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Lecture slides from a mechanical course at IIT Bombay. Course - Applied thermodynamics

- Tutorial 3 thermo
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in which working fluid is always a gas

Gas turbines

Internal combustion engines: spark-ignition and compression-ignition

Internal Combustion Engines

Engine Terminology

Air-Standard Cycles: Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles

Gas Turbine Power Plants

Modelling gas turbine power plants

Air-Standard Brayton cycle

Improving performance using

Regeneration, reheating and intercooling

Gas turbines for aircraft propulsion

Combined gas turbine – vapour power cycle

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 1

Ericsson and Sterling cycles

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

• Higher Power-Output-to-Weight-Ratio

• 15 to 18%

• 25 to 42%

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

CYCLE ANALYSIS TURBINE

COMPRESSOR

HEAT INPUT

Thermal Efficiency

HEAT REJECTED

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 4

EFFECT OF PRESSURE RATIO

T3 T4 T2 T1 T T 1

1 4 1 1

R

( 1) /

T3 T2 T3 T2 p

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM WORK OUTPUT

W

c p T3 T4 T2 T1

m

Differentiate and equate it to zero

T3 2( 1)

Rp

T1

T2 T4 T1T3

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

NUMERICAL PROBLEM

Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle

at 100 kPa, 300 K, with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. The

compressor pressure ratio is 9. The turbine inlet temperature is

1500 K. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the

back work ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.

ASSUMPTIONS:

1. Each component is analyzed as a control volume at steady state.

2. The turbine and compressor processes are isentropic.

3. There are no pressure drops for flow through the heat exchangers.

4. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible.

5. The working fluid is air modeled as an ideal gas.

6. Specific heat is assumed to be constant.

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Effect of irreversibilities

• Frictional effects within compressor and turbine

• Working fluid experience increase in entropy

• Also friction leads to pressure drop in heat exchangers; generally negligible

h2 s h1 h3 h4

c t

h2 h1 h3 h4 s

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 8

Regenerative Gas Turbines

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Gas Turbines with Reheat

• Combustion products have excess air to limit the turbine inlet temp

• Additional fuel may be burnt after the partial expansion

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 10

Gas Turbines with Intercooling

With change in KE and PE are neglected

2

h1 q w h2 w q h1 h2 Tds h1 h2

1

2 2

Tds dh vdp Tds h2 h1 vdp

1 1

2

w vdp

1

heat transfer from the working

fluid so intercool the working

fluid in between the stages

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 11

Regenerative gas turbine with intercooling and reheat

Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion

Va2 V 2

h1 ha h4 h5 5

V5 2 h4 h5

2 2

Take care of the units

Turbo-jet engine with after

burner

a) Turboprop, b) Turbofan

and c) Ramjet engines

14

Combined Gas Turbine–Vapor Power Cycle

Other Cycles

Ericsson Cycle

Stirling Cycle

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Condition for minimum work

If the inlet state and the exit pressure are specified for a two-stage compressor operating at

steady state, show that the minimum total work input is required when the pressure ratio is

the same across each stage. Use a cold air-standard analysis assuming that each

compression process is isentropic, there is no pressure drop through the intercooler, and

the temperature at the inlet to each compressor stage is the same. Kinetic and potential

energy effects can be ignored.

as control volumes at steady state.

2. The compression processes are isentropic.

3. There is no pressure drop for flow through the

intercooler.

4. The temperature at the inlet to both compressor stages

is the same.

5. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible.

6. The working fluid is air modeled as an ideal gas.

7. The specific heat cp and the specific heat ratio k are

constant.

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Numerical Problem

Air enters the compressor at 100 kPa, 300K and is compressed to 1000 kPa. The temperature

at the inlet to the first turbine stage is 1400 K. The expansion takes place isentropically in two

stages, with reheat to 1400 K between the stages at a constant pressure of 300 kPa. A

regenerator having an effectiveness of 70% is also incorporated in the cycle. Determine the

thermal efficiency. Consider an isentropic efficiency of 85% for each turbine.

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Numerical Problem

A regenerative gas turbine with intercooling and reheat operates at steady state. Air enters

the compressor at 100 kPa, 300 K with a mass flow rate of 5.807 kg/s. The pressure ratio

across the two-stage compressor is 10. The pressure ratio across the two-stage turbine is

also 10. The intercooler and reheater each operate at 300 kPa. At the inlets to the turbine

stages, the temperature is 1400 K. The temperature at the inlet to the second compressor

stage is 300 K. The isentropic efficiency of each compressor and turbine stage is 80%. The

regenerator effectiveness is 80%. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency, (b) the back work

ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.

Moran and Shapiro (2006)

Air enters a turbojet engine at 0.8 bar, 240 K, and an inlet velocity of 1000 km/h (278 m/s).

The pressure ratio across the compressor is 8. The turbine inlet temperature is 1200 K and

the pressure at the nozzle exit is 0.8 bar. The work developed by the turbine equals the

compressor work input. The diffuser, compressor, turbine, and nozzle processes are

isentropic, and there is no pressure drop for flow through the combustor. For operation at

steady state, determine the velocity at the nozzle exit and the pressure at each principal

state. Neglect kinetic energy at the exit of all components except the nozzle and neglect

potential energy throughout.

20

Moran and Shapiro (2006) ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics

Types of Combustors

Single Can

Tubular or Multi-Can

Tuboannular Can-Annular

Annular

21

Combustor Design aspects

• Combustor Geometry

• Air Flow Dynamics

• Fuel Preparation; injection

• Combustion Efficiency

• Flame Stabilization

• Ignition

• Emissions

22

Combustion Process

23

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