual compressive strength of the specimen SF reaction
relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption
are exothermic,
0.45 the temperature
of water-to-cement fieldatis 9notdifferent
ratio, uniform
isotherm for HPC is influenced by many parameters, for non-adiabatic
temperatures fromsystems even if the to
room temperature environmental
800℃, and
especially those that influence extent and rate of the
temperature is constant.
the table 2 shows the result. Heat conduction can be
Lightness value

chemical reactions and, in turn, determine pore

70 described in concrete, at least for temperature
The relative hue ratio indicates ratio of the hue not
structure and pore size distribution (water-to-cement exceeding 100°C (Bažant & Kaplan
value of the heated concrete specimen to that of the1996), by
ratio, cement chemical composition, SF content,
60 Fourier’s law,
controlled which reads
specimen, and the residual compressive
curing time and method, temperature, mix additives, strength ratio indicates the ratio of heated
etc.). In the literature various formulations can be
50 q = − λ ∇T
specimen's compressive strength to that (7) of
found to describe the sorption isotherm of normal controlled specimen.
concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in the present
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
where q is shows
The table the heat flux,subject
that the T is huethe ratio
paper the semi-empirical expression
Temperature( C) proposed by o

accelerated and λ300℃is theand
conductivity; in this
at 600℃.
Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted
Figure 3. Change in Lightness Value by because it
And the residual compressive strength decreases as

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

the temperature rises, and at the temperature of J = −D
compressive strength as( hthe
, T )∇temperature
h increases.
800℃, the residual strength is dropped to less than The residual compressive strength can be expressed
10% level of the controlled strength at the room with a quadratic equation with R2, a constant
The proportionality coefficient
of 0.97. D(h,T)
temperature. moisture permeability and it as
The residual compressive strength decreases is athenonlinea
temperature rises,offrom
the relative
92% to 0% humidity h and temperature
at 100℃~800℃.
Table 2. Relatve hue and residual strength ratio by
& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc
Temp. Relative Hue Compressive Residual that the variation in time of the water mas
(℃) Ratio Strength(MPa) Strength Ratio
5 volume of concrete (water content w) be eq
20 1.00 59.21 1.00 divergence of the moisture flux J
100 1.00 49.42 0.83 In this study, we observed the specimen with naked
200 0.99 48.32 0.82 eyes and measured ∂the change in color and residual
300 0.88 50.30 0.85 − w =at∇ •different
compressive strength J temperatures in
400 0.85 36.86 0.62 order to figure out the relationship between
500 0.77 31.59 0.53 temperature change The of the concrete exposed
600 0.80 18.83 0.32 water content w can to be high
expressed a
700 0.90 6.86 0.12
heat and changes in its color and
of the evaporable water we (capillary waresidual
800 0.80 4.40 0.07 compressive strength,
vapor,and andweadsorbed
got the water)
conclusionand the as non-e
below. (chemically bound) water wn (Mil
(1) As the result of observing
Pantazopoulo & Millsthe1995). concrete It is reas
exposed to high assume
heat with naked eyes,
that the evaporable waterred color is a fu
starts to be detected
300 ℃ and above ofand
h, degree hydration
continues changingdegreeuntil 600fume
of silica ℃ , reaction,
and at αthe
s, i.e. we=w
temperature of 700℃, the color changes
= age-dependent to light
Relative Hue Ratio

grey. The crack on the specimen starts to be detected
(Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assum
0.8 at 600℃ and getsbywider at 800℃. Equation 1 into Equati
(2) As the result of analyzing hue, the hue value
0.7 sees larger change as the temperature rises, and
especially the change gets severe at the temperature
∂w ∂h ∂w
between 300℃~600℃, − e + ∇ • ( D ∇h ) = e α& + ∂we α& + w
(3) The residual∂hcompressive
∂t h strength
∂α tends c
α s
c s
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 decrease as the temperature rises, plunges to 60% at
400℃ and remain below∂w10% at 800℃.
Temperature( C)
(4) Between isotherm
100 ℃ ~600 e/∂h is the slope of the sorption/
℃ , called
the relative hue capac
Figure 5. Temperature and Relative Hue Ratio.
change and governing
strength consistently
decrease as
3) must be
by appropriate
rises, enabling to estimate the
and initial

that the concretewater

The relation
is exposed
to and the
the amount in
of e
compressive strength
and relative
by measuring
the hue
called ‘‘
isotherm” if measured with increasing
Residual Strength Ratio

of the concrete exposed

humidity to high heat.
and ‘‘desorption isotherm” in th
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.
the following, ‘‘sorption isotherm” will be
REFERENCES reference to both sorption and desorption c
By the way, if the hysteresis of the
B. Georgali, P.E. Tsakiridis 2005. Microstructure of fire-
damaged concrete. isotherm
A casewouldstudy. be taken &into
Cement account, two
relation, evaporable water vs relative humi
Composites, 27, 225-259.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 G. A. Khoury. 1992.be used according
Compressive strengthto
of the signatofhigh
concrete the varia
Temperature( C) temperatures: a relativity humidity.
reassessment. MagazineThe of shape
concrete of the
research, 44(161),isotherm
291-309. for HPC is influenced by many p
Figure 6. Temperature and Residual Compressive Strength. Konica Minolta. 1998. Precise Color Communication, pp.1-30.
Matteo Colombo and especially
Robert those that2007.
Felicetti. influence
New NDTextent and
The figure 5 shows the relationship between techniques for the assessment of fire-damaged concrete determ
chemical reactions and, in turn,
temperature and relative hue ratio, and is expressed structure
structures. Fire Safety and42(6-7),
Journal, pore 461-472.
size distribution (water-
with a linear equation with a constant, R of 0.84. No ratio, cement chemicalAssessment
N.R. Short, J.A. Purkiss, and S.E. Guise. 2001. composition,
of SF
change in the hue value is detected up until 100℃ curing
fire damaged concrete time
using and method,
colour image
Construction and Building Materials, 15(1), 9-15.
analysis. mix
and the hue starts to change at 200℃. The hue value etc.). In the literature various formulatio
Nabi Yüzer, Fevziye Aköz, and Leyla Dokuzer Öztürk. 2004.
changes from 92% to 79% at 300℃~600℃, and as found to describe
Compressive strength-color the sorption
change relation in mortarsisotherm
the temperature rises, the change in the hue high temperature.concrete
Cement and(XiConcrete
et al. 1994).
34(10), in th
continues to change. 1803-1807. paper the semi-empirical expression pro
The figure 6 indicates the change of the residual Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted b

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

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