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GAS POWER SYSTEM

Objective: Study Gas Power Plants


in which working fluid is always a gas
Gas turbines
Internal combustion engines: spark-ignition and compression-ignition
Internal Combustion Engines
Engine Terminology
Air-Standard Cycles: Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles
Gas Turbine Power Plants
Modelling gas turbine power plants
Air-Standard Brayton cycle
Improving performance using
Regeneration, reheating and intercooling
Gas turbines for aircraft propulsion
Combined gas turbine – vapour power cycle
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 1
Ericsson and Sterling cycles
GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

• Lighter than Vapour Power Plants

• Compact as Compared to Vapour Power Plants

• Higher Power-Output-to-Weight-Ratio

• Simple Cycle based GTPP have Lower Efficiency


• 15 to 18%

• Regenerative Cycle based GTPP have Higher Efficiency


• 25 to 42%

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 2


Moran and Shapiro (2006)
GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

OPEN SYSTEM CLOSED SYSTEM

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 3


CYCLE ANALYSIS TURBINE

COMPRESSOR

HEAT INPUT

Thermal Efficiency
HEAT REJECTED

Back work ratio (bwr)

higher compared to VPS


ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 4
EFFECT OF PRESSURE RATIO

 T3  T4   T2  T1  T T 1
  1 4 1   1
R 
(  1) / 
T3  T2 T3  T2 p

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 5


Moran and Shapiro (2006)
CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM WORK OUTPUT

W
 c p T3  T4   T2  T1  
m
Differentiate and equate it to zero


 T3  2(  1)
Rp   
 T1 

T2  T4  T1T3

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 6


Moran and Shapiro (2006)
NUMERICAL PROBLEM
Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle
at 100 kPa, 300 K, with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. The
compressor pressure ratio is 9. The turbine inlet temperature is
1500 K. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the
back work ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.

ASSUMPTIONS:
1. Each component is analyzed as a control volume at steady state.
2. The turbine and compressor processes are isentropic.
3. There are no pressure drops for flow through the heat exchangers.
4. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible.
5. The working fluid is air modeled as an ideal gas.
6. Specific heat is assumed to be constant.

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 7


Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Effect of irreversibilities
• Frictional effects within compressor and turbine
• Working fluid experience increase in entropy
• Also friction leads to pressure drop in heat exchangers; generally negligible

h2 s  h1 h3  h4
c  t 
h2  h1 h3  h4 s
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Regenerative Gas Turbines

Regenerator effectiveness around 60-80%

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Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Gas Turbines with Reheat
• Combustion products have excess air to limit the turbine inlet temp
• Additional fuel may be burnt after the partial expansion

Moran and Shapiro 2006


ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 10
Gas Turbines with Intercooling
With change in KE and PE are neglected
2
h1  q  w  h2  w  q  h1  h2   Tds  h1  h2
1
2 2
Tds  dh  vdp   Tds  h2  h1   vdp
1 1
2
w    vdp
1

It is difficult to get continuous


heat transfer from the working
fluid  so intercool the working
fluid in between the stages

Moran and Shapiro 2006


ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 11
Regenerative gas turbine with intercooling and reheat

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Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion

Va2 V 2
h1  ha  h4  h5  5
 V5  2  h4  h5 
2 2
Take care of the units

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 13


Turbo-jet engine with after
burner

a) Turboprop, b) Turbofan
and c) Ramjet engines

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Combined Gas Turbine–Vapor Power Cycle

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 15


Other Cycles

Ericsson Cycle

Stirling Cycle

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Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Condition for minimum work
If the inlet state and the exit pressure are specified for a two-stage compressor operating at
steady state, show that the minimum total work input is required when the pressure ratio is
the same across each stage. Use a cold air-standard analysis assuming that each
compression process is isentropic, there is no pressure drop through the intercooler, and
the temperature at the inlet to each compressor stage is the same. Kinetic and potential
energy effects can be ignored.

1. The compressor stages and intercooler are analyzed


as control volumes at steady state.
2. The compression processes are isentropic.
3. There is no pressure drop for flow through the
intercooler.
4. The temperature at the inlet to both compressor stages
is the same.
5. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible.
6. The working fluid is air modeled as an ideal gas.
7. The specific heat cp and the specific heat ratio k are
constant.

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Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Numerical Problem
Air enters the compressor at 100 kPa, 300K and is compressed to 1000 kPa. The temperature
at the inlet to the first turbine stage is 1400 K. The expansion takes place isentropically in two
stages, with reheat to 1400 K between the stages at a constant pressure of 300 kPa. A
regenerator having an effectiveness of 70% is also incorporated in the cycle. Determine the
thermal efficiency. Consider an isentropic efficiency of 85% for each turbine.

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Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Numerical Problem
A regenerative gas turbine with intercooling and reheat operates at steady state. Air enters
the compressor at 100 kPa, 300 K with a mass flow rate of 5.807 kg/s. The pressure ratio
across the two-stage compressor is 10. The pressure ratio across the two-stage turbine is
also 10. The intercooler and reheater each operate at 300 kPa. At the inlets to the turbine
stages, the temperature is 1400 K. The temperature at the inlet to the second compressor
stage is 300 K. The isentropic efficiency of each compressor and turbine stage is 80%. The
regenerator effectiveness is 80%. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency, (b) the back work
ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.

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Moran and Shapiro (2006)
Air enters a turbojet engine at 0.8 bar, 240 K, and an inlet velocity of 1000 km/h (278 m/s).
The pressure ratio across the compressor is 8. The turbine inlet temperature is 1200 K and
the pressure at the nozzle exit is 0.8 bar. The work developed by the turbine equals the
compressor work input. The diffuser, compressor, turbine, and nozzle processes are
isentropic, and there is no pressure drop for flow through the combustor. For operation at
steady state, determine the velocity at the nozzle exit and the pressure at each principal
state. Neglect kinetic energy at the exit of all components except the nozzle and neglect
potential energy throughout.

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Moran and Shapiro (2006) ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
Types of Combustors
Single Can

Tubular or Multi-Can

Tuboannular Can-Annular

Annular

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Combustor Design aspects
• Combustor Geometry
• Air Flow Dynamics
• Fuel Preparation; injection
• Combustion Efficiency
• Flame Stabilization
• Ignition
• Emissions

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Combustion Process

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