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Dynamics Sheet

Derivative Derivative

Displacement Velocity Acceleration

𝑟𝑟⃑ or 𝑠𝑠⃑ 𝑣𝑣⃑ 𝑎𝑎⃑

Integral Integral

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

Trick: {𝑣𝑣 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 ∧ 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 } ⇒ {𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑣𝑣 ∧ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑎𝑎 } ⇒ { 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑣𝑣
} ⇒ { 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑣𝑣
} ⇒ {𝑣𝑣 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑎𝑎 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑}. This
replacement sometimes simplifies the problem at hand.
Kinematics is the description of the motion of a particle as it moves along a path in space. To describe this
motion, a coordinate system is necessary. There are several such coordinate systems in common usage.
Coordinate Unit Displacement Velocity Acceleration
System Vectors
Rectangular 𝚤𝚤̂, 𝚥𝚥̂, 𝑘𝑘� 𝑟𝑟⃑ = 𝑥𝑥𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝑦𝑦𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑧𝑧𝑘𝑘� 𝑣𝑣⃑ = 𝑥𝑥̇ 𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝑦𝑦̇ 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑧𝑧̇ 𝑘𝑘� 𝑎𝑎⃑ = 𝑥𝑥̈ 𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝑦𝑦̈ 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑧𝑧̈ 𝑘𝑘�

Normal- 𝑒𝑒̂𝑛𝑛 , 𝑒𝑒̂𝑡𝑡 𝑟𝑟⃑ = �0⃑ᴥ 𝑣𝑣⃑ = 𝑣𝑣𝑒𝑒̂𝑡𝑡 = 𝜌𝜌𝛽𝛽̇ 𝑒𝑒̂𝑡𝑡 𝑣𝑣 2

𝑎𝑎⃑ = 𝑒𝑒̂ + 𝑣𝑣̇ 𝑒𝑒̂𝑡𝑡
Tangential 𝜌𝜌 𝑛𝑛

Polar 𝑒𝑒̂𝑟𝑟 , 𝑒𝑒̂𝜃𝜃 𝑟𝑟⃑ = 𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑒̂𝑟𝑟 𝑣𝑣⃑ = 𝑟𝑟̇ 𝑒𝑒̂𝑟𝑟 + 𝑟𝑟𝜃𝜃̇𝑒𝑒̂𝜃𝜃 𝑎𝑎⃑ = �𝑟𝑟̈ − 𝑟𝑟𝜃𝜃̇ 2 �𝑒𝑒̂𝑟𝑟 + (𝑟𝑟𝜃𝜃̈ + 2𝑟𝑟̇ 𝜃𝜃̇)𝑒𝑒̂𝜃𝜃

In the normal-tangential coordinate system, the origin moves along with the
point. Thus, the position vector is always the origin.
*Spherical and cylindrical are just two extension of polar coordinates into 3D.

For the separate coordinate systems, the particle’s trajectory is the same.
However, the respective components are not necessarily the same after
coordinate transformation. To see this effect in action, view the 2D Kinematics
on a Figure-Eight Curve posted on the Wolfram Demonstrations Project

Example: Imagine a small box sitting on a truck bed as the truck makes some aggressive maneuvers. The truck
could completely ignore the box, and the box’s motion could be described as it slides on the truck bed. The
motion of the box is kinematic.
Imagine a large, heavy box sitting on a truck bed. If the box is heavy enough, its mass effects the truck’s
motion. This force interaction is dynamic.
Note: For normal-tangential coordinates, the curve is briefly approximated as a circle.
For this circle, ρ is the instantaneous radius of curvature and β is the swept angle. At
another instant of time, a different approximating circle is used.
Note: The derivatives of displacement utilize the chain rule. Since the unit vectors are
moving, they have nonzero time derivatives. However, the rectangular coordinate system
has fixed unit vectors, making the velocity and acceleration quite simple.
Relative Motion: If the reference system is moving, relative motion is considered. The
backslash notation is read as “with respect to”.
𝑟𝑟⃑𝐴𝐴/𝑂𝑂 = 𝑟𝑟⃑𝐵𝐵/𝑂𝑂 + 𝑟𝑟⃑𝐴𝐴/𝐵𝐵

𝑣𝑣⃑𝐴𝐴/𝑂𝑂 = 𝑣𝑣⃑𝐵𝐵/𝑂𝑂 + 𝑣𝑣⃑𝐴𝐴/𝐵𝐵

𝑎𝑎⃑𝐴𝐴/𝑂𝑂 = 𝑎𝑎⃑𝐵𝐵/𝑂𝑂 + 𝑎𝑎⃑𝐴𝐴/𝐵𝐵

Discussion: There are two main methods to solve dynamics problems. 1) Use the force/acceleration equations,
and integrate with respect to time; 2) Use the energy or work equations, and integrate with respect to position.

Work is the product of force over a distance. In math notion, it is 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝐹𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟⃑,
where U is the work. The work is only the portion of the force which causes
movement along the path! 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝐹𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟⃑ = 𝐹𝐹𝑑𝑑𝑠𝑠 cos(𝛼𝛼) = 𝐹𝐹𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
Note: Work and moment have the same units, N*m, but work is a scalar while
moment is a vector. To avoid confusion, the units of work should be written as
Joules (J).
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Mathematically, it is equal to 𝑇𝑇 = 2 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣 2 .
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝2 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝2 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝2 𝑠𝑠2 𝑠𝑠2 𝑣𝑣2
Method: 𝑈𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝1→𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝2 = ∫𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = ∫𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝1 𝐹𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟⃑ = ∫𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝1 𝐹𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟⃑ = ∫𝑠𝑠1 𝐹𝐹𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = ∫𝑠𝑠1 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑚𝑚 ∫𝑣𝑣1 𝑣𝑣 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑣𝑣 2 𝑣𝑣2 𝑚𝑚 2
= 𝑚𝑚 � � | = (𝑣𝑣 − 𝑣𝑣12 ) = 𝑇𝑇2 − 𝑇𝑇1
2 𝑣𝑣1 2 2
Note: This last equation is the bridge between work and energy.
Extending this to other sorts of energy, 𝑇𝑇1 + 𝑉𝑉1 + 𝑈𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝1→𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝2 = 𝑇𝑇2 + 𝑉𝑉2. If no work is done, it is the Law of
Conservation of Energy.
Type of Energy Kinetic Gravitational Potential Spring Potential
Equation 1 𝑉𝑉𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚ℎ 1
𝑇𝑇 = 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣 2 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 𝑘𝑘𝑥𝑥 2
2 2
ProTip: If the velocity and potential energy is known at two discrete times, one can easily use the Law of
Conservation of Energy equation to solve for other unknowns.
Momentum is the mass times the velocity, while angular momentum is the directional vector crossed with the
mass times the velocity. In equations, this is 𝐺𝐺⃑ = 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣⃑ and 𝐻𝐻
�⃑𝑂𝑂 = 𝑟𝑟⃑ × 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣⃑, respectively.
For scenarios involving impulses (i.e., short-term, high-amplitude forces), 𝐺𝐺⃑1 + ∫𝑡𝑡1 Σ𝐹𝐹⃑ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝐺𝐺⃑2 , where the
integral is of the impulse. The Law of Conservation of (Angular) Momentum holds if 𝐺𝐺⃑1 = 𝐺𝐺⃑2 (𝐻𝐻 �⃑1 = 𝐻𝐻
�⃑2 ).

Generalized coordinates are the minimal set of coordinates to describe the motion of
a constrained system.
Example: A pendulum in 2D may be represented in a rectangular coordinate system,
using 𝚤𝚤̂ and 𝚥𝚥̂ coordinates. However, as the motion is constrained by the length of the
pendulum arm, the constraint equation imposes a necessary relationship between the
x- and y-components. For this reason, the x-coordinate, the y-coordinate, or the θ-
coordinate may be used as the generalized coordinate without a loss of information.