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PUPILS to whom this textbook is issued must not write on any page
or mark any part of it in any way, consumable textbooks excepted.

1. Teachers should see thai the pupil's name is clearly written in ink in the spaces above in
every book issued.
2. The following terms should be used in recording the condition of the book: New; Good; Fair;
Poorj Bad.
Practical Arts Division Head
J. Sterling Morton High School
Cicero, Illinois

Peoria, Illinois 61614
Copyright 1969, 1976
By William E. Wyatt
All rights reserved.


Library of Congress Catalog No. 75-964.

Printed in the United States of America
The author wishes to express Kroehler Mfg. Co.
his thanks to the many persons, LifeNewspapers
firms, and associations that have Long Bell Division.
been of assistance during prepara- International Paper Co.
tion of this book. When drawings Meadow Steel Products Co.
or photographs supplied by others Morgan Sash and Door Co.
are presented, a credit line ac- Mosaic Tile Co.
companies each illustration. Many Mueller Climatrol.
illustrations are based upon infor- Worthington Industries
mation supplied by others and National Assn. of Home Builders
their contribution is acknowl- National Homes
edged herewith. National Lumber Mfg. Assn.
National Woodwork Mfg. Assn.
Alan demons Paratone Inc.
Albert Benda Paul Roise
American Plywood Association P. M. Bolton and Associates
American Standard Products Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.
Anaconda American Brass Co. Plumbing- Heating-Cooling
Artcrest Products Co., Inc. Information Bureau
California Redwood Association Portland Cement Association
Carpet Institute Inc. Robert Borlik
Charles Bruning Co. Rohm and Haas Co.
Charles Voighl Scholz Homes Inc.
Cicero, Illinois Simpson Logging Co.
Commonwealth Edison Co. Steel City Electric Co.
Erwyn H. James Steel Joist Institute
Eugene Dietzgen Co. Symons Mfg. Co.
Federal Housing Administration The Ceco Corporation
First Federal Savings & Loan Unit Structures Inc.
Berwyn, Illinois United States Plywood Co.
Formica Corporation West Coast Lumberman's Assn.
Forest Studios Western Wood Products Assn.
Fred Reuten Inc. Weyerhaeuser Company
Frederick Post Co. Wire Reinforcement Institute
General Electric Co.
Honeywell Corporation Special Credit:
Jack Williams The author wishes to express

John Deere Corporation his special thanks to Mr. Raymond

Joseph T. Ryerson and Son, Inc. Hagood, Mr. Patrick McFall, and
Kitchen Maid Corporation Mr. George Voyta for their draft-
Kueffel and Esser Co. ing assistance on illustrations for
Knape and Vogt Mfg. Co. this book.
This book is in three parts: multi-color. When a drawing is

• Part I describes building ma- printed entirely in blue, it is drawn

terials and explains construction as a working plan. Pictorial draw-
principles. ings and working plans illustrat-
ing specific points are often multi-
• Part II presents information
color and are not intended for
necessary for building planning
use on building plans exactly as
and design.
shown. Naturally, any applicable
• Part III presents information
information can be used on your
necessary for drawing building
plan, but it will generally require

It is the author's belief that a working drawings


person must be familiar with in the book are usually drawn to

building materials, construction the smallest scale recommended
principles, and their terminology for a given item. For example,
before it is possible to draw tech- all symbols shown inChapter 38
nical plans requiring such infor- are drawn to a scale of Vi"= l'-O"

mation. Most discussions and because this is the size most often

illustrations are related to homes used on floor plan and elevation

or other light construction be- drawings. Individual drawings for
cause these are less complex than the building plans in Chapter 49

buildings of heavy construction. are drawn to their smallest allow-

Drawing principles for heavy con- able size for working drawings.
struction are the same as for light They are only half the size nor-

construction except that many mally used, so they fit on book

more must be mastered.
details pages.
Many explanations in this book Questions following chapters
are lengthy, but no discussion are designed to cover each major

presents all there is to know about topic presented, and are an in-

a given subject! Rather, the book valuable study guide.

gives a broad overview of many Spelling words and terms are
different areas. end of chapters.
listed at the A
Examination of the book re- good draftsman must be able to
veals that some drawings are in spell properly, as well as under-
a single color while others are in stand his terms.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments 5 Steel Joists, 68; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-
edge, Terms to Spell and Know, 70.
Introduction 6
Chapter 6: Sill and Floor Construction... 71
Table of Contents 7
71; Termite Shield, Floor Joists, 73; Framing,
List of Color Illustrations 11 74; Douglas Fir, Southern Yellow Pine Floor Joists,
75; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Words to
Spell and Know, 78.
Structure-An Architectural Chapter 7: Frame Wall Construction 79
Wall Section, Sole Plate, 79;Top Plate, 81; Stud-
ding, 82; Base Blocks, 84; Framing Diagrams, 85;
Headers— Exterior Openings, 86; Header Sched-
Chapter 1: Laying Out and Excavating 14 ule, Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Words to
Selection of Building Location on the Lot, 14; Local Spell and Know, 87.
Ordinances and Zoning Laws, 15; Plot Plan, 18;
Staking Out, 20; Excavating, 22; Questions to Re- Chapter 8: Masonry Wall Construction 88
inforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 25. Brick, 94; Brick,Stone Bonds, 95; Concrete Block
Bonds, 96; Building Stone, 96; Purchase of Stone,
Chapter 2: Concrete 26 98; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 99; Terms
to Spell and Know, 100.
Forms, 27; Mixing and Pouring Concrete, 29; Con-
crete Block Shapes, 32, 33; Concrete Blocks, 34;
Chapter 9: Ceiling Joists and Roof
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell
Construction 101
and Know, 35.
Methods of Roof Framing, 101; Ceiling Joists-
36 Douglas Fir, Southern Yellow Pine, 103; Securing
Chapter 3: Footings and Foundations
Ceiling Joists to Wall, 104; Roof Types, 105; Roof
Load Bearing Ability of Soils, 36; Footing Shapes,
Shapes Frequently Used, 106; Low Slope Roof
37-39; Frost Line, 40; Questions to Reinforce
Joists or Rafters, 109; Rafters, 110; Names of
Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 46.
Roof Parts, 111; Common Rafter Lengths in
Inches, 112; Roof Truss, 113; Preliminary Design
Chapter 4: Poured Concrete Slabs 47 for Nailed Glued Trusses, 1 14; Questions to Rein-
Suspended Concrete Floors, 49; Questions to Re- force Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 115.
inforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 52.
Chapter 10: Roofing 116
Chapter 5: Structural Metal 53 Definition of Roof Sheathing, Roof Coverings,
1 16;

Welded Wire Fabric, 53; Wire Sizes, 54; Kinds and 119; Slate, 121; Flashing, 123; Questions to Rein-
Use of Beams, Reinforcing Bars, 55; Fiber Stress
force Knowledge, 124, 125; Terms to Spell and
— 20,000# per square inch, 56, 57; Sample Weight Know, 125.
Calculations, Standard Shapes, 58; Standard Steel
Pipe Columns, 62; Weights, Dimensions and Data,
Chapter 11: Post, Plank and Beam
Beams, 63; Elements of Equal Construction 126
Standard Steel I

Angles, 64; Elements of Unequal Angles, 65; Stan- Framing Systems, 126; Beam Shape, 127, 128;
dard Steel Angles— Weights, Dimensions and Data Maximum Spans for Floor Beams, Roof Beams,
— Equal and Unequal Leg Angles, 66; Channels- 129; Typical Glued Laminated Beam and Purlin
American Standard, Steel Angle Irons to Support Sizes, 130; Roof Decking, 131; Questions to Rein-
Four-Inch Masonry Walls, 67; Ryerson Open Web force Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 134.
General Architectural Drawing

Chapter 12: Modular Construction 135 Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know,
Modular Coordination, Building Material Sizes,
137; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 143, 144;
Terms to Spell and Know, 144.
Chapter 20: Chimneys and Fireplaces 219
Chimneys, 219-221; Fireplaces, 222-225; Fire-
Chapter 13: Doors and Door Frames 145 place Opening and Liner Dimensions, 223; Ques-
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Door Sizes, 146; Mul-
Classification of Doors, 145;
Know, 225.
tiple Application of Same Door Type; 147; Door
Jambs, 151; Thresholds, 154; Questions to Rein-
Chapter 21: Roof Overhang and
force Knowledge, 155, 156; Terms to Spell and
Exterior Trim 226
Closed Cornice, 228; Attic Ventilation, 230; Ques-
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Chapter 14: Windows and Glass 157
Know, 233.
Window Types, 157-162; Mullions, 162; Window
Glass, 164; Window Insulating Glass— Standard
Chapter 22: Exterior Wall Coverings 234
Sizes, 165; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge,
167, 168; Terms to Spell and Know, 168. Wall Sheathing, 234; Horizontal Siding, 235; Ques-
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know, 241.
Chapter 15: Stairs and Stair Framing 169
Stringers, 169; Stair Types, 171-174; Stair Uses
and Locations, Structural Details, 175; Calculating PART TWO
Number and Size of Treads and Risers, 176; Ques-
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, 177, 178; Terms
function and beauty- essentials
Spell and Know, 178. of Planning

Chapter 16: Insulation 179 Chapter 23: The Architect 244

Method Heat Transfer, 179; Classifications of
of Need 244; Duties, Fees, 245; Ques-
for, Training,
Insulation, 180; Sound Conditioning, 182; Ques- tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know 246.
Know, 183.
Chapter 24: The Drafter 247
Chapter 17: Electrical Requirements 184 Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 247.
Units of Measure, 184; Abbreviations for Units of
Measure, 185; Number of Wires Required, 186; Chapter 25: Design for Today's Living 248
Required Lighting Outlets and Switches, 187; Elements of Beauty and Design, 249; Application
Lighting Fixtures, 190; Questions to Reinforce of Design, 252; Steps in the Development of a
Knowledge, 192, 193; Terms to Spell and Know, Floor Plan, 253; Practical Considerations, 256;
193. Areas of a Home, 257; Planning the Exterior, 258;
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 259, 260;
Chapter 18: Plumbing 194 Terms to Spell and Know, 260.
Water Distribution System, 194; Waste Removal,
196; Recommended Minimum Standards for In- Chapter 26: Determining Needs and
dividual Sewage-Disposal System, 198-200; Ques- Wishes of the Client 261
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Specific Information the Architect Must Know,
Know, 201. 262.

Chapter 19: Climate Control 202 Chapter 27: Room-By-Room Planning 263
Gravity Warm Air, 203; Hot Water and Steam Heat, Entries and Halls, 263; Living Rooms, Dining
206; Radiant Heating, 208; Determining Heating Rooms, 265; Den or Study, 267; Bedrooms, 268;
Requirements, 210; Heat Loss Data, 211; Recip- Bathrooms, 269-273; Kitchens, 274-278; Design-
rocals, 212; Calculating Building Heat Loss, 213; ing the Kitchen, 278; Wall Units, Cooking Top or
Room Heat Loss Schedule, Approximate B.T.U./H. Sink Units, 279; Base Units, 280, 281; Utility and
Furnace Capacities and Sizes, 215; Questions to Pantry Units, 281; FHA Minimum Kitchen Stan-
Table of Contents

dards, 282; Multi-Purpose Rooms, 284; Garage Chapter 35: Sections 350
or Carport, 285; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-
Sections, Full Section, 350; Half Section, Offset
edge, 286-288; Terms to Spell and Know, 288.
Cutting Plane, 351; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-
edge, Terms to Spell and Know, 353.
Chapter 28: Furniture 289
Sketches of Furniture Most Often Used in Homes, Chapter 36: Pictorial Drawings 354
289-292. Isometric Arcs and Circles, 355; Oblique Drawing,
356; Cabinet Drawing, Perspective Drawing, 357;
Chapter 29: Community Factors to be Directions for Two-Point Exterior Perspective,
Considered 293 358; Perspective for One-Point, 375; Questions
to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Kinds of Communities: Urban, Suburban, Small
Know, 376.
Town, Rural; Utility Services, 293; Real Estate
Taxes, Transportation, Stores and Shopping Cen-
Chapter 37: Sketches and Rendering 377
ters, Fire Protection, 294; Schools, Churches,
Parks, Recreation and Cultural Opportunities, 295; Wash, 379; Graded Wash, 381; Wet-lnto-Wet,

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 297. 382; Opaque Water Colors, 383; Items for Con-
sideration in Rendering, 386; Procedure for Ren-
dering, Introduction to Rendering Details, 393;
Chapter 30: Site Planning 298
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 400-402;
Orientation, 300; Plot Plans, 303; Questions to Re-
Terms to Know and Spell, 402.
inforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 306.
Chapter 38: Architectural Symbols 403
Part 1. 403-406
Structural Details,
PART THREE Part 2. Window Symbols, 407-411
From Ideas to Reality Part 3. Door Symbols, 412, 413
Part 4. Plumbing Symbols, 414, 415
Chapter 31: Drafting Tools and Techniques Part 5. Radiators, 415
for Developing Skill 308 Part 6. Supply Pipes, 416
Drawing Tables and Boards, 309; Instruments, Part 7. Heat Ducts and Registers, 417
Part 8. Electrical Symbols, 417-419
310; Handling Paper and Pencil, 312; Beginning
to Draw, Line Weights, 314; Architect's Scales,
Chapter 39: DIMENSIONS and Notes 420
317; Tools for Curved and Irregular Forms, 319;
Drawing Aids, 322; Questions to Reinforce Knowl- Extension and Construction Lines, 420; Dimen-
edge, 327, 328; Terms to Spell and Know, 329. sion Lines and Dimensions, 422; Dimensioning
Floor Plans, 432; Dimensioning and Notes for Ele-
vations, 436; Dimensioning, 437; Metric Measure-
Chapter 32: Drafting Mediums 330
ment, 439; Metric Measure Building Plans for a
Tracing Paper, Cloth, and Film, 330; Grids, 331;
Small Home, 442; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-
Water Color Paper, Poster and Illustration Board,
edge, 455; Terms to Spell and Know, 456.
332; Matte Board, 333; Questions to Reinforce
Knowledge, 333, 334; Terms to Spell and Know,
Chapter 40: Organization of Building
Plans 457
Chapter 33: Architectural Lettering 335 Standard Sheet Sizes, Trim Lines, Borders, Lines,
457; Titles, 458; Sheet Layout, Schedules, 459;
Lettering Styles, 335; Width of Letters, 337; Let-
Lintel, Door, and Room Schedule, Questions to
tering Hints, 338; Applique Lettering, 339; Pres-
Reinforce Knowledge, 460, 461.
sure Sensitive Lettering, 340; Questions to Rein-
force Knowledge, 341.
Chapter 41: Drawing Plot Plans 462
Drawing Scale, Determining Plot Plan
Plot Plan,
Chapter 34: Orthographic Projection and Shape, Positioning Plan on a Drawing Sheet, Be-
Architectural Drawing 342 ginning the Drawing, Building Lines, 462; Building
Orthographic Projection, 342; Curved Parts, 346; Outlines, Construction Outside the Building, 463;
Auxiliary Views, Orthographic Views and Building Contour Lines, Utilities, 464; Elevations Above Sea
Plans, 347; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Level, Dimensions for Plot Plans, Lettering, Con-
348; Terms to Spell and Know, 349. densed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 465.
Genera/ Architectural Drafting

Chapter 42: Drawing Floor Plans 466 Structural Elevation Details, Exterior Elevation De-

How a "floor plan" is Viewed, Drawing Scale, Page, tails, Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge,
Technical Data, 466; Drawing Wall Outlines, Door, 487.
Window, and Opening Locations, Wall Object Lines, Chapter 47: Drawing Framing Plans 488
Stairs, Chimney or Fireplace, Closet Parts, 467;
Drawing Scale, Sheet Size, Floor Framing Plan,
Drawing Kitchen Equipment, Utility or Laundry
Ceiling Joist Framing Plan, Roof Framing Plan,
Rooms, Bathrooms, Built-in Storage, Room and
488; Steel or Concrete Framing Plans, Wall Fram-
Area Lighting, 468; Lettering, Symbols, Exterior
ing Diagrams, Condensed Outline to Reinforce
Items on Floor Plan, Room Heat Source, Ceiling
Knowledge, 490, 491.
Joists, Access to Attic or Crawl Space, Elevation
Indicators, 469; Cutting Planes, Condensed Out- Chapter 48: Mechanical Plans 492
line to Reinforce Knowledge, 470, 471.
492; Plumbing Plans, 493; Heat-
Electrical Plans,

Chapter 43: Drawing Basement or Footing ing and Air Conditioning Plans, 494; Schematic

and Foundation Plans 472 Diagrams, Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowl-

Drawing Scale, Sheet Size, Construction Materials edge, 495.

and Methods, Beginning the Drawing, Drawing

Chapter 49: Working Plans for a
Wall Footings, Wall Openings, 472; Pilasters, Area-
Contemporary Home 497
ways, Chimney or Fireplace, Stairway, Access to
Crawl Space, Broaden Wall Outlines, Floor Sup- Plot Plan, 499; Footing and Foundation Plan, 500,
ports, Furnace, Water Heater, 473; Laundry Facii- 501; Basement Plan, Window Schedule, 502; Door
ties, Plumbing, Electrical Outlets, Dimensioning, Schedule, Lintel Schedule, 503; Floor Plan, 504;
Electrical Floor Plan, 506, 507; Front and Rear
Lettering, 474; Symbols, Room Heat Source, Floor
Joists, Checking the Plan, Cutting Planes and
and Right Elevation, 509; Roof
Elevation, 508; Left

Identifying Codes, Finishing the Drawing, Con- Framing Diagram, 510-513; Laundry Chute Detail,
densed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 475,476. 514, 515; Outdoor Fireplace and Patio Detail, 516;
Removable Fire Pan Detail, 517; Bathroom Detail,
Chapter 44: Drawing Exterior Elevations.. 477 518-520; Typical Closet Detail, 521; Kitchen De-
tail, 522, 523; Fireplace Detail, 526; Stair Detail,
What Are Elevations?, Drawing Scale, Locating
Elevations on Drawing Sheet, 477; Beginning the 527.
Drawing, Floor Line, Ceiling Line, First Floor Joists,
Chapter 50: Reproduction of Drawings 528
Grade Line, Footings, Walls in Elevation, Determin-
Blueprints and Semi-dry Prints, 528; Ammonia
ing Which Roof Elevation to Draw First, Beginning
to Draw the Gable End, 478; Hip Roof, Drawing a
Vapor Machines, 529; Storage and Retrieval, Ques-
tions to Reinforce Knowledge, 532; Terms to Spell
Chimney Terminating on the Roof, 479; Chimney
Pot, Liner, or Cap; Saddle, Gutters and Down-
and Know, 533.
spouts, Gable Louver or Ventilator, Window and
Chapter 51: Specifications 534
Door Line, Door and Window Openings, Object
General Coverage, 534; Short Form, 535-542;
Lines for Walls and Sills, 480; Dimensions for Ele-
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell
vations, Symbols of Wall Materials, Cutting Planes,
and Know, 532.
Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 481,
482. Chapter 52: Estimating 543
483 Approximate Methods, 543; Abbreviations of Lum-
Chapter 45: Drawing Building Sections
ber Terms, 544; Mensuration, Frequently Used
Drawing Scale, Section Through a Typical Wall,
Conversions, Weights and Measures, Acreage and
Other Wall Sections, Sections for Different Levels,
Areas, Square Tracts of Land, 545; Estimating by
483; Sections for Finished Attic, Stairwell, Fire-
Determining Exact Quantities, 546; Estimating
place, Kitchen Cabinets, Bathroom Cabinets,
Materials and Labor, 547, 548; Questions to Rein-
Closets, Sections Through Doors and Windows,
force Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 549.
484; Miscellaneous Section Drawings, Condensed
Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 485. Chapter 53: Architectural Models 550
Presentation Models, 550; Building Frame Walls,
Chapter 46: Drawing Elevation Details 486
556; The Entourage, 562.
Kitchen Elevations, Bathroom Elevations, Shelves
or Cabinets, Fireplace Walls, 486; Roof Framing, Index 565
— Color Illustrations
Curtain walls with sandwich panels between vertical Relationships of surfaces — identification of surfaces,
members, 239 345
Built-in kitchen features laundry equipment con- Diluted and strong water-color wash renderings, 380
cealed behind folding doors, 275 Professional and student opaque water-color render-

Storage accessories

"L" shaped kitchen — built-in ings, 383

planning area, 276

Opaque water-color rendering done in tones of gray,
A kitchen design adapted from a corridor layout, 277
Airbrush rendering, 385
Hard surfaced materials make this utility room easy
An eight unit apartment building, 388
to maintain, 284
Beautiful, conveniently located schools are an asset,
Ink line drawings with water-color washes, 389
296 Pen and ink rendering with water-color washes, 390
Plot plan showing building outlines and planting loca- Presentation floor plan rendered with water-color
tions, 302 washes, 397
Rendered plot plan showing roof outlines, 303 A second wash presentation, 398
Plot plan showing building outlines, 304 Rendering and plan, 498
Rendering of the large home, 331 Presentation model of a light company building, 551
House plans for the home, including maid's quarters, Views of a finished model with entourage, 562
shown on preceding page, 332 Various views of presentation model, 563


Part One

1 Laying Out and Excavating

2. Concrete
3. Footings and Foundations
4. Poured Concrete Slabs
5. Structural Metal
6. Silland Floor Construction
7. Frame Wall Construction
8. Masonry Wall Construction
9. Ceiling Joists and Floor Construction
10. Roofings
11. Post (Plank) and Beam Construction
12. Modular Construction
13. Doors and Door Frames
14. Windows and Glass
15. Stairs and Stair Framing
16. Insulation
17. Electrical
18. Plumbing
1 9. Climate Control
20. Chimneys and Fireplaces
21 Roof Overhang and Exterior Trim
22. Exterior Wall Coverings

Laying Out and Excavating

Selection of Building Location on the Lot

In choosing a building loca-

tion, you must know the exact '/l6 VtA Vt SECTION

property boundaries of the build-

ing site. It is not enough to take
the word of the person from whom
the property is being purchased.
He may be entirely honest in his
beliefs when he
describes the
boundaries of the property. But
the only way to be absolutely sure
is to have a survey of the property
made, following the legal descrip-
tion as given in the abstract. An Vi SECTION
abstract gives the exact legal de-
scription of property, stating
boundaries as measured from
latitudes, longitudes, and merid- A SECTION OF LAND
ians. Much of the country is di-
vided by government survey into
sections of one square mile each.
Sections are divided into sub-
sections of halves and quarters.
These are divided into further
halves and quarters. A legal de- The indicated divisions are described as follows:
scription of property and its use V2 = South half of section.

might read as follows: Va = Northeast quarter of section.

Ve = South half of northwest quarter of section.
The property known and described as
V\b — Northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section.
Lots nineteen (19) and twenty (20)
'/3 2 — South half of the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section.
in Block two (2) in J. C. McCartney
'/64 = Northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section.
and Co. Subdivision of the South
half of the Southeast quarter of the Divisions of one section of land (1 sq. mi.)

1: Laying Out and Excavating

Northwest quarter and the East half property and a record of the re- hearings, the rezoning will either
of the Northeast quarter of the South-
payments may be recorded. be approved or denied.
west quarter of the Northeast quarter.
Besides zoning ordinances,
Section 20. Township 39 North. Re-
Deed Restrictions regulations usually define the
subdivision of Blocks one (1) to five
(5). is to be zoned as a Second Com- An owner may add any restric- methods of construction to be
mercial District. tion he desires regulating future used. It is also common practice
An abstract also shows previ- use. Future owners are bound to for a local ordinance to state the
ous owners of the property, and them. For example, an owner may amount of ground area the build-
dates acquired and transferred to require all future buildings to be ing can occupy in relation to the
new owners. Amounts of money of masonry construction. The cost total area of the property, and the
or other considerations of the and quality of future buildings distance one must allow from the
transaction are usually stated. may be predetermined. Uses of edges of the building to the prop-
Money borrowed against the the property may be specified. erty lines. In many instances
the height of buildings deter-
N= y mined by


Local Ordinances and Zoning Laws tion requirements are usually as-
sembled and published in booklet
Before construction can begin, If the property is zoned and a form called the building code.
check the local ordinances and builder wishes to introduce an-
other kind of structure, he may Determining Building Location
zoning laws. Most communities
have regulations stating where apply to the governing body to Other homes in the area help
certain types of structures may have the property rezoned into a determine the location of a new
be located. For example, it would different class. The case will be house on the property. If all

not be possible to build an indus- reviewed and public hearings will other structures are built in a row,
trial plant in a new residential be held to give all property a given distance from the front

neighborhood. Zones are usually owners in the area an opportunity of the lot. the new structure

classified as (1) first residential- to express their wishes. After the should be in line with them.

single family, (2) second residen-

tial— multi-family. (3) apartments,
(4) first commercial, (5) second NOTICE
commercial. (6) light industrial.
A public hearing will be held by the Town of Cicero's Zoning Board of Appeals at 7:30
(7)heavy industrial. These names
P.M., on Monday, July — , 1 96—, in the Cicero Town Hall, located at 4937 West 25th Street,
and ratings may vary from one Cicero, Illinois, at which time the following proposal will be considered:

locality to another. Many areas

That property known and described as Lot 36 and the East Vi of Lot 35 in Block
were built up before adequate 3 in Householder's Addition to Morton Pork in the East Vi of Section 28, Township
zoning ordinances were estab- 39 North, Range 13, East of the Third Principal Meridian in Cook County, Illinois,
commonly known as 4808 West 24th Place, Cicero, Illinois, be rezoned from First
lished. In these areas one may find Residential to First Commercial.

a variety of buildings, constructed

Notice is hereby given that a copy of the proposed amendment to the Zoning
for many different purposes. Other will be available for inspection by any interested person at the meeting effecting such classi-
areas have been zoned after con- fication.

struction of at least a part of the Zoning Board of Appeals

Town of Cicero
of the
buildings. In these older areas it
may be difficult to tell exactly Secretary
into which zoning category prop-
erty should be placed. Public newspaper notice of rezoning request

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Laws usually prohibit new con- to allow existing natural features it may take years before the area

struction that extends over this to remain. This not only is a will again have the harmonious,
line.On the other hand, a setback saving in cost but can add to the enriched look of belonging, unless
behind other structures will tend value of the property because it large sums are spent on sodding.
to obstruct the view from the new gives an established look. Many
it transplanting, or terracing. The
building. large developers move into an natural terrain may offer the best

When planning the location area and proceed to remove all basic landscape possible. Some
well to take trees, shrubs, hills, and even examples of construction in which
of a structure it is

into consideration trees and other existing lawns. When they are the natural landscape has been

growth. Many times the location finished the area looks like a preserved are shown on these two

of the building can be adjusted barren wasteland. If this happens pages.

16 The beauty of this home is enhanced by nature's landscaping.

Preserving existing trees around a building site adds beauty to the structure.

This modern plywood home blends well with its natural setting.
Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

working plot plans are included vision is made to prevent mois-

in Chapter 41. ture, rot and termite damage.
Plot Plan
Establishing the Grade If one places the building

The grade or relationship of high above grade, it is likely to

The working drawings should the building to ground is very look as though it were built on
show a plot plan giving the out- important. The grade line is the stilts. However, if families live
line and shape of the property. point at which the earth touches in basement apartments, the struc-

This plan is dimensioned, showing the foundation of the building. ture may be built high enough
locations of all streets, sidewalks, One usually selects the highest so the basement windows will be
alleys, and easements for utilities. point on the perimeter of the above ground. The less under-
Generally the property owner building when starting to lay out ground depth a basement has,
can use easement space for yards the building's location. All di- the less waterproofing is required.
and gardens, but the utility com- mensions applying to the grade Some codes determine the maxi-
pany still reserves the right of line are taken from this reference mum depth if the basement rooms
access for placement and repair point— or bench mark, as it is are to be used for living purposes.
of utility services. sometimes called. Yet development of new building
The and outline of
location Recent preference in building materials has, for all practical
buildings to be placed on the prop- has tended to keep the floor line purposes, made this code obsolete.
erty should be drawn on the plot close to the grade. The omission Recent developments have en-
plan. Dimensions from each of of the basement in many new abled buildings to be placed
the property boundaries are given. homes has been one of the pri- entirely below grade.
The plan also includes all drive- mary reasons. Yet one must be When the grade is being es-
ways, sidewalks, patios, terraces, careful not to place the building tablished, adjoining terrain must
and other items to be constructed. too close to the ground because be given consideration. The
These are dimensioned when it of the danger of dampness and ground should slope away in all
is necessary to determine their rot. Most communities have reg- directions. Otherwise, water from
location. Trees, shrubs, and other ulations governing the distance adjoining property may drain
obstructions should be shown floors or wood parts of a building across and cause erosion, or it
when their presence has a bearing must be above grade. The FHA— may back up against foundation
upon the construction. Contour Federal Housing Adminstration and basement walls and cause
lines showing the elevations above —places a minimum of 8 inches moisture problems inside. One
sea level of the property are in- as the distance wood parts must must also consider what surface
cluded on some plot plans. be above grade. There are excep- water from a new site is going
Additional methods of showing tions to this rule, if adequate pro- to do to adjoining property.


Plot plan.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Staking Out mainder of the building. Single checked diagonally in both di-

When staking out a building, batter boards, as shown, may be rections, the building is square.
the distance of setback from the used for marking offsets or inden- After the outlines of the build-
front property line is usually de- tations. The corners must be ex- ing have been established, thev
termined first. A line is stretched actly square; using a transit can be marked on the ground
across to represent the front edge level, or employing the 6-8-10 with marking lime. The line or
of the building. Then drive a small method of establishing a right staging is removed for excavation.

stake in the ground at the exact triangle. This an application

is Very simple rectangular struc-
front corner of each end of the of the Pythagorean theorem, tures, as in the illustration, may
building. A small tack or nail can which any right triangle
states: In be staked out as a single section,
then be driven into the stake to the square of the hypotenuse is orall at the same time. However,

mark the exact location. The stakes sum of

equal to the the squares most structures must be staked
should be driven almost flush of the other two sides. See out in sections, or different parts
with the ground. A batter board, illustration. at a time, because of the irregu-
such as the one shown, should Taut, or tightly stretched, lines larity of the outlines of the build-
then be constructed at the two of "staging." or carpenter's twine, ing. Additional offsets, as for
front corners, using 2x4 stakes of are fastened over the batter bay windows, recessed entries,
a suitable length, tapered at one boards to outline sections of the areaways, and porches, require
end with a hatchet or power saw. footing. These lines are usually- special laying out and forming.
The batter boards should be fastened by cutting notches in the The shape of a building should
placed no closer than 4 feet from batter boards to line with the be kept as simple as possible be-
the outside edge of the footing edges of the footing, by looping cause irregular shapes require
line. Then 1x6 boards are used to string around the boards, and more material and labor to con-
connect the stakes. The top edges tying. The strings can also be fas- struct. This is not only true for
of the lx6's should be straight- tened around nails driven in the excavation and forming and pour-
level and equi-distant above the boards. ing footings and foundations, but
grade line. The diagonal method is good also for all other parts of the
Next an approximate layout for checking the square. See il- building. The layout of a building
of the footing is measured off and lustration. If the tape measure with irregular outlines, and sec-
batter boards set up for the re- reads the same when the area is tions, is shown.

"L" shaped batter boards.

Straight batter board.


1 : Laying Out and Excavating

Batter boards and string layout for a
rectangular building.

Using the 6-8- 10 right-triangle

method to check squareness
of a building corner.

<v, / / II / /
/ / /
Checking for squareness, using the di-
agonal method.
Batter boards and string layout for an
irregular shaped building.

Batter boards and string layout for an irregular shaped building.

Excavating at a construction site.


The excavated earth is trans- rate locations. It is not always easy backfill and should be as clean

ported far enough from the im- to get the contractor to do this as possible. Backfill with trash

mediate vicinity of the building because of the time involved: in can be a haven for termites

site to prevent interference with therefore it should be stated and may cause both water pockets
construction work and so as not to clearly in the plans and specifica- and settling around the founda-
interfere w ith deliveries and stock- tions. tion wall.

piling of materials. While the earth is being moved The terrain and the condition
Top soil is a very scarce com- and while construction is in prog- of the should be checked care-

modity in most regions and sells ress, care should be taken to keep fully before actual selection of a

for a premium price. For this the excavated material free of site is made. Firm clay makes an
reason the top and the sub-
soil debris and rubble. At least a por- ideal base for a building of light-
soil should be piled in two sepa- tion of the earth will be used as weight construction, whereas a

ing equipment performs many operations during construction

building of heavy construction would require excavating an area dependent to a large extent upon
would need piles or footings to considerably larger than the size the conditions of the soil to be
extend to bedrock. Rock forma- of the building. removed. If the soil is quite firm,

tions near the surface might re- Excavating can be done in it is not uncommon to use the

quire blasting and heavy equip- manv different ways. The old sides of the excavation as the
ment for removal, which would way is to use a shovel and other outside form for pouring concrete.
add considerably to the cost. hand tools. However, much of the This is more typical for light con-

If loosesand were encoun- hand labor has been eliminated struction. In heavy construction,
tered, added width would be re- and replaced with power tools the earth is removed from a larger

quired for the footings. Excava- such as trenchers, crane and drag- area than the building will oc-
tionmight be much more difficult line, backhoes, and bulldozers. cupy, and forms are constructed
because sand from surrounding See illustrations. to retain the concrete for footings

areas would tend to fill in. This The method of excavation is and foundations.

-fiSs ^

Leveling the construction site with a landscape rake.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1. What is the purpose of having a building that is to be constructed? closer to the ground than formerly?
a survey of the property before con- 9. How can existing trees affect 1 6. What is meant by the term

struction begins? building construction? "terrain"?

2. What is an abstract? 1 0. What extra expenses may be 1 7. What is meant by the term
3. What is meant by a section incurred if a developer completely "staking out"?
of land? clears an area before construction 1 8. What is a batter board?
4. What is meant by deed re- is started? 19. What is staging?
strictions? 1 1 . What is the value of a plot 20. How does the Pythagorean
5. What is a zoning ordinance? plan? theorem apply to laying out a build-
6. How is it possible to have a 1 2. What is meant by the term ing?
zoning ordinance changed? "legal description"? 2 1 . What is meant by the term
7. What is a building code? 13. What is meant by "grade"? "diagonal method"?
8. How do other buildings in an 14. What is a bench mark? 22. Why should rubble and debris
area help determine the location of 15. Why are floors usually built be kept from backfill material?

!!_! v '( i a!T] i^Hll

A .
' -mm-


Excavating a trench with a backhoe-loader.

Terms To Spell and Know

property neighborhood terrace adjoining

boundaries apartment easement erosion
purchased commercial utilities basement
abstract locality obstructions staking
surveyor height bearing batter
regulations barren contour transit
community terrain elevation Pythagorean
structure approaches legal hypotenuse
industrial site foundation staging
residential driveway perimeter


Ingredients of Concrete somewhat, depending upon the upon the strength of the finished
desired plasticity of the concrete product. Note: Under no circum-
The chief ingredients of con-
crete cement— a mixture of
mix. The more water one adds to stances should the concrete be
the mixture the more plastic or allowed to freeze during the setting
lime and powdered clay— sand,
pliable the material becomes. period. If the temperature is near
crushed stone or gravel, and
However, additional water freezing, yet concrete work must
weakens the finished concrete. be done, the mix may be heated
Proportions of Mix Use only enough to allow the before it is poured. Also chem-

The proportions of the ingredi- mixture to reach corners and icals are available that, when
ents will vary with the job the recesses of the form. Six gallons added to the mixture, generate
concrete is to perform. Generally of water per bag of cement is the heat which helps prevent freez-
quantity usually recommended. ing; and temporary shelters may
speaking, the more cement in the
mixture, the stronger it will be. Note: Any water in the mixture be built around, or covers placed
Cement is relatively expensive; includes the free water in the over, the concrete, and heat

therefore only enough is used to sand and gravel. Damp materials, supplied from portable heaters.

assure that the concrete will per- of course, would require the addi- The setting time is much faster

form its For ordinary con-

job. tion of less water than would dry in warm weather than in cold.

crete, such as in basement floors, materials. However, extreme warmth can

drives, and sidewalks, the mix Lightweight Aggregates cause a problem because the con-

usually consists of one 94 pound Concrete may not be required crete may become solid before

bag of cement to every 2Vi cu. ft. to support loads. Concrete usually the desired finish is achieved. It

of clean sand and 3 cu. ft. of weighs about 145 pounds per is necessary to add more water

crushed stone or %" screened, cubic foot. In order to reduce the in very hot weather and, for

washed gravel. The FHA mini- weight per cubic foot, lightweight added protection, to cover it with

mum requirement is one part aggregates are sometimes used in a material such as canvas or
the place of the crushed stone or sisalkraft paper. This will help to
cement, three parts sand, and five
parts gravel or crushed stone. gravel. The more common are retain the moisture for proper
Washed gravel should not be con- lava slag, cinders, and blastfurnace curing. It is also a good idea to

fused with ordinary road gravel, slag. dampen the concrete daily for

which is not only unwashed but Effects of Temperature about five days during curing.
also may contain a large quantity and Moisture If the temperature is either

of sand and other foreign matter Besides water, the temperature too cold or too hot during the
such as twigs and clay. at which concrete is poured and curing process, damage and flak-

The amount of water will vary cured has a tremendous effect ing of the surface may result.

2: Concrete

Being a semi-liquid, eonerete
mix must have a "container"
while it is taking shape. Such con-
tainers are called forms. Forms
are made of lumber, plywood,
hardboards, or metal. They may
either be built on the construc-
tion site or ready-made forms
can be set in place on the job.

Most larger jobs require the use

of both. For large straight
foundation walls the manufac-
tured forms are convenient. For
posts, columns, footings, and
special shapes, job-built ones
are usually more satisfactory.

NOTE: round posts are to be

If V .
poured, the forms are usually
made from cardboard tubes.
After the concrete is thoroughly Manufactured concrete forms.

set, the forms are then removed

or "stripped." If walls are being
poured, the forms are held to the Concrete forms being raised in place with a crane.
Symons Manufacturing Co
correct shape by wire or strap
ties. After the forms are removed,
these wires remain in the con-
crete and are sometimes objec-
tionable to the appearance of the
finished work. Most ties can be
broken back beneath the finished
surface by turning them. The
cavity where the tie is removed
should be filled or "painted"

The strength of the concrete
and a resistance to cracking and
shifting position can be improved
by the addition of metal rein-

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

This reinforcement is either has been welded into square or

deformed— not smooth— metal rectangular mesh. Examples are
rod, the diameter of which is de- illustrated and summarized in

pendent upon the amount of Chapter 5, Structural Metal. Re-

Deformed reinforcing bar.
strength required, or wire which inforcing in slab concrete should
be kept near the bottom. While
the pouring is in progress, the
workman should use a hoe or
similar device to lift the mesh
slightly so it will be embedded
firmly in the concrete. Reinforc-
ing rods must also be held up
from the bottom of the excavation
if they are to be of any value.

Steel stair forms being prepared Wire mesh reinforcement

for installation.

Complex forms for a foundation wall

2: Concrete

Mixing and Pouring Concrete

This was originally a hand It is not always possible to
operation. The cement was de- reach the point where the con-
livered in bags; the sand and crete is to be used. On smaller
gravel were dumped near the site jobs it will probably be trans-
where the concrete was to be ported in a wheelbarrow. On
mixed. On some very small jobs larger jobs it may be placed on
it is still handled in this manner. a conveyor, or pumped through
The workman shovels the dry in- large flexible hoses that can be
gredients into a wooden or metal moved as the work progresses.
mixing box; the water is added For high work, cranes or lifts
from a bucket; and the entire are employed.
contents is mixed thoroughly Concrete being poured from a Concrete is often transported to upper
with a hoe or shovel. The con- ready-mix truck is shown. levels by conveyor.

crete is then shoveled into a

wheelbarrow and transported to
the point where it is to be used.
This method is laborious and
time consuming on larger jobs.
A concrete mixer, usually
equipped with a gasoline engine,
helped make the mixing of con-
crete less of a chore. The mixer
of today is usually mounted on the
back of a truck. The ingredients
are measured into it from large
hoppers located at a central sup-
ply point. The concrete is mixed
while the truck is on the road to
the construction site. When the
order is placed, the customer
can specify what mix he desires.
If the concrete arrives at the con-
struction site with a low pouring
A multistory building formed for pouring.

consistency water from a tank on

the truck is added as required.
The mixer has a short trough Forms being set for the foundation of a large house.

attached for dumping the con-

crete to the job. Several exten-
sions for the trough are kept on
the truck to enable the operator
to reach work points. If the con-
struction job is large enough to
warrant, large hoppers and mixers
may be set up at the site.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Vibrating straight, shallow, grooved— face

When concrete is being poured, is desired, the troweled surface is

either the stiffness of the mixture swept with a coarse broom, the
or air trapped in the form may brush strokes going in the direc-
prevent the mix from completely tion the striations are to run.

filling the space. Voids or pockets Exposed Aggregate

may weaken the structure or allow Wood float used for a textured finish.
For decorative purposes on
water to pass through a wall.
water one method of achieving
is some concrete work, it is desirable
Vibrating the fresh concrete with
a smooth finish, but much faulty to leave the aggregate protruding
poles helps settle the mix. These
construction has resulted from above the surface. This is called
poles have motors or compressed
such attempts. A good product "exposed aggregate" concrete.
air hoses attached to vibrate
has a monolithic or one-piece The rough surface, as shown, is
them. Vibrating helps form a
finish. If the topping is added after achieved by leveling the concrete
more dense material.
the base coat of concrete has set, in the customary manner, except
When concrete is being poured
A chemical
the finish coat will not adhere that it is not troweled.
for a floor, walk, or other large,
properly to the base coat. The retarder is placed on the concrete
flat surface, it is sometimes completed.
topping is likely to break away, after the screeding is
tamped with a "jitterbug" to set-
leaving the rough aggregate ex- The sub-surface of the concrete
tle the coarse aggregate below the
posed. The topping must be hardens in the usual manner but
surface. Remaining aggregate,
placed over the base coat while the retarder prevents the surface
cement, and sand will be smooth
the mix is still plastic or pliable. from hardening. After the sub-
when the concrete is troweled.
However, if the base coat is rel- surface has set, the surface is
Note: Excessive tamping will
atively smooth, a rich mixture of washed with a hose, which re-
cause the aggregate to settle to
dry cement and sand may be moves the top mix but allows
the bottom of the slab, reducing
sprinkled directly on and troweled the aggregate to remain firmly
the strength of the concrete.
to the desired finish. The surface attached in the hardened con-
must be troweled until moisture crete below.
from the mix is worked to the Retarders can also be added to
After the concrete has been
surface to insure a monolithic ordinary concrete to slow the set-
poured on a flat surface, the mix ting time.
must be leveled to the desired
height. The straightedge used is Troweling Expansion Joints
called a screed. The screed is Smaller surfaces are smoothed Large, uninterrupted areas of
moved back and forth across the with a hand trowel, moved in a concrete are likely to crack be-
surface, dragging the concrete circular motion, on partly hard- cause of expansion and contrac-
to the desired level. Motor driven ened concrete. On large jobs this tion due to changes in tempera-
screeds are sometimes used on is too time-consuming. Troweling ture. Therefore lines are usually
large jobs. machines accomplish the job in scored in the surface to allow the
a much shorter time, with less concrete to "move" in unobjec-
Topping manual effort. tionable places. If the surface is

During the leveling process, Textured surfaces are some- quite large, expansion joints are
aggregate may work to the sur- times desired. A wood float, as used to allow for expansion and
face, exposing gravel or crushed shown in the illustration, can be contraction. These joints are
stone. A smooth surface is usually used to achieve this. The float re- filled with tar or a fibrous material
desired. Topping the concrete with places the trowel during the fin- which has been impregnated with
a mixture of cement, sand, and ishing operation. If a striated- tar. The joints are placed so as

2: Concrete

Exposed aggregate concrete is used for this patio floor.

not to present an objectionable terials is the cause. When figuring

appearance. concrete, consider 25 cubic feet
as one cubic yard instead of the
Purchased by the Cubic Yard customary 27 cubic feet. One de-
Concrete is purchased by the sires to figure a job as close as is
cubic yard. Imagine a piece of possible, but it is better to have

concrete 3'x3'x3'. This represents too much concrete than not

one cubic yard. Concrete will not enough. Serious delays and faulty
usually pour out full measure. construction can result from or-
Loss of the water by evaporation dering too little concrete for a Expansion joints control cracking
and absorption into adjacent ma- continuous pour. concrete surfaces.


Standard concrete block size.

(See page 34)







Typical concrete block shapes.





Typical concrete block shapes.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Concrete Blocks

Concrete can also be purchased blocks is 8"x8"xl6". This is called

in theform of ready-made blocks. the nominal size. The actual size
These are composed of cement, is %" less on all measurements.
sand, and a fine aggregate. Small The reason is to allow for the
gravel is the usual aggregate, but mortar joint and still lay up the
blocks are also made with other block at the given size. The rea-
materials. Cinder and haydite sons for the 16" measurement
are added to make a lightweight will be discussed later.

block. These are not designed to There are many sizes and
be load bearing, or supporting. shapes of concrete blocks. Pat-
They support only their own
will terns for laying of concrete blocks
weight. Beams support the floors are limited only by the imagina-
and walls. The block are used to tion of the designer. Samples of
wall off areas in a building and frequently used patterns for laying
to form outer walls. Concrete concrete blocks are shown in
First Federal Savings, Berwyn III.

blocks can be purchased which Chapter 8.

Exposed aggregate panels are frequently
have decorative aggregates such Concrete blocks are purchased
used for vertical Installations.
as marble or granite chips. by the hundred or, on smaller
The standard size of concrete jobs, by the individual unit.

Extensive use of concrete adds to the beauty of this home.

2: Concrete

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1 . From what materials is ordi- 20. What tool is used for level-

nary concrete usually made? ing concrete?

2. Why does one sometimes 21. What is meant by the term

vary the proportions of the ingredi- topping?
ents of concrete? 22. What is meant by the term
3. What is the difference be- monolithic concrete?
tween road gravel and washed 23. What is meant by the term
gravel? machine troweling?
4. When concrete is not re- 24. What is a broom finish, and
Portland Ceinenf Awooc
quired to be load bearing, what ag- how is it achieved?
Concrete privacy screen.
gregates are sometimes used? 25. What is exposed aggregate
5. What two things are likely concrete?
to happen if concrete is poured in 26. What is a retarder, and why
freezing conditions? is it used? 29. How is concrete purchased?
6. How are the ingredients of 27. From what materials are or- 30. What are decorative concrete
concrete warmed and kept warm dinary concrete blocks made? blocks?
for use? 28. What are lightweight con- 31. What is the standard size of
7. What is the name of the item crete blocks? When are they used? a concrete block?
that holds the concrete in place
while it is curing?
8. What material is sometimes Terms To Spell and Know
used as a form when pouring round
concrete columns flaking expansion
ingredients reinforcement hardboard fibrous
9. What are some of the ma-
plastic deformed texture impregnated
terials used in form construction?
aggregates wheelbarrow striated evaporation
10. What is the process of re-
sisalkraft hopper retarder absorption
moving the forms from the concrete
curing consistency screeding trough
1 1 . What is reinforcing rod?
12. What is reinforcing mesh?
Extra strength forms are frequently necessary for heavy construction.
1 3. Why is reinforcing rod held
away from the bottom of the ex-
14. Describe a ready-mix truck.
1 5. How can the consistency of
concrete be varied?
16. What difficulties can result

from having voids in the concrete?

1 7. What is meant by the term
vibrating the concrete?
18. What is meant by the term
tamping the concrete?
1 9. What is the process of level-
ing the concrete called?

Footings and Foundations

Footing and Foundation Size When determining the weight

which one lineal foot must sup- LOAD BEARING
Two factors which influence the ABILITY OF SOILS
size of a footing and foundation port, the weight of all materials

are: in the same foot of building must

Hard Pan 10
be considered.
• Load-bearing ability of the soil.
Rocks or Gravel 6
• Weight of the structure as Minimum Requirements for
Coarse Sand— Compact 4
distributed. Footings and Foundations
Stiff Clay 4
For large construction projects For most light construction it

not necessary to make mathe- Fine Sand — Dry 3

the load-bearing ability of the is

soil should be determined by an matical calculations to determine Fine Sand— Damp 2

engineer. For most light construc- the sizes to be used. The Federal Medium Clay 2
tion the accompanying table will Housing Administration mini-
Soft Clay 1

be adequate. mum requirements for firm soil


Definition of a Footing

A footing is the concrete or

other solid, enlarged base which
supports the foundation, a col-
umn, pier, or other weight. The
footing helps distribute the load.

Definition of a Foundation

A foundation is that portion

of the walls of a building which
is below the floor joist. Usually

most of the foundation is beneath

the finished grade.

Keyed footing and foundation.

3: Footings and Foundations

Footing Shapes
For lightweight, thin-walled If a stronger support is desired,
buildings such as garages and a monolithic footing and founda-
storage sheds, the load may not tion may be poured. Because of
require the use of a footing other the irregular shape, the form con-
than the foundation. If slightly struction and pour is difficult. It

more weight must be supported, is used onlv in cases of necessity.

and the earth is firm, it is permis- When the floor of a building
sible to use a flared footing. The is to be of concrete, the floor,
foundation is dug to the desired foundation, and footing are some-
depth and the base is widened times poured as a single-unit
When footing thickness and foundation
with a shovel to give a slightly floating slab. This type construc-
width are the same, the footing width
may be determined by the 30° 60° larger base. tion is used more often in moder-

method. The typical foundation is rec- ate climates where it is not nec-
tangular. The footing and founda- essary to add a great amount of
state that the foundation must
tion are usually poured at separate insulation. The insulation is
be at least as wide as the ma-
times. This forms a joint where placed on the exterior perimeter
terials to be supported. The foot-
The joint can
the sections meet. of the foundation wall and must
ing must be at least twice as
cause two problems: Water may extend to thetop of the floor.
wide as the foundation wall. The
enter the area between the two (Note: It is exposed and does not
minimum thickness of a bearing
parts or settling may cause the present a desirable appearance.)
foundation of poured concrete is
footing and foundation to sepa- The insulation is then faced with
6". However, local codes fre-
rate. A key may be placed in the asbestos board or other inorganic
quently require the use of a footing to help remedy these material.
greater thickness. For frame problems. (See next two pages.)
buildings an 8" thickness is often
used. Masonry veneer and solid
masonry buildings may require
10" or 12" foundation thickness.
The width of a concrete block
foundation wall should be 8"
minimum. The thickness Two-piece footing
and foundation.
height of the footing should be
the same as the width of the
The 30° -60° method of deter-
mining the footing width and
the thickness or height is also
sometimes used. An example of
this method is shown.
Monolithic footing
Individual building codes dif- 2 x
and foundation.
fer widely as to required sizes.

Before a plan is drawn the build- On a flared footing the effective bearing
width should be at least twice the foun-
ing code for the locality should
dation width.
be consulted.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation



Poured footing and foun-
BASE SHOE dation for frame dwelling.



Frame building with poured

footing, concrete block ANCHOR
foundation, and concrete BOLT
slab floor.


Combined floating slab, foun-
INSULATION dation, and footing.
3: Footings and Foundations




Footing and foundation for wood

joists and masonry veneer wall.
Poured footing and foundation for frame
veneer house with a slab floor.




footing and foundation for a solid GROUND LEVEL

masonry building. / EARTH

Frost depths.

Frost Line

The depth of the footing is footing it will force the wall to Unexcavated Areas
determined by the depth to which move, which will cause cracking. The minimum distance be-

the ground is likely to freeze. The accompanying map shows tween the bottom of wood floor
Freezing and thawing cause the minimum footing depths for dif- joists and the ground is 24". (The

ground to expand and contract. ferent sections of the United earth should be scraped free of
If the ground freezes below the States, based upon the maximum all organic material.) This space
depth frost is likely to occur. How- will allow adequate air circula-
ever, this cannot be used as an tion and workmen can move
absolute guide. Many local codes about without difficulty. If damp-

specify depths that vary from ness is likely to occur, provision

recommended government stan- for draining the area should be
dards. Local codes must be con- made. Many builders place a 3"
sulted before plans are drawn. slab of concrete over the
The FHA places the mini- excavated area. Note: A screed

1 ,s-
mum height of basement ceilings is used to level the concrete but
at 6'- 10". If the basement
to be is it is not troweled to a smooth
National lumber Manufacturing Associc
finished as habitable rooms, 7'-6" finish.

Basement ceiling heights. or 8'-0" is more desirable. Space between the earth and

3: Footings and Foundations

Stepped footings and foundations

are frequently required when
Pier data for unexcavated areas. building on uneven terrain.

floor joist must not be confused Fooling and Foundation before the next pour is made.
with height above grade. Reinforcement This allows the concrete to bond
Most construction requires the together.
Steps in Footing
addition of reinforcing rod to the
If the terrain is uneven, it is Pilaster
footing to minimize cracking and
not always possible to
level base for the' footing
shifting of the concrete. Two W the
A pilaster
wall. It

a post built into
occur in the
rods are usually adequate. They
foundation. Then the footing foundation wall or the support-
should not be placed above the
must conform to the shape of the ing walls above the foundation.
center of the footing.
ground, although the base is
To be effective, a pilaster
Rod may also be placed in
always kept level. To vary the placed on the inside of the build-
the foundation walls to increase
height, place steps in the footing. ing, when additional weight must
their strength.
The step heights should not ex- be supported. For example, if a
ceed 2'-0". The horizontal dis- Breaks in the Pour
large beam span a base-
is to
tance between steps should be no If all the concrete cannot be ment, a pilaster might be used
less than 2'-0". The horizontal poured at one time and breaks to support the end of the beam.
portion should be the same or splices must be made in the
thickness or height as other footing, they should not occur Foundation Wall Materials
footing. The vertical member close to a step or pilaster. The Although poured concrete is

should be at least 4" thick, and breaks should be kept clean and used commonly for foundation
the same width as the footing. should be thoroughly dampened walls, it is relatively expensive.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

a lightweight foundation of this

type. The installation is the same
as for wood posts.
Hard varieties of stone and
brick are also used as foundation
materials. Both materials are
likely to disintegrate from ex-
cessive moisture if soft and po-
rous. A tile drain around founda-
tions of these types is necessary.
A stone foundation or retaining
wall can be battered or sloped, as
shown, to gain added strength.

Pilaster and beam pocket

Concrete Block
Concrete block is used quite
extensively as a foundation ma-
terial. The joints must be com-
In special cases, other materials
pletely filled with mortar. Metal
and methods can substitute. One reinforcing, as shown in the il-
of the earlier some-
lustration, is recommended be-
times used today, is to dig round
tween alternate courses of block
holes in firm earth and place
to help minimize cracking. Hollow
wooden posts in the holes. The
block walls are less waterproof
tops of the posts are made level,
than solid concrete, so more
so the building can be constructed
upon them. In pole construction,
these posts also act as the vertical
framework for the walls. Cypress,
cedar, and redwood are materi-
als well suited for this method
of construction. Other kinds of
wood may be used but they re-
quire the addition of a pressure-
treated preservative, such as
creosote, to retard decay.
Wood piles can be expected
to last about thirty years. The
part of the pile subjected to the
weather deteriorates much more
rapidly than that below grade or
submerged in water. A shallow
foundation wall can be used to
cap the tops of the poles to pro- Wood sill supported on concrete posts.

long their life. This wall also acts

as a level base for the sills. Con-

crete posts are sometimes used for

3: Footings and Foundations

waterproofing is required to keep

the moisture from penetrating.

Drain Tile
When the foundation serves
as a basement
wall, or if water
might not drain properly other-
wise, a 4" inside-diameter drain
tile should be placed around the
perimeter of the building. The
tile is placed at the same level

as the footing, and about 6" out-

side of it. The tile should be laid

in bed of gravel or crushed

stone. The joints between the tile
should be left open about %".
These are covered with strips of
building paper or roll roofing to
prevent gravel above the tile from
entering it. The material for the
tile may be field clay, concrete, or
bituminous fiber. The drain tile
should be connected to the sani-
tary sewer (unless a code pro-
hibits it), a storm sewer, or a dry

well. The between the tile

leading sewer or other
to the
drain should be cemented.

When a basement floor does not

extend to the footing, the dram
tile is placed near the sami level

as the floor.
When a basement
floor extends to a foot-
ing, the drain tile is

positioned adjacent to
the footing.
Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Waterproofing Foundation Walls

As was stated earlier, concrete
can be made more dense by add-
ing adulterants of other ma-
terials to the mix. This may make
the wall more waterproof, but it

should not be the only measure

taken. Also, some building codes
prohibit the use of adulterants.
Coatings of waterproof materials
are placed on the outside of the
foundation wall. One of the best
known methods is to mop a
layer, or layers, of tar on the out-
side of the foundation wall. The
use of plastic film between the
layers is an excellent newer

method. A 1" coating of cement

mortar is specified by some codes.
Others require cement in addi-
tion to tar.
At the juncture of the wall
and footing, extra care should be
taken. The tar or mortar should
be rounded in the corner to form
a cove which will flow water away
from the joint. See illustration,

page 43.
Many products are available
that are advertised to waterproof
a wall from the inside. Some of
these may work to a degree.
However, such waterproofing is

not usually very satisfactory. If

water penetrates the masonry
wall, pressure exerted against
the protective coat will probably
cause the wall to scale and blister.

Outside waterproofing may be

built up in layers and has the
wall to help resist pressure.

Areaways or Window Wells Concrete areaway

The purpose of an areaway is
to keep the earth away from an
opening, such as a window, in

3: Footings and Foundations

the foundation wall. The area-

way may be made of metal or
concrete. Its inside width should
be about more than the wall

opening. The top of a window

in a foundation wall must be
above the grade line; the distance
the areaway extends from the
building should be the same as
the depth of the window below
grade. The minimum distance
from the edge of the building is
l'-O"; the areaway should extend

below the window sill at least

6". The bottom of the areaway
should be covered with gravel or
crushed stone. Provisions should
be made for draining surface
water from the well. If the bottom At least two anchor bolts secure each
of the well is more than 2' deep, portion of the box sill to the foundation.

a guard rail should be provided.

Height Above Grade

Unless special provisions have
been made for protection against '/8"x3"x3" steel plate. Place the between each brick. Vents should
rot and termites, the top of the bolt through the plate so the be provied with a screen of not
foundation should be a minimum head of the bolt is in contact with less than eight squares per lineal
of 8" above the finished grade. the steel plate. Bolts are placed inch. The minimum amount of
No wood parts should be closer in thefoundation walls no more ventilation for crawl spaces is I

than 8" to the ground. Offsets than 8'-0" apart (on center). square foot for each 150 square
may be placed in the top of the Every board to be anchored must feet of ground area. Vents should
foundation to allow masonry to have at least two bolts. be placed near the corners of the
end even with the grade. An ex- building in such a manner as to
Foundation Vents
ample is shown on the footing and provide adequate cross ventilation.
The crawl space or unexca-
foundation detail on page 39. It is not necessary to place
vated area beneath a building
foundation vents in the wall if
Anchor Bolts must have ventilation to remove
the building's crawl space opens
Anchor bolts help tie the frame- moisture and circulate the air. If
directly into a basement and one
work of the building to the the area is not ventilated, mold
half the space between the floor
foundation. They should be at and rot will result.
joist and crawl space floor open.
least W
in diameter. They should Vents for foundation walls are

extend into a poured concrete usually 8"xl6", and cast of iron

8"xl6" foundation vents.
wall at least 6" and into a mason- or aluminum. When the wall is of
ry wall at least 15". When anchor brick it is possible to omit mortar
bolts are placed in piefs, a hole from some of the vertical joints,
slightly larger than the diameter or place a series of bricks in a
of the bolt should be drilled in a vertical position with open spaces

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1 . What is a footing? 14. Why must one be concerned

2. What is a foundation? with this line?
3. What is the most common 15. What is meant by stepped
material for a footing? Others? footing? Why is it used?
4. What are two kinds of con- 1 6. What is the maximum height
crete forms frequently used for of the steps?
foundation walls? 1 7. What is the minimum hori-
5. What two factors determine zontal distance between steps?
the size of a footing? 18. What is the minimum thick-
6. What is the FHA minimum re-
ness of the concrete connecting the
quirement for foundation thickness? steps?
7. To meet minimum standards, 1 9. What is a pilaster?
on normal-weight construction, what 20. Why is cypress frequently
is the difference between the width used as a pile?
of the foundation wall and the width 21. How can the life of wood
of the footing? posts be extended?
8. To meet minimum standards, 22. If soft brick is used for a
what is the relationship between the foundation wall what is likely to
width of the foundation wall and the happen?
thickness or height of the footing? 23. Waterproofing is applied on
9. What is meant by the term which side of a foundation wall?
30° -60° method of determining Why?
footing size? 24. Explain the function of the
1 0. What is meant when one says drain tile placed around the exterior
a key is placed between the footing of the building.
and foundation? 25. What is the minimum dis-
1 1 . What is a flared footing? tance, on a wood building, the foun-
When is it used? What are its
dation should extend above grade?
advantages? Why?
12. What is meant by the term 26. How does one determine the
monolithic footing and foundation? number of anchor bolts needed?
13. What is the frost line? 27. What is a foundation vent?

Terms to Spell and Know

lineal preservative termite

flared creosote anchor

thawing submerged ventilation

pilaster juncture pier

cypress penetrate ceiling

cedar bituminous horizontal

redwood areaway vertical

Poured Concrete Slabs

Prepared Earth as a Base settling. Concrete should never Vapor Barriers

If concrete is to be used on be poured over lose fill. As the Concrete is porous. Water in
the outside of a building, or if fill settles, the concrete will crack. contact with the under side of
moisture does not have to be It is then necessary to drill holes the floor will cause the top side to
considered on the inside, the con- in and pump a mix-
the concrete become damp. Concrete floors
crete may be poured directly on ture of cement, earth, and water in habitable structures require
smooth, firm earth. If the earth under it to make it level again. a vapor or moisture barrier be-
has been disturbed from its nat- This is verj costly. tween the fill and the concrete.
ural state, is should be well When plans are being drawn At the present time the most
tamped or compacted to eliminate for a building the preparation of widely used material is sheet
the earth is clearly stated. For plastic film. This may be obtained

A Definition of Concrete Slab

is to be
if earth beneath a floor
filled, and com-
in rolls up to 40' in width, thus
minimizing the number of splices
pacted this should be noted on needed. Note: An adhesive
A concrete slab is any thin,
the working plans. should be applied to joint splices
broad, flat shape, such as a floor,
to insure waterproofing.
driveway, walk, porch, or any Under-Floor Fill
The vapor barrier also makes
other broad, flat surface. When a concrete slab serves
pouring and finishing of the con-
For most applications the as a floor on the inside of a build-
crete less difficult. If concrete is
minimum thickness of a concrete ing, some material is usually
poured directly onto the fill, the
slab is 4" nominal size. Note: placed between the earth and
porous material tends to absorb
A nominal size is only approxi- concrete. Recommended is clean
water, thus making it harder to
mate. The actual size would con- sand, gravel, or crushed stone.
achieve the desired finish.
form to the dimensions of the Cinders are sometimes used but
lumber being used as a form. they tend to deteriorate, leaving Reinforcement
Dimension lumber is usually voids beneath the concrete. The Most building codes require
smaller than the stated size. For right materials help level the the addition of wire fabric to
example, a 2x4 is only l
/s"x3 5/8" surface.They also absorb surface concrete slabs. If the concrete
the other W is wasted in planing water and help drain it away from cracks, the wire fabric will pre-
and smoothing down before you the floor. vent separation, thus holding the
purchase it. The minimum thickness of crack to a minimum. Electrically
the under-floor fill is 4", pref- welded fabric with 6"x6" spacing
^5 if erably 6", if load bearing. is frequently used.





Steel Joisf Institute

Steel joist assemblies.

4: Poured Concrete Slabs

Suspended Concrete
Concrete floors, in addition to
being fireproof, give a structure a
rigidityfound with no other
method of construction.
Many times it is desired to lay
floors of concrete in locations
other than on or below grade.
When used above grade, a
method of supporting the con-
crete is necessary. Open web bar
joists as shown in the illustration
are sometimes used to span the
area where the floor is desired. Ribbed metal used as a base for
The and spacing of the joist
size above-grade concrete floor.
is determined by the span and
the load to be supported. Cor-
rugated or ribbed metal is at-

tached across the joist as a base the metal for the deck might be Other materials also serve as a
for the concrete. Manufactured 8'-0" long, plus 2' increments base for the concrete. Lumber,
materials for floor and roof decks, over this basic length. The length plywood, or fiber board is fre-

as shown, are also available. of manufactured sheet materials quently used. The exterior grain
For most light construction, are fabricated in even foot of plywood should be placed
bar joist spacing on 24" centers measures. By utilizing these full across the joist. Fiber boards work
makes maximum use of other lengths, we keep waste to a best for roof decks where no
building materials. For example. minimum. great live load is to be supported.

Pan type forms can add to both structure and beauty. Beams and floor are poured as one unit
with steel forms.
The Ceco Corporation, M Scilingo Pholo
Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Two kinds of loads must be A floor or roof of this type is

supported by the floor and roof usually quite expensive. In addi-

decks: (1) A dead load is the tion to the time and materials
actual weight of the materials needed for the forms, some ar-
in the floor, or bearing upon it. rangement must be made for
(2) A live load is weight in addi- supporting them in their proper
For example,
tion to the materials. place. Wood or metal posts with
people, furniture, and auto- cross T's at the top are placed
mobiles are live loads. beneath the form to hold it while
Precast joist.
the concrete is being poured and
Precast Joist
cured. These posts are called
Precast joists are manufactured
in a plant away from the job site.

Reinforcing rod under tension

(prestressed) is placed in a form,
and the concrete is poured around
the rod. Examples of precast
joists are shown.

Monolithic Beam and Floor

When a one-piece floor system

is desired, it is possible to build
a single form for the floors and
beams. Necessary reinforcing is
wired in place and the concrete is
poured as for an ordinary slab.
However, the mix must be vi-
Precast joists support. Concrete floors
brated and worked into place so
the exposed under side will be
smooth and have a finished

Monolithic beam and floor.

Steel dome pans form a monolithic concrete floor system that can also serve as a finished ceiling
of rooms below.

The Ceco Corporation, M. Scilingo Photo

/f y < £1



I 4_
Q|gP'"^^kl: ".-I
* *j
ft^-^L^ -p

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Crawl Spaces for Pipes

When a concrete floor is used,

place major plumbing and wiring
beneath it in such a manner that
it is readily accessible for repair
and service, using a pipe trench
or crawl space as shown. A3"
concrete floor for the trench will
greatly improve working con-
ditions and help eliminate mois-
ture under the floor.

Lightweight Aggregates for

Floor and Roof Construction
Insulation from sound and
temperature can be improved
with the addition of a layer of
lightweight aggregate as shown.
It is not usually load supporting.
Added thickness would be re-
quired if the floor or roof must
Pipe trench details.
support a live load.

Ordinary roof systems use light-

weight aggregates exclusively.
1 0. What is a good material to 20. What is meant by the term
use as a vapor barrier? prestressed joist?

Questions to Reinforce 1 1 . What are two advantages of 21. What is a pipe trench?
Knowledge having a barrier between the floor 22. Why is a floor advisable for
and fill? a pipe trench?
1 What is a concrete slab? 1 2. What is meant by the term 23. Why may lightweight ag-
2. What is the thickness recom- suspended concrete floor? gregate be used in ordinary roof
mended for a live load-supporting 1 3. What is an open web bar systems?
concrete slab? joist?

3. Why is a 2x4 not actually 14. What determines the size

2"x4"? bar joist to use? Terms to Spefi and Know

4. When may concrete be 15. Name four materials that
poured directly on undisturbed or might be used over the joist to sup- applications expanded
firm earth? port the concrete floor. planing corrugated
5. Why is concrete not poured 1 6. Why is 24" on center a good settling increments
over loose fill? choice for bar joist spacing? What cinders plywood
6. What is under-floor fill? What other spacings might also be satis- vapor fiber board
materials are commonly used? factory? barrier precast
7. Why are cinders a poor 1 7. What is meant by the term adhesive prestressed
choice for fill? dead load? electrically monolithic
8. What is the minimum thick- 18. What is meant by the term rigidity shoring
ness of under-floor fill? live load? wiring
9. What is a vapor barrier? 1 9. What is a precast joist?

Structural Metal

local codes before establishing determining beam size, one must
Structural metal is any metal strength requirements and struc- also know what proportion of the
part that adds strength to the tural shapes and sizes, to meet weight is distributed to founda-
building. It usually supports or and columns, and whether
the desired standards. Each local tions
distributes weight other than its
code will have its own strength the load is quiescent (no move-
own. Because of the technical and size requirements. If no code ment) or is subject to movement.
nature of the topic it is impossible available, one may consult
is It is readily apparent that many
to do more than acquaint you government recommendations or assumptions must be made and/
with the problems involved. Most or considered before actual struc-
published industry standards.
cities and codes do not permit
tural parts can be planned.
the draftsman to make actual
To find the weight of materials,
strength calculations. When he As previously stated, all build-
one cannot weigh samples of
does, they must be checked and ing parts must support at least
building materials! Therefore
approved by a registered architect their own weight or the dead load.
manufacturers supply pertinent
or engineer, who then assumes In addition, some structural parts
data concerning their products
responsibility for the calculations. must support the weight of super-
and this information is incorpo-
The tables and charts shown in imposed or live loads.
rated into tables and charts to be
the chapter are satisfactory for Before one can determine the
used for planning purposes, be-
preliminary calculations, but ex- size of any structural part he must
fore construction starts.
gineering data is to be verified be- know its weight and the weight
fore construction proceeds. of the load to be supported. This Welded Wire Fabric
is difficult to know at the begin- Welded wire fabric is a pre-
Factors That Influence ning stages of planning. For ex- fabricated steel reinforcing ma-
One does not design all struc- ample, if one is designing a beam terial. It is manufactured of cold-
tural parts, using complete mathe- to support floor joists, he must drawn steel. It is a rigid material,
matical calculations. This would first know all of the materials due to its electrically welded con-
result in much unnecessary du- that will bear upon the joists, and nections at all wire intersections,
plication of work. Many require- the weight of these materials. He yet it is and has the ability
ments have been previously deter- must also determine the size, to lie flat in light and heavy
mined from similar construction number, and weight of all joists styles. Its main advantages are
and the results have been incor- to bear upon the beam. The speed of installation and ease of
porated into tables and charts. weight of the beam itself must handling on the job. It is espe-
It is very important to check be taken into consideration. When cially suitable as a reinforcement.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation



£5 z
o a
O u_ 3
=x° 5
One-way monolithic concrete slab floor.



Welded wire fabric detailing sheet.

Concrete floors, roofs, walls, and

other concrete structural elements A good rule for wire spacing, Reinforcement Sizes
usually require wire reinforce- regardless of wire size or pattern
Wire gage sizes as used in
ment. formed by cross wires is that wire
welded wire fabric are not to be
Heavy mats with wires in ex- spacing should not exceed twice
confused with reinforcing rod
cess of Vi" eliminate the necessity the thickness of the slab and max- sizes. Both materials have num-
of using individual reinforcing imum spacing is 12". It is cus-
ber sizes, so confusion could pos-
rods which must be wired together tomary to limit spacing of both
rod intersections; this in-
sibly result. A comparison of
at all longitudinal and transverse wires
sizes is shown in the table below.
creases possible uses of welded to amaximum of 6" in slabs less
wire fabric. Built-in spacing of than 6" thick. Reinforcing fabric
wires is a time saver, assuring per- should not be carried through Gage No. Diamete
fect alignment of members.
When a slab on grade, loca-
construction or expansion joints. W .5000
is It should extend to within 2 to 4 0000000 .4900
tion of welded wire fabric will inches of the joints and edges 000000 .4615
00000 .4305
depend on the slab thickness. In of the slab. 0000 .3938
slabs 6" or more in thickness, Suspended concrete— or one- 000 .3625
the fabric should be placed at a 00 .3310
way floors and roofs used in com-
minimum depth of 2" below the bination with structural steel 1 .2830
and a maximum depth
surface frame, steel joists, precast or 2 .2625
equal to h the slab thickness. For

poured-in place beams, joist and Vt .2500

3 .2437
slabs less than 6", the fabric may pan or other construction- 4 .2253
be placed in the middle. Experi- involves an entirely different 5 .2070
ence indicates that the minimum engineering concept. Therefore
6 .1920
7 .1770
sizesof welded wire fabric should additional engineering data 8 .1620
be No. 10 gage for basement floors should be consulted prior to their 9 .1483
and sidewalks; No. 6 gage for 10 .1350
11 .1250
driveways and filling stations; and
12 .1055
No. 4 gage for heavy duty in- 'Adapted from Building Design Handbook,
dustrial floors. Wire Reinforcement Institute.

5: Structural Metals

kind* ami Use of I llciims must support. To simplify the

calculations,all weights have
To Support Floors latter has a much wider horizontal been based on the tables shown
For planning purposes, assume width or flange. Wide flange in this text.

you are designing a wood frame beams will support much greater Using the section through the
building, dimensions of which are weights and will withstand greater building shown in the illustration,

30'x48'. This building is to have lateral or sidewise pressure. the weights are as follows:
two stories as shown in the illus-
Weight Beam Is to Support
tration. The floor joists are placed first floor

across the short dimension. This

When load-supporting walls Live load 40 pounds pet square foot

30' are located beneath the spliced Dead load 10 " " "
span is too great for continu-
Net load 50
joists or wall of the area above,
ous wood floor joists, therefore Second floor
they must be spliced. The splice
no beam is necessary. When a
live load 40 " " " "
wall beneath the joists is not de- "
is ordinarily made above a wood Dead load ]Q " "
signed to be load supporting, a Net load SO '

girder or steel beam, and beneath

the bearing walls of the area
beam is required. The beam is Ceiling

Live load 20
above. Excessive deflection or sag- placed at right angles to the
Dead load ]0 " " " "
ging of the floor joists will occur
joists. placed as shown in the
Net load 30 " " "
foundation illustration, the span
if the bearing wall is not placed Roof bearing upon joists or

above the beam. is 48'. (See page 59.) interior wall for trans-

Local codes mission to beam

Two kinds of steel beams are usually specify

commonly used. These are: Amer- minimum amounts of weight that Live load

ican Standard beams and Wide I

floors and other building parts Dead load 10 pounds per square foot

Flange beams. The main differ-


ence between the two is that the

r No. Bar Size Diameter
2 •'A rd. .250
3 •Vs rd .375
4 Vl <6 .500
5 V, rd .625
6 V* rd .750
7 % rd .875
8 1 rd 1.000
9 "I sq 1.128
10 ' 1 '/• sq 1.270
1 1 •*lVi sq 1.410
14 ••1'/2 sq 1.693
18 ••2 sq 2.257

/a" bars are plain round; Ve" bars, plain

ound or deformed.
Ml bars are round. These sizes are equiva-
ent in cross section area to the standard
quare new billet reinforcing bar sizes

Weight distributed to a center beam.

- 1 1 1 1 1

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

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5: Sfructural Metals

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S t as SSS s s S B £ S 5 S S5S
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Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

SAMPLE WEIGHT CALCULATION ratios can be determined and the (vertical thickness), the loads
= tables still be used, as follows: shown
Width x length Area in the tables should be re-
30' x 48' = 1,440 square feet of floor
duced one-fifth; for rapidly mov-
area for each floor Local code 16 Kips _ x feet
24' span
8' x 48' = 384 square feet of wall Tables 20 Kips 30 feet ing loads, or where loads are
area for each wall suddenly applied with slight im-
16 30 Kips
Weight per square fool x number of square feet = : I6x = 600 or x = 37.5 Kips pact, the loads shown should be
20 x Kips
total weight
reduced one-third.
Weight of first floor = 72,000 pounds
For fluctuating loads causing The illustration of structural
Weight of second floor = 72,000 pounds
Weight of ceiling = 43,000 pounds
vibration, especially if the beams metal shapes, below, gives the
Roof bearing to beam = 00,000 pounds are long as compared to depth names of structural metal shapes
187,000 pounds

One half weight bears

on center beam = 93,500 pounds STANDARD SHAPES

Weight of first wall = 3,840 pounds
Weight of second wall = 3,840 pounds
Weight beoring upon beam = 101,180 pounds

This weight appears quite large, but one

^^ j

must remember that two stories are in-
2 IN 12
volved in the calculations.

The tables on pages 56 and 57

give the greatest safe load (uni- v
formly distributed over the entire
Mfe i


beam length) which the steel I
beams will carry. The building on
page 55 has a uniformly distrib-
uted load.
The safe loads are given in
kips. One kip equals 1,000 pounds. F = FLANGE
The loads shown in the tables
include the weight of the beam,
which must be deducted to obtain
the net load.
The loads shown are based on
a fiber stress, or pressure they will
withstand, of 20,000 pounds per STANDARD CHANNEL CAR 8. SHIP CHANNEL
square inch. This stress is entirely
reliable for ordinary conditions
where the loads are quiescent
(subject to

no movement) as in
most buildings. It is a good idea
check strength requirements of
local codes, because some require
materials of greater or less
strength. However, proportions or


Structural metal shapes.


S: Strucfural Mefals




30'0"x48'0" foundation and floor framing plan with continuous span center beam.

and parts. It is assumed that the page 60 show different load dis- tion. (If no posts support the
beams are stiffened sideways to tributions and the percentage of beam, the span is 48'.) Actual
prevent buckling in the compres- weight they will support as com- span is the distance from one
sion flange; otherwise, loads must pared to the allowable loads inside edge of the foundation to
be reduced as shown in the fol- shown in the preceding tables. the opposite inside edge. To
lowing table, observing that the (See pages 56 and 57.) simplify the how-
laterally or sideways unsupported ever, the span has been shown as
length of beams shall not exceed Calculating Beam Strength the entire building length. Note
40 times the width of the com- and Size that after the procedure is
pression flange. The illustration on this page mastered, only the true beam
The allowable deflection or shows a foundation plan 30'x48'; span should be used for making
sagging for plastered ceilings is the beam is placed the 48' direc- the calculations.
'/j6o of the span. This limit is not
reached on the span lengths shown Unbraced Proportion Unbraced Proportion
length to be Length to be
in the tables. The deflection will
of Beam used of Beam used
be reduced in the same ratio as
the load on the beam. 1 5 X flange width 1 00% tab. load 30 X flange width 77% tab. load

20 x flange width 92% tab. load 35 X flange width 69% tab. load

Distribution of Loads 25 X flange width 85% tab. load 40 x flange width 62% tab. load

The following illustrations on Percentages of calculated loads when beam lengths are laterally unbraced.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

ooooooooo o the pound, so it

use the smallest size that will do

is advisable to

the job.
If the building has no base-
ment and piers are used, it is

Safe load = that given in tables. Ma Safe load — Vi that given in tables. advisable to place them on ap-
mum bending moment at Wl proximate 8' centers. Many local
codes specify minimum distance
Deflection = 8 10 that given in tables. between piers. A large number of
Deflection as in tables.
piers is not objectionable because
the space between the floor joist

EnI 00000000a [ o and earth is used only as crawl

space for maintenance. Posts in
y K ,

'L /-
a basement may be objectionable.
If so, a large beam size is justified.

Using the same 30'x48' build-

Safe load = 'A that given in tables. Safe load = Vt that given in tables.
ing described earlier but adding
M = — . Mot point of support = W. three posts as shown in the ac-
companying illustration reduces
Deflections = 2.4 that given in tables. Deflections 3.2 that given in tables
the beam span to 12'. This is rep-
resented by the shaded area on

2. 2 Q_ the plan. When the total bearing

*---b — -*** a

1® weight on the beam
by 4, this is found to be 25,295
pounds or 25.3 kips. At the top of
the chart locate the 12 foot span
is divided

/ -*| U H
Safe load = that given in tables. Safe load = that given in tables. and follow down the column until
12 I
25.3 kips is reached. This exact
size is not shown on the chart, so
Maximum bending moment, M = . Maximum bending moment between one must locate the next larger
loads = 'h Wa. weight. This is shown as 27 kips.
Then, as previously stated, the
Load distribution. weight of the beam must be added
to the net weight or load because
From previous calculations, Follow down the chart until 102 the beam must support its own
the weight bearing upon the kips is shown. When one does weight in addition to the building
beam was figured to be 101,180 this, 70 kips is the largest number weight. From the 27 kips on the
pounds. This is represented by shown. This is not adequate for chart, follow the column to the
the colored area on page 55. the span.Add piers or columns left to column show-
the vertical
Since the weight as calculated under the beam to divide the ing weight per foot. This column
is in pounds and the safe load length into the required short gives a weight of 25.4 pounds per
tables are in kips, convert the spans. The number of posts is lineal foot. When multiplied by
weight into kips. Using the tables determined by the amount of the span of 12' a beam weight of
for American Standard I Beams, open span desired. (The longer 304.8 pounds is shown. Add this
find the column at the top of the the span the greater the beam .305 kips to previous load of
chart that represents 48 feet span. weight.) Steel is purchased by 25.3 kips. This gives a total load


5: Structural Metals

12'0" 5PAN

p- •^ >
^ 6, -—

r" i r *"1

1 i- .j L. .J L^ -J



• .
-i -i

30'0"x48'-0" foundation and floor framing plan with center beam supported by
3 equally spaced posts to reduce beam span to 12' -0" o.c. L ight shaded area is
supported by foundation walls. Dark shaded area is supported by the center beam
and supporting posts.

of 25.6 kips. This size is still ade- posts are not the same or if the viously determined when making
quate to support the described weight is not uniformly distrib- strength and weight calculations.
load, so it is not necessary to uted, it is necessary to make The beam carrying this load is

move to the next larger beam separate calculations for each supported by two posts or col-
size. One should repeat the beam span. umns, one at each end. Thus half
strength calculations to be abso- of the load is supported by each
lutely sure the beam size is satis- Columns
Steel Posts or post.The load transmitted to each
factory. (Refer to the charts on To Support Beams post is called the beam reaction.
pages 56 and 57.) Posts, columns, or piers trans- Therefore, the beam reaction is

The beam selected is \0"x4 3A" mit the load imposed on the 12,647.5 pounds. Since two beams
and weighs 25.4 pounds per beam or girder to the footing terminate over the same post,
lineal foot. Since all building and on to the ground. The build- the total reactions of the two
spans shown are the same and ing shown in the shaded illustra- beams must be considered. The
since the weight is uniformly dis- tion has beam spans of 12'-0", beams and the loads are the
tributed, all beams will be the and the total load for each span same; therefore, the total weight
same size. If the spans between is 25,295 pounds. This was pre- to be supported is 25,295 pounds.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation


Safe Loads in Thousands of Pounds

Nominal External Internal Weight

Unbraced Length in Feet
Metal Radius of Moment
Size, Diam., Diam., per Ft., Area, Gyration, of Inertia,
Inches Inches Inches lbs. 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Inches Inches Inches

3 . . 3.500 3.068 . 7.58 . 33. 30 26 21 . 18. 16. 13. 2.228 1.16 3.017

VA 4.000 3.548 9.11 42 38 35 30 25 22 19 17 15 2.680 1.34 4.788

4 4.500 4.026 10.79 50 47 44 40 34 30 26 23 21 3.174 1.51 7.233

5 5.563 5.047 14.62 70 68 64 61 56 51 45 41 37 4.300 1.88 15.16

6 6.625 6.065 18.97 92 90 86. 82 79 74 69 63 56 5.581 2.25 28.14

8 . 8.625. . . 8.071 . . 24.70 121 120. 118 115 112 109 105 100 95 7.265 2.95 63.35

8.625 7.981 28.55 140 138 136 133 129 125 121 115 109 8.399 2.94 72.49

10 10.750 10.192 31.20 154 153 151 149 147 144 .141 137 .133 9.178 3.70 125.9

10.750 10.136 34.24 169 168 166 164 161 158 154 151 146 10.07 3.69 137.4

10.750 10.020 40.48 200 199 196 194 190 187 182 178 172 11.91 3.67 160.7

12 12.750. . 12.090 43.77 217 216 214 212 210. 207 .204. 200 196 12.88 4.39 .248.5

12.750 12.000 49.56 246 244 243 240 237 234 231 227 222 14.58 4.38 279.3

Standard steel pipe columns.

Supporting column and Pipe column and I beam supporting

beam connector. wood floor joists.

5: Structural Metals

(If the two beams are of different

sizes and the loads are not the
WEIGHTS, DIMENSIONS AND DATA same, the reactions will not be
STANDARD STEEL 1 BEAMS equal.)Note: Since the end of
only one beam is supported by
the foundation, the beam reac-
If" ~r-
) tion at this location is 12,647.5


Wj j k
t ii
! O O
fiitl- -J
pounds, or one-half
weight transmitted to the posts.
the total

T !„!__
LjjfJ -i1_c='/,w + 'a.
Kinds of Steel Posts Used
Several kinds of steel posts
are used. Some of the more com-
Depth Dimensions, in Inches mum
of Wt. Rivet or mon are: ordinary steel pipe,
Beam, Per Ft., f W T K 6 A C Bolt,
heavy duty steel pipe, steel pipe
Inches lbs. Inch
filled with concrete. Standard and
24 120 4
8 'y.6 20'/. 1 'y>» l'/« 'A 1
Wide Flange I beams and H
105.9 7 7/e Vb 20% i'yi 6 l'A 4 y. 1

100 vn J
A 20 A 3 1
/. '/b 4 /l6 1

90 7V, V. 20>A PA % 4 A
Since standard steel posts or
79.9 7 '/2 20 3A 1% '/. 4 y.» 1 columns are frequently used for
20 95 7'/. y.6 16'/! \% >y.« 4 .'/a 1 light construction, their sizes and
85 7 'Hi 16'/2 l
/4 y.6 4 /.6 1
safe loads are shown in the table.
75 6V. y. 17 l'/,4 Vie 3'A 7
/.» A

65.4 6'A A 17 P/.6 y.* 3'/2 y.. '/, Joining Structural Steel Members
18 . 70 6'A A
3 15'/. PA .'Mi 3'A .'/i6 '/>
When beams are end joined
54.7 6 '/2 15'/4 1% "/,6 3'/2 y.6 'A
they must be fastened to each
15 50 5% »/,6 1 2'A 1 '/. % 3'A % 3
other as well as to a column or
42.9 5'A 7
/l6 12'A l'/4 y> 3% 'A V,

12 50 . . 5'A . . "/.6 9Ve iy,6 "/.« 3 7

/l6 y. columns supporting them. Stan-
40.8 5'/. 'A 9V> iy.. "/.6 3 Vl6 3
A dard connectors using bolts or
35 5'A 7
/l6 9 3A pa Vtt 3 w» 'A rivets are recommended. Tables
31 8 5 yB 9 3A IV4 Vn 3 •A
A of safe loads in this text are
10 35 5 y. 8 1 'A 2% y. 3
calculated based on standard "B"
25.4 4V. y.« 8 1 '/2 2 3A 'A
series connectors. Holes in the
8 23 . 4'A . '/u 6'/4 'y.6 7
/l6 2'A y.« 3
18.4 4 6V4 'y.s y.6 3
A connectors and beams, as illus-
*i« 'At, 2V»
7 20 3 7A .
'/.» 5% .
'/« % 2'A y.6 y. trated by the black circles, should
15.3 3V. 'A 5 3/e % % 2V4 y.6 y. be spaced on approximate 5W
6 17.25 3 5/a .
'A 4Vj A
% 2 y.6 y» centers.
12.5 3Vs Vi 4'A A
% 2 y.6 y.

5 14.75 ,3'A . . . '/a .

3% .
."/.6 y. 4 ,1% y.6 ,'A Column Caps
10 3 'A 3 s/« "/.6 y.6 PA y.4 'A
Pipe columns have steel plates
4 9.5 2 3A y.» 2 3A y. 5
/.6 l'A ,'A Vi
welded to each end to increase

7.7 2% yu 2 3A % y.6 l'A y.6 'A

their surface area and permit
3 5.7 .
2>A . y8 1A
7 ,'/.6 ,'A l'A .'A .%
5.7 2% y. 4 1% %6 "A l'/2 y.6 3
fastening of parts. The cap is
secured to concrete footings by
pre-positioning anchor bolts in
Weights, dimensions, and data of standard steel I beams. the concrete so the bolts corre-
spond with the holes in the plate.


Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

kxis X-X and X-Y Axis Z-Z

Size Wt. Area ol

in Per Ft., Section, 1 S r x or y r

Inches Lbs. Inches Inches Inches Inches Inches Inches

ELEMENTS 1 xl x '/. . 0.80 0.23 .0.02 .0.03. 0.31 0.30 0.19

1 x] <?,. 1.16 0.34 0.03 0.04 0.30 0.32 0.19
xl x 1.49 0.44 0.04 0.06 0.29
OF 1 V* 0.34 0.19
lVSuClVtlX y. . . .1.01 0.30 .0.04 0.05 0.38 0.35 0.25
iKxlU!ixtt« 1.48 0.43 0.06 0.07 0.38 0.38 0.24
EQUAL l'AxI'/tx >A 1.92 0.56 0.08 0.09 0.37 0.40 0.24
lVixiVu y8 1.23 0.36 0.08 0.07 0.46 0.42 0.30
ANGLES lVzxlVfcctt* 1.80 0.53 0.11 0.10 0.46 0.44 0.29
l'/axl'/ix Vt 2.34 0.69 0.14 0.13 0.45 0.47 0.29
Column cap bolted to I beam. PixPAx '/b . . . 1 .44 0.42 0.13 0.10 0.55 0.48 0.35
1%X1 3/4X^16 2.12 0.62 0.18 0.14 0.54 0.51 0.34
I%x1%x Vi 2.77 0.81 0.23 0.19 0.53 0.53 0.34
2 x2 x '/« . .1.65 0.48 .0.19 0.13 0.63. 0.55 0.40
lJ 2 x2 x^is 2.44 0.71 0.28 0.19 0.62 0.57 0.40
2 x2 x V* 3.19 0.94 0.35 0.25 0.61 0.59 0.39
2 x2 x 5/i6 3.92 1.15 0.42 0.30 0.60 0.61 0.39
2 x2 x % 4.70 1.36 0.48 0.35 0.59 0.64 0.39
2'/2x2'/2Xy,6 . 3.07 0.90 0.55 0.30 0.78 0.69 0.49

zr 2'/2x2'/2X
>A 4.10
2'/2x2'/2X % 5.90 1.73 0.98 0.57 0.75 0.76 0.48
3 x3 x Vi 4.9. 1.44 1.2 0.58 0.93 0.84 0.59
3 x3 xYi* 6.1 1.78 1.5 0.71 0.92 0.87 0.59
3 x3 x % 7.2 2.11 1.8 0.83 0.91 0.89 0.58
3 x3 x'/i 4 8.3 2.43 2.0 0.95 0.91 0.91 0.58
3 x3 x Vi 9.4 2.75 2.2 1.1 0.90 0.93 0.58

Column and beam fastened together 3Vix3'/2X Vi . .5.8. 1.69 .2.0 0.79 1.09 0.97 0.69
3y2x3'/2xyi« 7.2 2.09 2.5 0.98 1.08 0.99 0.69
with metal strap.
3>/ix3Vjx y. 8.5 2.48 2.9 1.2 1.07 1.01 0.69
Suitable methods of connecting 3'/2x3y2x'/l6 9.8 2.87 3.3 1 .3 1 .07 1 .04 0.68
3'/2x3'/2X '/2 11.1 3.25 3.6 1.5 1.06 1.06 0.68
structural metal parts are shown
in the accompanying illustrations.
4 x4 x % 6.6. 1.94 .3.0. 1.0 1.25 1.09 0.79
4 x4 x 5/ij 8.2 2.40 3.7 1.3 1.24 1.12 0.79
4 x4 x % 9.8 2.86 4.4 1.5 1.23 1.14 0.79
x4 7
Steel Lintels 4 x /u 11.3 3.31 5.0 1.8 1.23 1.16 0.78
4 x4 x Va 12.8 3.75 5.6 2.0 1.22 1.18 0.78
Steel lintels are constructed of 4 x4 x % 15.7 4.61 6.7 2.4 1.20 1.23 0.77
angle iron. These may be pur- 4 x4 x % 18.5 5.44 7.7 2.8 1.19 1.27 0.77
chased as equal angles, with both 5 x5 x % 12.3 3.61 .8.7 2.4 1.56 1.39 0.99
5 x5 x Vi 16.2 4.75 11.3 3.2 1.54 1.43 0.98
legs of equal size, or as unequal
5 x5 x % 20.0 5.86 13.6 3.9 1.52 1.48 0.97
angles with legs of different sizes.
6 x6 x % . 14.9. 4.36 15.4 3.5 1.88 1.64 .1.19
The accompanying table shows 6 x6 x 7
/i» 17.2 5.06 17.7 4.1 1.87 1.66 1.19
pertinent information concerning 6 x6 x Vi 19.6 5.75 19.9 4.6 1.86 1.68 1.18
6 x6 x'/, 6 .21.9. 6.43 22.1 .5.1 1.85 1.71 1.18
angles. . . . .

6 x6 x % 24.2 7.11 24.2 5.7 1.84 1.73 1.18

6 x6 x % . 28.7 8.44 28.2 6.7 1.83 1.78 1.17
Lintel Spans 6 x6 x % 33.1 9.73 31.9 7.6 1.81 1.82 1.17

The actual window, door, or 8 x8 x Vi 26.4. 7.75 48.6 .8.4 . 2.51 2.19 1.58
8 x8 x y. 32.7 9.61 59.4 10.3 2.49 2.23 1.58
other opening width is the true
8 x8 x % 38.9 11.44 69.7 12.2 2.47 2.28 1.57
span. This opening size is used 8 x8 x 7
/s 45.0 13.23 79.6 14.0 2.45 2.32 1.56
for determining the size lintel 8 x8 xl 51.0 15.00 89.0 15.8 2.44 2.37 1.56
8 x8 xl'/e 56.9. 16.73 98.0. . 17.5. 2.42. 2.41 1.55
required. (See page 67.)

' '

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Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

a « o ^ i^^^^s ^^^^??;? 5

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5: Structural Metals

The total length of the lintel

Cha nnels— American Standarc should be 8" greater than the
Allowable Uniform Loads in Kips opening. The 8" allowance is
For Channels Laterally Supported made so the lintel will have 4"
For channel laterally unsupported, allowable oads must be reduced. of bearing surface on each side
of the opening.
Nominal Depth and Width-Weight per lbs.
To determine lintel size,
Span 18x4 Deflec- 15x3'/i Deflec- weight of all materials and desired
in tion tion
Fwl 51.9 45.8 42.7 Inches 50 40 33.9 Inches live load, if any, are calculated the
2 280 same as for weight of walls and
3 280 234 210 238 202 156 .01 other structural parts, previously
4 230 212 203 .02 178 154 139 .02
described in this chapter. The
5 184 170 163 .03 143 123 111 .03
accompanying tables give the
6 154 142 136 .04 119 103 93 .05
7 132 121 116 .06 102 88 79 .07
total safe load that may be sup-
8 115 106 102 .07 89 77 70 .09 ported by each lintel size.
9 102 94 90 .09 79 68 62 .11 For preliminary calculations
10 92 85 81 .12 71 62 56 .14
only, it is not always desirable
1 1 84 77 74 .14 65 56 51 .17
to figure exact size requirements,
12 77 71 68 .17 59 51 46 .20
13 71 65 63 .19 55 47 43 .23
which takes unnecessary time
14 66 61 58 .23 51 44 40 .27 and effort. The following table
15 61 57 54 .26 48 41 37 .31 may be used:
16 58 53 51 .29 45 39 35 .35
17 54 50 48 .33 42 36 33 40 STEEL ANGLE IRONS
18 51 47 45 .37 40 34 31 .45 TO SUPPORT FOUR-INCH
19 49 45 43 .42 38 32 29 .50
20 46 43 41 .46 36 31 28 .55
21 44 40 39 .51 34 29 27 .61 SPAN SIZE OF LINTELS
22 42 39 37 .56 32 28 25 .67 to 5 feet 3" x 3" x </*"
23 40 37 35 .61 31 27 24 .73 5 feet to 9 feet 3'/2" x 3'/i" x W»"
4" 4" "
24 38 35 34 .66 30 26 23 .79 9 feet to 1 feet x x V, 4

25 37 34 33 .72 29 25 22 .86 10 feet to 1 1 feet 4" x 4" x W

26 35 33 31 .78 27 24 21 .93 11 feet to 1 5 feet 6" x 4" x %"
27 34 32 30 .84 26 23 21 1.01 15 feet to 16 feet 6" x 4" x W
28 33 30 29 .90 26 22 19.9 1.08
29 32 29 28 .97 25 21 19.2 1.16
30 31 28 27 1.03 24 21 18.5 1.24
31 30 27 26 1.11 23 19.9 17.9 1.33
32 29 27 25 1.18 22 19.3 17.4 1.41
33 28 26 25 1.25 22 18.7 16.8 1.50
34 27 25 24 1.33 21 18.1 16.4 1.60
35 26 24 23 1.41 20 17.6 15.9 1.69


S in. 69.1 63.7 61.0 53.6 46.2 41.7
V kips 140 117 105 140 101 78
R kips 69 58 52 83 60 46
G kip 14.4 12.0 10.8 17.2 12.5 9.6
N in. 8.4 8.4 8.4 6.8 6.8 6.8
Masonry above a wall
opening supported
by a steel lintel.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Open Web Steel Joists


Total Safe Loads in Lbs. per Lineal Ft. (For nominal joist depths 8" to 14" incl.)

in Feet BJ2 10J2 10J3 0J4 12J2 12J3 12J4 12J5 12J6 14J3 14J4 14J5 14J6 14J7

8.4 75
9.4 ??
10 373 400 440 480
11 309 364 400 436
12 259 .324 . 367 .400 367 383 417 450 500
13 221 276 338 369 335 354 385 415 462
14 1 90 238 303 343 289 329 357 386 429 343 400 443 486 529
15 1 66 207 264 320 252 307 333 360 400 320 373 413 453 493
16 1 46 182 232 289 221 281 313 338 375 300 350 388 425 463
17 161 205 256 196 249 294 318 353 282 329 365 400 435
18 144 183 >28 175 222 278 300 333 261 311 344 378 411
19 129 164 205 157 199 249 284 316 235 294 326 358 389
20 . . . . . .1 7 1 48 85 142 180 225 268 . 300 212 265 310 340 370
21 128 163 204 243 286 192 240 287 324 352
22 117 149 186 222 270 175 219 262 309 336
23 107 136 170 203 247 160 200 239 290 322
24 98 125 156 186. 227 147 184 220 266 308
25 135 170 203 245 294
26 125 157 187 227 272
27 116 145 174 210 252
28 . 1 08 135 162 196 235

Total Safe Loads ir i Lbs. per .ineal Ft. (For nominal joist depth s 16' to 24" incl.)

in feet 1 6J4 16J5 16J6 16J7 1 SJ8 18JS 18J6 18J7 18J8 20J5 20J6 20J7 20J8 22J6 22J7 22J8 24J6 24J7 24J8

16....: 75 413 450 500. .5 38

is : 33 367 400 444 4 78 389 433 467 500
20 : 88 330 360 400 4 30 350 390 420 450 380 410 430 460
22 : 38 298 327 364 3 91 318 355 382 409 345 373 391 418 382 409 436
24 : 00 250 299 333 .3 58 281 325 350 375 307 342. 358 383. 350 375 400 367 392 .417
26 71 213 254 306 3 31 240 289 323 346 261 312 331 354 323 346 369 338 362 385
28 47 184 219 264 3 05 207 249 299 321 225 269 307 329 285 321 343 312 336 357
30 28 160 191 230 2 66 180 217 261 300 196 234 283 307 248 300 320 272 313 333
32 . 13 141 168 202 2 34 158 191 229 264 173. .206. .249 288 218 273 300 239. 294. 313
34 140 169 203 234 153 182 220 262 193 242 282 212 265 294
36 125 151 181 209 136 163 197 234 172 216 254 189 237 278
38 122 146 176 210 155 194 228 169 212 249
40 110 132 159. 190 140 175 205 153 192 .225
42 127 159 186 139 174 204
44 ... 115 145 170 126 158 186
46 116 145 170
48 106 .133 .156

Steel Joist Institute, Standard Specifications ond Load Tables Open Web Steel Joists.

5: Structural Metals

Bar Joists
Bar joists, as illustrated and
discussed briefly in Chapter 4,
may be used as structural floor
and roof framing. Because of the
large number of sizes and weights
available, it is not possible to
include descriptions and tables
for all joists. The two most com-
mon are the "J" or junior joists
and the "H" or long span joists.

Limit the clear span of J-series

joists to 24 times depth.
The ends of steel joists shall
extend a distance of not less than
4 inches over masonry or poured
concrete supports. The ends shall
extend not less than 2V4 inches
over steel supports except where
opposite joists butt over a narrow
Rohm & Hoo» Photograph
steel support and attachment is
Structural steel for a movable dome.
made by welding or bolting.

In no case shall the spacing of Completed dome showtng swimming pool through roof that can be opened.
& Haoi Photograph
bridging or sag rods be greater i

than given in the following table:

Clear Span Number of Lines of Bridging
Up to 14 feet One row near center.
1 4 to 2 1 feet Two rows placed at ap-
proximately Vi points of
21 to 32 feet Three rows placed at
approximately Vt points

of span
32 to 40 feet Four rows placed at
approximately 1 / 5 points
of span
40 to 48 feet Five rows placed at
approximately 1 It points
of span.

Joist Spacing
Joists shall be so spaced that
the loading on each does not
exceed the allowable load given
for the particular designation and
span in load table. For floors,

it is recommended that maximum

spacing be not greater than 24".'

Structural Steel Data, J. T. Ryerson & Son, Inc. M

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1. What is structural metal? 20. What is deflection? Is it im- 31. What is meant by the term
2. Who may make official struc- portant, or a problem? "beam span"?
tural calculations? Why? 21. When used in a building, do 32. What is a pipe column?
3. How are weights of materials steel beams support all floors? 33. Why are steel plates placed
determined? Explain. on the top and bottom of steel
4. Are all structural parts always 22. What is the recommended columns?
calculated by using mathematical live load which floors in dwellings 34. How is column spacing de-
data? Explain. should carry? termined?
5. How do individual local codes 23. What is a kip? 35. How is column size deter-
influence strength requirements and 24. What is meant when one mined?
calculations? says the load is uniformly distributed? 36. What is "beam reaction"?
6. If no code is required in a 25. What is "fiber stress"? 37. Can one have two beam
specific area, where can one obtain 26. If a safe load table is based reactions on the same column?
pertinent information concerning on a fiber stress of 20,000 pounds Explain.
required strengths and sizes of per square inch, and the local code 38. How are posts or columns
structural parts? specifies 1 6,000 pounds per square joined to beams?
7. What is a dead load? inch, how can the table be used to 39. How are steel columns se-
8. What is a live load? make the required calculations? cured to concrete footings or floors?
9. What is meant when one 27. What is a compression flange? 40. What are steel lintels?
says, "The load is quiescent"? 28. When one says lateral sup- 41 . How is their size determined?
10. What is welded wire fabric? port, what is meant? 42. What is a bar joist?
1 1 . Where is welded wire fabric 29. What is the allowable deflec- 43. Is there more than one kind?
used? tion for plastered ceilings? 44. How much bearing surface
12. How is its size determined? 30. How does one determine on masonry must a bar joist have?
1 3. Can you think of reasons why beam size from the load tables 45. Do you know why bridging is

welded wire fabric should not be shown in the text? used on steel joists?
carried through construction or ex-
pansion joints?
14. What is the difference be-
Terms to Spell and Know
tween wire gage sizes and reinforc-
ing rod sizes? structural welded spliced

15. From the wire fabric illustra- distribute connectors flange

tions, can you describe the difference technical intersections lateral

between positive and negative steel? verified ductile kip

16. What is the apparent value of calculations install impact

a detail sheet for welded wire fabric? duplication alignment buckling

1 7. What do we mean when we incorporated gage deflection

say a reinforcing rod is deformed? recommendation longitudinal allowable

18. Are all reinforcing rods de- assumptions transverse represented

formed? superimposed suspended transmit

1 9. What is the difference be- proportion data reaction

tween a Standard and a Wide quiescent equivalent terminate

Flange I beam? pertinent billet

Sill and Floor Construction

Sills shrinkage of lumber across the sonry veneer, this allows the

The sill is a wood beam that grain. This is undesirable when materials to be attached without
the exterior of the building is to danger of shifting or separating.
rests on the foundation. The sill
is pressed carefully into the mor- be faced with masonry veneer or One disadvantage is the time
tar to insure a good seal. Washers stucco. Expansion and contrac- necessary for "letting in" or

are placed over the anchor bolts,

tion of framing will cause crack- notching the studs to receive the

and nuts are tightened to hold ing of the exterior surface, or ribbon. (See page 512.) The rib-

the sill in place. The anchor bolts

separation of masonry from the bon is usually made of \" mate-

prevent the sill from slipping on wood frame. rial. A notch for thicker materials

the foundation and also secure

The major advantage of bal- would weaken the studs. Another
loon framing is its dimensional disadvantage is that the studs
the frame to the foundation dur-
ing high winds.
stability. Studding extending to must be raised or put in place at
the sill prevents any change of the same time as the floor joists.
Methods of Floor Framing shape on the outside of the Working over an excavation or
Two methods of floor framing building. When used with ma- basement is difficult.
are illustrated. Western or plat-
form framing is most widely used.
This method allows workmen to FLOOR JOIST
complete the base or platform in
a minimum amount of time, thus
givingthem a firm, clean walk-
ing and storage surface for the
remainder of construction. An-
other advantage is that the solid
subfloor over the box sill helps
eliminate drafts, which can be a
fire hazard.
The box sill is composed of two
parts. The horizontal member is
the bed plate. The mem-
ber is a header.
The chief disadvantage is Platform framing at a building corner.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Pressure Treated or Applied


Floor framing near moisture

or earth is susceptible to decay
and termites. Preservatives should
be added to the framing to pro-
long its life. The best protection
is gained by applying the pre-
servative under pressure. Deep
penetration is insured. Bulk pre-

servatives may be purchased and

job-applied; however, this is
time consuming and the results
are not permanent.

Balloon framing for an exterior wa

/ <


r--,. -L___ B

US- Deportm
Map showing (line AA) the northern damage by subterranean termites in the United
limit of States;
BB, the northern limit of damage by dry-wood or nonsubterranean termites.

6: Sill and Floor Construction

one, which will end with uneven

A Termite Shield
\ spacing.
The spacing of the last
would be 16" if modular con-
A termite shield is placed over Grout or Mortar with Shield struction were used. A discussion
the foundation and piers. It should
A thin layer of grout or mortar, of this topic begins on page 135.
extend past the edges of the foun-
about W is placed over the In wood frame construction,
dation two inches and be bent
shield. This acts as a base for the first joist or header of the box
down to a 45° angle. The purpose wood parts. The grout helps level sill is frequently placed %" from
of the bend is to help prevent
the top of the foundation and the outside edge of the foundation
termites from bypassing. A ter-
acts as a weather seal. wall.
mite is a boring insect. It builds Size of floor joists is deter-
tunnels in wood material. It can- mined by the total load to be
not tunnel through the shield. supported and the distance they
Holesmust be cut in the must span. Charts showing the
shield anchor bolts. Tar or
for comparative strength of different
some other plastic material woods and the maximum allow-
should be used to seal around the able span for dimension lumber
bolts. When pieces of termite are shown. See page 75.
shield must be end joined, or Termite shield above Nominal 2" lumber is most fre-
when joints are made at the cor- foundation wall quently used for conventional
ners, this seam should also be framing. The term nominal means
sealed. The joint is best closed by "not actual." Finished size is

soldering. smaller than 2". When greater

Materials used for termite thickness is desired, the cost is us-
shields are: copper, copper coated ually considerably greater. When
kraft paper, or aluminum. Roll several joist sizes are required, it

roofing is sometimes used and is not unusual to select the largest

meets minimum requirements of size needed, and use this size for

some codes, but this is not recom- the entire structure. This is espe-
mended. The material is soft and cially true when the under sides of
Openings In termite shields as those for
is likely to decay. The edges do the joists form a base for a finish
anchor bolts must be completely sealed.
not stay at the proper angle. ceiling.
When joists must be end joined
N; J over a beam or girder, some pro-
vision must be made for tying
Floor Jolsl them together. They should be
Many woods are suitable for Spacing for floor joists may be lapped a minimum of 4" and be
Because of their abun-
floor joists. 12", 16", 20", or 24" o.c. (on cen- nailed firmly to secure, or a scab
dance, workability, and strength, ter). Spacing of 16" o.c. is most of lumber should be nailed across
softwoods are most frequently frequently used. When laying out the joint as shown in the second
used. The light weight of this for floor joists, measurements are on page 74.
group makes them easy to cut and begun at the outside edge of the beams, and girders which
handle. Southern, long leaf yellow first or header joist. It is 16" from might be considered a part of
pine is the strongest of the native the outside of the edge joist floor framing are discussed in
softwoods. Douglas fir, hemlock, (header) to the center of the sec- Chapter 1 1.

and spruce have slightly less ond joist, and then 16" o.c. for When framing floor openings,
strength but are suitable. remaining joists— except the last all the joists should be doubled.




Floor joists lapped over a built-up girder.

Joists spliced above a built-up girder.

A ledger provides bearing surtace at

joist and girder intersections.


Joist framing for flues or fireplaces.

The illustration shows the method ing should be spaced a minimum

of framing openings and names of 2" from the masonry. Note
of the parts involved. When fram- also that ends of joists may not
ing openings for fireplaces and terminate in a chimney or fire-

the area between the wood

flues, place and that all framing beneath
Joists may be secured to a girder with
and masonry should be filled with load bearing walls should be
metal connectors. a fireproof insulation. Wood fram- doubled.


Floor Joists
Association Lumber Grades

Select Dense Construction Standard Utility Select Dense Construction Standard Utility
Structural Construction Structural Construction
Nominal sizes (inches) (inches
o. c.) 1700f 14501 19501 17001 14501 12001
1950 f 1200 f (1) (1)


Ft. In. Fl. In. Fl. In. Fl. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

2x6 12 11 4 11 4 11 4 11 4 8 4 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 6 7 4
16 10 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 7 2 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 6 4
24 9 9 9 9 5 10 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 2 5 2

2x8 12 15 4 15 4 15 4 15 4 12 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 11
16 14 14 14 14 10 8 13 13 13 13 9 6
24 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 8 8 11 6 11 6 11 6 11 7 10

2x10 12 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 16 10 17 4 17 4 17 4 17 4 15 2
16 17 17 17 17 14 8 16 2 16 2 16 2 16 2 13
24 15 6 15 6 15 6 15 6 12 14 6 14 6 14 6 14 10 8

2x12 12 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 19 8 20 20 20 20 17 8
16 19 8 19 8 19 8 19 8 17 18 8 18 8 18 8 18 8 15 4
24 17 10 17 10 17 10 17 10 14 16 10 16 10 16 10 16 10 12 6
?. Denotes Grade is not a stress grade


Association Lumber Grades

No. 1 Dense No. 2 Dense No. 1 Dense No. 2 Dense

No. 1 Dense No. 2 Dense No. 1 Dense No. 2 Dense
Spacing K. D. 2" Di- K. D. 2" Di- K. D. 2" Di- K. D. 2" Di-
2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension
Nominal size (inches) (inches mension mension mension mension
o. c.)
1700 f 1500 f 14501 12001 1700 f 12001 1450 1200 f


Ft. In. Fl. In. Fl. In. Fl. In. Ft. In. Fl. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

2x6' 11 4 11 4 11 4 1 1 4 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 6
16 10 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8
24 9 9 9 9 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 2

2x8 15 4 15 4 15 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4
16 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13
24 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 11 6 11 6 11 6 11

2x10 18 4 18 4 18 4 17 4 17 4 17 4 17 4
16 17 17 17 17 16 2 16 2 16 2 16 2
24 15 6 15 6 15 6 15 6 14 6 14 6 14 6 14

2x12 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 20 20 20 20
16 19 8 19 8 19 8 19 8 18 8 18 8 18 8 18 8
24 17 10 17 10 17 10 17 10 16 10 16 10 16 10 16 10

for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed size of l s/a"x5 s/a"
Spans (b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber
may be increased 2 Vi percent. more than 2 percent but not more fhort 5 percenf scanf from American
Notes: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 9 per- J

for rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E). cent or less, lumber scant more than 5 percent not acceptable.

Table of floor joist sizes and their spans.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation


Bridging is used between joists

to stiffen the floor and spread the
concentrated load over a greater
area. Cross bridging is the type
most commonly used. Bridging as
shown in the framing diagram is
usually constructed of l"x3" lum-
ber. The ends are cut at an angle
to allow them to fit against the
joist. Bridging may also be made
of metal.
The top of the bridging is nailed
before the subfloor is nailed in
place. The lower ends remain Some building codes require floor bridging
loose. After the finished floor is

in place, the lower ends are pulled

subfloor can be laid across, at
flush with the bottom of the joists
right angles to the joist, or di-
and nailed. If the joists are
agonal, at a 45° angle to the
warped, the crowns are placed
near the top. When the lower ends
joists. A diagonal subfloor allows
the finished floor to be laid in any
are nailed, it tends to level the
direction. Also it helps "hold" the
floor. Actual strength gained from
corners. When a subfloor is to be
the addition of bridging is ques- Diagonal subfloor.
exposed to the weather for an
tionable, but most codes require
extended period of time, some of
their use. Most minimum require-
the boards should be omitted to
ments space the bridging not less
allow for drainage of water.
than 8'-0" apart. This means most
End joining of boards for the
typical rooms will have one row
subfloor should be done over floor
in the center. If the span is more
In some cases, when end
than 16' 0", two rows would be
matched tongue and groove lum-
ber is used, the joints can be made
between joists. However, the lum-
Three materials are commonly ber should bear, or rest upon, at Tongue and groove subflooring is some-
used forwood subfloors. Plywood least two joists and no joints in times spliced between joists.

now is most popular. succeeding boards should be made

(1) Until recently, most the over or between the same joists.
common was tongue and groove
lumber. Minimum thickness is
/3z"and maximum width is 8".
Excessive warpage can result
from using wider lumber.
(2) Lumber surfaced four sides
(S4S), is also sometimes used. The
size required is the same as for
Tongue and groove lumber provides strength at joints.
tongue and groove lumber. The


6: Sill and Floor Construction

(3) Plywood has become

widely used as a material for sub-
floors. The large size of the sheets,
BLOCKING AT EDGES OF PLYWOOD and the speed with which they
can be nailed, offsets the slightly
higher cost of material. Greater
care must be taken when spacing
the joists. Any discrepancy in

spacing will prevent the ends of

panels from resting on the joists;
excessive waste of material and
time will result from poor spac-
ing. When using 16" spacing for
floor joists, W plywood is ade-
quate. The outer grain of the ply-
wood should be placed across the
End joints should be stag-

gered so successive panels do not

break, or end over the same joist.
Unless tongue and groove ply-
Most plywood subfloors require support at all edges. wood is used, blocking is required
to support edges. A low-grade
sheathing of unsanded plywood
is usually used.

Joist Framing for Solid Masonry

When solid masonry is used
FIRE CUT for exterior walls, no box sill is
JH" JOIST required. The joist ends are im-
bedded in, or placed on a ledge
of the wall. Two methods of set-
ting joists are shown in the illus-

tration. Joist ends should have

3" minimum bearing on solid
Pockets for beam ends should
f . > be provided in foundation walls.
'»! i

Q «V


'. * »'•« >

Foundation and wall with fire cut joist. Section through a wall showing square
cut joist seat.

Beam pocket in poured concrete wall


Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Minimum bearing surface for 7. What is meant by the term 1 8. What material is placed in

beam ends is 4". When wood "letting in" when referring to a this space?
beams are used, W clearance ribbon? 19. What is bridging? When is

should be provided at the sides 8. What advantage do pressure- it used?

and ends of the beam. This allows applied preservatives for termite pro- 20. Why is the bottom of bridg-

for expansion and contraction tection have over brush-applied ones? ing not nailed until after the subfloor

and permits air to circulate around 9. What is a floor joist? is laid?

the beam. Minor adjustments of 10. What is the strongest of the 2 1 . What are three materials fre-

alignment can also be made. native softwoods? quently used for subfloors? Which is

1 1 . What is the most frequently becoming most popular? Why?

used spacing for wood floor joists? 22. Why are joints not broken

Questions to Reinforce 1 2. Why is the box sill sometimes over the same joists when laying
placed %" inside the edge of the subfloors?
1 What is a termite shield? 1 3. Why are joists sometimes
2. What is the purpose of bend- lapped over a beam? Terms to Spell and Know
ing the termite shield? 14. What are some other methods seam spruce
3. Why are the joints soldered of end-joining joists? soldering nominal
or otherwise closed in the shield? 15. When added strength is re- aluminum ceiling
4. Why is mortar placed over quired at floor openings, what is grout scab
the termite shield? done to the joists? shrinkage bridging
5. What part of a wood struc- 1 6. Why is framing not placed ribbon subfloor
ture is placed upon this mortar? against chimneys and fireplaces? softwoods discrepancy
6. What are two methods of 17. What is the minimum distance hemlock
wood wall framing? Explain each. between framing and a chimney?

Frame Wall Construction
Wall Section

During this discussion the tion the wall section might be necessarily indicate a trend
frame wall of a building is con- assembled on the subfloor and toward total prefabrication as
sidered as a single unit, even then erected. the ultimate in progress of con-
though it composed of many
is In volume production, the struction methods. The merits of
individual parts. Framing a wood parts are cut and assembled in total prefabrication and the use
wall was originally done one a shop or factory. Volume pro- of components in building will
piece at a time, on the construc- duction can increase quality and not be discussed at this time.
tion site. This no longer true.
is reduce the number of man hours Custom built, or one-of-a-kind
Only on very small jobs would of labor per unit, as well as im- framed very
building, can also be
the framing be done in this man- proving working conditions be- manner. Quality
efficiently in this
ner. Wall sections are usually cause of the efficiency. Parts of materials and workmanship
completed and then raised in for a structure being and
cut usually exceeds that of a build-
place. On some light construc- assembled in this manner do not ing totally assembled on the site.

Sole Plate
The sole plate is a 2x4, with
itswide dimension contacting the
subfloor. It is placed beneath all
stud walls.
When used on exterior walls it
iscustomary to align the edge of
the bed plate flush with the edge
of the foundation, as shown to
the left. Another arrangement is

sometimes substituted as shown

in the illustration at the right.

FOUNDATION Outside face of sheathing

flush with foundation face.

_| Outside face of sheathing protruding

past foundation face.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

The sole plate acts as an anchor

for the studs and helps hold their
proper spacing. It also serves as
a means of attaching the wall to
the subfloor. It is sometimes
placed around the entire perimeter
of the wall, including door open-
ings. This helps make the wall
more rigid while it is being erected.
After the wall is nailed in place
the plate is removed from the
openings. When bearing walls are
parallel to floor joists, and in line

with them, the joists should be

doubled. When the wall is be-
tween joists, blocking as shown
in the illustration is used to pre-
vent the floor from sagging be-
tween joists.

Joists are doubled beneath bearing walls. Double joists may be joined together, or
separated by spacers to accommodate wires or pipes.

Non-bearing walls may be spaced between joists

when blocking is provided. Also, note the block-

ing at edge joints of the plywood subfloor.


7: Frame Wall Construction

Top Plate
Plates are placed over the top joined, the splice should be made
of all studs. They serve as spacers over a stud. When splices must
and tie the top of the studs in be made both top plates, the
place. All plates on outside walls splices should not be made over
should be doubled because the the same stud.
weight of ceiling joists and rafters When the top plate is joined
bears upon them. It is sometimes at a corner, the plate should be
permissible to use single top lapped so the corner can be tied
plates for interior walls if no together as in the illustration.
load is to be supported. How- When panels of modular con-
ever, the extra time involved to struction are used for walls, the
cut and handle different length top plates are sometimes stood
studs usually offsets the amount on edge as shown to the right,
of material saved. and serve as a header around the
When top plates must be end perimeter of outside walls.


Combination top plate and header for
use with modular panels.



Frame wall intersection with one wa

ending between studding spacing of
adjoining wall.

Joining top plates at wall corners and above


Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Studs are the slender wood up-
rights that form the vertical frame-
work of the walls of a structure.
Studs are usually made of 2x4's
actual size of which is 1 Vi "x3 Vz ".

One notable exception to the

standard thickness of frame walls
is the area which must accom-
modate the larger soil stack or
vent pipe for the bathroom
plumbing fixtures. This wall is

usually constructed of 2x6's.

The studding should be of
uniform length, which is deter-
mined by the ceiling height
desired. For conventional, flat
ceilings of homes, 8'0" is the
most common ceiling height.
Note: This measurement is not
the stud length, it is only used
in determining length. Studs are
usually spaced 16" on centers. Studs spaced 16" o.c. from inside building.
The stud is turned so the wide
dimension forms the thickness of
the wall. In rare cases where no
load must be supported, as in a
closet wall, the stud may be
turned so the short dimension
represents the thickness of the
wall. done only if space
This is

is at a premium. The 16" spac-

ing works well in "hanging a

curtain" of most wall materials.
In some very light construction
it is permissible to use 24" spac- Most frequently used built-up
corner stud arrangement.
ing. For example, studs for a
garage or shed might be so spaced.
The uniform spacing is usually
continued over window and door
It is impossible to start measur-
ing stud spacing at the outside
corner of a building and keep
the studs on 16" centers on the
inside of the building at the same

7: Frame Wall Construction

time. One of the spacings (inside

or outside) must necessarily be
ofTthe 16" module. It is customary
to start the spacing from the in-

side asshown in the stud layout

diagram. Then studs can be more
easily located when nailing
through plaster is required.
It is desirable— but impossible

—to purchase lumber that is per-

no warp or
fectly straight, with Studding arrangement for four intersect-

wind (twist). Yet only the ing walls. Two studs are Inset V between
adjoining ones to accommodate nailing.
straightest lumber should be
selected for studs. If studs are Intersecting wall con
forming to normal stud
noticeably warped, the crowns, OMITTED WHEN NO
ding spacing.
or high points, should be alter- SECOND STORY
nated, placing one toward the
outside and the next toward the surface, in relation to the stud
inside. When sheathing or wall arrangement. If an inside wall
covering is applied, this helps ends between studs, the first
pull the wall into a straight posi- arrangement (page 82) is used.
tion. If an occasional stud is If it ends on wall studs, the sec-
extremely warped, but must be ond (page 83) would be used.
used, it can be partially cut and
Stud Intersections
pulled into a straight position.
A scab or extra piece is then At wall intersections on the
nailed over the cut to hold the interior of the building, the studs

stud firm. are arranged as shown.

Framing for a window opening.

Corner Studs Studs at Wall Openings

When two exterior corners Double studs are placed at all

meet, studs must be joined to door, window, and other open-

form a corner post. Two methods ings. The outside stud extends

are shown. The first illustration from the bottom to the top plate.
shows the method most frequently The inside stud is cut to receive
used. The short wood sections the headers over the opening. If

between the studs are blocking no weight is to be supported for

used to help form the post. Short a second floor, the portion of stud-

scrap boards are used, thus elimi- ding above the header is some-
nating one extra full stud.
times omitted. The studs are used
in addition to the ones on the
Studs To Between an
Fill 16" spacing. However, when
Inside Wall and an Outside Wall possible, window and door place-
Inside and outside walls may ment are arranged to conform
Framing for a door opening. This method
be joined as shown. The arrange- with the stud spacing. The stud is not as frequently used as the other
ment to use will be determined by next to the opening is used for method shown on page 84.
the position of the inside wall normal spacing.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Base Blocks
Short scraps of lumber the
same thickness and width as
studding are placed against the
studs opposite the opening to
provide for nailing the ends of
baseboard and casing.

Corner Bracing
Temporary corner braces may
be used at studded wall openings
and room corners to insure a
square corner. They are applied
at a 45° angle to the studs. If
rigid sheathing is not to be ap- l"x4" "let-in" corner bracing.

plied to the exterior, it is neces-

sary to place permanent braces
on the outside of the studs. These Firestop and Nailers The accompanying chart shows
are made from l"x4" lumber Balloon framing leaves an open the header size required for vari-
and are "let in" to the studs. As space along the studs. This space
ous spans. See page 86.
said, if plywood or rigid insulating acts as a flue if fire occurs. West- Two methods of installing the
sheathing is used, no additional ern framing is not as open, but header are shown. The older
bracing is required. both walls should have lumber method requires short studs over

placed between the studs to the header. Newer construction

serve as a firestop. Two methods methods use a large header to

the entire space above the
of installation are shown. When fill

vertical coverings, such as ply-

opening. The additional material

wood or hardboard paneling, are required would not be as great

as the labor for laying out, cut-
applied directly to the studs, these
boards also act as backing. This ting, and installing crippled studs.

makes the wall Additional material can be saved

firm and provides
additional nailing surface. See
when applying sheathing or
inside wall coverings because
page 85.
the parts need not be spaced on
Headers the 16" module.
Joists, and additional
rafters, Plywood box beams are very
floors above, must be supported desirable as headers when long
Frequently used method of framing a
over doors, windows, and other spans are needed. They have an
door opening. Small blocks of 2"x4"
openings. Headers of lumber on exceptionally good weight-to-
called base blocks afford additional nail-

ing surface for securing casing and edge or plywood laminated beams, strength ratio. Such beams are
baseboard. A crippled stud is added as shown in the illustrations, also used with post and beam
above the header. are used. structural systems.

7: Frame Wall Construction

Dimension lumber nailed together to form

a header.

Solid headers completely filling the space

above an opening give added strength.
require uniform width lumber, and speed


For wide openings plywood box beams
Two methods of installing firestop be- make excellent headers.
tween studs.

Framing Diagrams
When construction was entirely Conventional method of installing

a one-part-at-a-time operation, it header above an opening.

was necessary to draw complete

framing diagrams to show the
workmen how to assemble the
structure. At the present this is

not always done. However, any

information not placed on the
working drawings leaves the final
decision of framing location to the
Any person planning a structure
should be able to show the loca-
tion of the framing members. If
the parts are assembled away
from the site, the planning must
be exact, to assure a proper fit

when the building is assembled. Wall framing diagram (size and location dimensions are necessary to complete the plan).

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Headers — Exterior Openings

Roof construction

Roof joist with bearing partition, Rafters with bearing partition Trussed rafters slope over 3 in 12

slope 3 in 1 2 or less

^^~\^ ^<f\>^
T i r
Width of structure
Header size
(on edge) "1
-^T^ "f
Slope over 3 in 12

Rafters with bearing partition

Braced rafters with bearing
Trussed rafters

^^-^^v/^^^ *——<^?'^>-—
t i
r* T f 1 >
Slope over 3 in 1 2 Slope 3 in 12 or less Habitable space

1 story

6" 3'0" 6"

Up to 26 feet 2-2 x4s 3' 2'

6' 6" 5'0" 4' 6"

wide. 2-2 x 6s
2-2 x 8s 8' 6"
TV 6'0"
1 0" 6" 0"
2-2 x 10s 1 ' 8' i

2-2 x 12s 1
3' 6" 1
10' 6" ,
9 , »

1 Vi or 1 story

2-2 x 4s 2' 6"

2-2 x 6s 4' 6" 4'0" 3' 6"
2-2 x 8s 6'0" 5' 6" 5'0"
2-2 x 10s 7' 6" ' 6' 6" i 6' 0"
2-2 x 12s 9'0" i 8' 0" 1
7' 6"

1 story

26 to 32 feet 2-2 x 4s 3'0" 2' 6"

wide. 2-2 x 6s 6'0" 4' 6" 4'0"
2-2 x 8s B'0" 6'0" 5' 6"
2-2 x 10s 1
0' 0" i
8' 0" 1
J. Q„
2-2 x 12s 1
12' 0" i
9 6
< " ' 8' 6"

1 Vi or 2 story

2-2 x 4s
2-2 x6s 4'0" 3' 6" 3'6"
6" 5'0" 6"
2-2 x 8s .
5' 4'

2-2 x 10s 'TV '6' 0" 1

5' 6"
6" T „
2-2 x 12s ' 8' 1
T 6" I

Note: The above spans are based on allowable fiber stresses in allowable fiber stress exceeding 800 are used, the spans for 2 x 4s
bending as follows: For 2 x 4s, 800 psi; for 2 x 6s and larger, 1,200 may be increased by 20 percent. Where conditions vary from these
psi.These a//owob/e stresses are average values taking into consid- assumptions, design headers in accordance with standard engineer-
eration upgrading for doubling of members. Where 2 x As having ing practice.

Triple studs at jamb opening; headers to bear on 2-2 x 4s.

Federal Housing Administration

7: Frame Wall Construction

A sample wall framing diagram

for a small structure is shown. HEADER SCHEDULE
See drawing, bottom of page 85.
A typical schedule of header WIDTH HEIGHT SPAN LENGTH
sizes for a building is shown in 1 4 4" 4" 3'-0" 3'-3'/«"

the illustration. This is very con- 2 2 4" 6" 5'-0" S'-3'/<"

venient for workmen, as it elimi-
3 2 4" 8" 7'-0" 7'-3'/4"
nates the need to locate and figure
4 1 4" 12" 10-5" io'-9y4"
the length for each header.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge Terms To Spell and Know

1 . What is meant by the term 18. What is a header? Explain prefabricated perimeter
"raising the wall"? its construction. component modular
2. What is the purpose of a 1 9. What is a framing diagram? workmanship sheathing
soleplate? 20. How is the size of headers sole plate scab
3.What is a top plate? Why determined? studding blocking
is it made from two pieces of lum- 21. Why is a schedule for headers studs firestop
ber? sometimes included on working header
4. Why are the plates lapped drawings?
at corners and where inside walls
join outside walls?
An architect and a builder discussing the framing plans during construction
5. What is a stud, or studding? of the building.
6. What size material is usually Wood Product* Ail

used for studs?

7. What is their normal spacing?
8. When may they be placed
so the small dimension represents
the thickness of the frame wall?
9. When referring to lumber,
what is warp? What is wind?
10. What is a scab?
1 1 . Why is blocking sometimes
used when forming a corner post?
12. What are two methods of
joining an inside wall to an outside
1 3. How are interior wall inter-

sections framed?
14. How are the studs arranged
at openings for doors and windows?
15. What is a base block?
1 6. What is corner bracing? How
is it applied?
17. What is a firestop? What
material is normally used?

Masonry Wall Construction

Masonry Materials the interior finish and the provi- wythes. All wythes are bonded
sion for attaching the finish to the with mortar and reinforcement.
Stone, brick, concrete block,
clay tile, terra-cotta, or specially
masonry. When more than one This bond is not sufficient to pre-

processed forms of each are clas-

wythe (thickness) of masonry is vent the wythes from separating.
used, they must be bonded or Therefore individual bricks or
sified as masonry.
fastened securely together. stones are placed crosswise of the
Masonry Construction wythes so they tie the two to-
Any wall constructed entirely Solid Masonry gether. Or, instead of placing in-
of the above materials is consid- As said, a solid masonry wall dividual units across both
ered a masonry wall. However, is constructed without a frame- wythes, header courses, as shown
other materials may be used as work of studding or space between in the illustration, are used. The
8: Masonry Wall Construction

Corrugated wall ties may be

placed in mortar joints for
wall reinforcement.

masonry used to secure the monolithic. They may be com-

wythes should equal at least 4% posed of separated wythes spaced
of the outer wall surface, and apart to represent a specified wall
should extend at least 4" into thickness. To be classed as a cavity
the interior wythe. The interior wall, the minimum cavity width
wythe is called a backing. When is 2" and the maximum is 4".

concrete block is the backing and Since masonry transmits heat,

it is faced with brick, even cold, and moisture, the cavity
seventh course of brick is placed between wythes may be filled with Welded wire reinforcement adds strength
as a header course. This allows insulation. Sprayed foam insula- and holds wythes in position.
the header course to tie across tions are especially good. They are
each second course of block inert and are not subject to rot
backing. and mold.
When face brick is used as a The space between masonry
decorative exterior covering, one units must be bridged with
sometimes desires not to disrupt reinforcement.
the facing pattern with header
Hollow Masonry
courses. Then the practice is to tie
the wythes with corrugated wall
Any wall constructed of ma-
sonry units or blocks which have
ties or other metal reinforcement.
interior voids— the area of which
Minimum spacing of such ties
is 16" on center vertically and exceeds 25% of the total cross-

32" horizontally. sectional area— is classed as

hollow masonry.
Masonry Cavity Walls
All masonry walls are not Soldier course in running bond brick.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Construction detail with masonry veneer

wall covering.

Wall section combining masonry

veneer and wood siding.


Masonry Veneer building, and is not intended to

A masonry veneer is a solid be load supporting. It is meant
finishing or decorative material to support only its own weight.
covering a less expensive ma- When veneer is applied over BRICK VENEER
terial. The backing may be of frame construction, a 1" air space
masonry, wood, or metal frame is left between the masonry and

construction. However, the term wall sheathing. The veneer is at-

veneer is usually intended to tached to the frame with metal
mean that masonry is applied as wall ties. Normal spacing for the
a covering over a material other ties is 16" vertically and 32" hori-
than masonry. When veneer is zontally. The air space allows for
applied over other masonry, it is variations in the thickness of the
usually referred to as facing. masonry, and resists transmission
Veneer placed over wood frame of heat, cold, and penetrating
is not a true structural part of the moisture.

8: Masonry Wall Construction

peak or gable may be of 6" ma-

sonry. Note: This is accepted pri-
marily in low-cost buildings. Most
codes would not permit it. Gen-
erally, walls less than 35' high
may be of 8" solid masonry. Walls
more than 35' must be 12" solid
masonry. Most codes will permit
first story walls to be 12" and
second story walls 8".

The minimum thickness of

veneer for two-story structures
is 4".

Parging is a layer of rough
(not smooth finished) plaster made
from sand and portland cement.
It is used as a waterproofing on
Corrugated wall ties are nailed into studding
exterior foundation walls, between
for maximum strength.
solid masonry walls and interior
coverings and between masonry
wythes. This prevents the masonry
backing from discoloring exposed
decorative masonry.

Weep Holes for Cavity

and Veneer Walls
Temperature differences be-
tween interior and exterior walls
lead to moisture condensation.
This must be ventilated. Special
vents may be used, or vertical
mortar joints may be omitted
every 4' in the bottom course.

Masonry Wall Thickness

and Height
Wall thickness and height for
materials used in masonry will
vary with local codes. These must
be checked before wall planning
can be completed. The FHA
gives the following minimum
standards: Solid or hollow cavity
walls less than 9' high at the top
wall plate line and 15' or less at

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Flashing and Termite Shields

Except for very arid regions,
one must place flashing at the base
of solid or hollow masonry, as
shown in the illustrations. The
termite shield is similar to that
used for a frame wall, except that
it is not visible from the exterior.

Bond Beams or Top Plate

If the structure is to be built
in a high wind or earthquake area,
a bond beam of concrete is used.
8: Masonry Wall Construction

With solid masonry, this is a re-

inforced concrete band, extending
around the perimeter of the build-
ing. For 8" and 12" walls, two
No. 4 reinforcing rods are re-
quired. If the building is con-
structed of hollow concrete block
units, the bond beam is formed
with lintel blocks as shown and
two No. 4 reinforcement rods
added; then the units of the re-
inforced band are filled with
If in neither a high wind nor

earthquake area, a single top plate

may be placed over both wythes
for masonry and firmly secured
with anchor bolts. These should
be placed as for foundations.
When hollow units are used, the
voids in the top course are rilled
with concrete.

Lintels CHASE

When openings in masonry

are required, as for windows or
doors, masonry above the open-
ings must be supported. When Masonry above pipe chases and recesses
wall recesses are required, as for is most frequently supported by steel
flush radiators, pipe chases, and lintels.

other equipment, these openings

must also be supported by lintels.
A lintel is a horizontal construc-
A masonry arch gives its own support, so no steel lintel is required.
tion member over the opening.
Lintels may be constructed of
poured concrete, pre-cast concrete,
or concrete lintel blocks. These
are held to their proper position
with wood temporary vertical
supports called shoring; reinforce-
ment is added and the voids filled
with concrete. Arches of masonry
may also serve as lintels. When
concealed lintels are desired, struc-
tural metal may be used. Ends of
the lintel extend a minimum of
4" into the masonry wall.

A table of steel lintel sizes is

shown Chapter 5, Structural

Metal. Lintels must be clearly
indicated on the working drawing;
a schedule of lintel sizes, coded
to specific openings is most

Since capillary action draws
moisture from a damp exterior
surface toward the interior, some-
thing must be done to stop this
Silicone spray on exterior ma-
sonry surfaces will help. Parging,
or rough plastering the wall on
the inside with a coating of Port-
land cement mortar and then Furring strips block moisture transfer and serve as nailers for wall coverings.

coating this surface with bitumi-

nous damp-proofing will retard in direct contact with the exterior, masonry is used, additional pre-
the flow of moisture. When a cav- this is sufficient. cautions must be taken. Furring
ity wall is used, the damp-proof- Interior finishes may be ap- strips, at least W in thickness
ing may be placed between the plied directly to the masonry cav- must be placed over the damp-
wythes. Since a cavity wall is not ity wall. However, when solid proofing.


Brick is a baked clay product. Bricks used as an exposed dec- product is the only excuse for
The finished color is determined orative material are called face using this material on prominent
by the natural color of the clay, bricks. They are uniform in size exteriors. It is the author's opinion
or earth colors may be added dur- (usually within Vi 6 " limits), that common brick on exterior
ing manufacture. Red and buff have neat, square corners and walls suggests more of a run-down
are the most common. However, close quality control during manu- appearance than any other single
brick is manfactured in almost facture. Common bricks are not factor of construction.
every color imaginable. Bricks uniform in size or color. They are
may be purchased in quantities used primarily as backing ma- Names and Sizes of Brick
of a single color, or they may terial, or sometimes on the sides The names of brick shapes are

vary within specified limits, as and back of a building, if par- well standardized; however, the
determined from manufacturers' tially obscured by other struc- exact sizes are not. A chart show-
samples. Variant colors and tex- tures. These are porous, and ing names and approximate sizes

tures are obtained by using glazed absorb dirt readily. They eventu- is given on page 96. Individual
brick, which has a coating of ce- ally present an unsightly appear- manufacturers may vary W from
ramic on the face. ance. The expense of a quality the sizes shown.


Brick bonds.






Standard 2'/4"x3 3/4"x8" Brick Bonds

Modular 2'/4"x3 s/8"x7 s/8" Differing feelings for architec- Building Stone
Jumbo 2%"x3 A"x8" 3
tural beauty, and different ways
5/8" Stones most commonly used in
Norman 2'A"x3 5/8"xll of solving construction problems,
building are: sandstone, limestone,
S.C.R.* 2 /e"x5 /2"xll /2 "
, , ,
have resulted in identification of
and marble. Lava, quartz
Roman . l /8 "x3 5/8"x11 s/8"
certain styles and methods with
and other stone sometimes are
Baby Roman 1
/8"x3 5/e"x7 5/e" the people who developed them.
used in decorative details. Manu-
2 /2"x3 5/8 "x9" Some the more common brick
Fire Brick of
Oversize Size may vary
factured stone is made from ag-
bonds, and their application to
with manufacturer gregates of natural stone bonded
wall areas, are shown in the illus-
•Registered trademark. This brick is in-
into a monolithic unit, with mor-
tended as a single thickness, low cost, one- trations on page 95.
tar or synthetics as the bonding
story masonry wall.
agent. This stone may have a rough
textured or smooth polished face,
depending upon aggregates used
and effect desired. This material
should not be confused with "soft"
imitations, which try to simulate
or copy the appearance of true

Shapes of Building Stone

Rubble is stone as found in na-
ture. When used in building con-
struction no processing is done to
produce a more regular shape,
although large natural stones may
be broken to make them more
suitable for building purposes.
Two kinds of rubble are:
(1 Fieldstone, or stone as one
might find it in a field. It usually
has a rather smooth, rounded
surface of irregular shape. The
stones are fitted at random to form
a wall. The backs may be cut for
a more uniform thickness.
(2) Stratified stone, which is
found in thin broken layers may
be broken into pieces suitable for
building. It may be laid with the
strata in a vertical or horizontal
position. When laid vertically, the
stones present many irregular
4 x 12, 4 x 16, 8 x 12, faces to the viewer. When laid
AND 8x16 horizontally they may be coursed
Concrete block bonds. or uncoursed (random).

Scholz Homes Inc.

Random stone adds to the beauty of this home.

Stratified stone as used on the front wall of this home gives a rugged effect.
Scholz Homes Inc



Purchase off Stone

Stone is purchased by the ton. depending upon the type saw

The quoted price is usually based used. When a split face is used,

on pick-up at the quarry. Trans- shallow saw cuts are made the
portation costs must be added to length of the stone along the top

this. and bottom edge. The stone is

When 3Vi" stone is used, a ton then broken along this weakened
approximately 50 square line. When selecting stone, one
will lay
feet. should consult the manufacturer's
Ashlar. Imagine a piece of stone or supplier's literature concerning

10'xl0'x20' being taken from a the product.

quarry. From this one large stone,

small rectangular building Facing Stone
As stated earlier, facing is usu-
stones are to be cut. These manu-
factured rectangular shapes are applied over other masonry.

called ashlar. The stone is cut into When it is placed over concrete,
pieces about V/i" thick, with the wall must be parged to keep

heights of 2>/4", 5", 1 A" and

lO'/z". the concrete from staining the

When mortar is added between stone. Facing may be either in

horizontal joints, the courses will the form of large square or rec-

work well with other modular ma- tangular stones of a uniform

thickness orit may be specially
terials. For example, if 2 A" and

5" stones are placed on top of shaped with decoration cut into
each other, and a W
mortar joint the face. When planning the

is used between, the total

height building, the architect specifies in-
dividual stone shapes. Each shape
is 7W. This is the same height
is located by number on the
one 8" nominal concrete block or
and the stone is then cut to the
3 with mortar between.
desired shape. Each stone would
Lengths may be specified, but ash-
lar stone is usually purchased in not have an individual shape, but
random lengths. Ends are irregu- rather a series of shapes would
be repeated in the allover plan.
lar, or if specified at additional
All like stones, of course, would
cost, they can be cut to predeter-
buying have the same number. When the
mined lengths.
stone one must specify the quan- stones are delivered to the build-

tity proportion of each height ing site, they are stacked accord- This wall protruding above the roof
ing to numbermarked on by
as is called a parapet. The stone
desired; stated as a percentage.
called a coping. Also
The face of ashlar is either the manufacturer. Each stone has covering is

note the built-up roof and flashing

sawed or split. The sawed pat- this identifying number to corre-
detail plus the 45° cant strip.
terns may have many textures, spond with the working drawings.

8: Masonry Wall Construction

Structural and Facing Tile

Tile is a baked clay product

similar to brick. The main differ-

ence is the cavities built into the

tile. These lighten its weight.
Structural tile is made as a back-
ing material or with one finished
face or more. When used in a
single unit wall, both faces are
finished. The exterior may be fin-

ished as a brick face, or a ceramic

glaze may be applied. When a
ceramic glaze is added, the ma-
terial is called facing tile.


Masonry buildings usually

have a stone sill beneath all open-
ings. Some manufacturers may
have standard sizes more popular
than any others; however, there
is no degree of uniformity as to
the size and shape of sills. One
Weyerhoeuter Company
cannot give as a standard answer Glazed facing tile Is easy to maintain and withstands much abuse while retaining
that sills generally have a certain its beauty.
size. They may range from Vh"
ance determines the size mortar 5. What is meant by the term
to 5" in thickness.
ings tend to use the thinner
Modern build-
For ashlar a
joint to use. mor- W header course?
tar joint is typical, but by no 6. What is a wall tie?
Modern design trends will be dis-
means the only size that may be 7. is a wythe?
cussed later.
used. Rustic type buildings may 8. What is a hollow masonry
Parapet, Coping have mortar joints in excess of unit?
1". On rubble walls not un- How are two or more wythes
A parapet is a low enclosing it is 9.

wall, usually extending above a common to use 3" of mortar be- of a cavity wall joined?

roof. Exposed masonry must be tween irregular spaces. 10. What is meant by the term
capped to prevent moisture from facing?

entering between wythes and mor- 1 1 . What is a weep hole; where

tar joints. This cap or covering, is it located?
Questions to Reinforce
usually of stone, or terra-cotta, 12. How does one determine re-
Knowledge quired thickness of a masonry wall?
is called a coping.
1. What is masonry? 1 3. What is the purpose of flash-
Mortar Joints 2 What is solid masonry ing; from the illustrations, what are
Two kinds of mortar are used: wall? two places where it is used?
(1) cement or (2) hydrated lime— 3 What is masonry cavity 14. What is a bond beam; why
or combinations of both, with wall? is it used?
sand as the aggregate. 4. What is a masonry veneer 15. How is a top plate secured
The desired finished appear- wall? to a masonry wall?

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

16. How many reinforcing rods 24. Name as many patterns of

are placed in a bond beam; where face brick as you can.

are they located? 25. What is rubble? Is there more
17. What is parging, and what than one kind? Explain.
is its function? 26. What is ashlar?

18. When may plaster be applied 27. What is a coursed pattern

directly to a masonry wall? for a masonry wall?
1 9. Think of two reasons for using 28. What are the common heights
furring strips on masonry walls. of ashlar? Thickness?

20. Brick is available in how 29. What is meant by the term

many standard colors? split face?

21. What is face brick; where is 30. How does one show and
it used? specify special stone shapes?

22. What is common brick; where 31. What is the standard thick-

is it used? ness or height of stone sills?

23. Name five different kinds of 32. How is stone purchased, in

brick and their sizes. terms of weight and price?

Terms to Spell and Know

veneer matt shoring

terra cotta velour rubble

attaching architectural coursed

wythe sandstone ashlar

flashing limestone quarry

lintel block granite mortar
damp-proofing marble chat sawed
arches lava hydrated
capillary quartz rustic

silicone strata coping

parging stratified parapet
glazed fieldstone textures



Ceiling Joists and Roof Construction

ng with ceiling joists

bearing wall. Three methods of roof framing
for light construction are used:

(1 The oldest and most com-

mon method is a frame com-
posed of ceiling joists, rafters,
and other parts which are cut and
assembled at the building site,
or, for large developments, parts
may be cut at a cutting shed, and
then delivered to the individual
Ceiling, |oistsand rafters combined building site for assembly.
form roof trusses.
becoming widely used
(2) Also
are roof trusses in which the
ceiling joists and rafters are as-
sembled to form a single unit.
(3) Post-and-beam (or girder)
has heavy planks placed across
the beams to form the roof deck.
The first two types will be dis-
cussed in this chapter. Post and
beam roof construction is dis-
cussed separately in Chapter 11.

Post and beam roof system

Ceiling joists and rafters are in to the sides as shown in the
very close proximity and serve to illustration.
counteract thrust forces of each
Determining Joist Size
other. Many times they are con-
as a single unit, as in
Joist size is determined by the
roof trusses, or one of them may
strength of the wood species to

be omitted and the remaining be used, by the joist span, and by

the net load the ceiling is to sup-
member will be required to serve
as both. For these reasons the
discussion of ceiling joists and Since it is difficult to determine
the exact weight of all structural
roof construction will be given
in the same unit.
parts, and since research and
past experience indicate sizes
The discussion is primarily
that can be expected to support
about light wood frame construc-
the structure, exact engineering
tion. However, other materials
data will not usually be com- Ceiling joists may be lapped above
can serve equally well. For ex- bearing wall.
piled for light construction. It
ample, steel and aluminum manu-
facturers are supplying structural
is common practice to use estab-
parts for light construction.
lished minimum sizes from exist-
ing tables and charts.
The tables for ceiling joists
Ceiling Joists
and rafters used in this text show
Ceiling joists are structural
minimum standards established
members that support the finished
by the FHA. As mentioned
ceiling and also floors of occupied
earlier, one must check local
space above. In addition, they
codes to be certain these tables
act as tension members to resist
satisfy legal requirements.
the outward thrust of the rafters.
The rafters exert constant outward Minimum Loads for Ceiling Joists

pressure on the outside walls. If the space above the ceiling

The ceiling joists tie the building joists is not to be used for oc-
and prevent the tops of outside cupancy, the rafter slope is greater
walls from spreading apart be- than 3" in 12", and attic storage
cause of this pressure. is desired, a net load of 30
pounds per square foot (psf) is When ceiling joists are end joined above

Splices in Ceiling Joists a bearing wall, scabs should be Vt"

adequate. This allows 20 psf. for
above the lower edge of the joists.
If continuous ceiling joists do live load and 10 psf. for dead
not extend across the building, load. If the slope of the roof is

they are spliced over an interior 3" in 12" or less and no attic
wall. When a wall supports the storage is desired, the total net
ceiling joists in this manner, we load may psf. The accom-
be 15
say the wall is load bearing. When panying tables are based upon
joists are spliced they must be these strengths.
secured together and also secured When ceiling joists serve as
to the wall supporting them. The floor joists for occupancy above,
joists may be lapped and spiked strength requirements should be Ceiling joists may be secured to wall
together, or a scab may be nailed the same as for floor joists. plates with metal connectors.

Ceiling Joists


Select Dense Construc- Standard Utility Select Dense Construc- Standard Utility
Spacing Structural Construc- tion Structural Construc- tion
Nominal siie (inches tion tion
(inches) O.C.)

1950 f 1700 i 1450 f 1200 f (') 19501 17001 14501 12001 (')


2x4' 12 11 10 11 8 8 10 9 6 8 2 6 4
16 10 10 10 7 8 8 6 7 2 5 6
24 9 6 8 2 6 4 7 6 5 10 4 6

2x6 12 17 2 17 2 17 2 17 2 13 6 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 9 6
16 16 16 16 16 11 8 13 13 13 12 10 8 4
24 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 9 6 11 4 11 4 11 4 10 6 6 8

2x8 12 21 8 21 8 21 8 21 8 20 2 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4
16 20 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 17 6 17 17 17 17 12 4
24 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 14 4 15 4 15 4 15 4 14 4 10

2x 10 12 24 24 24 24 24 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 19 6
16 24 24 24 24 22 6 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 16 10
24 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 19 6 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 13 10

Denotes grade is not a stress grade. (b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lum-

Denotes light framing grade. (Not industrial Light Framing) ber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
Notes: American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of
(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown for J 9 percent or less, lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be
rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E). acceptable.


No. 1 X. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 K. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2

Nominal site
2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension
17001 1500 f 14501 1200 f 1700 f 15001 14501 12001


2x4 12 11 10 11 10 11 10 11 10 9 6 9 6 9 6 9 6
16 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6
24 9 6 9 6 9 6 9 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 6 10

2x6' 12 17 2 17 2 17 2 17 2 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4
16 16 16 16 16 13 13 13 12 10
24 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 11 4 11 4 11 4 10 6

2x8 12 21 8 21 8 21 8 21 8 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4
16 20 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 17 17 17 17
24 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 15 4 15 4 15 4 14 4

2x 10 12 24 24 24 24 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10
16 24 24 24 24 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4
24 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 18 4 18 4 18 4 18

Spans for 2" x 6" lumber having actual dressed size of (b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lum-
1W x 5W may be increased 2Vi percent. ber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
Notes: American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content
(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown for of I 9 percent or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be
rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E). acceptable.

Ceiling joist sizes and spacings.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Ceiling Joist Spacing materials are used, as 4'x8' frequently placed in the utility

normally panels, 16" spacing is normally room or a hall. A

Ceiling joists are
specified. stairway is convenient for gaining
spaced on 16" or 24" centers, used attic
access to frequently
with the 16" spacing usually pre-
more Framing for Attic Opening storage space.
ferred because this gives

support to the finished ceiling. Framing for openings should Rafters

When the 24" spacing is specified conform to good practice as de- Rafters are the sloping struc-
and the ceiling is to be installed scribed in Chapter 6, page 74. tural members designed to support
Attic access usually provided in
using prefinished materials, is
roof loads. Rafter size is deter-
furring strips are sometimesplaced an inconspicuous place. Access to mined by the strength of the
at angles to the joists on
right an attic with no storage space is wood species,by the sloping or
spacings that conform to the size frequently placed in a closet, rafter span, and by the net load
of the material. When large sheet while access to attic storage is
the roof is to support.
From general observation you
may have noticed roofs that were
practically flat and ones that were
very steep or any angle of slope
Securing Ceiling foists to Wall
in between. Climate is one of the
determining factors of roof slope.

When ceiling joists and walls In colder climates it is customary

to build the slope quite steep to
of the rooms below the joists are
shed snow and ice, while in
parallel to each other but the
warmer climates this is not nec-
joists do not bear upon the wall,
essary, so roof slopes are gener-
some provision must be made for
securing the two together. Two
ally quite low. A low slope rep-
resents a considerable saving in
methods of joining walls and
shown in the illustra-
materials. However, low slope
ceilings are
roofs must have greater strength
to support additional live loads,
Beam or Girder to Support Non-bearing partitions may
such as an unusual snowfall. Cur-
Joists Above Openings be blocked between ceiling
rent design tends to favor low
If ceiling joists are at a right slopes when at all permissible.
angle to an between
rooms, as when a living and dining
room have no wall between (open
plan), a beam or girder must
support the opening. If the beam
protrudes below the finished

ceiling, the joists may be lapped

or spliced over the beam. How-
ever, if a smooth ceiling is desired
between the two rooms, a ledger
may be added to the beam as 3uilt-up girders with ledgers permit level
shown and the joists supported on Ceiling joists secured to
ceilings between rooms.
ledger. The ledger should both edges of a wall give
nailing surface for finishing
equal h the total
beam depth.

9: Ceiling Joists and Roof Construction

Roof Types
Traditional design has devel-
oped standard roof types. The
more common are shown in the
illustrations on page 106.
These are not the only solutions
to placing a roof on a structure.

Gable end framing

Modern design and experimenta-
tion have offered many unusual
shapes. Some of the new shapes,
based on an expanding technol-
ogy, will certainly
become stan-
dard forms of construction.
Others are merely an attempt to
find something new and different
and have no structural advantage
over existing types. Some of the
more promising new shapes are
To design a good roof requires
a basic knowledge of the parts and
how these partsare assembled
into a finished structure. When
complicated design is involved,
it is necessary for the designer
supply framing plans describing
the parts and their locations in
relation to the other structural

Gable Roof
The gable roof is the most fre-
quently used type. When more
complicated types are used, the
gable usually forms the basic part
of the shape.

Building Span
Ceiling joists and rafters are
usually placed across the shortest
building dimension. The distance
from one outer corner of the top
plate to the opposite outer corner
is the building span.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Frequently used roof shapes.

Roof shapes frequently used on contemporary buildings.



9: Ceiling Joists and Roof Construction


The rafter run is the horizontal
distance from one end of the
rafter to the opposite end. When
a ridge board is placed at the
upper end of the rafters, the center

of this board is considered as the

point where each run terminates.
Rafter Notch at Top Plate

A flat bearing surface is nec-

upon the
essary where rafters bear
top plate. A notch ("bird's
mouth") is cut on the lower edge
of the rafter so the notch is equal
in width to the 2x4 top plate.
When solid masonry walls are
used and a wide top plate is

placed covering both wythes, the

notch is still made only 4" wide.
This is slightly variable.

Measuring Line of Rafter

The measuring line is an imag-
inarv line running parallel to the
edge of the rafter so that it passes
through the inside 90° corner
formed by the notch and extends
the entire length of the rafter.


Rafter Tail
Notional lumber

Roof construction data. The rafter tail is the amount

of rafter extending past the side
COLLAR BEAM- of the building to form the over-
hang. The tail is not considered
a part of the actual rafter length.

Rafter Span

The rafter span is the inclined

or actual rafter length, measured
from the 90° corner of the notch
and following the measuring line

to the center of the ridge board.

Note: It is very easy to confuse
rafter span with building span.
Be sure vou understand it. Also
Collar beams and braces strengthen roof construction. see illustrations on page 108.

Part One; Structure— An Architectural Obligation





Roof framing parts identification.

(1) It is stated as a fraction, as

full pitch, Vi pitch, Vi, Va, etc. On
a full-pitch roof the rise is equal
to twice the rafter run. This is

also equal to the building span.

On a Vi pitch roof the rise is equal
to the rafter run. (2) The pitch is
also stated as the amount of rise
in inches in proportion to each
12 inches of run. Examples are
4/12,5/12,6/12, 10/12, or 12/12.
This might also be stated as "6
inches to the foot," "10 inches to
the foot," etc.

Rafter Angle
As stated earlier the rafter is

designed in a ratio of rise to run.

The rafter tables on the carpenter's

framing square are also based
on this ratio. The tables are tabu-

Flat roof framing lated in even inches of rise in

proportion to 12" or 1' of run. It

is not wise to design a roof with

Rise Pitch an uneven pitch such as 4'/2/12
Rise is the vertical distance Pitch is the amount of slope or because this prevents the work-
from the lower edge of the ceil- slant of the roof. It is described men from using the tables on the
ing joists to the rafter measuring as the proportion or ratio of rise framing square, greatly increasing
line, when measured at the end of in relation to each foot of rafter labor costs because of the extra
the rafter run. run. Pitch is stated in two ways: time involved.

(Roof slope 3 in 1 2 or less)


Select Dense Construc- Standard Utility Select Dense Construc- Standard Utility
Nominal size Structural Construc- tion Structural Construc- tion
(inches) tion tion
a. c.)
19501 1700 f 14501 12001 (I) 1950 f 1700 f 14501 1200 f (1)

Light Roofing Light Roofing


FT. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

2x6 12 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 9 6 13 8 13 8 13 8 13 8 8 10
16 13 13 13 12 10 8 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 11 10 7 8
24 11 4 11 4 11 4 10 6 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 6 2

2x8 12 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 14 4 17 8 17 8 17 8 17 8 13 2
16 17 17 17 17 12 4 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 2 11 6
24 15 4 15 4 15 4 14 4 10 14 8 14 8 14 6 13 2 9 4

2 x 10 12 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 19 6 21 21 21 21 in
16 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 16 10 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 6 15 8
24 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 13 10 17 8 17 8 17 8 16 8 12 10

2x12 12 24 24 24 24 22 8 24 24 24 24 21

16 23 6 23 6 23 6 23 6 19 8 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 18 2
24 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 16 2 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 2 14 10

(Roof slope 3 in 12 or less)


No. 1 K. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 K. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2
Spacing 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension
o. c.) 17001 1500 f 1450 f 1200 f 17001 1500 f 14501 12001

Light Roofing Light Roofing


Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

2x6' 12 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 13 8 13 8 13 8 13 8
16 13 13 13 12 10 12 4 12 4 12 4 11 10
24 11 4 11 4 11 4 10 6 10 10 10 10 10 8 9 8

2x8 12 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 17 8 17 8 17 8 17 8
16 17 17 17 17 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 2
24 15 4 15 4 15 4 14 4 14 8 14 8 14 6 13 2

2x10 12 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 21 21 21
16 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 6
24 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 17 8 17 8 17 8 16 8

2x12 12 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
16 23 6 23 6 23 6 23 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6
24 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 2

Spans for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed size of 1 ¥$"x5W (b) Spans be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber
may be increased by 2Vi percent. more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from American
Notes: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 1 9 percent
for rough /umber or /umber surfaced two edges (S2E). or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be acceptable.

Low slope rafter sizes and spacings.

(Roof Slope over 3 in 1 2)


Select Dense Select Dense
Spacing Structural Construction Construction Standard Utility Structural Construction Construction Standard Utility
Nominal size (inches) (inches
o. c.) 1200
1950 f 1700 f 1405 f f
(1) 1950f 1700 f 14501 1200 f (1)


2x4 ! 12 11 6 9 6 7 4 10 4 8 2 6 4
16 10 6 8 4 6 4 9 6 7 2 5 6
24 9 2 6 10 5 2 8 4 5 10 4 6

2x6 12 16 10 16 10 16 10 16 10 11 2 15 6 15 6 15 6 14 10 9 6
16 15 8 15 8 15 8 15 9 8 14 4 14 4 14 12 10 8 4
24 13 10 13 10 13 6 12 2 7 10 12 6 12 6 11 6 10 6 6 8

2x8 12 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 16 8 19 8 19 8 19 8 19 8 14 4
16 19 10 19 10 19 10 19 10 14 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 17 6 12 4
24 17 10 17 10 17 10 16 8 11 10 16 6 16 6 15 8 14 4 10

2x10 12 24 24 24 24 22 10 23 6 23 6 23 6 23 6 19 6
16 23 8 23 8 23 8 23 8 19 8 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10 16 10
24 21 4 21 4 21 4 21 16 2 19 8 19 8 19 8 18 13 10

Denotes grade is not a stress grade. (b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber
Denotes light framing grade. (Not Industrial tight Framing) more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from American
Notes: Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 9 percent 1

(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown for or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be acceptable.
rough lumber or /umber surfaced two edges (S2E).

(Roof slope over 3 in 1 2)


No. 1 K. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 K. D. No. 2 K. D. No. 1 No. 2
2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension
Nominal size (inches)
17001 15001 1450 f 1200 f 17001 1500 1 14501 1200 f


2x4 12 11 6 11 6 11 6 11 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 9 8
16 10 6 10 6 10 6 9 10 9 6 9 6 9 4 8 6
24 9 2 9 8 10 8 8 2 7 8 7 6 6 10

2x6' 12 16 10 16 10 16 10 16 10 15 6 15 6 15 6 14 10
16 15 8 15 8 15 8 15 14 4 14 4 14 12 10
24 13 10 13 8 13 4 12 2 12 6 11 8 11 6 10 6

2x8 12 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 2 19 8 19 8 19 8 19 8
16 19 10 19 10 19 10 19 10 18 4 18 4 18 4 17 6
24 17 10 17 10 17 10 16 8 16 6 16 15 8 14 4

2x10 12 24 24 24 24 23 6 23 6 23 6 23 6
16 23 8 23 8 23 8 23 8 21 10 21 10 21 10 21 10
24 21 4 21 4 21 4 21 19 8 19 8 19 8 18

Spans for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed

•of IVs"x5W (b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lum-
may be increased 2Vi percent. ber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
Nates: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those sho American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of
for rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E). J 9 percenf or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be

no Rafter sizes and spacings.
9: Ceiling Joists and Roof Construction

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36


Rafter span conversion diagram.

Knowing the names of roof There are two sets of rafter tables pounds per square foot is classed
parts is very important if one is to in the text: one for low slope as a heavyweight roofing.
convey their descriptions to other rafters and/or roof joists and one The low slope tables covering
persons. Therefore study carefully for normal rafters with a slope support of finished ceilings are
the illustrations naming the parts. greater than 3" in 12" pitch. Each based on a total design load for
Proper methods of joining the table is divided into two sections. both stress and deflection of 35
parts can also be determined by The low slope tables are divided pounds per square foot. The
studying the illustrations. so the unfinished ceiling is to the dead load has been calculated
left and the chart for finished at 15 psf and the live load at 20
Rafter Tables Used in Text ceilings is to the right. Rafters psf. Deflection is not to exceed
Rafters for low slope roofs with a low slope are designed to '/240 of the clear span up to 15
may also serve as a base for the accommodate lightweight roofing, feet. If the joists are longer than
finished ceilingon their lower side. which weighs less than four 15 feet the total deflection must
In this case the same members pounds per square foot. Any roof- not exceed %". See tables on
serve as rafters and ceiling joists. ing that weights more than four pages 109 and 110.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation




Low slope tables used in figur- slope roofs with finished ceilings. Rafters designed for heavyweight
ing supports for finished ceilings Study and compare rafter tables. roofing are based on a total load
are based on a total design load Rafters with a slope greater of 30 psf. The dead load has been
for both stress and deflection of than 3" in 12" and designed for calculated at 15 psf and the five
30 psf. The dead load has been lightweight roofing are based on load at 15 psf. Deflection is not
calculated at 10 psf and the live a total design load of 22 psf. The to exceed Viso of the clear span
load at 20 psf. The allowable de- dead load has been calculated at up to 15'. Over 15' the deflection

flection is the same as for low 7 psf and the live load at 15 psf. is not to exceed 1".

Combination nailed and glued
"W" truss.

"W" truss with split ring connectors.

Roof Truss

Ceiling joists and rafters may reducing construction time and no bearing walls are required,
be cut and assembled as a single labor costs. (3) A truss bears only interior walls can be placed in any-
unit, with structural support be- upon the outside walls, thus per- desired location.
tween the members. The triangu- mitting a clear span the entire
Methods of Assembling Roof Truss
lar unit thus formed is called a width of the building. This elimi-
roof truss. The truss has many nates the need for bearing walls There are two common meth-
advantages over conventional and permits the building to be ods of assembling roof trusses.
framing methods. The struc-
( 1 ) framed as one large room. The One method makes use of metal
tural members can be smaller building can be closed in after a connectors and the other is by
than conventional framing and minimum of time and the area gluing and/or nailing. When a
still furnish the same strength. used for working during the re- nailed, glued truss is used, ply-
(2) They may be purchased, thus mainder of construction. Since wood gussets, are used at joints.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

th plywood gussets.

Two shapes are used for nailed,

glued trusses. These are either a
W truss or a king-post truss. Two
methods of framing the nailed
and glued W
truss are shown, with
the latter preferred.
Preliminary Design for Nailed Glued Trusses All trusses should be designed
conforming to standard engineer-
Pitch 2/12 to 4/12 Span Chords ing practice. Note that itis more

practical to purchase them as

W - Truss 20'-8" to 28'-8" 2x4
manufactured units than to con-
struct them at the building site.
W • Truss 28'-9" to 40'0" 2x6
Truss Spacing
Kingpost 1
8'-0" to 24'0" 2x4
The most common spacing
for wood roof trusses is 2'-0" on
Kingpost 25'0" to 32'-0" 2x6
center (o.c). However, this is not

Table of truss cords. the only spacing that may be used.


9: Ceiling Joists and Roof Construction

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1 What are three common 16. Name and describe as many 34. What is lightweight roofing?

methods of roof framing? roof types as you can. Heavyweight?

What are ceiling joists?
2. 17. What is the most frequently 35. What is a roof truss?
Where are splices in ceiling
3. used roof type? Why? 36. What are the advantages of
joists made? 1 8. What is meant by the term a truss roof over conventional fram-

4. What is a load bearing wall? building span? ing methods?

5. What is meant by a scab 19. What is meant by the term 37. What are two methods of
being nailed onto a joist? rafter run? assembling roof trusses?
6. What three factors determine 20. Why is a rafter notched 38. What is a W truss?

ceiling joist size? where it joins the top plate? 39. What is a king post truss?
7. When do ceiling joists also 2 1 . What is another name for the 40. Which is the stronger?
serve as floor joists? rafter notch? 41. For typical light construc-
8. What is the preferred ceiling 22. Where is the rafter measur- tion, what is the truss spacing most
joist spacing? ing line located? What kind of line frequently used?
9. What determines spacing of is this?
furring strips placed at right angles 23. What is a rafter tail? Terms to Spell and Know
to the ceiling joists? 24. What is rafter span?
10. What are two methods of 25. What is rise?
framing furring
securing ceiling joists to walls par- 26. What is pitch?
joists traditional
allel to the joists? Use sketches, if 27. How are rise and run related
rafters gable
necessary. to pitch?
assembly mansard
1 1 . If there is no wall between 28. What is a dormer?
truss gambrel
two adjoining rooms (open plan), 29. What is a crippled stud?
girder butterfly
how are the ceiling joists supported? 30. From your own reasoning,
planks parabola
12. special provision should why are rafters doubled at openings?
roof deck hyperparabola
be made when there is an opening What special provision must
through ceiling joists? be made when framing a gable to
thrust overhang
1 3. What is a rafter? accommodate masonry veneer?
14. What factors determine roof 32. What is a ridge board, and
nailed heavyweight
what purpose? Do
slope? is its all build-
species W truss
15. Why are low slope roofs ings with a sloping roof have one?
slope king post truss
quite popular at the present time? 33. What is a low slope roof?



Definition of This type roof may be flat. Roofs rating, which is Class A, as de-
Roof Sheathing of these materials are usually re- termined by Underwriters Lab-
served for buildings of heavy oratories. The planks are also
Roof sheathing is the solid
construction. However, the con- very low in noise transmission,
base material placed over the
crete plank systems are used quite which makes them satisfactory
rafters or roof framing members
extensively in small masonry as a flooring system.
to support the roof covering.
apartments and light commercial
Concrete or buildings. Two advantages are Wood Roof Sheathing
Gypsum Base Sheathing the speed of erection and its fire Wood frame roofs using either
If a structure is of masonry
and has steel or concrete roof
framing members, the roof deck
may be of concrete or gypsum.
Sometimes this deck is made of
concrete planks or it can be
formed and poured. When gyp-
sum is used as a roof deck it is
not intended to support live loads
other than water or snow. Gyp-
sum is prepared with water in a

mixer and sprayed onto the roof

through a hose. It is leveled in
much the same manner as con-
crete. When gypsum is used as a
base for roofing it coats a form of
fiberboard or corrugated metal.
This form material is not re-

moved; it acts as a sub-base for

the roof. Two advantages of gyp-
sum over concrete are its light
weight and the short setting time
for the material.
Concrete or gypsum roofs are
covered with built-up roofing. Concrete planks may be installed for floor or roof systems.

rafters or roof trusses are usually
covered with a wood sheathing.
When wood shingles are to be
used as a roof covering, l"x3"
strips are often placed across the
rafters with vacant spaces be-
tween. This meets minimum re-
quirements where wood shingles
are permitted but makes addi-
tional work later if the shingles
are replaced with other types of
roofing, which requires that these
spaces be filled in.

Solid Sheathing
Western Wood Products Assoc
Surfaced-four-sides (S4S) lum- Wood strips are frequently used to replace solid sheathing when wood shingles are
ber is frequently used as roof to form the finished roof.
sheathing. However, tongue-and-
groove or shiplap lumber is more
satisfactory because the edges are
held securely together across the
space between rafters.

Sheathing Lumber Sizes

When either S4S boards or

edge-and-end matched lumber is
used,and when minimum rafter
spacingis 24" o.c. or less, nominal

1" (actually "/u") lumber is

used. When greater rafter spacing
Staggered end
is desired, additional sheathing
with solid lum
thickness is also required. Tables
of lumber thickness and spans
are shown in Chapter 1 1, Post and
Beam Construction. Tables of ply-
wood thickness and spans are
shown on page 1 1 8 of this chapter.

Breaking Joints in Sheathing

When S4S lumber is used, suc-

ceeding boards should not be
spliced over the same rafter. The
joints should be staggered or al-
ternated. If end-matched lumber
is used, a joint may be made be-
Plywood roof sheathing must be posi-
tween rafters but the board must
tioned so ad|oining panels do not end
rest upon at least two rafters.
on the same joist.

Part One: Structure — An Architectural Obligation

ROOFS— Minimum Thicknesses, Spans and Nailing Schedules

(Grain of Face Plys. Across Supports; Stagger All Panel End Joints)

FHA requirements
When the minimum property standards of the FHA are met for each use, this agency
allows the use of plywood in all parts of the home. This table sets out the basic FHA
(Center to Center)

SPECIES PLY- Asphalt or Wood (a)
WOOD Shingles or Shakes Built-up Common
THICK- Roofing Nails
NESS (<)
Cem. or
Blkd Shingles Panel Inter-

Blkd (b) Unblkd (b) Unblkd Unblkd Edges mediate

Douglas Fir, V\t" 16" 16" 16" 6d 6" 12"

Western larch and %" 24" 20" 24" 16" 6d 6" 12"
Group 1 (C-C and C-D
w 32" 24" 32" 20" 16" 8d 6" 12"
sheathing grades only)
w 42" 28" 42" 24" 24" 8d 6" 12"

plywoods %" 48" 32" 48" 28" 32" 8d 6" 12"

%" 16" 16" 16" 6d 6" 12"
Groups 2 and 3 of
Western softwood
w 24" 20" 24" 16" 16" 8d 6"

plywood (d)
%" 32" 24" 32" 20" 20" 8d 12"
3/4" 42" 28" 42" 24" 28" 8d 6" 12"

(a) Flat roofs used for walking traffic metal clips designed for this purpose. (d) grades identi-
This applies also to all
such as sun decks shall use same con- fied as Group 1, excepting the sheath-
(c) Or 5d threaded nails for Vis" and
struction as subflooring. ing grades (C-C and C-D) which if identi-
/s" plywood and 7d threaded nails for
fied as Group 1 may take the same
(b) Blocking of edges shall be by accu- other thicknesses.
spans as Douglas fir.
rately cut wood blocking or by special
American Plywood Assoc

Width of Sheathing Boards

As stated in Chapter 6, wide
boards warp more than narrow
ones. When roof sheathing— also
sometimes called decking or roof
boards— warps, it presents an un-
sightly, irregular roof. It can also
affect the quality because shingles
may not lie flat, thus permitting
wind to lift them from the roof.
Boards no wider than 6" are

Plywood Sheathing
Sheathing grade plywood (ex-
teriorunsanded) makes very fine
Building paper is fastened between roof sheathing and the exterior roof covering. roof sheathing. The advantages
are the same as for sub-floors. "

10: Roofings

discussed in Chapter 6. Tables used, the face grain is placed sheathing from the weather. It

for plywood roof sheathing are across the joists. Examine care- also serves as a partial vapor
shown. Even though Vi</' and fully the notes at the bottom of barrier. If the roofing is to be
W thicknesses meet minimum the plywood sheathing tables to laid immediately, the building
requirements up to 30 pounds be sure all requirements are paper may be tacked in place with
total live and dead loads for 24" fulfilled. roofing nails or staples. How-
rafter spacing, the deflection be- ever, with only nails holding the
tween rafters is sometimes visible Building Paper edges it is easily torn. Therefore
to the observer. For this reason After roof sheathing is in it is usually held in place by
the author prefers a ¥i" minimum place, it is covered with felt build- tacking wood lath along the
thickness, with W thickness more ing paper. Manufacturers recom- edges.This protects the paper
desirable if cost will permit. mend 15 pound paper for most from being torn by either the
When plywood sheathing is applications. This protects the wind or workers' movements.

Roof Coverings
Built-up Roofing vantages over other types. It has
Built-up roofing is used on flat a Class A fire rating. It is easy to
or low slope roofs. It consists of repair or replace and is very wind
alternate layers of asphalt and resistant.

building felt. The final coat of The crushed stone placed in

asphalt is covered with gravel, the outer layer serves chiefly as a

slag, or stone chips (chat). The decorative covering but also helps
color and texture depend upon reflect the sun's rays.

the material used. This type of gMfffUnnWiP.MW^

roofing may be applied to almost
any roof deck, since no nails or
A built up roof is long lasting and ideally
other mechanical fasteners are
suited to flat installations.
required. It is especially suitable
for concrete and gypsum but may
be used with wood, plywood, or
fiberboard if adequate strength is
provided at joints in the roof
Low slope built-up roofs are widely used
Most satisfactory results are
on contemporary homes.
obtained when the material is ap-
plied by a professional. Roof costs
are based on the amount of time
it can be expected to last. This
depends upon the number of lay-
ers of asphalt and felt that are
applied. It may be purchased with
a 10, 15, or 20 year warranty.
Built-up roofing has several ad-
Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

2/12 the underlay paper should

be head lapped 2". For slopes
less than 2/12 the underlay
Three-tab square butt shingle.
should be doubled. Asphalt shin-
Individual shingle. gles arepurchased by the square,
or 100 square feet. The standard

weight is 215 pounds per square.

However, some codes require up
to a 275-pound weight.

Two-tab hex shingle. Asphalt shingles are favored

Giant individual American shingle.
by many. They are easy to apply,
have a good appearance, are fire
and are reasonable in
cost.They are usually applied
over wood sheathing. When ap-
plying nails or staples to secure
Three-tab hex shingle. Dutch lap shingle.
the roofing, care must be taken to
avoid joints in the sheathing. If
Asphalt shingle patterns.
nails are not properly held they
will work around in or through
Asphalt Roll Roofing the outer surface, causing leaks.
nailed to prevent water from run-
Asphalt roll roofing is felt build- Shingles are lapped over the
ning under the joint.
ing paper impregnated with as- gable rake and fascia from A" to X

phalt. It is purchased in rolls of Asphalt Shingles W to prevent capillary action

36" width. It may be either smooth Asphalt shingles are of asphalt from drawing water under them.
surfaced, with the asphalt ex- impregnated felt paper which is Metal edging or starter strip is rec-
posed, or it may have stone gran- coated on the face with fine stone ommended. When one observes
ules imbedded in the outer granules. They may be purchased asphalt strip shingles, the slits

surface. The granules may be in a wide variety of solid and forming the tabs are seen. If the

distributed over the entire sur- variegated colors and in many first course of shingles is placed on
face or they may be on only the different patterns. The more com- the roof in the regular manner,
lower half of the roll if double mon are illustrated. Perhaps the the felt underlay is exposed be-
coverage (two layers) is not de- most familiar is the 3-tab square tween the slits. One must use a
sired. Roll roofing may also be butt shingle. The dimensions of strip of roll roofing or reversed
purchased with a patterned ex- strip shingles are 12"x36". The shingles beneath this first course.
posed edge. amount of tab exposure to the
This is a very inexpensive roof weather (amount of shingle visi- Asbestos Cement Shingles
covering used on small utility ble) is dependent upon the roof Asbestos cement shingles are
farm structures or storage units pitchand grade of shingle used. manufactured of asbestos fibers
where appearance is not a factor. Five inches to the weather is a bonded in portland cement. They
This prohibits its use on most typical exposure. Low slope roofs are usually striated or textured to
homes. Roll roofing is suitable for or high wind areas may require resemble wood shingles. They are
roof pitches of from 1 / 1 2 to 5 / 1 2. cement under each tab to seal it very durable except they are quite
When it is used on low slope to the roof, or the newer self- brittle and will shatter if struck

roofs, it is recommended that sealing shingles may be used. a sharp blow. They are available
the lower edge be cemented and For roof pitches of more than in a great range of colors. There

10: Roofings

are no uniform standard sizes.

Most companies manufacture in-
dividual shingles and wider widths
resembling several shingles. These
shingles are recommended for

roofs with a pitch of 5/12 or

greater but may be used on low
slope roofs if special sealing pre-
cautions are taken. Asbestos ce-
ment shingles are fairly expensive
and are therefore used primarily
on institutional buildings and
finer homes.
Corrugated asbestos cement
sheets are used primarily for util- on wood strips or solid roof
Random width wood shingles or shakes may be laid either
ity structures. sheathing covered with felt building paper.

Clay Tile

Clay manufactured of
tile is

shale in the form of

and clay
baked masonry. There are many (1) Wood shingles which are rally into thin layers by earth
shapes of clay tile. If they are to sawed to their shape and forces. The shingle is the thickness
be included in your plan secure (2) Wood shakes, split, either of a layer but is cut into rec-
detailed information from manu- by machine or by hand. tangles of the desired size. The
facturers literature. It is a very The hand split is the more costly surface may be smooth or rough,
durable material and comes in a of the two. On less expensive split depending upon the effect de-
wide range of colors. It has several shakes the shingle is split on the sired. Slate makes a permanent

disadvantages. It is quite expen- face and then sawed (called re- roof but its high cost limits use.
sive, very heavy, and must be sawing) to form a taper. In this It is also easily broken if struck a
installed by an expert. It is used way two shingles are formed from sharp blow. It is installed in much
primarily for institutional build- one piece of wood. thesame manner as flat clay tile.

ings and expensive homes. It Many codes prohibit the use of Weight and cost are about the

should be laid on a solid deck wood shingles or shakes because same.

with 30 pound felt beneath the of their fire hazard. However, Terne
tile. when this is not a problem, they
Terne is sheet iron or steel
Wood Shingles do present a pleasing appearance.
coated with an alloy of tin and
They cost approximately three
These shingles are used when lead. It is purchased in rolls and
times the amount of a good qual-
a rustic appearance is desired. may be applied on very low slope
ity asphalt shingle. As stated ear-
The thick butt (bottom end) pro- roofs. It may have either standing
lier, wood shingles are not usually
vides a wide shadow line at the or flat locked seams. This roof
laid on a solid roof deck. Strips
base. Wood shingles are manu-
are nailed across the rafters to
should be painted or have a bi-
factured of cedar, redwood, or tuminous coating applied. It is
conform to the amount of headlap
cypress, with cedar being most installed over a solid roof deck.
frequently used. Wood shingles Terne is a good roof; if kept prop-
Slate under normal use, it
can actually be divided into two erly coated,
groups: Slate is a stone formed natu- will last indefinitely.


Unif Structures, Koppers Com

Properly designed standing seam metal roofs can contribute to overall architectural beauty.

It has very good fire and wind roofs. It may be placed over a Corrugated and ribbed roof-
resistance. The cost is about three solid deck or may be placed ver- ings also are often treated with
times as great as asphalt shingles. tically over purlins or furring fiberand bituminous coatings to
without a roof deck. It is used prolong their life, improve ap-
primarily on utility structures as pearance, and reduce noise.
Copper is purchased in rolls a finished roofing. However, it is
and applied in the same manner Aluminum Shingles
sometimes used as a base for con-
as terne. It is also a very durable
crete, as previouly discussed. Be-
Aluminum is also formed into
material and makes a beautiful individual and strip shingles, used
cause of the rust-resistant zinc
roof after the copper oxidizes to for the same applications as as-
coating, it may be left unfinished
a warm
green patina. The chief phalt shingles. The colors tend
but painting assures better ap-
disadvantage of copper is its high pearance and longer life. The
initial cost, which prohibits its use Corrugated roofing is widely used on
sheets are 26" wide and 6' to 12'
utility structures.
on inexpensive structures.

Corrugated or Ribbed Corrugated or ribbed aluminum

Galvanized Roofing is similar in appearance and ser-

This comes in steel sheets vice to galvanized roofing. How-

formed with corrugations or ribs ever, since aluminum does not
to add rigidity. The sheet is dipped rust, it need not be painted. The
into a hot zinc alloy to form a cost is slightly more than for gal-

rust protective coating. The roof- vanized but it is still primarily

ing is not intended for low slope used for utility structures.

10: Roofings

to be bright and have a glossy ap- in flat and corrugated styles. They these panels as replacement for
pearance. They are a very durable are a relatively new product. windows, or they are very satis-
shingle. However, their noise Generally the panels are of either factory for and patio
transmission is great. They are fiber glass or translucent acrylic roofs. They work on slopes
lightweight and easy to apply. plastic. Their uses are as varied over 4/12 but may be used on
They are used on roofs with over as the imagination. They are es- low slopes if the joints are
a 4/12 pitch. Their cost is slightly pecially suitable as inserts in calked or sealed. Panels are easy
more than for asphalt shingles. roofs on industrial and utility to cut and install using woodwork-
structures, as they admit light ing tools. The cost is greater than
Translucent Panels but the sun's rays. Many
filter for metal roofing but is still satis-
These panels are manufactured buildings are being built using factory for low-priced structures.

Where a vertical surface joins
a roof the joint must be sealed.
When two roof surfaces are joined
they must also be sealed. Metal.
plastic, or bituminous materials
are placed in the joint to lead
the water away. When planning a
building the flashings must be
described and specified. Examples
of flashing at important locations
are shown in the illustrations.
These should be studied carefully.

Flashing seals the joint between a roof

and an adjoining wall.

Boston ridges are used to finish gable and hip roofs.


Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Chimney saddles must be flashed to

prevent leaks.

A dormer requires flashing above the window and where it meets another roof.

Chimneys extending through a roof ridge

should be flashed on all sides.

Both open and closed valleys should be flashed to prevent leaks.

Questions to Reinforce Know/edge

1 What is roof sheathing? 4. When and why is gypsum 7. What are concrete planks,
What are two other names by which used as a roof deck? and why are they used?
it is called? 5. Are the forms removed when 8. Why is edge and end
2. When may concrete be used a gypsum roof deck is used? Explain. matched lumber better for roof

as a roof deck? 6. What are some of the ad- sheathing than S4S lumber?
3. What are some of the ad- vantages of a gypsum roof deck? 9. How thick is nominal 1"
vantages of a concrete roof deck? What is one disadvantage? lumber?

10: Roofings

1 0. May boards ever be spliced 29. When one says "to the 38. Why do codes sometimes
between rafters? When? weather," what is meant? prohibit the use of wood shingles?
1 1 . Why are wide boards less 30. Are asphalt shingles widely 39. What is head lap on a
satisfactory than narrow ones for used? Why or why not? shingle?
roof sheathing? 31. What special precaution must 40. What is terne and how is it

12. What is likely to happen if be taken when asphalt shingles are purchased?
wide boards are used? used on a low slope roof? 41. Is terne a good roofing
13. What is sheathing grade 32. Why do shingles extend past material?
plywood? the edge of a roof? 42. Is terne suitable for flat
14. How does one determine 33. Why is the first course of roofs?
what thickness of plywood to use? asphalt shingles doubled? 43. What is the life expectancy
15. What relationship does the 34. What is an asbestos cement of terne?
face grain of the plywood have to shingle? Is it a good shingle? Where 44. Why does copper turn green?
the rafters? is it most frequently used? 45. What is corrugated roofing?
16. What is building paper? 35. Is there more than one shape Name the kinds and describe.
1 7. Why is building paper used of clay tile? Explain. 46. What are translucent corru-
beneath roofing? 36. What are the advantages of gated panels and where are they
1 8. How is it purchased? clay roofing tile? used?
19. What is built-up roofing? 37. Explain difference between 47. What is flashing? Is it a very
20. Where is this most frequently wood shingle and a split shake. important item on a building? Why?
21. Is this a good material for
flat roofs? Explain. Terms to Spell and Know
22. Why is crushed stone applied
roofing resistant rustic
to the surface of built-up roofing?
shingles decorative terne
23. What is asphalt roll roofing
matched granules bituminous
and where is it used?
staggered imbedded oxidize
24. How wide is asphalt roll
alternate variegated patina
decking butt ribbed
25. What are two surface treat-
exterior rake zinc
ments for asphalt roll roofing?
staples fascia alloy
26. Can roll roofing be used on
lath tabs fiber glass
low slope roofs? Explain answer.
asphalt asbestos acrylic
27. What are asphalt shingles? Is
warranty institution translucent
there more than one kind? Describe.
28. What is meant when one
says 3-tab shingle?

Post, Plank and Beam Construction

Wood post and beam construc- can building. It is also common less, since the method is applied
tion consists of a series of posts in farm and utility structures. in modern structures, it is
with heavy beams across them. Even though modern building important.
The posts transmit the building techniques and methods of join-
load to the footing. The wall area ery have improved, the basic prin- Scope of Discussion
between the posts does not add to ciple is much the same as in This unit is designed to famil-
the structural strength. The wall earlier times. It is favored in heavy iarize you with the basic problems
acts as a curtain to enclose the mill construction but not in homes. involved. It will also be an aid in
building. It may be a series of preliminary design work. For final

lightweight panels or may have New Uses design purposes, engineering data
conventional wall construction. Because of post and beam ap- and analysis should be studied.
A structure may be built in its plication to modern structures, Post and beam is a relatively
entirety of post and beam or one especially since the development simple system with many similari-

section (such as a wall or roof) of glued laminated beams, ply- ties to structural steel framing.
may be built using this method wood box beams, and other lami- However, because of the larger
and the remainder may be built nated structural components, free- need for fram-
structural sizes, the
another way. dom of design has become virtu- ing connectors, and methods of
Post and beam is a very old ally unlimited. Even so, the use of joinery, the system presents new
method of construction. It was post and beam construction has problems for one familiar with
used extensively in early Ameri- not spread to all areas. Neverthe- conventional framing.

Framing Systems
There are two general meth- are at right angles to the roof slopes, which, as said, allows un-
ods of beam placement. The first slope. When decking is placed at limited design possibilities.
is called the transverse system. In right angles to the beams, it slopes
this system, the roof beams fol- from the highest to lowest point Wood Posts

low the roof slope. The plank on the roof. See two drawings, When floors are to be sup-
decking is at right angles to the top of next page. ported, 6"x6" wood posts are re-
beam, which permits roof decking quired. Posts for walls and to

to be placed in its customary po- Roof Slope support ceiling beams should be
sition. The second method iscalled Post and beam construction is 4"x4". Consult the codes, some
the longitudinal syslem. The beams suitable for flat as well as all roof require different calculations.

J J ; Post, Plank and Beam Construction

Transverse beams extend from a building

edge to a center beam.

Beam Shape
Beams are usually rectangular,
with the thickness greater than the
width. The top of a beam may be
beveled to follow the roof slope.
If a load bearing wall is placed
at the ridge, the wall may replace
the ridge beam. See next page.

Beam Spacing
Beam spacing and span are
determined by the size and species
of material used and by the total
load to be supported.
When 2" thick tongue-and-
groove subfloor or roof deck is
used the beam spacing is not to
exceed 7'-0". If greater beam
spacing is desired, thicker planks
must span the beams.
Three tables of beam sizes are
given. See pages 129 and 130. Methods of joining beams at the roof ridge.

A purlin may be secured between beams
before finishing materials are applied.


Beams may be notched to fit over

conventional frame walls. The up-
per 2x4 is a nailer fastened to the
plank roof.

Beam connectors.

This subfloor system places IV tongue

and groove plywood across 4'0" o.c.


Heavy plank subfloors may also be sup-

ported by a post and beam system.

Maximum spans for floor beams

using 2" plank subfloor

Spacing Douglas Fir Spacing Douglas Fir

Nominal Silt in feet S.Y. Pine Redwood Nominal Size in feet S.Y. Pine Redwood

1-3x10" 4'0" 12'-8" 1

0'-4" 2-2x12" 4'0" 16'1 1" 13'- 10'

4'-6" ll'-l 1" 9'-9" 4'-6" 1

6'-0" 13'-1"
5'0" 1 1
'-4" 9'-4" 5'0" 15'-3" 1
5'-6" 10'- 10" 8'- 11" 5'-6" 14'-6" 1 l'-10'
6'0" 10'-5" 8'-6" 6'-0" 13'1 1" 1 1

6'-6" lO'-O" 8'-2" 6'-6" 13'-5" iO'-ir

7'0" 9'-8" 7"-l 1 7'0" 12'11" 10'-7"

2-2x10" 4'0" 1
4'0" 1 1
'-6" 1-4x12" 4'0" 17'- 10" 1
4'-6" 1
3'-3" 1C-9" 4'-6" 16'- 10" 1

5'0" 1
2'-7" 10'-3" 5'-0" 1
6'-0" 13'-1"
5'-6" 1
2'-0" 9'- 10" 5'-6" 15'-3" 1 2'-6"
6'0" 1 1
'-6" 9'-5" 6'0" 1
4'-8" 1
6'-6" ll'-l" 9' 1" 6'-6" 14' 1" 1 1

7'0" 1
0'-8" 8'-9" 7'-0" 1
3'-8" ll'-l"

1-4x10" 4'0" 1
4'-9" 12' -1" 1-6x10" 4'0" 17'11" 1
4'-6" 1 3'- 11" 1 1
'-5" 4'-6" 1
7'0" 13'-11"
5'0" 1
3'-4" 10'10" 5'0" 16'- 3" 1

5'-6" 12'-9" 1
0'-4" 5'-6" 1
5'-6" 1

6'-0" 12'-2" 9'- 11" 6'-0" 14'- 10" 1

6'-6" ir-9" 9'-7" 6'-6" U'-3" ll'-8"
7'0" 1 1
'-4" 9'-3" 7'-0" 13'- 10" 1 1

Maximum spans for floor beams using 2" plank subfloor.

Maximum spans for roof beams

using 2" plank decking

Spacing Douglas Rr Spacing Douglas Fir

Nominal size in feel S.Y. Pine Redwood Nominal Size i.i feet S.Y. Pine Redwood

2-2x6" 4'0" 10' 1" 8'-3" 1-3x10" 4'-0" 1 5'-2" 1 2'-5"

or 4'-6" 9'-7" 7'- 10" 4'-6" 1

4'-4" 1 1

1 -4x6" 5'0" 9'- 1

" 7'-4" 5'0" 1
3'-8" 1 1

5'-6" 8'-8" 7'-0" 5'-6" 1

3'0" 1

6'0" 8'-4" 6'-9" 6'0" 1 2'-6" 1

6'-6" 8'0" 6'-6" 6'-6" 1
2'0" 9'- 10"
7'0" 7'-8" 6'-3" 7'0" 1 1
'-7" 9'-6"

2-2x8" 4'-0" 1
3'-4" iO'-ir' 2-2x10" 4'-0" 1
6'-9" 1

or 4'-6" 1 2'-8" 1
0'-4" or 4'-6" 15'- 10" 12'11"
1-4x8" 5'0" 1
2'0" 9'- 10" 1-4x10" 5'0" 15' 1" 1

5'-6" 1 1
'-6" 9'-4" 5'-6" 1
4'-5" H'-IO"
6'0" 1 1
'0" 9'0" 6'-0" 13'- 10" 1 1

6'-6" 1
0'-7" 8'-8" 6'-6" 1
3'-4" IC-IO"
7'-0" 1
0'-3" 8'-4" 7'-0" 12'- 10" 1

Maximum spans for roof beams using 2" plank decking.

Typical Glued Laminated Beam and Purlin Sizes*


SPAN SPCG. 30 P.S.F. 35 P.S.F. 40 P.S.F. 45 P.S.F. 50 P.S.F. 55 P.S.F.

6' 3%"x 6>A" 3%" x 6'A" 3%" x 6'A" 3%"x 8'A" 3%" x 8'A" 3%" x 8'A"

12' 8' 3%"x 8'/." 3 3A' x 8'A" 3%" x 8'A" 3%" x 8'A" 3%" x 8'A" 3%" x 9%"
12' 3%"x 8'A" 3%' x 8'A" 3%" x 9 3A" 3%" x 9%" 3%' x 11%" 3%" x 11%"
16' 3 3/b"x 9%" 3%' x 9%" 3%" x 1 1 %" 3%" x 1
3" 3%' x 14%" 3%" x 14%"
6' 3%"x 8'A" 3 3/e' x 9%" 3%' x 9 3A" 3%" x 9 3A" 3%' x 9%" 3%" x 9%"
16' 8' 3%" x 9%" 3%' x 9%" 3%' x 9 3A" 3%"x 11%" 3%' x 1 1 %" 3%' x 1 1 %"
12' 3%" x 1 1
%" 3%' x 11%" 3%" x 13" 3%" x 1
3" 3%' x 14%" 5'A' x 1 1 %"
16' 3%" x 1
3" 3%' x 13" 5'A" x 1 1
%" 5'A" x 1 1 %" 5'A' x 13" 5'A' x 13"

8' 3%" x 1 1
%" 3%' x 1 1
%" 5'A' x 1 1
%" 5'A"x 11%" 5'A' x 1 1 %" 5'A' x 11%"
20' 12' 3%"x 13" 3%' x 14%" 5'A' x 13" 5'A"x 13" 5'A' x 13" 5'A' x 14%"
16' 3 3/s" x 1
4%" 5'A' x 13" 5'A' x 14%" 5'A" x 1
4%" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 1 6'A"

18' 3" 4%" 14%" 5'A"x 16'A" 17%"

5'A" x 1 5'A' x 1 5'A' x 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x

8' 3%" x 1
4%" 3%' x 14%" 3%' x 14%" 5'A" x 1
3" 5'A' x 14%" 5'A' x 14%"
24' 12' 3%" x 1 6'A" 5'A' x 13" 5'A' x 14%" 5'A" x 1 4%" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 1 6'A"

16' 5'A"x 14%" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A" x 1

7%" 5'A' x 1
7%" 5'A' x 1 9'A"

18' 5'A" x 1 6'A" 5'A' x 1 6'A" 5'A' x 1 7%" 5'A" x 1 9'A" 5'A' x 1 9'A" 5'A' x21'A"
8' 3%"x 1 6'/." 3 3A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 14%" 5'A"x 16'A" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 16'A"

28' 12' 5'A"x 16'A" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 17%" 5'A"x 17%" 5'A' x 17%" 5'A' x 19'A"

16' 5'A" x 1
7%" 5'A' x 1
7%" 5'A' x 19'A" 5'A"x 21'A" 5'A' x21'A" 5'A' x 22%"
18' 5'/4" x 1
7%" 5'A' x 19'A" 5'A' x21'A" 5'A" x 1 9'A" 5'A' x 22%" 5'A' x 24%"
8' 5'A" x 1 6'A" 5'A' x 16'A" 5'A' x 17%" 5'A"x 17%" 5'A' x 17%" 5'A' x 19'A"

32' 12' 5'A"x 17%" 5'A' x 19'A" 5'A' x 1 9'A" 5'A" x 1 9'A" 5'A' x 21 'A" 5'A' x 22%"
16' 5'A" x 1 9'A" 5'A' x21'A" 5'A" x 22 3A" 5'A" x 22 3A" 5'A' x 24%" 5'A' x 26"

18' 5'A"x 19'A" 5'A' x 21Vs" 5'A' x 22%" 5'A" x 24%" 7" x 22%" 7" x 24%"
8' 5'A"x 19'A" 5'A' x21'/b" 5'A' x 21Vs" 5'A" x 22%" 5'A' x 22 3A" 5'A' x 24%"
40' 12' 5'A" x 22%" 5'A' x 22%" 5'A' x 24%" 5'A" x 24%" 5'A' x26" 7" x 24%"
16' 5'A" x 24 3/e" 5'A' x26" 7" x 24%" 7" x 24%" 7" x 26" 7" x 27%"
18' 5'A" x 24%" 7" x 24%" 7" x 24%" 7" x 26" 7" x 27%" 7" x 29'A"

12' 7" x 24 3/a" 7" x 26" 7" x 27%" 7" x 27%" 7" x 29'A" 7" x 30%"
50' 16' 7" x 27%" 7" x 29'A" 7" x 30%" 7" x 30%" 7" x 32'A" 9" x 30%"
18' 7" x 29'A" 7" x 29'A" 7" x 30%" 7" x 32'A" 9" x 30%" 9" x 32'A"

20' 7" x 29'A" 7" x 30%" 7" x 32'A" 9" x 30%" 9" x 32'A" 9" x 34'A"

12' 7" x 29'A" 7" x 30%" 9" x 30%" 9" x 30%" 9" x 32'A" 9" x 34'A"

60' 16' 9" x 30%" 9" x 32'A" 9" x 32'A" 9" x 34Vb" 9" x 35%" 9" x 37%"
18' 9" x 29%" 9" x 32'A" 9" x 34'A" 9" x 35%" 9" x 37%" 9" x 39"

2C 9" x 32'A" 9" x 34 '/a" 9" x 35 3A" 9" x 37%" 9" x39" 9" x 40%"
'This table of typical sizes is based on the following criteria. 3. is 1/240 of span for live load only or 1/180
Deflection limit
1. The loading shown is total load of which 15 p.s.f. is assumed of span for total load, whichever governs. This meets the
to be dead had. A.I.T.C. deflection criteria for "Commercial and Institutiona I-
2. Maximum bending stress is 2200 p.s.i. + 15% increase for Withovt Plaster Ceiling" use.
short time loading.
Weyerhaeuser Company

130 Glued laminated beam and purlin sizes.


The first table, page 129, is for

floor beams using 2" plank sub-
floor. The second table, same

page, is for ceiling beams using

2" wood plank decking. The third
table is to be used if wider floor
or ceiling beam spacing is desired.
This table is calculated for glued
laminated lumber. When solid
Plank designs.
beams are desired their strength
is approximately the same. This Roof Decking
table is suitable for coast region SIMPLE SPAN
Douglas fir and medium-grain n
southern yellow pine. When other
species are desired, consult other

Roof Decking Douglas Fir LIVE LOAD (Lbs. per Sq. Ft.)

There are three methods of NOM.

GRADE AND PARA. 20 30 40 50
laying roof planks: ( ) They may THICK.

3" Select Dex -127b 15'3" 1

3'3" 1
2'0" U'3"
form simple spans placed from
3" Comm Dex-127c 15'3" 3'3" 2'0" n-3"
one beam to the next beam;
1 1

4" Select Dex-127-b 20'3" 17'9" 16'0" 15'0"

may be continuous over
(2) they
4" Comm. Dex-127-c 20'3" 7'9" 16'0" 150"
two beams or, (3) they may be 1

placed random. When placed

at Western Red Cedar
at random, succeeding planks 3" Select Dex— 427-b 1
3'0" 1 1
'3" 1
0'3" 9'6"

should not both end between the 3" Comm. Dex— 427-c 130" 11'3" 10'3" 9'6"

same beams. Illustrations showing 4" Select Dex— 427-b 17'3" 15'3" 13'9" 1

the three methods of installation 4" Comm. Dex— 427-c 17'3" 15'3" 1
3'9" 12'9"

and tables of maximum spans

are shown. Spans for roof planks
for Douglas fir are also suitable
for southern yellow pine. Note:
Yellow pine has slightly greater
Fiberboard roof decks are also TT
used but their span is usually Douglas Fir LIVE LOAD (Lbs. per Sq. Ft.)

limited to 8'-0". NOM.

GRADE AND PARA. 20 30 40 50
Decking should be face and 3" 7'3" 5'0"
Select Dex— 127-b 1 1 1
3'6" 1
edge nailed according to the 3" 7'3" 2'6"
Comm. Dex— 127-c 1 15'0" 13'6" 1

manufacturer's directions. 4" 22'9" 8'3" 6'9"

Select Dex— 127-b 20'0" 1 1

4" Comm. Dex— 127-c 22'9" 20'0" 1

8'3" 16'9"
Insulation for Plank Roof
Western Red Cedar
For most regions the roof deck-
3" Select Dex— 427-b 1
4'9" 1
2'9" 1 1
'9" 1
ing will be sufficient insulation.
3" Comm. Dex— 427-c 1
3'6" 1
2'0" 1
0'9" ICO"
4" Select Dex— 427-b 1
9'6" 1
7'0" 1
5'6" 14'3"
131 4" Comm. Dex — 427-c 1
8'0" 1
6'0" 14'3" 1

(Table continued on next page.]

Part One: Structure— An Architectural

When additional insulation is re-

Roof Decking
quired, it be placed above
or below the decking. The planks
are usually left exposed on the
underneath side and rigid insula-
tion is placed above the decking.

LIVE LOAD (Lbs. per Sq. Ft.)
Douglas Fir When beam spacing is

50 great for plank spans, intermedi-

ate members may be placed across
the top of-orhung between-the
beams, and secured with metal
connectors. These intermediate
members are called purlins. When
beams are to be left exposed but
the plank decking is not (as when
acoustic tile is the finished ceil-
ing), purlins are usually used.

West Coosf Lumben


Weyerhoeuier Company

Groove in beam for utilities.

Insulation may be placed either above or below roof



This laminated beam is called

a three-hinged arch.

Side view of purlin and its metal beam


Provision for Utilities
One big disadvantage of this
method is that there is no "attic"
or space between framing for con-
cealed wiring and other utilities.

It is sometimes possible to rout

grooves in the top of beams or to
leave channels in built-up mem-
bers to accommodate these utili-
ties. However, when lighting fix-

tures are spaced between beams

(on the planks) it is virtually
impossible to conceal them. They
are usually surface mounted.
Quite frequently the post and
beam is constructed as a single
unit, as in the three-hinged arch
shown. Examples of buildings
using plank and beam construc- This gymnasium roof is supported by laminated beams and pur
tion are illustrated on this page.
Laminated beams are widely used in today's building. The arch is an example.
Un.l Sin

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Know/edge

1 What is wood post and beam finished floors, what is their mini- 1 7. Why is insulation sometimes
(plank and beam) construction? mum size? placed above the decking?
2. Is it a new method of con- 1 1 . Posts for walls and to sup- 18. What is another name for

struction? port ceiling beams are what mini- declking?

3. Is it used in homes today? mum size? 1 9. What are purlins?

4. Is it the most widely used 1 2. Which of the two beam di- 20. What are metal connectors?

method of construction? mensions, vertical or horizontal, is Do you know another name for-them?

5. What is the main difference largest? 21 . Why are electrical work and

in the ways it is now used as com- 13. If 2" thick plank is used for utilities sometimes difficult to place

pared with the past? subfloor or roof deck, what is the with this method of construction?
6. What are glued laminated maximum beam spacing?
components? 14. Are glued laminated and solid Terms to Spell and Know
7. Are posts and beams ever beams of the same species and
joinery planks
built as one unit? Explain. other characteristics approximately
laminated insulation
8. What are the two beam the same strength?
components purlins
placement systems? Discuss each. 1 5. What are three methods of
transverse acoustic
9. What roof slope must one placing planks across roof beams?
longitudinal rout
use with this type construction? 1 6. Which is the stronger, south-
beveled channels
1 0. When wood posts support ern yellow pine or Douglas fir?

Modular Construction
As stated in the first paragraph skeleton framework, forming totally prefabricated structure
of Chapter 7. building construc- main structural panels. These may with mass-production volume did
tion has traditionally been dune be assembled at the job site to not have a significant impact
one piece at a There are
time. form a building shell or they may upon building construction until
many reasons why buildings can be purchased or constructed to immediately following World
no longer be built entirely in this varying stages of completion. For War II.

manner. No doubt you have heard example, the panels might be Early attempts at production-
the old saying. "Time is money." studding covered with sheathing, line building the manufac-

A builder must do everything or they might be completed wall turers poor reputation.
with a
within his power to complete a sections ready for interior finish. Insufficient research, poor design,
structure in the most efficient and There is no one standard panel and a "seller's market" made a
economical manner possible. If system, manyorganizations have victim of the consumer. Conse-
he does not have a highly orga- developed systems. quently, after supply and demand
nized and efficient operation, he Large construction panels are became reversed and the con-
cannot survive in today's competi- not confined to any one material. sumer could bargain better, pre-
tive market. Use of preassembled Wood is most frequently used for fabricated structures had lost
components, prefabrication, and light construction but metal and favor. Prejudice from these early
modular coordination help him plastics work equally well. Plastics attempts still affects opinion of
meet today's competition. These are usually used as coverings or many people. Yet the prefabri-
methods permit uniform sizes of decorative units. Curtain walls, cated structure of today bears
parts, close quality control, and exposed aggregate panels, and littleresemblance to early at-
rapid erection. other masonry units all lend them- tempts. For example, homes in
selves to this modular system of the $100,000.00 class are now par-
Components construction. tially or substantially prefabri-
Components are large pre- cated before delivery.
assembled building parts such as Prefabrication The objection that all prefabri-
roof trusses, window units, or Prefabrication is the manu- cated structures were similar in
framed panels for floors, walls, or facture of all building parts in a appearance has been remedied.
roofs. The latter may be con- factory. These parts are usually Stock models are supplied in a
structed using a variety of mate- assembled into large panels be- wide variety of designs and varia-
rials and different panel systems. fore shipment to the building site. tions of architectural details. Many
Large sheet materials (plywood, Prefabrication is not new. Earliest large manufacturers maintain their
drywall, fiberboard, hardboard, or uses date to the latter part of the own architects and permit exten-
others) are glued and nailed to a nineteenth century. However, the sive design freedom to the buyer.


Building components of this prefabricated home are sized according to modular increments. ScM * Hom

Designs are completed and the buildings are quite popular with would require door jambs to be
building is fabricated to order. amateur builders. custom built. The list of possible
Prefabrication has become widely size variations would be infinite.
used for every type of structure, Need for Standardization Standardization is necessary if
including homes, commercial and In order to make maximum volume and quality production is

industrial buildings. Structural use of building materials and con- to be achieved.

parts may be of wood, metal, or struction labor, standardization of Manufacturers, suppliers, ar-
more recently of masonry. sizes and methods of construction and
chitects, building contractors,
For those who do not desire a are necessary. If each manufac- tradesmen agree that standardiza-
totally prefabricated building, turer were to decide all the di- tion of materials sizes, compo-
may purchase ready-cut parts mensions of his products and nents, and construction methods
and then have the individual parts manufacture them to any size he is the key to a better structure at
assembled at the building site. desired, complete chaos would re- minimum cost.
The design is chosen from one of sult. Lumber thickness from one It is very easy to say that stan-
a series of stock plans which may company would not match the dardization is necessary but very
be altered to meet any require- thickness from another. There difficult to accomplish. Each of
ment, or some manufacturers will might not be a relationship be- the groups of people mentioned
cut a complete building from the tween the size of concrete blocks above has little influence on the
owner's plan. Each part is num- and brick. Plywood or fiberboard thinking of the others!
bered as to its location in the fin- sheathing sizes might differ from
ished structure. Ready-cut build- rock lath or plasterboard sizes, Size of Building Modules
ings may be purchased in any which would complicate studding The novice soon becomes fa-
stage of completion to suit the placement. There might be no miliar with the 16" and 24" spac-
wishes of the purchaser. These standard door thickness, which ing of framing members. Which

7 2: Modular Construction

is a step toward use of modular into an unlimited number of com- lBuilding Material
sizes. Since dimensions between plicated designs. Building mod- Sizes
framing members have already ules are like these toys except
Much work is being done by
been accepted as standards, rea- they are larger. One module may building material manfacturers
son says they should be a part of be compared to a 4" block or
to change product sizes so they
basic modular sizes. Also, since cube. This is called a module. conform or will fit into the mod-
most large sheet materials are Imagine a 4'-0" cube constructed
ular plan. Even though great
already manufactured in 4'-0" of 4" modules; this is called a strides have been made, at the
widths, this size is considered the major module. A 16" or 24" cube
present time the change-over is
starting point for all standard is a minor module. Two
not complete. Materials used alone
sizes of material. 16" minor modules are some- —as wall paneling, acoustic tile,
Imagine a group of building times combined to form a third
and sheathing materials— are the
blocks (toys) that can be arranged minor module of 32". full modular size. Other materials

such as concrete block, brick, fac-

ing tile, and batt insulation are
made smaller than the module so
Modular Coordination they will fit into the finished prod-
The attempt to acquaint all knowing about modular construc- uct. Even though smaller they
people in every phase of the build- tion! His efforts to make maxi- adjust to the modular layout be-
ing industry with these three basic mum use of building materials cause they fit into the completed
modules, and to persuade them naturally leads to an attempt to modular product without being
to incorporate them into their find full sizes that fit plans. cut or re-formed.
products, designs, or construction Every good builder knows that Building materials based on
is called modular coordination. framing members are spaced on the 4" module will usually be one
Efforts promoting the modular 16" and 24" centers, in light wood of the following sizes:
concept of building are directed frame construction. So he chooses 4 'x8" 16 'x96"
toward the following: materials that fit the spacing.
8 'xl6" 48' 'x48"
• Acquainting individuals with When using small boards for sub-
16 'xl6" 48' 'x96"
the concept, terms, sizes, and uses floors and wall, or roof sheathing,
16 'x32" 48' 'xl20
of modules. framing members may vary from 16' 'x48" 48' 'x144
• Urging building material standard spacing without any se-
manufacturers to use modular rious consequences. But when The 48"x96" size is most fre-

sizes, and to coordinate sizes with large sheet materials are used, quently used.
other manufacturers. uneven spacing results in the Some modular materials are
• Urging builders of conven- sheets not ending on the framing. based on a 3" module instead of
tional frame structures to follow It is readily apparent that framing the standard 4". Kitchen cabi-
modular sizes. spacing is very important for and floor cover-
nets, appliances,

• Development and prefabrica- maximum use of materials. The ings are examples.These use 3"
tion of modular components. big difference between this and modules because their manufac-
• Promoting modular drafting using all-modular construction turers standardized product sizes
and design. methods is one
that, in the latter, before the 4" module was adopted.
Most construction makes some constantly maintains an aware- These have not changed. Prob-
use of modular materials and ness of standard sizes and pre- lems involved can be solved.
methods. Frequently this is with- plans the work to make use of These are not structural items;
out the builder's being aware of as many full-sized materials as they are installed after other mod-
it, or possibly without his even possible. ular construction is complete.

Part One: Structure — An Architectural Obligation










All structural and aesthetic elements of a house are related. Coordinated modular increments of the struc-
tural elements, in an example house on the 48-inch module, are shown in the diagrammatic drawings. Standard
sizes of various existing materials will easily fit the modular increments of the example shown.

Modular coordination of house elements. Also see column 1, page 139.

96" 96
?2: Modular Construction

t CO









1 1TTTII++ r~ =2 mi:
Relationship of modular panels to grid
lines. See illustration at right. 48" 96" 48"

In any modular system (conven- Observation sample

of the most systems are 32", 48", 64",
tional framing or component floor plan shows panel widths 80", 96", and 144", with 48" being
parts) sizes conform to the module most frequently used. Framing the basic major modular width.
or vary only to accommodate members of components may be Half panels 24" wide may be
other materials. Study the series designed to conform to 16" or purchased, or "filler" panels can
of illustrations showing how build- 24" spacing. (The panel spacing be made to order, to accom-
ing materials and components are illustrated is placed on 16" cen- modate non-modular designs.
used in modular construction. ters.) Component panel widths of Wall components are S'-V/i" tall.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Blank wall panels on the 16-inch and

24-inch modules show their relationship. The
16-inch components increase design flexibility
by one third, and perhaps more, when multi-
level structures are considered. In considering
both systems, the increased use factor must
be weighed against increased component




The interior ceiling height will be

8'-0". Floor, roof, and truss com-
ponents have modular lengths,
usually even numbered, as 24'-0"
or 26'-0".
Window and door components The 64-inch modular door and side- Two standard 32-inch casement window
are designed to fit into the mod- light panel is integrally designed to units are shown mullioned to become a

ular system. Note: When panels become a part of the 16-inch modular 64-inch window unit to fit a 64-inch wall

system for wall, door and window compo- opening. The structural jambs of the win-
are used and placed edge to edge,
nents. The pre-assembled unit with dow panel combine with adjacent blank
double studs result at the edges. built-in header fits the 64-inch wall wall studs to provide required double

When such a panel is used with opening. framing at openings.

others, it fulfills the requirement Window panel construction deta

of building codes that specify

double studs at sides of door and
window openings. Notice also
that the studdings are continuous
from bottom to top.

Square-top high-wall and low-wall offsets,

parallel to thestandard height, 8-foot l'/i-inch
wall,extend the use of the modular system.
Porch offsets, for sloping ceiling houses, often
require high-wall units. Continuous roof slopes,
on garages, may require low-wall offset storage
National lumber Mfg. Assoc

7 2: Modular Construction

Notional Lumber Mfg Asioc

A series of blank wall areas and open areas form the walls of the house. The proportion of
blank walls and 'holes" is an important factor in the design of house exteriors and interiors. The
materials used on the blank areas and the window and door design in the "holes" completes the
exterior and interior wall composition. The illustration graphically shows the need for modular
coordination in these components.

Large components are not con- themselves to this system of con- low modular design, door and
fined to any one material. Wood struction. Masonry units— such as window openings conform to the
is most frequently used for light concrete panels, exposed aggre- module in both vertical and hori-
construction but other materials gate panels, and others— are also zontal directions. The masonry
work equally well. Metal, glass, used. When individual materials, bond (pattern) must also conform
and plastic, or curtain walls lend as brick or stone, are laid to fol- to modular increments.

Laminated beams and building panels contribute to the design of this modern clinic.

Weyerhaeuser Company

Modular building materials permit new design concepts
for home buildin

Curtain walls of this school are designed

according to modular

12: Modular Construction

Modular Design and Drafting

The architect or designer is

responsible for achieving maxi-

mum use of modular materials
and methods of construction, re-
gardless of whether his planning
is on conventional construction or

components. He may promote

modular coordination in the fol-
lowing ways:
• Select building materials that
are modular in size.
• Specify exactly what materials
are to be used.
• Design all major parts in mod-
ular increments, using materials
• Have complete plans.
• Use modular grid lines on all

• Show complete dimensioning,
and details.
• Use modular dimensioning to
show modular and non-modular
Artcrett Products Compony.
No doubt you are familiar with Modular sized building materials are used in this office interior.
ruled graph paper. Some draw-
ing and tracing paper (descrip-
tions in Chapter 32) use grid of outside walls, partitions, win- terialsize is non-modular. This
lines. Most of these have the lines dows, doors, masonry units will must be shown on the plans. See
spaced at Vs" or '/io". Grid lines conform to one grid line, but the modular dimensioning in Chap-
for modular construction are simi- opposite edge will not, if the ma- ter 39.
lar except module grids are
spaced at 4" intervals (at what-
ever scale is being used). Large Questions to Reinforce Knowledge
scale details include module and 1 . What are some of the fac- 5. What is prefabrication? Par-
major module grid lines, while tors which have brought about the tial, total?

small scale drawings omit the need for modular construction? 6. Is this a new development?
module grid lines. 2. What is a building compo- Explain.

Because all building materials nent? 7. Is it true that only inexpen-

do not fit into modular sizes in 3. In what forms are building sive buildings are prefabricated?
every dimension, this complicates components manufactured? Explain.

the job somewhat. Some edges of 4. What material is most fre- 8. Are prefabricated structures
parts will not always be on the quently used for modular compo- confined to wood framing systems?
grid line. For example, one edge nents? What else?

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

9. What is a ready-cut building? 20. Framing of wood building 24. What materials are used for
1 0. Why is standardization of components usually have what spac- modular components?
building materials sizes necessary? ings of framing members? 25. What measures may be taken
1 1 . What is a module? 21. What is the most frequently by the architect to insure adequate
12. What is the underlying idea used panel size of modular building use of modular construction?
of the building module? sheet materials? 26. Why is modular corrugated
1 3. What is a major module? 22. What are the standard modu- roofing 26" wide instead of being
14. What is a minor module? larcomponent widths? on a module of 24"?
1 5. What is the smallest standard How are windows and doors
23. 27. What is the difference be-
building module? used with modular components or tween modular coordination and
1 6. What is the main difference conventional modular framing? modular construction?
between making the best use of mod-
ular materials in standard construc-

tion and actual modular construction?

1 7. What is being done by build- Terms to Spell and Know
ing materials manufacturers to fur-
ther modular construction? component building shell major module
1 8. Why are some modular ma- prefabrication stock plans minor module
terials not based upon the 4" modular coordination plasterboard facing tile

module? modular construction module

19. Are all building materials
modular in size? Explain.

Doors are used to protect an opening from the ele-
ments, to separate rooms, areas or compartments, to
prevent or admit entrance or exit, and to add decora-
live architectural detail. In addition, a door may
admit light and ventilation or expand vision.

Doors and Door Frames

Classification of Doors grain lumber glued into a large Both solid and hollow styles

Doors fall into two general sheet and covered on each face may have openings cut for glass

design categories: with Vt," plywood, or the core may or panelswhen desired. Moldings

be of particle board, which is and panels may be applied to the
Panel doors
reconstructed wood flakes and surfaces for added decoration.
• Flush doors
resins bound into solid sheets. These may be factory or job
Panel doors. This door consists See two illustrations, page 146. applied.
of a heavy framework around the Solid core flush construction
outside and has a relatively thin is used primarily for front en-
panel placed within this frame- trance doors and for institutions.
work to enclose the space. Frame They are sturdy and will take
size will vary slightly with dif- much abuse. Cost limits their use
ferent manufacturers. Different in small homes.
size doors will also have different Hollow core flush doors look
width frames. the same as solid ones. Their only
The inside edges of the frame difference is the interior construc-
and the panels are usually molded tion. They have a light wood frame
(shaped) into a decorative pat- around the perimeter, but the in-
tern. may be of wood,
Panels terior is hollow. Without addi-
glass,metal or other material. tional stiffening, W
plywood cov-
Panel doors are usually of wood ering does not make the door
but other materials are gaining rigid. Additional stifleners are
in popularity. placed in the void. These may be
Flush doors. Flush (sometimes cross bands of wood, expanded
called slab) doors are smooth on paper (thin strips, on edge, glued
both faces. Wood is the material into a honeycomb shape), card-
most frequently used. There are board rings, circles of wood shav-
two types of flush doors, with ings, or plastic foam. Two meth-
_ ';••--'. \

construction variations ods of constructing hollow core

within each type. Solid core flush doors are shown. These doors are
doors are solid throughout (no inexpensive, present a fine ap-
inner cavities). They are usually pearance, and serve for most in-
made of narrow strips of edge terior uses.

Door Sizes

Because of the great variety,

complete lists of door sizes are

not possible. Consult manufac-

turers' literature when making
door selections.
The two most widely used door
heights are 6'-8" and 7'-0". Both
sizes are considered standard.
Personal preference dictates the
For homes and other small
structures most codes specify the
following minimum sizes:

Front entrance doors

Service entrance doors
edge grain lumber core; (right) with particle 1%"x2'-8"x6'-8"
Solid core doors: (left) with
board core. Interior doors to rooms
1 /8 "x2'-6"x6'-8"

Bathroom doors
1 /s"x2'-0"x6'-8"
Preferred bathroom doors
P/8 "x2'-4"x6'-8"
Single closet doors
P/8 "x2'-0"x6'-8"
Recommended minimum door sizes.

Although sizes of parts on a

panel door vary with style and
manufacturer, they approximate
those shown below:

Top rail 4% "

Cross rail
Lock rail 5 /s
Mullion 45/s
Bottom rail 9 /s"
Bars (muntins) 1

7/ ' 6
Raised panels
Approximate sizes of door parts.

Hollow core doors.

) 3: Doors and Door Frames

Multiple Application of Same lloor Tvp«»

There is minor confusion re- times have the knob at 40" (Vi
garding designation of door types. door height) so they may be re-
Tradesmen and others sometimes versed up and down. Commer-
refer to the following as door cial and institutional doors are
types: mounted with the knob at 42"
• Hinged doors from the floor.
• Bypass sliding Determining door swing. On a
• Pocket doors closed door, with edges of hinges
• Bi-fold or folding door units exposed, if the knob is to your
• Double action hinged right, this is a right-hand door. If
These are not truly door types. the hinges are exposed and the
They are simply standard doors knob is to the left, it is a left-

using hardware designed for a hand door.

specific purpose. Bypass sliding doors for interior
Hinged doors. Hinged doors use. Bypass sliding doors are oc-
Hinged flush door.
are the most common. They must casionally used at openings be-
be located so the door swing does tween rooms. However, they are variety of materials used, styles,
not interfere with passage or much used with wide closets and and surface treatments.
furniture arrangement. The door storage areas. Any door type or Since these doors are hung so
usually folds against an adjoining style may be used. Frames, doors, they will slide past each other, one
wall. On small structures such as and hardware may be purchased edge of one door must be ex-
homes doors open toward the separately, or all necessary parts posed. A clearance space (approx-
rooms. On larger public buildings may be purchased in a knocked- imately Va") between doors is also
the doors open out. This is done down package, or the unit may be visible. This space and door edge
so they cannot be forced closed completely preassembled. Con- should not be visible as one en-
if the building must be evacuated sult manufacturers' literature to ters, or stands in the center of
rapidly. become acquainted with the wide the room.
The face of a door is set
flush with the edge of the jamb
on the opening side. Interior doors
in a home have two hinges. The

top of the upper hinge is from

5" to 7" from the top of the door.
The bottom of the lower hinge
is 9" to 11" from the bottom of

the door. Exterior doors and

others subject to heavy use re-
Bypass sliding doors.
The third hinge
quire three hinges.
is mounted midway between the
top and bottom hinges. Height of
door knobs and other controls is
optional. Residential construction
usually places their height at 36".
However, pre-hung doors some-

When two doors are installed The "O" represents a fixed unit
as a unit, the finished opening and the "X" a sliding unit.

width is 1" less than the total Pocket door units are used
door widths. When there are three when space is at a premium or
doors in the unit, the finished when door swing is undesirable.
opening is 2" less than the total However, they are more difficult
door widths. For example, two to operate than hinged doors and
2'-0" doors require a finished are not convenient when they
opening of Three 2'-0"
3'- 11". must be opened and closed fre-
X o ox
doors require a finished opening quently. They are especially use-
of 5'-10". ful as a means of closing off din-

Bypass sliding doors for exte- ing rooms from kitchens, studies O X O
rior use feature large glass areas from living rooms, or in compart-
with narrow stiles and rails. This mented bathrooms. They are not TYPE 3C
permits a feeling of uninterrupted suitable as exterior doors. The X o O O O X

space. Both wood and aluminum door and pocket assembly is usu-
units are popular. These units are ally of wood with metal stiffeners
usually purchased preassembled. in the jambs as shown. The units O X X O
They may be used in any climate. may be job built or prefabricated.
In cold climates insulating glass The prefabricated type usually
is required. gives better service because of X O O X
The units may be purchased the close quality control during
with many combinations of fixed manufacture.
and sliding sections. On the illus- Double-action hinged doors. X O X
trations notice the small "O" and There are two general types of
"X" in the center of each section. double-hinged doors. Light-duty

Combinations of fixed and sliding doors.

Bypass sliding glass doors for

exterior use.

Plan view of pocket door assembly

doors such as for cafes, as shown

in the illustration, have spring
hinges that will operate in either
direction. They are mounted at
the intersection of the door and
side jamb. Heavy-duty doors have
a pivot hinge at the top and bot-
tom of the door. They also have
a spring or hydraulic arrangement
either in the bottom of the door
or recessed in the floor to bring
the door back to a closed position.
A door mounted in this man-
ner may be placed in the center
of the door frame or so one face
is flush with the edge of the jamb.

Most frequent use is between

the kitchen and other rooms. Double-action hinged door. Pivot hinged glass door.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Plastic folding or accordion door

Wood folding door.

Cafe doors (double action).

Folding doors are composed of dion doors because they fold in Bi-fold doors. Bi means "two
narrow strips (about 3") of wood, an accordion or bellows fashion. parts". A typical unit consists of
rigid plastic, or other material. Small sizes are made to fit stan- four doors, two of which are
Each strip is hinged to adjoining dard or special openings. Large mounted on each side jamb. How-
ones. Folding doors may also have sizes may be custom fabricated ever, additional sections may be
a metal skeleton which is covered for individual jobs. Large instal- mounted in a similar manner. In
with cloth or pliable plastic. These lations may be equipped with practice, any door of any material
units are sometimes called accor- motorized controls. or style may be mounted as a bi-

13: Doors and Door Framt

Door Jambs
A door jamb (buck) is the part
of the frame which fits inside the
masonry opening or rough frame
opening. Jambs may be of wood
or metal. Wood has been the tra-
ditional material but steel and
aluminum have gained much
popularity, especially in heavy-
duty installations. They are not
uncommon in homes.
A jamb consists of three parts.
There are two side jambs and a
head jamb across the top. There
may be an additional head jamb
if a transom-which is a glass or
Dutch door solid panel opening above a door
Wood or metal frame with panel of wood,
-is required. Transoms have lost
plastic, or glass.
popularity in the immediate past
fold door. The frame and hard- but are now enjoying a new flair.

ware may be purchased as a unit Recent adaptations place the

and the doors purchased sepa- transom so it extends to the ceil-

rately, or the entire unit may ing, thus eliminating

framing and
purchased completely prefabri- finishing over the door. This is
cated and ready-hung. especially suitable for non-
These doors are very popular bearing walls.
for wide closets and are some- Metal jambs are made in a
times used as doors between wide variety of shapes and sizes,
rooms or as room dividers. some of which are illustrated on
Individual door widths are usu- page 152. Note: The stop-whkh
allybetween P-0" and 2'-0". is the protrusion the face of the

Using special folding hard- door closes against— is an integral

ware, any standard doors may be part of the frame. Exterior wood
mounted so they "fold" to enclose door jambs also have the stop as
any amount of space. When a part of the jamb.

mounted in manner, all

doors in the group will be the
same size. When open, all doors
are stacked at right angles to the
wall with their faces against each

Definition of Door Frame

A door frame is the finishing Metal clad fire door.
Rabbeted exte
materials surrounding a door to rlor door jamb
conceal or beautify structural with Interior and
building parts. exterior casing.


Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Thickness of exterior wood jambs

is l'/s", with a W
rabbet serving
as a stop. On interior door jambs
the thickness is approximately
%" (using nominal 1" material)
and the stop is applied to the
face of the jamb.
Wood jambs are manufactured
in two standard widths. Jambs for

lath and plaster are 5V4" wide,

Plan view of exterior door in frame wall. 5
while those for drywall are 4 /8"
11- wide. Jambs may easily be cut to
fit walls of less thickness. If walls
are slightly thicker than the jambs,
strips of wood are nailed on to
form an extension. Also, jambs
may be custom made to any de-
sired size for a slight additional
cost. Jambs may be purchased
knocked down (not assembled),
assembled with just exterior cas-
ing or brick mold applied, or as-
sembled with the door pre-hung
in the opening.
Pre-hung door units are also
Plan view of exterior door in solid masonry wall
available with split jambs to
9. Interior casing
Parts identification permit rapid installation and to
1. Wall studs 10. Door (hollow core shown)
allow for any variation in wall
2. Space for leveling door jamb 1 1

Side jamb 12. Sill thickness.


4. Door stop 1 3. Brick mold

5. Rabbeted stop 14. Air space Metal door jamb shapes

6. Plaster or other interior wall finish 15. Furring strips A. Jamb profile

'6- Master grounds B. Integral stop

7. Sheathing
8. Exterior wall covering 17. Exterior trim (casing) C. Masonry wall


13: Doors and Door Frames

Modern use sometimes elimi-

nates wood casings around door
and window openings. Metal cor-
ners, as shown, protect wall finish

Exterior Trim

On exterior wood jambs the

trim (brick mold or casing) is pur-
chased as a part of the jamb.
When used in a wood frame wall,
a drip cap may be placed over Metal corners frequently replace wood
Interior door jamb (1) with stop (2) and
the top of the trim. When ma- casing.
casings (3) installed.
sonry is to be placed over the
opening, must be supported on
lintels. Jambs in masonry do not
require a drip cap. On one-story
f common practice Door Millwork
l -> buildings,
to design a building so
it is

no ma-
II sonry is required above open-
A rectangular
board may serve
ings. This space is filled with pan- I as an exterior
eling or molding. casing.
1 Door Sills

A sill extends across the bot-

tom of an outside door and con-
nects the two side jambs. Interior
is used


doors do not usually have a sill. stead of flat casing.

A sill helps hold the lower part

A. Wall studs E. Door stop
of the side jambs in their proper
B. Plaster on rock lath F. Door jamb
C. Casing G. Plaster grounds location. The top of the sill is

D. Space for leveling door jamb sloped to provide a wash to drain A drip cap is placed
Plan view of door frame detail in plas- water away from the door. If the above casings to
tered frame wall. door unit is to be installed in a shed water away
wood frame wall, a wood sill is from a door in a
wood wall.
used. A masonry building re-
Interior Trim
quires a masonry sill.

Interior trim is not a part of A sill has considerable thick-

the door jamb, so it is purchased ness and extends below the top This is a very popu-
lar casing shape.
separately. Note: All parts may edge of floor joists. The joists
sometimes be included in the must be notched or special fram-
same package, but this is an ex- ing may be required to accommo-
ception rather than standard date the sill. Examples of framing
practice. Illustrations of a variety when the sill is at right angles to
of casing and other wood trim and when
the joists, it is parallel, Door stops.
shapes are shown. are shown on page 154.


Recommended average moisture content
U. S Weolher Bu,
for interior finish woodwork in various parts
of the United States.

A threshold (saddle) is a nar-
row strip of wood or metal used
to cover the joint between a sill

and a finished floor. It also serves

as a barrier for rain and wind.
Section views of typical thresh-
olds are shown.
Framing for a wood door sill at right
angles to floor joists.

Framing for a wood door sill parallel to

floor joists.
Wood and metal threshold shapes.
Exterior panel door with wood sill in a
frame wall.


7 3: Doors and Door Frames

Carpet pile weather


Weatherproof ing
Flexible metal, pile (fiber, as Two frequently used garage door styles.
on a carpet), or felt may be fas-

tened around exterior doors to Garage Doors door se-

turers literature before
make a permanent seal in main- lection made. is

taining inside temperature. Garage doors are usually the The most common residential
overhead type. They may be garage door sizes are shown
Entrance Door Details spring operated. Some doors have above. These are actual sizes;
Entrance doors are given spe- radio or "electric-eye" operators.
framing around them is not
cial architectural emphasis to en- The latter units add slightly to
hance their beauty and serve as the building cost but give a feel- Single garage doors Double garage doors

a focal point. They may be job ing of quality construction to the Height Width Height Width
built or purchased as prefabri- building. Because of the wide 6-6" x 8-0" 6'-6" x 15-0"
cated units. When space permits, variety of materials used, differ- 7-0" x 8'-0" 7'-0" x 15'-0"
double entry doors are frequently ing construction of doors, and 6-6" x 9'-0" 6-6" x 16'-0"
used. sizes available, consult manufac- 7'-0" x 9'-0" 7'-0" x 16'-0"

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1 Explain the construction of a 9. How does one determine 1 7. From the panel door illustra-

wood panel door. which height to use? tion, explain, in your own words,
2. What are the two kinds of 1 0. What is the thickness of most the following terms.
flush wood doors? exterior doors?
• stile
3. Are all panel doors con- 1 1 . What is the thickness of most
• top rail
structed of wood? Explain. interior doors?
• cross rail
4. Describe the two types of 12. What is the minimum face
• lock rail
folding doors. size of front entrance doors?
• mullion
5. How is the term "folding 1 3. What is a service entrance
• muntin or bar
door" sometimes misused? door? What is its minimum size?
6. What is meant when one says 14. What is the minimum size of
• bottom rail

• sticking
doors fold in a stacking arrangement? interior residential doors?
• raised panel
7. What is the largest size fold- 1 5. What is the minimum size of

ing door? bathroom doors? 1 8. What is a hinged door?

8. What are the two standard 16. What is a better size for 19. When are two hinges
door heights? bathroom doors? required?

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

20. When are three hinges more satisfactory than a hinged 45. Explain two methods of alter-

required? door? ing these widths.

21. Why are doors in public 35. What is their biggest disad- 46. What is meant when one
buildings hinged so they swing to- vantage? says a door jamb is purchased
ward the outside? 36. What is a bi-fold door unit? "knocked down"?
22. What is the relationship of 37. What is a double action 47. What is a split jamb, and
the face of a door and the edge of hinge? Describe two kinds. why is it used?
a jamb? 38. What is a door jamb? 48. What is a brick mold? What
23. What is the normal height of 39. What is a transom? In what is the difference between this and
the knob on a residential door? types of building might you find an exterior casing?
24. What is the normal height of them? 49. Describe the shape and func-
the knob or panic bar on public 40. What is a door stop? tion of a drip cap.
buildings? 41. What generally is the thick- 50. Is interior trim normally pur-
25. What is meant by the "hand" ness of an interior wood jamb? chased as a part of the door jamb?
of a door? Explain how it is de- 42. What generally is the thick- What construction might call for this?
termined. ness of an exterior wood jamb? 51. What is a door sill and why
26. What are bypass sliding 43.What generally is the width is it used?
closet doors? Is this actually a kind of a wood jamb to be used with 52. What is a threshold? De-
of door? Explain. lath and plaster? scribe four kinds.
27. How may units for these be 44. What generally is the width 53. Why is an entrance door
purchased? of a wood jamb to be used with given special design emphasis?
28. What kinds of doors may be drywall?
used for bypass sliding doors?
29. Explain the finished opening
Terms to Spell and Know
widths required for these units.
30. How does one determine
door frame cross rail buck
which door to place toward the
panel door bar transom
front of the unit? (Closest to the
flush door sticking drywall
folding door hinge lath
31. How are bypass sliding doors
molding bypass sliding door plaster
used at exterior openings?
slab pocket door knocked-down
32. What does the "X" and "O"
solid core bi-fold door brick mold
on a sliding door elevation represent?
particle board double action hinge sill
33. What is a pocket door unit?
hollow core side jamb threshold
Describe the construction of the
stacking head jamb
34. When is a pocket door unit

M Windows and Glass

Each window manufacturing windows, but they are not used buyer resistance based on tradi-
association (wood, steel, and alu- extensively in residential con- tional ideas ismain reason
minum) and each individual struction. Steel windows lend their use is limited. Each year
manufacturer make claims that themselves to solid masonry con- aluminum windows are gaining
their material is best for windows. struction. Since there are no wide in popularity.

Each material has advantages jambs, they take a shallow space.

and disadvantages. A material They are usually set into a chase
Plastics are being used in win-
may be more suitable for one in- in a masonry wall. No interior
stallation, but under different con- side and head trim is normally dow manufacture. Sheet films and
spray-on coatings form protective
ditions another material may be used. Plaster or other interior fin-

more practical. No attempt will ishes are usually returnedaround and decorative coverings on
a corner bead (metal corner) and
wood, steel, and aluminum win-
be made here to evaluate the mer-
its of each window material. finished to the face of the window dows. Some use is being made of
with the same material as inside molded or extruded plastic parts.
Wood Windows Much greater use is expected in
walls. A lightweight metal frame
Wood windows are usually
extends around the entire win-
the immediate future.
manufactured of white pine. This dow, replacing the sill at the bot-
wood is favored because of its
tom. The bottom frame is usually
abundance and the fact that it is
soft but still machines and sands
placed on a masonry sill and the Window Types
joint between the window and sill
The grain structure
To acquaint yourself with the
to a fine finish. is filled with caulking.
various window types, study illus-
is close,which permits a wide va-
Aluminum Windows trations of each. Only common,
riety of possible finishes. Hard-
All types of windows are man- frequently used types are shown.
wood windows are available, but
ufactured of aluminum. This The illustrations are self-explana-
their high cost limits their use.
modern material lends itself to tory of the general shapes of each
Steel Windows many applications in all modern type. Most types may be pur-
Steel windows may be pur- construction— commerical, indus- chased of wood, steel, or
chased with a prime coat of paint trial, institutional, and residential. aluminum.
or they may be purchased com- Until recently residential use has No two windows of the same
pletely finished in many decora- been limited primarily to warm type, purchased from different
tive colors. Industrial, commer- climates.They do have some dis- manufacturers, will be exactly the
and institutional construction
cial, advantages for cold climates, be- same. The size and shape of in-

make widespread use of steel cause they conduct cold, but dividual parts will vary slightly.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation
Clearstory Hopper.


That is why the illustrations rep-

resent general shapes and do not
refer to specific detail. One must
refer to manufacturers' data to
obtain exact sizes and shapes.
This information is then included
in the working drawings. It will
be shown as details and notes.

Window Parts, Sizes, and


Window size is usually (but

not always) designated by the
glass size of the individual sash
units. of parts and typical
sizes aregiven in the illustrations.
Glass size is based on 4" incre-
The large window on this home is called

a bow window.
ments in width and 2" in height.
Typical glass sizes range from
to 48" in width and from
12" to
36" in height. Sash sizes, which
is the wood frame enclosing the
glass, are based on modules to
accommodate standard glass
sizes. Window stiles are approxi-

mately 2" wide. This makes the

horizontal window opening

wider than the glass size. Top

B®J? rails are 2" wide, bottom rails

and meeting or lock rails 1". This

1 Air space 15. Mortar joint in
gives a total of 6" of wood show-
2. Apron elevation
ing. The size is sometimes in-
16. Mortar joint in
3. Blind stop creased so 7" of wood is showing.
This is not the size of the actual
4. rail

mold 17. Ground strip

5. Brick
(casing) 18. Parting strip parts; they are larger and are rab-

6. Interior casing
19. Plaster beted to accommodate the glass.

7. Ground strip 20. Putty or glazing Overall window heights are also
8. Header compound
based on the 4" increment. When
Head jamb 2 Rock lath
double hung windows are used
1 .

10. Rigid insulating 22. Side jamb

sheathing 2 3. Wood sill and each size is based on 2" in-

1 1 . Angle iron lintel 24. Stile or side rail crements, the combined units form
12. Brick in 25. Stool a modular size.Most manufac-
26. Stone
elevation sill
turers include more than the glass
3. Brick in section 27. Stop
size in their window description,
14. Double studs 2 8. Top rail

giving the glass size, opening or

Cutaway view of double hung window
Section view of double hung window
and related parts. sash size, masonry or rough open-
with parts identification.


Fixed picture window with casement side lights

Double, double hung

p W

Fixed picture window with double hung side lights

Double hung
U J —
structural unit
/ V


/ s 1

Double owning

Rail and muntin sizes.

/\ Triple combination
Double, double hung structural unit

ing size, and the unit or overall

size. This latter size is shown from
outside edge to outside edge of
the casing. When two or more
windows are assembled as one
unit, the mullions are included in
the overall length. Names and ap-
proximate sizes of window parts Double sliding

are shown in the illustrations here

and on the following page. Double casement
Window elevations.

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

A mullion is any post or divi-
sion between individual window
units. Size is variable. Side jambs
are %" thick; when two windows
are placed side by side the small-
mullion is
est possible wide. \W
Manufacturers combine individ-
ual windows into groups, with
mullions between the windows.
Note; Most manufacturers will

not permit these to be returned if

the wrong size is ordered. The
Window size designations.
manufacturer does not normally
arrange more than three windows
in a group. If more are placed
side by side, a wood stiffener ex-
tending from the bottom to the
top plate should be used between
each window. This calls for a Double studs between windows
larger mullion than if the win-
dows are placed against each
other. If more than three units
are used together, a subsill is

added beneath the regular sill,

extending the entire length of

Steel post encased by jombs and
the unit. The subsill must be trim

Window muntin designs. notched to pass the vertical stiff- Mullion details.

eners between windows. Draw

Bars or Muntins a separate detail to show this. are to be job assembled, or are
Bars or muntins (different Note that modern practice not a manufacturer's standard
names for the same thing) some- tends to keep mullions narrow. size, working drawings include
times divide the glass into smaller However, as discussed here, wide large scale details showing
panes. When the window is sub- mullions extend the size of a construction and methods of
divided, the individual panes are window unit. If individual units assembly.
not modular sizes since the
glass must be trimmed because
of the addition of the muntins.
The muntins may form vertical Picture Windows may be purchased in standard
or horizontal window panes, or Picture windows used alone or width of stiles and rails. Sash with
both vertical and horizontal bars in combination with other win- wide stiles and rails may be made
may divide a window into a larger dows should be designed to use for standard glass sizes. This
number of panes. Early Ameri- standard glass sizes. Many large makes the sash opening size non-
can designs use many panes. picture windows have insulating modular to accommodate custom-
Modern design favors only hori- glass, so the cost is prohibitive if built and oversize units. These
zontal divisions. standard sizes are not used. Sash parts are not constructed at the

14: Windows and Glass

building site, so it is important so water will not drip on the ex- kets,placed on setting blocks, or
forcomplete details to be shown; terior covering. Some sills have a employ some other method of
then they can be custom built. groove in the bottom to accom- installation.

Exterior Window Trim modate a wood molding. If a Window Descriptions

molding is used beneath a sill, it
Because exterior window trim Descriptions of windows refer
helps block entrance of water and
(finishing boards) is applied when to the window type: double hung,
serves as a cover over window
windows are assembled, they are casement, awning, picture (fixed
a part of the window. Trim with sash), or other kinds. It may refer
As previously noted, wood
decorative molding on its face is to combinations of window types.
windows have sills but most metal
called brick mold. Flat trim is Reference is also made to the
windows do not. However, wood
called casing. Brick mold is more number of windows in the group.
sills and casings or brick mold are
widely used. Its name implies When one window is to be in-
sometimes attached to aluminum
that it is used only with brick but stalled alone it is called a single
windows. Even though, in addi-
this is not a proper assumption. (the word window is not in-
tion, most windows in masonry
It is also used with other masonry cluded). When two windows are
walls have a stone sill, this is not
and wood frame construction. included in one unit it is called
a part of the window. It is de-
Size is slightly variable; it is ap- a mullion unit, abbreviated to
signed and purchased separately.
proximately l'/g" thick and 2V2" mull When three windows are
When several windows are
wide. Exterior casing is l'/s" thick included in one unit, it is called
combined into one unit, the wood
and the width is variable. Casing and when four windows
a triple,
sill should be continuous.
3" wide is most common. Note: are combined it is called a quad-
When drawing elevations, the cas- Installation of Glass
ruple, abbreviated to a quad.

ing drawn outside

is the actual Window types and number of
Windows may be purchased
window size. units are combined when stating
glazed (with glass factory-in-
a window There is
Drip Cap stalled) or they may be unglazed
no set form
composing win-
A drip cap as illustrated in the (no glass). When they are glazed,
dow descriptions. However, one
previous chapter is placed over the glass is purchased as a part
must be sure all necessary infor-
the top of the casing to prevent of the window. When they are
mation is included. This informa-
water from standing on the flat unglazed, of course, the glass is
tion may or may not be used dur-
surface and to prevent capillary purchased separately. Small units
ing construction, but it is vital for
action from drawing moisture be- (as all but picture windows for a
•.•stimating and purchase of ma-
hind the exterior covering. Metal house) are usually purchased
terials. Sample descriptions of
flashing extends from under the glazed. Larger ones are usually
windows follow:
siding. It is bent so it covers the unglazed. The plans or specifica-
tions must state method of pur-
A picture window with two double
top of the drip cap.
chase and also state the method
hung side lights, one on each
When several windows are
side. Each double hung sash is
combined into one unit, the drip
of securing the glass in the sash
and the method and glazing ma- to have two bars or muntins:
cap should be continuous.
terial. This description must in-
• Picture/w/DH. 2-bar Sd. Lts.
clude whether the glass is to be A triple awning unit:
A sill is a sloping surface at set in putty, whether it is to be • Mull, awning
the bottom of a window to drain back puttied (putty placed be- A corner picture window with
water away from the parts. Most tween the face of the glass and casements on each side:
sills are of wood. They extend face of rabbet on the sash), im- • Corner picture/w/2 three-bar
past the front edge of the window bedded in neoprene rubber gas- casements

Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

Note: It is necessary to include ing and locking devices. Screen

complete size description. This is and storm window combinations
usually placed on the window are sometimes built as a part of
schedule. the window unit. It is not possi-

ble to discuss all available hard-

Window Hardware ware. One should consult manu-
There is a wide variety of hard- facturers' literature for details.
ware available to make a modern Required window hardware
window more useful. Some of may be listed on a schedule of the
the hardware includes sash bal- plans or in the specifications.
ances and tension tracks to per- For most building materials
mit sash removal. Hinged sup- small measurements are given be-
port bars are designed to hold fore large ones. This is not true
awning and hopper windows when specifying glass. The width
open. Hand crank and automatic isalways given before the height.
operators move and hold awning Ordinary glass has slight waves
and casement sash in selected po- in it; they cause less visual dis-

There are also many lift-

sitions. tortion if horizontal.

Window Glass
There are several thicknesses
of window glass. Sizes may vary
All glass used in windows is
slightly with different manfactur-
not window glass. The term win-
ers. The more common thick-
dow glass means the glass has
nesses are:
had no additional finishing pro-
cesses. It is used as it is drawn. Approximate Oz. per Maximum
(Thickness sq.ft. size
Glass edge for small units
Drawing one of the methods of

Photo 12-14 36x50"

manufacturing glass into large
sheets. Picture W
.58 to .68


together to form a rolled edge.
There are four widely used Single strength Insulating glass can be used on
window glass:
qualities of Double strength V>" 26 60x80" all window installations. Sash
Heavy sheet Vu" 40 120x84" must be made to provide for the
• AAQuality— This is the best
Heavy sheet Vn" 45 120x84" additional glass thickness. Stan-
window glass obtainable, manu-
Heavy sheet Vt" 52 120x84" dard sizes are shown in the ac-
factured on special order only
and priced accordingly. companying tables.
Insulating Glass
Be exact in ordering. Do not
• Premium— Best commercial Insulating glass has two sheets
specify the wrong trade name.
quality, remarkably free of dis-
of glass separated by space. De-
hydrated air at atmospheric pres- Grey Glass
• A Quality— Has no imper- sure is sealed into the space. There When one wishes to reduce
fections that cause noticeable dis- are two methods of sealing the transmission of light or heat one
tortion. edges. Large windows have a may use special greyed glass. Vi-
• B Quality— Has some distor- steel frame with gaskets to form sion is obscured only slightly.

tion but is suitable for usual small a seal. Smaller panes have a glass Looking through reminds one

panes. edge. The two sheets are melted of looking through sun glasses.


Insulating Glass— standard sizes


2 Pieces W Polished Plate Glass— '/>" Air Space (DS premium)
UNIT SIZE UNIT SIZE UNIT SIZE 2 Pieces '/«" Window Glass— l W Air Space
33" x 76%" 46%" x 56%" 56%" x 58%" Picture window sizes
35%" x 36" 47%" x 50%" 56%" x 66"
35%" x 48%" 47%" x 66%" 56%" x 70%" DOUBLE HUNG AWNING CASEMENT
35'/j" x 60%" 48" x 48" 57" x 76%" WINDOWS WINDOWS WINDOWS
36" x 44%" 48" x 60" 58" x 64%" Width Height Width Height Widtt Height

36" x 55V4" 48" x 72" 58" x 72%" 49% »" x 46" 36%" x 49%" 35 7/i 4 " x 36 Me"
36" x 68%" 48%" x 55%" 58" x 80%" 49'At" x 50" 39%" x 49%" 35'/ is" x 48%"
36" x 75" 48%" x 68%" 58" x 96%" 49% 6" x 58" 44%" x 49%" 35 '/ .6" X 60'/l»"
36" x 93" 48%" x 75" 58" x 1 1
6%" 57V. 6" x 46" 44'/ i«" x 36 % »"
42" x 48%" 48%" x 93" 60" x 72" 57% 4 " x 50" 447i«" x 48%"
42" x 56%" 48%" x 50" 60%" x 66%" 65% t" x 46" 44'/u" x 60 7/is"
42" x 66" 48%" x 58" 60%" x 68%" 65% «" x 50" 55% 6" x 36 K»"
42" x 72" 50" x 56%" 60%" x 75" 55%«" x 48%"
44%" x 48'/s" 50" x 64%" 60%" x 93" 68 'At" x 36 Vie"
44%" x 60%" 50" x 72%" 64%" x 66" 68' He" x 48%"
45" x 76%" 50" x 80%" 66" x 72%"
45%" x 52" 50" x 96%" 66" x 84"
46" x 48'/2" 50%" x 60%" 66" x 96"
46" x 64'/2" 52%" x 58%" 72" x 84" GLASS EDGE (SSA)
46" x 72%" 52%" x 70V." 72" x 96"
46%" x 52'/2" 55%" x 60%" 2 Pieces )4*" Window Glass— Vi." Air Space
Width Height Width Height Width Height
16" x 24" 21 Vie" x 49" 36" x 16"
2 Pieces 'At" Window Glass— %" Air Space 1
6" x 32" 21'/i6"x6iyu" 36" x 20"
35 %" x 36" 48%" x 42" 64%" x 46" 16" x 36" 22" x 18" 36" x24"
35'/2" x 48'/." 48%" x 46" 64%" x 50" 16" x 48" 22" x 55'/. 6" 36V " x 14%"
35%" x 60%" 48%" x 50" 64%" x 58" 1
6" x 60" 24" x 16" 36 5/ " x 18%"
42" x 66" 55%" x 36" 68%" x 36" 16»/ie" x 24%" 24" x 20" 36 5/. " x 22%"
,J/I4 " 24" 30%"
42" x 72" 55%" x 48V." 68%" x 48%" 16'/.«"x 30 x 24" 36V " x
44%" x 36" 55%" x 60%" 72" x 48" 16'/. 4 "x 36 ,J/i»" 24" x 32" 39% " x 14%"
44%" x 48%" 56%" x 42" 72%" x 46" 16'/.6" x49" 24" x 36" 39% " x 18%"
44%" x 60%" 56%" x 46%" 72%" x 50" 16'/i»" x 61*1 4 24" x 48" 39% " x 22%"
45%" x 52" 56%" x 50" 75" x 36" 19" x 15" 24" x 60" 39% " x 30%"
48" x 48" 56%" x 58%" 75" x 48%" 1 9%" x 53" 24%" x 15%" 40" x 16"
48" x 60" 20" x 16" 27%" x 14%" 40" x20"
20" x 20" 27%" x 1
8%" 40" x 24"
20" x 24" 27%" x 22%" 42% " x 22%"
2 Pieces '«" Window Glass— %" Air Space 20" x 32" 27%" x 30%" 44" x 16"
For Wood Doors For Window Walls 20" x 36" 28" x 16" 44% " x 14%"
Width Height Width Height 48"
20" x 28" x 20" 44% " x 18%"
21%"x62%" 45%" x 25%" 20" x 60" 28" x 24" 44% " x 22%"
25%" x 62%" 42%" x 22%" 21 'At" x 24%" 32" x 16" 44% " x 30%"
21 Vie" x 30' % t" 32" x 20" 45% " x 25%"
Class Max.
Unit Thickness *PP rox -
21 Wx 36 ,3 "
/i 4 32" x 24"

nessf Spoce Sq.ft.* Tolerances 'A" Mi Vi " Air Net Weights

Space Space Per Sq. Ft.

%" '/." 12 To 48"

%" Glass Air Max. Dimensional Unit Approximate
or + 'At", -Vt»" '%2" '%."
Over 48" 3% lbs. Thick- Space Area Tolerances Thick- Average
ness Sq. Ft. ness Net Weights
+ %",-'/.»" ±V!)2" ±V4j"
Per Sq.
y.6" %" To 48"

or %" 17 + %",-'/. 6" "At" <

At" 5% lbs. %" Y\t" 24 ±Vi«" 'At" 3% lbs.
± 'A 2" ± Via"
%" ± %i"
Vi" Over 48"
or %"
%2" Vi»" 10 ±<At" %" 2% lbs.
70 + =/l6", -'/l t" 'y.»" "/,«" 6% lbs.
±'/3 2"
±J4s" ±%2"
* Minimum $ize, 28 ocfua/ united inches. So/ex", SoJargray* Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co
So/orbronze™ — maximum 50 sq. ff. fGlass thickness and at
space are subject to practical manufacturing tolerances.
Part One: Structure— An Architectural Obligation

This glass is not recommended stalled in much the same manner Space must be left between the
where high light transmittance is as ceramic Large sheets may
tile. top of the blocks and lintels or
desired— for example, in mer- require special metal anchors to headers to allow for deflection.
chandise display windows. help secure them to the building. Clearance should also be given
of openings to allow
at the sides
Polished Plate Glass Patterned Glass forexpansion and building settle-
After glass is manufactured, it As the name implies, decora- ment. This space should be
may be ground and polished to tive patterns manufactured
are packed with oakum, which is a
true flat surfaces of great bril- on the face of glass. This decora- fiber material similar to rope that
liance and high reflectivity. Usual tion may be on one or both faces. has been soaked in oil. It serves
thickness is from Va" to 1 Vi". There When one considers the number as a cushion. The joint is then
are three qualities of plate glass: of glass manufacturers and all covered with caulking to give a
• Silvering QuALiTY-This is the decorative glass patterns of finished appearance.
the best quality available; it is each, the variety is virtually un- Glass blocks are modular units.
seldom used in sizes over 20 limited. For specific information Block thickness is nominal 4" or
square feet. concerning individual patterns, 3 5/s" actual. Nominal face sizes
• Mirror Glazing Quality— consult manufacturers' literature. are 6"x6", 8"x8", 12"xl2", and
There are some small visible de- 4"xl2". Any actual face size is

fects but the quality is exceptional. Safety Glass %" less for both dimensions.
• Glazing QuALiTY-This is
Safety glass consists of two or The units are laid in much
used when ordinary glazing is re- more sheets with tough, transpar- thesame manner as other ma-
quired but not for mirrors. It is a ent plastic bonded between them. sonry and should have reinforce-
very good quality. Recent development has seen ment between alternate courses.
foreign objects, such as leaves, fi- They must be secured to other
Tempered Glass ber glass, butterflies, paper, cloth, masonry or frame with wall ties
Most sheet glass is quite brittle or metal imbedded