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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration

Single degree of freedom system

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 1


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration

Undamped single degree of


freedom (SDOF) system

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 2


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration

f r  kx

d 2x
f r  kx  m 2
dt

mx  kx  0,
k
x  x  0
m

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 3


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration
k
x  x  0
m
 2 k
 D   x  0 D≡d/dt
 m
k
D  0
2

m
k
Dj
m

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 4


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration

k k
x(t )  A sin t  B cos t
m m
k 1 k
n  rad/s fn  Hz
m 2 m
Hertz shortened as Hz is same as cycles/s
Hertz-Armstrong-Marconi are the three scientists who
have made significant contribution to inventions related to
radio and the first letter of each of their last names is
given the name HAM for amateur radio

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 5


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration

x(t )  A sin  n t  B cos  n t

x(t )  C cos( n t   )

x(0)  x0 x (0)  0 Initial conditions

A  0, B  x0
x(t )  x0 cos  n t
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 6
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration Example

A single degree of freedom system with no damping consists


of a mass of 0.1 kg attached to a spring of stiffness 1000
N/m attached to a fixed support. (a) Compute the undamped
natural frequency in rad/s and Hz and period of free
oscillation (b) If an initial displacement of 10 mm is given to
the mass by pulling the mass down, determine the equation
of motion of the mass (c) What is the maximum velocity of
the mass and when does it occur (d) Draw the displacement
and velocity response due to the above initial condition for
four cycles

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 7


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration Example

k 1000
n    100 rad/s
m 0.1
n 100
fn    15.92 Hz  cycles/s 
2 2
1 1
T   63 ms
f n 15.92

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 8


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration Example

x(t )  xo cos(nt   )

x(t )  v(t )   xon sin(nt   )

x(t )  10cos nt , mm

x(t )  v(t )  10n sin nt , mm/s

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free undamped vibration Example

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

f r  kx
f d  cx
2
d x
f r  f d  kx  cx  m 2
dt
mx  cx  kx  0
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 11
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

c k
x x x 0
m m
k
 
2
n
m
c c
  
2mn 2 km

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 12


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration
c
 2n
m
x  2n x   x  0 2
n

D 2
 2n D   2
n x 0
D  2n D    0
2 2
n

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 13


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

D  n  n  2  1

Damping factor   1
 t  n  2 1 t   
 2 1 t 
x(t )  e n Ae  Be
n

 
 

Critical damping   1
  t  t 
x(t )   Ae n  Bte n 
 
 
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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

Underdamping   1
D  n  jn 1   2

d  n 1   2

D  n  j d

 t
x(t )  e n  A sin  t  B cos  t 
d d

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

 t
x(t )  e n  A sin  t  B cos  t 
d d

 t
x(t )  Ae n cos  t   
d

 t
x(t )   Ae n  cos  t      sin  t    
 n d d d 

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 16


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration

 t
x(t )   Ae n  cos  t      sin  t    
 n d d d 

If the initial conditions are x (0) and x (0) ,


1  n x (0)  x (0) 
.   tan  
 d x(0) 

2
 n x(0)  x(0) 
. A   x(0)  
2

  d 
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 17
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration Example
A single degree of freedom system (SDOF) has a
mass of 0.1 kg, stiffness 1000 N/m, and a damping
coefficient of 5 N-s/m is subjected to an initial
condition by moving it by 10 mm from its
equilibrium position. (a) Determine the damping
factor and damped natural frequency of oscillations
(b) Determine the constants from initial conditions
and obtain the equation for displacement and
velocity response (c) Plot the displacement and
velocity response for four cycles

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 18


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration Example

k 1000
n    100 rad/s
m 0.1

c c 5
     0.25
2 km 2mn 2  0.1100

d  n 1   2  100 1  0.252  96.82 rad/s

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 19


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration Example
The given initial conditions are x(0)  20 mm; x(0)  0 .

  x(0)  x(0)  1  0.25  100  20) 


.   tan 1  n    tan     14.47 0

  d x (0)   96.82  20 
2
  x(0)  x(0)   0.25 100  20 
2

. A   x(0)   n
2
  20 2
    20.65 mm
 d   96.82 


x(t )  20.65e25t cos d t  14.140 mm 
   
x(t )  20.65e25t  25cos d t  14.140  96.82sin d t  14.140  mm/s
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 20
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Free damped vibration Example

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Logarithmic decrement

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Logarithmic decrement
n t
x  x0e cos(d t )

x1  x0en (2 /d ) cos 2

x2  x0en (4 /d ) cos 4

x0 x1 2 n 2
  ln  ln  
x1 x2 d 1 2
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 23
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Impulse response function
x(0)  0 mx(0)  1

 nt
x  Ae cos( d t   )
x   Ae n t
n cos(d t   )  d sin(d t   )
 1
 A
2 md sin 

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 24


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Impulse response function

n t
e sin(d t )
x(t ) 
md

ent sin(d t )
h(t ) 
md

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral

F ( ) e n  t  
sin d  t    
x(t ) 
F ( ) 
md

t F ( )e n  t  
sin d  t     d
x(t )  
0 md

x(t )   F ( )h  t   d
t

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 27


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

A spring-mass system that is initially at rest


is subjected to an impulse that linearly
drops from 100 N to 0 within half of the
time period of natural oscillation of the
spring mass system. Determine the
displacement response of the system
during and after removing the force .
Assume the mass m=10 kg and stiffness
k=100 kN.
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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

The natural frequency is given by


k 100000
n   100 rad/s
m 10
2 2
   0.0628 s
The time period is given by n 100

The given force can be represented by

t 
F (t )  100  200 0t 
 2

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

2

n

1
h(t )  sin nt
mn
1
t
 
y (t )  
mn 0
sin n (t   ) 100  200 d
 

0t 
2
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 31
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

t t
100 200
y (t )  
mn 0
sin  n (t   )d  
 mn 0
 sin n (t   )d


100 cos n (t   )  200  cos  (t   ) t 
t t
1
    n
 2 sin n (t   ) 
mn  n 0
 mn  n n 0
  0 

0t 
2
100 200  t sin nt 
y (t )  1  cos nt    
k k  2 

0t 
2
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 32
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

100n 200
v(t )  sin nt  1  cos nt 
k k
y (t   / 2)  1mm
v(t   / 2)  68.2 mm/s
Time can be reset to zero at the end of forced
response and the above values of displacement and
velocity can be taken as initial conditions at t=0 for
free vibration. With the reset time, the new initial
conditions are
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 33
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Convolution Integral Example

y (t  0)  1mm y (t )  1.2 103 sin(nt  0.97)


v(t  0)  68.2 mm/s m
y(t )  A sin(nt   ) 
t
2
v(t )  An cos(nt   )
 y (0) 
  a tan n   0.97 rad
 v(0) 
y (0)
A  1.2 mm
sin( )
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 34
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation
mx  cx  kx  F sin t
x p  A sin t   

x p  A cos t   

x p   A  2 sin t   

mA 2 sin t     cA cos t   


 kA sin t     F sin t
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 35
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation
mA 2 sin t cos   cos t sin    cA cos t cos   sin t sin  
 kA sin t cos   cos t sin    F sin t

sin t  mA 2 cos   kA cos   cA sin   


cos t  mA 2 sin   cA cos   kA sin    F sin t

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 36


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

 
 k  m 2 cos   c sin   A  F
 
 
 k  m 2 sin   c cos   A  0
 
c
tan  
k  m 2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 37


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation
c
sin  
 k  m    c 
2 2
2

k  m 2
cos  
 k  m    c 
2 2
2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 38


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

F
A
 
 k  m  2 cos   c sin  
 
F

 
 
2
   

2 2
 k m c 
  

 k  m   c   
k  m   c  
2 2 2 2

2 2

F

 k  m    c 
2 2
2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 39


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

Frequency ratio, r 
n
F 2 r
A   tan 1

1  r    2 r  1 r2
2 2
2
k

F
xp  sin t   
1  r    2 r 
2 2
2
k

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 40


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

xp 1

F /k
1  r    2 r 
2 2
2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 41


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 42


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 43


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation Example

A spring-mass-damper system has a mass of 0.1


kg, a spring of stiffness constant 1000 N/m and
damping coefficient 0.15 N-s/m. It is subjected to
a driving force that has two excitation
frequencies, represented by
F  2 cos  85t   4sin(120t ) N. (a) Determine the
time-domain displacement response of the above
system (b) Why the phase angles are different by
an order of magnitude?
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 44
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation Example

k 1000
n    100 rad/s
m 0.1

c 0.15
    0.0075
2 km 2 1000  0.1

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 45


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation Example

Amplitude of the first force F1=2 N


Amplitude of the second force F2=4 N
Excitation frequency of the first force ω1=85 rad/s
Excitation frequency of the second force ω2=120
rad/s
1 85
Frequency ratio of the first force r1= n  100  0.85
2 120
Frequency ratio of the second force r2= n  100  1.2
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 46
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation Example

F1
y (t )  cos(1t  1 )
k (1  r12 ) 2  (2 r1 ) 2
F2
 sin(2t  2 )
k (1  r22 ) 2  (2 r2 ) 2

2 r1 1 2  0.0075  0.85
1  tan 1
 tan  2.630

1  r12 1  0.852

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 47


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Sinusoidal Excitation Example

2 r2 1 2  0.0075  1.2
2  tan 1
 tan  177.650

1  r22 1  1.22

2
y (t )  cos(85t  2.630 ) 
1000 (1  0.852 ) 2  (2  0.0075  0.85) 2
4
sin(120t  177.650 )
1000 (1  1.22 ) 2  (2  0.0075 1.2) 2

y(t )  0.0072cos(85t  2.630 )  0.0091sin(120t  177.650 )

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 48


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation
F sin t
F
y (t )  sin(t   )
m k (1  r 2 ) 2  (2 r ) 2

y(t) F
v(t )  y (t )  cos(t   )
k k (1  r )  (2 r )
2 2 2
c

FT  ky(t )  cv(t )
FT (t )
Transmitted force
2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 49
ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Force transmissibility

kF
FT  sin(t   )
k (1  r )  (2 r )
2 2 2

cF 
 cos(t   )
k (1  r )  (2 r )
2 2 2

1   2 r 
2
FT
 sin(t     )
F (1  r )  (2 r )
2 2 2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 50


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation
2 r
  tan 2 r ;   tan
1 1

1 r2

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 51


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation

1. The transmissibility decreases with increase in


damping at the resonance.
2. The family of curves for different values of damping
intersect at T=1 and r  2 .
3. For frequency ratio r greater than 2 , the
transmissibility decreases.
4. The design of vibration isolators is based on the
transmissibility curves for r> 2 .

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 53


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation
Displacement transmissibility

Y (t ) m Y 1   2 r 
2

 sin(t     )
Yb (1  r )  (2 r )
2 2 2

c k

Yb (t )

2/28/2017 D.N. Manik 54


ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Example

A measuring instrument of mass 10 kg has to be


installed on a floor that is subject to vibration
excitation by other machines that are installed on the
same floor, which vibrates with amplitude of 5 mm at
a frequency of 3000 RPM. In order that the electronic
components of the instrument satisfactorily operate,
the instrument requires that the maximum
displacement amplitude is limited to 100 microns.

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Example

(a) What is the equivalent stiffness of an


isolator with a damping ratio of 0.01 to limit
the transmitted displacement to an
acceptable level?
(b) What is the maximum acceleration of the
measuring instrument?
(c) What is the maximum deformation of the
isolator?

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Example

Y 100 106
T  3
 0.02
Yb 5 10
1  (2 r ) 2
T
(1  r 2 ) 2  (2 r ) 2

T 2 (1  r 2 )2  (2 r )2   1  (2 r )2

T r  (2 ) (T  1)  2T  r  T  1  0
2 4 2 2 2 2 2

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Example

4 104 r 4  1.199 103 r 2  0.9996  0

0.001199  0.0011992  4  4 10 4  0.9996


r  4
 7.18
2  4 10

 314.16 rad/s
n    43.75
r 7.18

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ME 316 KDOM SDOF Vibration
Vibration Isolation Example

A  Y 2
 100 106  314.162
 9.86 m/s 2

k  mn2  10  43.752  19.14 kN / m

  Yb  Y 
 5  0.1  4.9 mm

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