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,__ coHpy FM 5-135

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

ENGINEER BATTALION
ARMORED, INFANTRY
AND
INFANTRY (MECHANIZED)
DIVISIONS

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


NOVEMBER 1965
*FM 5-135

MANUAL ) HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
-.o. 5-135 WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 November 1965

ENGINEER BATTALION, ARMORED, INFANTRY, AND


INFANTRY (MECHANIZED) DIVISIONS
Pagrapohs Page
CHAPrER 1. INTRODUCTION -___________..___--_---____ 1-1 - 1-2 1-1
2. DIVISIONAL ENGINEER BATTALIONS --- 2-1 - 2-6 2-1
3. HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS
COMPANY __-______ ___________-________
-- 3-1 - 3-5 3-1
4. COMBAT ENGINEER COMPANY____________4-1 - 4-6 4-1
5. BRIDGE COMPANY _________________---_-_-. 5-1 - 5-6 5-1
6. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
Section I. Introduction-_-_ __________---------______ 6-1 - 6-2 6-1
II. Movement to Contact and Attack -------- _-___- 6-3 - 6-4 6-3
III. River Crossings _____________________________. 6-5 - 6-10 6-7
IV. Gaps and Defiles-_._________________________-. 6-11- 6-12 6-11
V. Fortified Positions --------
_-_-_-__---- ____- __- 6-13- 6-16 6-13
VI. Intelligence --_-_____-_____ ______________ 6-17- 6-21 6-15
VII. Security -__________________________________- 6-22- 6-29 6-17
VIII. Counterinsurgency Operations __-_______-- - - __ 6-30- 6-34 6-22
CHAPTER 7. DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
Section I. Introduction-_-_________________________ 7-1 - 7-2 7-1
II. Engineer Responsibilities in the Defense-______- 7-3 - 7-9 7-5
III. Defense Against Nuclear Attack ___._---_-___- 7-10- 7-13 7-9
IV. Engineer Responsibilities in Retrograde
Movements ---------
_-__--------_______.___ 7-14- 7-19 7-10
CHAPTER 8. ENGINEER REORGANIZATION FOR
COMBAT __________-_____________________ 8-1 - 8-7 8-1
9. COMMUNICATIONS_________________________ 9-1- 9-7 9-1
10. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT______________.10-1 -10-7 10-1
11. TRAINING ____________.__________________.-11-1 -11-8 11-1
APPENDIX A, REFERENCES--_______________________________________ A-1
B. RECOMMENDED OUTLINE FOR AN SOP_____________. B-1
C. EXAMPLES OF ENGINEER ANNEXES TO
A DIVISION OPERATION PLAN _______--__--_--_---_- C-1
D. ORDERS TO THE DEMOLITION GUARD
COMMANDER AND TO THE DEMOLITION
FIRING PARTY D-1
.____________________._
INDEX ______-_______-------------------- -- .-------- ___ Index-1

* This manual supersedes FM 5-135, 30 November 1961.

AGO 5888A ;
FM 5-135

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1-1. Purpose and Scope both limited and general war, either nuclear
a. This manual provides guidance for com- or nonnuclear, and to cold war or counterin-
manders, staff officers, and. other personnel surgency operations.
concerned with the employment of the divi-
sional engineer battalions organic to the infan- 1-2. Modification
try, mechanized, and armored divisions. Users of this manual are encouraged to sub-
b. This manual covers the organization, mis- mit recommended changes or comments to im-
sions, capabilities, training, and operations of prove it. Comments should be keyed to the
the divisional engineer battalions and their specific page, paragraph, and line of the text
components. When used with FM 5-1, which in which change is recommended. Reasons
provides basic doctrine governing the activi- should be provided for each comment to in-
ties of engineer troop units in a theater of op- sure understanding and complete evaluation.
erations, coverage is in sufficient detail to Comments should be forwarded directly to the
guide commanders and staffs in the accom- Commanding Officer, U. S. Army Combat De-
plishment of the unit mission. The material velopments Command Engineer Agency, Fort
presented is applicable without modification to Belvoir, Va. 22060.

INF

I I l l I I . I I

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1AGO 5888A SUPPLY

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Figure 1-1. Infantry division.

AGO 6888A 1-1


FM 5-135

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7D71 Fii t]Nt ENGR Fit] Kt MD

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1-2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
I~888A
FM 5-135

CHAPTER 2
DIVISIONAL ENGINEER BATTALIONS

2-1. Organization of friendly forces and to impede the mobility


The infantry division engineer battalion is of the enemy
organized under TOE 5-155 and the niechan- b. To fight as infantry when required.
ized and armored division engineer battalions
are both organized under TOE 5-145. Each 2-3. Capabilities and Limitations
consists of a headquarters and headquarters The divisional engineer battalion has the
company, four identical combat engineer com- following capabilities and limitations:
panies (three at reduced strength), and one
bridge company (fig. 2-1). a. Capabilities.
(1) Engineer staff planning for the divi-
2-2. Mission sion.
a. To increase the combat effectiveness of (2) Command of organic and attached
the division by performing tasks of construc- engineer troops.
tion and destruction to improve the mobility (3) Construction, repair, and mainte-

ENGRBN

HGC H ENGR
CO

1. The bridge company may be organized with two bridge platoons in place of the heavy raft platoons. Each bridge platoon hoa
a platoon headquarters and two bridge sections.

Figure 2-1. Organizational chart, divisional


engineer battalion.

AGO 5888A 2-1


FM 5-135

nance of roads, bridges, fords, and 2-4. Equipment


culverts.
Support of hasty and deliberate
(4) The divisional engineer battalion is equipped
(4)
Support of hasty and deliberate with the weapons, construction equipment,
stream crossing operations with
boats,
and rafts
bridgescoordina- handtools, power tools, bridging, and other
tion of organicfts, and briattahed engs;
ineer equipment that will enable it to accomplish
t roopssupport ofin deliberate stream day-to-day engineer missions in support of the
roops in support of deliberate stream
crossings. division. In situations where the battalion
lacks the means to provide the engineer sup-
(5) Construction of bridging for passage port required by the division, the next higher
of short gaps. - command echelon provides additional equip-
(6) Emplacement and removal of ob- ment or additional engineer units to accom-
stacles, including mines and booby- plish the mission. The applicable TOE should
traps. be consulted to determine the amount and
(7) Preparation and execution of demo- types of equipment authorized in the various
litions including atomic demolition units of the battalions. Frequently, a theater
munitions (ADM). commander or other major commander au-
(8) Performance of engineer reconnais- thorizes additions to or deletions from the
sance and intelligence missions. equipment of organizations under his com-
(9) General construction, including con- mand; therefore, the equipment may vary
(9)Gestruction of airfield and heliports from command to command. Army aviation
support for the engineer battalion is provided
(10) Water purification. by the aviation battalion of the division or
(11) Providing specialized equipment and higher command echelons. Engineer companies
personnel to facilitate the assault of receive army aviation support from the sup-
fortified positions. ported unit or the division aviation battalion.
(12) Technical assistance to other troops
of the division in construction of ob- 2-5. Employment
stacles, fortifications, emplacements,
camoustacles, fortificaeptions, emplaviceme and a. The engineer battalion is a self-contained
camouflage, deception devices, and unit designed to provide engineer combat sup-
other
other engineer
engineer matters,
matters, including
including rec-
rec- port in the forward portion of the battle area.
ommendations for employment often- It has the ability to overcome a great variety
gineer troops. -Construction of these of obstacles to the movement of the division
facilities when required.facilities whenrequiredand hence contributes to the mobility of the
(13) Organizational maintenance of equip- division and its capability to maneuver in of-
ment organic to the battalion. fensive action. In defense, retrograde, or de-
(14) Performing missions in support of nial operations, it has the capability to ma-
counterinsurgency operations. terially impede the progress of enemy ground
(15) Fight as infantry when required. operations by blocking critical avenues of ap-
proach.
b. Limitations.
b. The battalion's combat engineer com-
(1) Has a limited capacity for earthmov- panies are placed in direct support of or at-
ing and requires equipment and per- tached to the brigades and combat elements
sonnel support for projects involving of the division. The headquarters company and
considerable earth-work. the bridge company contain engineer construc-
(2) When assigned an infantry combat tion equipment and stream crossing equipment
role, requires fire support (mortars with operators and specialists to supplement
and artillery), forward observers, the combat engineer companies for specific
and time to reorganize for combat. tasks.
2-2 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

c. Combat engineer companies may be asso- h. Special requirements for engineer effort
ciated with particular brigades so as to in- should be considered when planning for air-
crease operational efficiency. The company borne or airmobile operations. Engineer sup-
commander serves as the engineer staff officer port may be required at loading areas and
of the brigade. access routes thereto. The extent of engineer
d. When placed in direct support of a bri- effort that is or will be required at landing/
drop zones also must be considered so that
gade, the combat engineer company is em-
ployed under centralized control of the engi- sufficient engineers and engineer equipment
neer battalion. It may be attached to a brigade are provided.
for specific operations or when centralized bat- i. When the requirement for engineer sup-
talion control is impracticable. Platoons are port within the division exceeds the capability
placed in direct support of, or attached to, of the divisional engineer battalion, additional
battalion task force units for specific missions. engineer support is provided by the next
higher echelon of command.
e. Engineer teams of less than platoon size higher
(1)echelon of command
The additional engineersupport to
normally are attached to combat elements. (1) The diional engineer support to
This is necessary when specific tasks require the division may range from rein
combat engineer
close' command control. In the offensive, such
forcement
r oof the
tasks may consist of bridging, obstacle breach- strength to the provson of such sup-
ing, or trail cutting. In defense of retrograde, port as bridging, road construction,
the installation of barriers and the employ- debris removal, erection of barriers,
ment of ADM may require mission-type at- mapping and other engineer intel-
tachment.
ligence, survey, camouflage, and de-
ception.
f. Engineer troops engage in limited combat (2) Nondivisional enginer units normally
incident to accomplishment of their normal are placed in support of the division.
missions. Early relief of engineer elements is However, engineer units are attached
made by other combat elements to permit con- when their missions necessitate close
tinuation of engineer missions. The division command control in execution. River
commander will engage the engineer battalion crossing missions, barrier demolition
in sustained ground combat when the exigen- tasks, or use of ADM are examples
cies of the situation so require their employ- of such situations. All engineer com-
ment. It is desirable to preserve unit integrity. bat support provided to the division
Fire support, forward observers, and time to is coordinated by the division engi-
reorganize for combat are essential (ch 8). neer.
g. When the armored cavalry squadron or 26 Mobi
task organizations are committed on separate
missions, an appropriate engineer element is The divisional engineer battalion is 100 per-
attached to the force. Attached engineers cent mobile with organic transportation. It is
should be mounted in vehicles similar in type 90 percent air transportable in 50,000 pound
to those of the supported force to insure the lift aircraft in Phase III of an airborne opera-
same tactical mobility. tion.

AGO 6888A 2-3


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 3
HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY

3-1. Organization (3) Assistant division engineer.


Headquarters and headquarters company of(5) (4) S1.
S2
the infantry divisional engineer battalion is or-
ganized under TOE 5-156; that of the armored (6) S3.
and mechanized divisional engineer battalions (8) E .
under TOE 5-146. The three units are sim- (9) Surgeon
ilarly organized (fig. 3-1) and each consists of
two elements; a battalion headquarters. and a (10) Chalain.
headquarters company. headquarters
(11) Communications
company.
(12) Sergeant major. officer.
(12) Sergeant major.
a. Battalion Headquarters. The battalion
b. Headquarters Company. Headquarters
headquarters consists of- -company consists of a company headquarters,
(1) Battalion commander (also division an equipment platoon, an ADM platoon, and
engineer). the personnel of the following battalion head-
(2) Executive officer. quarters sections:

DSEC OP SEC
OPiSECSEC DIV ENGR
co HO PLAT
ADM

NOTE: This chart portrays the source and distribution of personnel in headquarters and headquarters company.
It is not a chain of command chart.

Figure 3-1. Headquarters and headquarters company,


divisional engineer battalion.

AGO 5888A 3-
3--1
FM 5-135

(1) Administration. c. When the battalion is committed to a com-


(2) Operations. bat role, headquarters and headquarters com-
(3) Intelligence. pany functions as an infantry, infantry
(4) Supply. (mechanized) or armored infantry battalion
(5) Division engineer. headquarters (ch 8).
(6) Communications.
(7) Maintenance. 34. Equipment
(8) Medical.
Major items of equipment in headquarters
3-2. Duties and Functions and headquarters company include-
a. Truck mounted, 1.500 gph, water purifica-
The duties of the battalion commander and tion sets.
his staff and the functions of the staff sections b. 20T, 3/4 cu yd, crane shovels.
are as discussed in FM 5-1 and FM 101-5 and c. Graders.
AR 600-20, AR 611-101, AR 611-112, and AR d. ractor dozers.
611-202. d. Tractor dozers.
e. Pneumatic tool and compressor outfit.
3-3. Capabilities f. 5-T dump trucks.
g. 21/2- and 3/4-T cargo trucks.
a. Headquarters and headquarters company h. Generator sets, 1.5 to 10 KW.
provides-
(1) Staff planning of division engineer
operations and supervision of organic 3-5. Operation
and attached engineer troops. The battalion commander organizes and
(2) Potable water for the division locates his headquarters in a manner best
through the operation of up to five suited for carrying out his staff and command
water points. functions.
(3) Engineer reconnaissance and intelli- a. Location. In addition to other considera-
gencegence
for
for the
the engineer
engineer battalion
battalion and
and tions, the headquarters is located to facilitate
the division.
4Lmth
division.
dADMsuppotote communication with the division command
(4) Limited ADM suppolt
supportt to
(4)hi ty the
the division.
divasi post, subordinate units, the support command,
This capability may be increased by
the attachment of TOE ince500 ADM b and other supporting engineer units. The sit-
uation or the disposition of the division dic-
tates the organization and operation of the
(5) Unit level medical service for the bat- headquarters in one, two, or three echelons.
talion, to include medical care and Fragmentation of the headquarters to the ex-
evacuation, establishment of a bat- tent of impairing effective operation is
talion aid station, and furnishing aid- avoided.
men to companies.
(6) Supplemental construction euipment b. Echelons. Figures 3-2 and 3-3 depict a
and operators to elements of the bat- suggested organization and location of head-
talion. quarters for operations in, two and three eche-
(7) Organizational maintenance and re- lons respectively. The battalion commander
pair service for battalion equipment. may organize his headquarters in two echelons
(8) Radio
and wire communications for when frequent moves are anticipated, to
the battalion. achieve dispersion, to improve communications
and control, or to stay in close touch with an
b. Individuals of this company can fight as operation such as a river crossing. In any of
infantrymen, when required. The company has these situations, the commander retains in the
the capability of defending itself and its in- forward echelon the staff officers and other per-
stallations against hostile ground attack. sonnel required to assist him in fulfilling his

3-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

command and staff responsibilities. In a fast- ganize the entire headquarters into three eche-
moving situation, the battalion commander Ions to facilitate control and movement.
may be operating with the division commander c. Layout. The battalion command post (CP)
and his command group in the division tactical is laid out to facilitate security, dispersion,
command post. In such a situation, he may or- communications, concealment, movement to and

ENGR BN, FORWARD ENGR BN, REAR

BN CO S4(Responsible for operation of BN, REAR)


BN XO UNIT SUPPLY TECHNICIAN
ADE(at Div Main CP) ENGR EQUIP OFFICER
S1 ENGR EQUIP REPAIR TECHNICIAN
S2 HQ Co XO
RECON OFFICERS LIAISON OFFICER
S3 & ASST S3 EQUIP PLAT LEADER
COMM OFFICER COMM NCO
SURGEON
CHAPLAIN
HO Co CO
ADM PLAT LEADER
SMAJ
CML NCO

NOTE: Battalion forward is located near division main. Battalion rear is generally located
near support command. All personnel and equipment not needed for the operation
of the forward echelon remain with rear echelon.

Figure $-2. Organization of battalion headquartersin


two echelons.

ENGR BN COMD GP ENGR BN, FORWARD ENGR BN, REAR

BN CO BN XO S4
S2 ADE(at Div Main CP) UNIT SUPPLY TECHNICIAN
S3 S1 ENGR EQUIP OFFICER
RECON OFFICERS ASST S3 ENGR EOUIP REPAIR TECHNICIAN
COMM OFFICER SURGEON HO Co XO
CHAPLAIN LIAISON OFFICER
HO Co CO EQUIP PLAT LEADER
ADM PLAT LEADER
SMAJ
CML NCO
COMM NCO

Figure 3S-. Organization of battalion headquarters in


three echelons.

AGO 5888A 3-3


FM 5-135

from the area, and movement within the area. (ADE) is located in the tactical operations
Figure 3-4 illustrates a layout when the CP is center (TOC) at the division main command
in one echelon. The assistant division engineer post.

I/ JPOINT & A

I HELPORT/

\\t
C S e

BN MAINT

Figure S-4. Battalion command post layout-one echelon.

3Q4 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 4
COMBAT ENGINEER COMPANY

4-1. Organization gineer soldiers who are trained to assist in ac-


complishing combat engineer tasks. In the
oper combat engineer ofiscomponent
t hed and armored divisional engineer
operating component of the divisional engineer battalions, the squad personnel and organic
battalion. The combat engineer company of the equipment are mounted in an armored per-
infantry division engineer battalion is organ-d c o ry
TOE 5-157 and those
ized under anized of the mech- sonnel carrier, gvg the squad cross-country
ain tho
undearmTored-157 neoher mc- ,mobility. In the infantry division engineer bat-
anized and armored division engineer batta-
lions are organized under TOE 5-147. Each is talion, the squad personnel and organic equip-
organized into a company headquarters and ment are mounted in dump trucks
three identical engineer platoons, eachl platoon 4-3. Capabilities
consisting of a platoon headquarters and three The engineer company is capable of the
engineer squads (fig. 2-1). Because of the dif-
ference in the mobility of the infantry division
as compared with the mechanized and armored a. Performing combat engineer tasks, includ-
divisions, there are some differences in equip- ing repair and maintenance of roads, bridges,
ment and personnel of the engineer companies, ferries, fords, and culverts. When augmented
principally in the squad vehicle. with additional engineer heavy equipment, it
can execute more complex tasks such as the
4-2. Mission construction of roads and airlanding facilities.
a. The combat engineer company is equipped b. Emplacing and removing obstacles, in-
and trained to fulfill its mission of increasing eluding mines and boobytraps; and assisting
the combat effectiveness of major subordinate other troops in these tasks as required.
combat formations by means of general and c. Construction and operation of rafts and
special engineer work. It performs the tactical bridges in river crossing operations.
engineer staff planning, supervision, and ex- d. Preparing and executing demolitions, in-
ecution of the engineer combat support mission cluding assistance in the emplacement of
at brigade or task force level. It also under- atomic demolition munitions.
takes and carries out combat missions when re- e. Assisting other troops in the construction
quired. and emplacement of fortifications, camouflage,
and deceptive devices.
b. The platoon is the principal working com- f. Assisting in the assault of fortified posi-
ponent of the combat engineer company and tions.
generally operates as a major element of the g. Conducting engineer reconnaissance.
company. It can also operate independently to h.Providing technical advice to supported
provide the engineer support normally required organizations on engineer matters. This in-
by a battalion task force when it is furnished cludes recommendations for employment of en-
equipment support by its parent company or gineer troops.
the battalion.
c. The squad is the basic operating and work- 4-4. Equipment
ing unit of the platoon. It consists of specialists The major items of equipment in each com-
in combat construction and demolition and en- pany are listed in table 4-1.
AGO 6888A 4-1
FM 5-135

Table 4-1. Major items of company equipment A typical disposition would be the engineer
Engr Co platoons, with assault bridging, located imme-
Element Item
Engr Co. MeDh
Inf Di.v Armed DMech
v
dr
diately to the rear of the leading companies in
Eng rBn EngrBn the task force. The company minus would be
located in the vicinity of the brigade or task
CO Hq Armored personnel carrier
(APC) - .--------- X force command post (CP). The company com-
Combat engineer vehicle mander of the engineer company supporting a
(CEV) ______-______._ - X X combat formation acts as unit engineer on the
Pneumatic tool and air staff of the force commander.
compressor outfit, tlr
mtd __________________-- X X d. Each of the three platoons of the company
Carpenter tool kit, squad _ X X is capable of performing combat engineer sup-
Truck, cargo, 2semi-ton X X port tasks including earthmoving, demolitions,
Truck, dump, 5-ton ------ X X and pioneering. The platoon capability for sup-
Plat Chain saw _--__-.-__-____------ - X port of armored operations is built around the
Hq Electric pioneer tool outfit -_ X X armored vehicles. When reinforced with the
Scoop loader -_--_---.-----. X X assault bridge and a combat engineer vehicle,
Truck, dump, 5-ton -____ X X
Carpenter tool kit, the platoon may be used to support armored
platoon _ __-- .--__-----_ X X task forces under fire. When reinforced with a
Pioneer tool kit, platoon _-_ X X dozer, graders, dump trucks, and an air com-
Demolition equipment set _ X X pressor, the platoon supports defensive opera-
Each Armored personnel tions or performs general engineer work.
Sqd carrier . ....--
-t-ons X or gai_
Chain saw _-__-__ i__-_ X ------- e. The platoon usually is employed as a part
Carpenter tool kit, squad X X of the company but it may be given a mission
Pioneer tool kit, squad __ X X of the company but it may be given a mission
Truck, dump, 5-ton ------- X .------- in direct support of a battalion-size task force.
Demolition equipment set -_ X X The platoon leader of the supporting engineer
Detecting set, mine, platoon is the engineer staff officer for the sup-
metallic __________-__--- X X porting task force.

f. Because of the limited capability of the


4-5. Employment squad, it usually is employed as a working com-
a. The engineer company with organic equip- ponent of the platoon. There are times, how-
ment is designed to provide combat engineer ever, when the 'squad may be given an inde-
support to a brigade or brigade-size task force pendent mission.
engaged in combat operations. It is reinforced
with general or special engineer equipment 4-6. The Combat Engineer Vehicle (CEV)
from the headquarters company or bridge com- The CEV (fig. 4-1) is one of the most im-
pany when necessary to increase the effective- portant items of mission equipment of the
ness of the support rendered. combat engineer company.
b. The company normally is employed as a a. Capabilities. The CEV provides engineer
unit in a direct support role but it may be at- troops in the forward combat area an armor-
tached to a major subordinate combat forma- protected means of accomplishing pioneer
tion for separate operations. One reinforced tasks under hostile fire in support of combat
engineer company normally supports each com- elements. Typical tasks which may be assigned
mitted brigade or similar size task force. to the CEV are-
c. The engineer company supporting a unit (1) Destruction or removal of obstacles
in offensive operations should be placed well by use of the demolition gun, bull-
forward in the tactical column in order that it dozer, winch, or boom.
may be available for essential engineer tasks. (2) Construction of roadblocks and other

4-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

obstacles by use of the bulldozer, assault of fortified areas or in combat


winch, or boom. in built-up areas.
(3) Passage of short dry gaps, antitank (10) Clearance of rubble and debris in
ditches, and craters by earthfilling built-up areas to permit passage of
using the bulldozer. other combat vehicles.
(4) Placement of fixed span assault (11) Construction of tank and gun em-
bridging or fascines for passage of placements.
short gaps. (12) Launching explosive mine clearing
(5) Preparation of abutments for the devices in the assault breaching of
armored vehicle launched bridge mineelds.
(AVLB). b. Limitations. Although the CEV is a
(6) Removal of barbed wire entangle- heavily armored vehicle and carries a 165-mm
ments by dozing or running over the demolition gun, it is designed for use as a
combat support vehicle, not as a tank. When
wire obstruacleion ofppracesndn employed in forward areas subject to enemy
(7) Construction of approaches and en- tank or antitank fire, it requires protection by
try and exit points for mobile float- tanks or other antitank weapons. The crew of
ing assault bridge equipment (MAB) the CEV is trained to utilize the vehicle in
and amphibious vehicle~s. combat construction and demolition tasks, not
(8) Construction of combat roads and in armor tactics. The CEV should be used only
trails. for those combat engineer tasks required to
(9) Destruction of strong points in the support assault elements.

Figure 4-1. Combat engineer vehicle; % left side view.


AGO 6888A 4--
FM 5-135

CHAPTER 5
BRIDGE COMPANY

5-1. Organization 5-2. Mission


The bridge company of the divisional engi- The mission of the divisional engineer
neer battalion is organized under TOE 5-148 bridge company is to-
and is the same for the armored, mechanized, a. Increase the effectiveness of division en-
and infantry divisions. It consists of a com- gineer companies by providing equipment and
pany headquarters, an armored vehicle technical personnel to load, maintain, trans-
launched bridge (AVLB) platoon, and either port, erect, and operate tactical assault stream
two identical heavy raft platoons (mobile float- crossing equipment.
ing assault bridge/ferry equipment (MAB)) b. Engage in nontactical independent bridg-
or two identical bridge platoons (M4T6 or ing or ferry missions, when required, using its
Class 60 bridging) (fig. 2-1). organic equipment.

: i'

Figure 5-1. One hundred meter MAB erected in


15 minutes by 36 men.

AGO 5888A 5-1


FM 5-135

c. Undertake and carry out limited combat a. Providing heavy float bridging.
missions when required. (1) When equipped with mobile floating
assault bridge/ferry (MAB) equip-
5-3. Capabilities ment.
The divisional engineer bridge company has (a) One class 60 float bridge up to 149
the following capabilities: meters long (fig. 5-1) or,

Figure 5-2. M48 tank on MAB ferry.

5--2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:5-2 AGO


AGO 5888A
6S88A
FM 5-135

5
·
-

._~~~~~~~~: ::s~,
Figure 5-4. Class 60 raft propelled by two 27-foot bridge erection boats.
,5_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-·-.:;.:1
i _ \ _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'il.

D
:-_

"
.

_~~~~" i·E· : 'a:


_
_
3~~~~-9-1
FM 5-135

(b) Two class 60 float bridges each up b. Providing armored vehicle launched
to 85 meters long or, bridging capable of crossing class 60 loads
(c) Four class 60, self-propelled ferries over wet or dry gaps up to 18 meters wide
(fig. 5-2). (fig. 5-5).
(2) When equipped with M4T6 bridge c. Providing light stream crossing equip-
equipment. ment as follows:
(a) Class 50 floating bridge up to 170 (1) Eighteen pneumatic assault boats to
meters long or, cross one infantry company.
(b) Eight class 50 rafts (fig. 5-3) or, (2) Light tactical raft sets to provide
(c) Short fixed spans from 4.5 to 13.7 (a) Two 4-ponton, 3-bay rafts, class 12
meters long. in currents up to 21/2 meters per
second (fig. 5-6), or
(3) When equipped with class 60 bridge (b) Up to 34.8 meters of floating bridge,
equipment, class 11 in currents up to 21/2 me-
(a) Up to 164 meters of class 60 float- ters per second, or
ing bridge or, (c) Eight pontons powered by out-
(b) Four class 60 rafts (fig. 5-4). board -motors to be used as storm
(c) Short fixed spans from 7 to 18 me- boats for an assault crossing of an
ters long. infantry company.

Figure 5-6. Light tactical raft powered by


four outboard motors.

5-4 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

d. Providing organizational maintenance see FM 17-1. The armored vehicle launched


for its organic vehicles and engineer equip- bridge is employed primarily in assault cross-
ment. ings of short gaps by combined arms teams.
e. Defending itself and its installations It is particularly suitable for spanning nar-
row streams, antitank ditches, craters, canals,
partially blown bridges, and similar obstacles
5-4. Mobility which normally would slow the momentum of
attack. The AVLB may be placed over exist-
The bridge company is 100 percent mobile ing bridges or portions of existing bridges to
in organic transportation. increase the load-carrying capacity of these
bridges. It may also be used with components
5-5. Equipment of the class 60 bridge to rapidly construct
The bridge company contains the major rafts. In instances where the flank of friendly
items of equipment listed below. forces is on a narrow stream or defile, the as-
a. Mobile floating assault bridge/ferry, or sault bridge may be used in making a flanking
floating bridge, M4T6, or floating bridge, class movement. The AVLB should be left in place
60, across the gap only as long as it is needed. It
vehicle launched bridges and
Armored may be left in place to permit the crossing of
launchersr units following the assault elements, or to pro-
*auncherssaultbs. vide routes for subsequent logistical or other
c. Assault boats. tactical movement. In this event, an assembled
d. Floating bridge, light tactical raft. assault bridge from the AVLB platoon is
e. Outboard motors. brought forward and placed on the launcher.
f. Bridge erection boats, when equipped The launcher then moves to rejoin the sup-
with the M4T6 or the class 60 floating bridge. ported assault unit. Assault bridging which
g. Crane shovel, truck mounted. has been left in place becomes the responsi-
bility of corps or army engineers. The deci-
sion to leave the assault bridge in place rests
i. Radios. with the crossing force commander, who nor-
j. Semitrailers, 60- and 25-ton. mally coordinates with the division comman-
k. Bridge trucks, 5-ton. der and the division engineer. The division
I. Truck tractors, 10-ton. engineer arranges transfer of responsibility
with appropriate engineer units. Resupply of
AVLB's to the engineer battalion and to tank
battalions is the responsibility of the division
support command.
a. General. The engineer bridge company is
c. Employment of Floating Equipage. The
designed to provide wet and dry gap crossing divisional engineer battalion can support the
divisional engineer battalion can support the
equipment and technical personnel to the com- river-crossing needs of the division only for
bat engineer companies of the battalion in
support
support of
of brigade
brigade or
or task
task force
force operations.
operations. small-scale operations. Normally, the division
engineers are needed to support the assault
Normally, platoons or sections of platoons are
attached
the combat
to engineer companies. units on the far shore, and corps engineer
However, gapt
However, gap crossing
crossing problems
problems are
are variesd
varied, units, attached to, or in support of the divi-
and each situation requires suitable tailoring shon, construct and operate the necessary
of the support element. heavy vehicular bridges and rafts. The divi-
sional bridge company's floating equipage nor-
b. Employment of the AVLB. In addition to mally is used in the assault and division en-
the AVLB's of the engineer battalion, each gineers are given riverline missions which
tank battalion has two bridges and launchers. would release them as soon as possible to their
For details of armor employment of the bridge normal far shore tasks.
AGO 5888A 5-5
FM 5-135

CHAPTER 6
OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Section I. INTRODUCTION
6-1. The Engineers in the Offense ordinate elements of the division may use all
the forms of maneuver in the attack. Infiltra-
a. This chapter provides guidance for em- tion is a technique of movement used in con-
ployment of the divisional engineer battalion junction with the several forms of maneuver.
and attached engineer units in support of of- The exploitation is an offensive operation
fensive combat. The engineer battalions or- which may follow a successful penetration or
ganic to the infantry, mechanized, and ar- envelopment. The pursuit is an extension of a
mored divisions operate in like fashion modi- successful exploitation.
fled by the nature and activities of the combat
forces of which they are a part. Engineer d. A movement to contact may be required
units may be placed in direct support of, or to place the division in position to close with
attached to, brigades or task forces in the the enemy. It may take place during the pe-
offense, although some situations may require riod between the loss of enemy contact and
centralized control of all engineer effort at the time it is regained (as in a pursuit or ex-
division level. When early commitment of the ploitation) or when the division moves from
reserve is anticipated, appropriate engineer a rear area to engage the enemy.
support must be provided. e. An additional objective from the friendly
b. Because of the varied combinations force during the advance is to gain an ad-
within each division of tank-heavy, infantry- vantage over the enemy that will facilitate fu-
heavy, or balanced brigades, elements of the ture operations. Maximum advantage of posi-
engineer battalion must be tailored to best sup- tion at the time of contact is achieved by
port each brigade or task force. This tailoring properly organizing the force for combat and
is dependent on the mission, actual or poten- maneuvering the force components. During the
advance the division commander distributes
tial obstacles, and composition of the combat advance the division commander distributes
formation. his forces to provide maximum speed and con-
trol consistent with adequate security. The
c. Offensive operations are those undertaken movement to contact is conducted generally on
to carry the battle to the enemy. The purpose a broad front, usually in multiple columns.
of the offense is to destroy enemy forces, to The advance is pushed forward aggressively
deprive the enemy of required resources, to to gain the objective before the enemy can
seize territory or terrain, to develop enemy react..
dispositions, or to divert the enemy's atten- f. The movement to contact terminates
tion from other areas. The basic forms of of- major enement to contac t terminates
. The
fensive maneuver are the penetration and the ployment and coordinated effort
ployment and coordinated effort of of the
the divi-
divi-
envelopment. The frontal attack is a variation . For additional details on the movement
of the penetration: a double envelopment and to contact, see FM 61-100.
a turning movement are variations of the en-
velopment. The distinction in the division g. The coordinated attack of the division is
form of maneuver exists primarily in the in- characterized by fire and maneuver, which are
tent of the division commander since the sub- combined and controlled to create a prepon-
AGO 5888A 6-1
FM 5-135

derance of combat power that culminates in (6) Providing route information neces-
a powerful and violent assault in the decisive sary for the preparation of traffic cir-
area. culation plans and implementing
engineer requirements developed by
h. Once the attack is launched, the division engineer requirements develped by
attempts to gain its objective in the shortest e p
possible time. To insure rapid execution, the (7) Assisting in flank security through
commander exploits all means of combat the use of demolitions, minefields, and
power. obstacles.
(8) Providing engineer intelligence data.
6-2. Engineer Effort, Assistance, and Control (9) Providing potable water.
a. Economy of Engineer Effort. There are c. Assistance to Divisional Engineers. The
seldom enough engineer troops available to corps commander allocates support to the divi-
accomplish all the pioneer work necessary to sion, including engineer units, based upon the
assist the advance of the combat arms and overall corps mission and situation. At the be-
their supporting elements. To insure that max- ginning of an offensive operation, a corps en-
imum engineer effort is available for those gineer combat group may assume some of the
tasks which require engineer skills and equip- divisional engineer battalion's responsibilities
ment, troops of combat arms and services par- in the division rear area, progressively extend-
ticipate as required in such pioneer tasks as: ing its work line forward to relieve the divi-
(1) Expedients for stream crossings. sional battalion. Elements of a corps engineer
(2) Preparation of protective obstacles combat group or the entire group may be at-
and deception devices. tached to a division for an operation requiring
(3) Minefield laying and breaching. an unusual amount of engineer support; for
(4) Expedient road and culvert repair. example, a river crossing. The attached engi-
(5) Execution of camouflage projects. neer units return to the control of the parent
(6) Reduction of obstacles. unit at the conclusion of the operation. In a
(7) Control of fires in forested or major attack, the corps engineer combat group
built-up areas. may designate one or more of its combat bat-
b. Typical Engineer Tasks. The division en- talions as direct support battalions, operating
gineer recommends the disposition of engineer with the division and often in the same areas
troops for each operation. Such disposition as elements of the divisional engineer bat-
normally is made by assigning engineers spe- talion. Such units remain under group control.
cific tasks such as- Except for special operations, it normally is
(1) Conducting engineer reconnaissance. desirable for corps engineer units, under pa-
rent unit control, to support the division on an
(2) Locating, marking, and removing area basis. Boundaries between the divisional
and corps engineer units are established in-
(3) Assisting forward movement of the formally to denote the forward working limit
combat arms and supporting elements of the supporting engineer unit. Such working
by repairing roads, removing ob- limits eliminate unnecessary concentration of
stacles, and helping them cross gaps, nondivisional troops in forward areas. Specific
streams, rivers, and passage through missions forward of a working limit, such as
defiles. bridge or road construction and maintenance,
(4) Constructing airlanding facilities for are made on a task basis. The size of the engi-
troop movements, supply and evacua- neer elements attached or supporting is gov-
tion. erned by the anticipated strength necessary to
(5) Opening 'and improving roads, trails, reduce obstacles and to support the advance of
bridges, and fords for troop move- the attacking forces. When necessary, nondivi-
ment, supply and evacuation. sional engineers may be further- attached to

6-2 AGO 6888A


FM 5-135

brigades. Regardless of the seniority of sup- in the operation. It is the responsibility of the
porting engineer unit commanders, the corn- supporting units to establish and maintain
mander of the divisional engineer battalion liaison with the supported organization. Liai-
remains the division engineer and directs the son between adjacent units is established as
engineer work in the division area through directed by the senior commander-usually
liaison with the supporting units or through each unit is charged with maintaining liaison
recommendations to the division commander. with the unit to the right. The assistant divi-
sion engineer is the chief liaison agent between
d. Control. It is essential that the engineers the engineer battalion 'and division headquar-
be in close contact with the committed units. ters. Liaison functions between the supporting
Proximity enables them to anticipate the needs combat engineer company and a brigade are
of the attacking troops, and to have engineer performed by personnel designated by the com-
support available for meeting those needs pany commander, usually the company execu-
promptly. The division engineer recommends tive officer. The liaison office is familiar with
the disposition of engineer troops and equip- the capabilities and operations of both units
ment for all phases of the offensive operation and keeps himself informed on all plans and
and recommends appropriate changes in dis- operations to give reliable and up-to-date in-
position as needed. Liaison between support- formation and advice to both commanders. If a
ing and supported units and between adjacent further breakdown of engineer elements is
units during the attack assures cooperation necessary, liaison is established with their sup-
and coordination among all units participating ported organizations.

Section II. MOVEMENT TO CONTACT AND ATTACK


6-3. Engineers in the Movement to Contact is established. Each column of the
a. General. A division moving to contact in main body is responsible for its own
an independent operation normally is organ- security.
ized into a covering force, an advance guard, (4) Flank and rear security forces pro-
a main body, and security forces. As a general tect the main body from ground ob-
rule, a division does not conduct offensive op- servation and surprise attack.
erations alone, but participates as a part of a (5) The division engineer recommends
larger force. In these cases, in a movement to disposition of available engineer
contact, the larger force provides and controls troops and equipment (figs. 6-1 and
the covering force. 6-2) based on the scheme of maneu-
ver announced by the division cornm-
(1) The mission assigned the covering mander. He recommends appropriate
force is to develop the enemy situa- changes in dispositionas the need
tion and prevent unnecessary delay arises. Engineers may be used in the
of the main body. It accomplishes its advance guard and in the flank and
mission well forward of the main rear security forces as well as in the
body. main body. If the engineer battalion
(2) The advance guard maintains contact is unable to perform all the engineer
between the main body and the cover- work required, the division com-
ing force and expedites movements of mander may request reinforcements.
the main body. In this case, additional engineer units
are placed in support of the divisional
(3) Units of the main body are organized engineer battalion by corps or army
for combat and positioned to permit
maximum flexibility for employment b. Specific Engineer Duties. During the
during the advance and after contact movement to contact, speed is essential. Max-
AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

Elm (+)
COVERING FORCE

tt B
I -I)-

1 1ADVANCE GUARD

± I

GUARD MAIN BODY GUARD

GUARD.,r
R~~~~~~~~~~~~,EAR
Figure 6-1. Engineer battalion disposition for the movement to
contact of a division operating alone.
6-4 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

imum use of existing road nets and avenues in the passage of defiles; and constructing by-
of approach is emphasized. Early seizure of passes.
critical terrain is also important. Nuclear c. Reconnaissance During the Movement to
fires, including atomic demolition munitions Contact. Engineer reconnaissance during the
(ADM), which is an engineer responsibility, movement to contact is performed initially by
may be used in conjunction with other nuclear reconnaissance teams from battalion head-
fires to provide added security by blocking quarters who often accompany armored cav-
enemy avenues of approach. Other engineer alry security and reconnaissance units. These
duties in the advance include conducting re- teams provide the division engineer with
connaissance; opening and improving roads, early, reliable engineer intelligence of the area
trails, and bridges for troop movement, supply over which the division is to advance. Routes
and evacuation; reducing obstacles; assisting of advance are thoroughly examined for serv-

FEBAc ~ - 4 ) FEBA

I I

DS DS

GS

Figure 6-2. Engineer battalion disposition in the


attack; infantry division.

AGO 5888A 65
6-5
FM 5-135

iceability, type, condition, location of critical obstacle, whether it is a complex barrier or


points, alternate routes, mines, and condition a minefield, are determined by the capability
and types of bridges. Route information is for- of the supporting engineer element. The loca-
warded to higher headquarters as it becomes tion of the passage(s) is determined by the
available. The reconnaissance teams make an tactical plan, terrain, enemy position, and the
estimate of engineer work to be done and of extent of the obstacles. Road gaps which can-
engineer materials available. Estimates of work not be bypassed are hastily repaired or
to be completed and time factors are contin- bridged. While conducting these tasks the en-
uously forwarded to highway traffic headquar- gineers are armed with their individual and
ters. The on-the-ground reconnaissance must crew-served weapons to resist enemy inter-
be supplemented by air reconnaissance, map ference. Operation of the passage is passed to
and aerial photograph studies, and study of military police as early as possible to relieve
reconnaissance from other elements of the engineers for their primary mission.
command. It is essential that this reconnais-
sance is made prior to the movement, since e Advance Guard. The main force advances
the information gained provides, a basis for behd the covering force. Each column is
the estimate of engineer troops, supplies, and preceded by its own
nishes protection advance
from groundguard which fur-
observation and
equipment necessary to support the operation
and for the selection of routes and the forma- surprise from the front, and provides the time
tion of traffic circulation and traffic control and space necessary to enable the main body
plans. Engineer reconnaissance elements from to deploy for combat. Each advance guard is
an engineer company may accompany the ad- supported by engineer troops and reconnais-
vance party of each leading brigade to pro- sance elements, whose commander is the unit
vide the unit engineer with timely warning of engieer of the advance guard commander.
engineer requirements to the front. Terrain During the advance of a brigade, elements or
which appears favorable to the advance is all of its supporting engineer company nor-
which appears favorable to the advance is mally forms a part of the advance guard.
closely examined, especially for possible enemy mally forms a part of the on foot, they ar
use of mines, obstacles, and defending When these engineers are on foot, they are
use of mines, obstacles, and defending supported by mounted engineer troops with
weapons. tools and equipment, following by bounds, or
d. Covering Forces. Missions assigned to a they are equipped with standard mechanical
covering force are broad in nature and may clearing equipment compatible with the ad-
include developing the enemy situation, at- vance of foot troops. The point engineers nor-
tacking to destroy enemy resistance, seizing mally have mine detectors and probes. They
and holding critical terrain, or containing search for and mark or open a lane through
large enemy units. Engineer support in a cov- an enemy minefield. (Complete clearing is un-
ering force (to include engineer reconnais- dertaken after the combat units have moved
sance teams) should be located well forward to through and there is less urgency.) Within
aid the movement of armor, artillery, and their capabilities, the advance guard engineers
essential infantry support. When a brigade is remove all obstacles which have been left or
operating as the division covering force, it only partially breached by the covering force.
usually has an engineer company and an as- Removal or breaching of complex obstacles
sault bridge element attached. Obstacles which may require additional engineer troops and
cannot be bypassed are breached or sur- equipment which are moved forward from the
mounted. The type of obstacle, the time, and element in support or reserve. The advance
the equipment available determine the method guard engineers maintain contact with the
employed. Breaching usually involves removal point. The remainder of the engineers with
or destruction by demolition. Surmounting an the advance guard, with tools, transportation,
obstacle may require bridging or ramps. The and equipment, move with the support or re-
width and number of passages through an serve, and leave work parties at vital points

6-6 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

where the need for engineer assistance exists routes of advance, and of enemy obstacles and
or is anticipated. These parties rejoin their barriers. Specialized assistance from engineers
units on completing their tasks. The advance may be needed to bypass, breach, or remove
guard engineers may thus be depleted at the obstacles; assault fortified positions; establish
end of the march, and it may be necessary to flank protection; or organize captured ground
renew their strength by substituting new units against counterattacks. Upon gaining control
from the engineers with the main body. When of an area, the construction of advance land-
the main force is not preceded by a covering ing facilities for the division's aircraft will be
force, the advance guard normally is stronger, required. Site selection for these landing facil-
with a corresponding increase in the strength ities is of vital importance to the engineer
of the engineer support. commander, as he must evaluate each potential
f. Flank and Rear Security Forces. Flank site in the light of anticipated engineer effort,
and rear security forces protect the main body materials, and construction-time requirements.
from ground observation and surprise attack. Water points may have to be established over
a wide area because of the'dispersion of the
Engineers support the flank and rear security
forces by being prepared to assist in the attacking units. These water points must be as
mobile as the units they support, and, when
blocking of avenues of approach through the possible, a the vicinity of the sup-
creation of obstacles such as craters, contains possible, are located in the vicinity .of the sup-
creatdion of obstacles such as craters, contai- ported units' class I distribution point. Provi-
anted oodareas,
and floods. inefields, demolished bridges, sion for security of water points must be made.
Routes of advance for combat troops and es-
g. Main Body. The main body contains the sential supplies are established and main-
bulk of the advancing force's combat power. tained.
It is immediately available kto attack the main
enemy force and seize the objective. Support- attack, the reconnaissance teams from engi-
ing engineer troops are so positioned in the
attack, the reconnaissance teams from engi-
neer battalion headquarters continue their
advancing columns of the main body as to per- neral reconnaissance, closely followin the
mit maximum flexibility and communication general reconnaissance, closely following the
with the security elements. They are available forward engineer companies They pay spe ial
for employment during the advance to rein- attention to the routes of advance. When neces-
sary, personal reconnaissance
force or replace the advance guard engineers sary, personal reconnaissance isis made
made by
by the
the
the guard engineers. commander. Engineer companies attached to,
or the flank and rearadguard
forceorrepe
engineers. or in support of, brigades make continuous
reconnaissance of routes of advance, particu-
6-4. Engineers in the Attack larly the main supply route, obstacles, mines,
a. Specific Engineer Duties. The duties of potential water points, and sources of engineer
the engineers in the attack resemble those in materials in their assigned area. Special recon-
the movement to contact (see para 6-3b). As naissance missions are assigned by the bat-
the attack develops, however, new demands talion S2. On the basis of this reconnaissance
for.engineer support arise. Reconnaissance is information, engineer operational plans are
required both before and during the attack, made and means are provided to assist in
especially of the main supply route and other maintaining the momentum of the attack.

Section III. RIVER CROSSINGS

6-5. Basic Considerations attack to destroy the enemy or to seize as-


a. Purpose. The purpose of a river-crossing signed
g objectives
jp
which will protect the cross-
operation is to move the attacking force across
ing of the remainder of the force. In its broad
the river obstacle as rapidly and as efficiently aspects, a river-crossing operation includes-
as possible -so that it may either continue its (1) Advance to the river.
AGO 5888A 6-7
FM 5-135

(2) Final preparation for crossing. tact, a hasty crossing is made on a wide front
(3) The assault. capitalizing on organic assault bridging, am-
(4) Advance on the far side of the river. phibian characteristics of armored carriers,
organic airlift capability, nuclear fires, chem-
ical munitions, and improvised means. Par-
(6) Protection of the bridgehead against ticularly under nuclear conditions, the hasty
counterattack. crossing offers the greatest advantages and
should be sought whenever possible. The delib-
b. Responsibilities. A river crossing is the
tactical commander's responsibility, but the erate crossing is conducted only when a hasty
tactical commander's responsibility, but the
division engineers plans continuously for the crcssing has failed, when a hasty crossing is
support of division river crossings in the of- nfeasible because of the difficulty of the o
fensive. For major crossings, the division must stacle or the strength of enemy defenses, or
bebysupported
corps and army troops, and when ,an offensive is resumed at a river line.
The success of either type crossing will de-
the division engineer makes his requirements The success of ther type crossing will de-
for support known as early as possible to the pnd on the thoroughness of prior planning
corps engineer. In establishing those require- and the commanders application of sound tac-
ments, the division engineer maintains close
liaison with G3 on plans, exploits all sources
of intelligence to determine what may be 6-6. Hasty River Crossings
needed, and performs constant reconnaissance A hasty river crossing must be boldly ex-
to specifically determine the requirements. En- ecuted to gain surprise, to prevent the organi-
gineer tasks in the crossing include guiding zation or strengthening of defenses, and if pos-
the assault echelon from the assembly area sible to seize an existing bridge or other cross-
(attack positions) to the crossing site, op- ing means. Advance elements are crossed by
erating assault boats, assembling and op- any means available. The one overriding con-
erating rafts, assembling and maintaining sideration is that the momentum of the ad-
footbridges and heavy vehicular bridges, re- vance of the division must be maintained. Ag-
moving mines, constructing approach roads, gressive action sometimes results in the
and exits. Plans for crossing a stream over capture of a bridge before the enemy has de-
which the enemy has destroyed all bridges stroyed it. At other times, a damaged bridge
must consider the strength with which the can be repaired, but in most cases military
enemy holds the opposite bank and the char- bridging or rafts will be necessary to cross
acteristics of the river. If airdropped or air- tanks, artillery, other equipment, and supplies.
landed forces are included in a river-crossing Amphibious vehicles may be used to carry
operation, timing of their portion of the opera- personnel and supplies where there are no
tion must be coordinated with timing of the bridges, or to supplement the carrying capa-
assault forces crossing the river. city of the available rafts and bridges. Hasty
crossings must be anticipated, and all avail-
c. Methods of Crossing. When the area able river crossing equipment must be well
through which the division will attack contains forward and used promptly. Speed, surprise,
an unfordable river, plans must include provi- and decentralization of control of specific
sions to cross without loss of momentum or crossing times of subordinate assault forces
significant concentration on either bank. The characterize the hasty crossing. However, traf-
river is approached at maximum speed on a fic control is essential to insure maximum use
broad front. All existing bridges in the zone of crossing means.
of advance are objectives and every attempt
should be made to seize these intact. However,
success of the division plan for crossing the 6-7. Deliberate River Crossings
river is not predicated on the seizure of A deliberate river crossing is a planned
bridges intact. If bridges cannot be seized in- river-crossing operation which requires a

6.-8 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

buildup of the required force and crossing plies across the river. When necessary, the
means to overcome the barrier and enemy de- divisional engineer battalion constructs rafts,
fense of the far shore. Detailed planning, ex- mobile assault or float bridges, and expedient
tensive logistical preparation, and air and bridges. These are used to cross tanks (where
ground superiority are required. Overall plan- fording is impractical), additional personnel,
ning and coordination are performed by corps ammunition, heavy weapons, equipment, and
or higher commands. The division normally necessary vehicles to support the bridgehead.
conducts a deliberate river crossing utilizing Mobile assault ferries and bridging will be
its engineers in the assault phase. The divi- replaced by floating or fixed bridging as soon
sional engineers have the primary mission of as possible to permit the divisional bridge
supporting the assault units during the as- company to retrieve the MAB and continue
sault phase by breaching obstacles, operating to support the division. If the bridge company
boats, preparing entrances and exits for ve- is equipped with the M4T6 or class 60 floating
hicles, and aiding fording and swimming ve- bridge, the bridging normally is left in place,
hicles. The engineer battalions of the divisions and the divisional bridge company immediately
not committed in a deliberate crossing are obtains replacement bridging from the nearest
normally held out to provide engineer support supply source. Although done infrequently, the
when the divisions are committed on the far floating bridging may be disassembled by one
shore. Attached or supporting corps and army of the engineer companies or the bridge com-
engineers usually are responsible for con- pany and reloaded on the bridge trucks, which
structing rafts and bridges. Engineer am- return to the supported organization for the
phibious forces, if available, provide amphibi- next bridging operation. For a detailed dis-
ous assault landing vehicles and increase the cussion of river-crossing equipment, see TM
combat support capabilities on the far shore. 5-210 and FM 31-60.
Normally, before the assault, attached or sup-
porting engineers are assisted by elements of 6-9. Desirable Site Features
the committed division's engineers in such
tasks as performing preliminary work on In the selection of crossing sites, both tacti-
bridge approaches or access roads, and breach- oal and technical requirements are considered
ing obstacles. Elements of equipment and and evaluated. Conflicts between the two types
bridge units usually are attached to the engi- of requirements are normal. The tactical com-
neer companies supporting the assaulting mander weighs all the factors involved and
forces for use in establishing the bridgehead arrives at the best overall solution. The fol-
and for use in support operations on and be- lowing desirable technical characteristics are
yond the far shore. Extensive operations re- sought in crossing sites.
quire backup support from corps or army in a. Raft Sites. Raft sites normally are lo-
the form of additional engineer units with
fix. f g cated downstream from bridge sites. Desirable
fixed, floating, and assault bridging equip- ft I
ment. FM 31-60 discusses in greater detail the features include-
(1) Short, easily constructed approach
employment and duties of the engineers in es h
river-crossing operations.
river-crossing operations. roads to existing road nets on both
(2) A gentle current near each bank at a
6-8. Crossing Means straight reach of river.
Every available crossing means is used to (3) Stream free from snags, rocks,
cross the maximum number of troops and shoals, islands, bars, and other ob-
equipment in the shortest time. The amphib- structions which hinder crossings.
ious landing vehicle such as the landing ve- (4) Cover and concealment on both shores
hicle, tracked, personnel (LVTP), the armored for vehicles or personnel waiting to
personnel carrier, and the helicopter are three be loaded or unloaded.
important means of getting personnel and sup- (5) Banks requiring minimum grading
AGO 6888A 6-9
FM 5-135

for -approaches. Water close to the 6-10. Traffic Control


bank should be deep enough to float ac. Traffic regulation and control plans
a loaded raft without grounding. govern the ground and water movement of
b. Floating-Bridge Sites. Floating-bridge troops, equipment, and supplies throughout
sites should have the following characteristics: the river-crossing operation. Their purpose is
(1) Short, easily constructed approach to expedite the crossing of vehicles and min-
roads to existing road nets on both imize congestion to reduce vulnerability to
sides. enemy fires.
(2) Moderate current. b. The G3 has general staff responsibility
(3) Firm stream banks that can support for insuring that the tactical forces move
abutments. across the river obstacle at the designated
(4) For M4T6 or class 60 floating crossing site and at the required time. The
bridges, assembly areas where pon- primary means of controlling the movement of
tons may be inflated and sections of forces, except the assault elements, is the
bridge assembled and launched. Pon- traffic circulation and control plan. Although
tons usually are launched down- this plan concerns the movement of all ve-
stream from the bridge site. When hicles, it primarily provides for the expeditious
tributary streams exist, it may be routing of combat support and combat service
desirable to float sections to the support traffic.
bridge from launching sites on the
tributary. c. Traffic control planning is a general staff
(5) For the MAB, suitable entrances into responsibility of the G4 and is closely co-
the river. ordinated with the G3 whose tactical require-
(6) Turnarounds for vehicles at unload- ments have priority. Traffic control planning
ing points, is also closely coordinated with the provost
(7) Small variations in water level. Al- marshal, the signal officer, the transportation
lowances must be made for changes officer, the division engineer, and corps en-
in water level and velocity of current gineer liaison personnel.
caused by floods and tides, particu- d. An engineer element exerts technical con-
larly for their effect on the required trol at an engineer regulating point to insure
anchorage. proper use of the river-crossing means, to
(8) Stream bottom in which anchors hold include-
but do not foul. (1) Examination of vehicles to detect im-
c. Amphibious Vehicle Sites. The use of
proper loading with respect to tech-
amphibian vehicles depends on the availability (2) Recommendation for rerouting or
of suitable entrances and exits to and from
the river and stream current within the capa- ting of certain traffic when tech-
bilities of the vehicles to be used. Amphibious
nical difficulties make one or more
of the crossing means inoperable, or
vehicles require banks with a gentle gradient
and with a firm bottom for entering or leaving curtail
curtail its
its carrying
carrying capacity.
capacity.
(3) Assistance to the division traffic head-
the water. Site requirements for special am- quarters in maintaining maximum
phibious tracked landing vehicles, such as the
LVTP, are less stringent than for others. The safe traffic density.
LVTP may be used in currents up to 11 kilo- (4) of
Provision correcttoclassification
of the means
each crossing the division
meters per hour (3 meters per second) and on traffic headquarters.
slopes up to 70 percent. The landing places
must be wide enough to allow amphibiousmust.
ve- b. (5) Prevention
ing sites of congestion at the cross-
hicles to land even though subjected to the
lateral force of the stream current. e. For details see FM 31-60.

610 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

Section IV. GAPS AND DEFILES

6-11. Gap Crossing ant division commander, a brigade


a. Types of Gaps. Gaps found in the combat vidual. Theofficer,
executive S3(G3)or and
a similar
S4(G4) indi-
are
zone include antitank ditches, road craters, intimately involved in the planning
narrow streams, canals, washouts, ravines, for the movement of traffic. The de-
railroad cuts, and other similar obstacles. file
file target zone coordinator
target zone coordinator exercises
exercises
b. Gap Crossing Equipment. The armored absolute control of traffic moving
vehicle launched bridges are used to cross through the target zone.
short gaps in a minimum of time and with (3) Holding areas are waiting spaces for
minimum exposure of bridging personnel to vehicles located on both the near and
enemy fire. They are highly mobile and cap- far side of the target zone. These
able of quick erection so that the crossing of areas are far enough from the defile
forward combat elements may be made to insure against loss of vehicles and
rapidly. Components of the light tactical raft personnel from blast and thermal ef-
set, the M4T6 bridge, or the class 60 bridge fects of an expected enemy nuclear
may be used to construct fixed bridging to weapon directed at the defile site. The
cross gaps of various widths. See TM 5-210 areas may be large enough to accom-
for types and classes. modate battalion-size units but are
c. Gaps may often be spanned rapidly and preferably company-size and should
economically with expedient methods employ- be occupied for a minimal time to
ing, demolitions, nonstandard bridging mate- avoid creating a lucrative target.
rials, or earth-fills emplaced by dozers or (4) Traffic control points (TCP) are crit-
CEVs. ical locations at which traffic is con-
trolled, normally by military police.
6-12. Passage of Defiles Military police patrols are the prin-
a. Identification of Defiles. A defile is any cipal means of traffic control and are
a.*~~~~or ^artificial,
terrain feature, natural * . which.- .used to connect the TCP. TCP and
tends to constrict the passage of troops. A patrols operate under direct control
mountain pass, a gap through a minefield, or of the defile target zone coordinator.
an area between two radioactive areas are (5) Equipment parks are small, well-
examples of defiles. Major forces passing camouflaged areas located near the
through a defile are particularly vulnerable to defile for the central assembly of ve-
air and nuclear attack. hicles, equipment, and materiel for
engineers' use during the defile opera-
b. Terms. Terms used in operations at de- tion
tion.
files are defined as follows:
(1) A target zone is a generally circular c. Control Measures. Control measures are
area centered on and encompassing a planned in advance and employed to insure
defile within which personnel would successful passage of a defile. The following
become casualties and equipment control measures and techniques are essential:
would be destroyed or severly dam- (1) Establish the limits of the target zone.
aged by the effects of a selected
*nemy
enemy nuclear weapon.
nuclear
weapon. (2) Designate defile target zone coordi-
(2) A defile target zone coordinator is an
individual designated by the com- (3) Coordinate with the division traffic
mander to plan and regulate traffic headquarters to regulate traffic out-
flow through the defile target zone. side the area of responsibility of the
This individual is normally an assist- target zone coordinator.
AGO 6888A 6-11
FM 5-135

(4) Designate routes, including alternate and personnel, engineers and engineer
routes for movement. equipment, wreckers, and security
(5) Establish traffic control points and units.
patrols. (10) Figure 6-3 illustrates the control
measures listed in (1) through (9)
(6) Select and establish well dispersed above
holding areas.
(7) Select and establish equipment parks. d. Passage Procedures.
(1) Forces must move into, through, and
(8) Establish and maintain all feasible disperse beyond the target zone with
means of communication among the great speed. Responsibilities for
defile target zone coordinator, the traffic regulation and control must be
traffic control points and patrols, sta- defined clearly. Engineer support re-
tioned wreckers, and the engineers at quired to prepare the defile site for
the points of construction. passage should be accomplished under
(9) Provide the defile target zone coordi- conditions of reduced visibility or at
nator with adequate traffic control night, when practicable. The defile
personnel, communications equipment target zone coordinator is completely

TRAFFIC TRAFFIC RESPONSIBILITY | TRAFFIC


RESPONSIBILITY F DEFILE TARGET ZONE COORDINATOR RESPONSIBILITY
TRAFFIC HQ TRAFFIC HQ

(FHOLDING
R
AREA
(FOR RETURN
MOVEMENT)
EXIT APPROACH
PASSABLE DEFILE SAE
AREA 1 AREA
OF
DI\ rRECTION

SCHEMATIC DEFILE AREA ?A

(FOR RETURN MOVEMENT)

LEGEND | EFFECTIVE RANGE NGjRE


NUCLEAR BURST
( TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT
Note: Not to scale

Figure 6-4. Control measures in passage of a defile.

6-12 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

responsible for planning, regulating, routes, including alternate routes, and


and controlling traffic into, through, preferably near traffic control points,
and beyond the target zone. He estab- to be immediately available. The en-
lishes priorities for movement; sched- gineer must have at his immediate
ule of movement; rates of march; size disposal equipment and materiel,
of march units; and input of traffic located in equipment parks, necessary
into the target zone. Traffic regula- to reduce obstructions to free-moving
tion must be enforced rigidly to in- traffic. Communications must be
sure smooth, constant flow and pre- maintained among the defile target
vent disruption. zone coordinator, wreckers, the traffic
(2) The division traffic headquarters con- control points, the engineer at the de-
trols- file site, the military police or other
(a) Movement of traffic into holding traffic control personnel, the traffic
areas on the near side of the target headquarters (at division level), and
zone. holding areas.
(b) Movement from holding areas (if
e. Alternate Routes. In the planning for a
used) on the far side of the target passage of a defile, alternate routes must be
zone.
zone.
(c) movement beyond holding designated. Alternate routes should take ad-
(c) Normal movement beyond holding vantage of concealed approaches to and
areas on the far side of the target through the target zone if possible. The nego-
zone. tiation of the defile by combat units should
(3) To facilitate rapid movement of not be dependent exclusively on roads. All
traffic through the target
traffic through the zone, the
target zone, the routes must be reconnoitered and made suit-
defile target zone coordinator estab- able for the anticipated volume of traffic.
lishes traffic control points and pa-
trols between the holding areas and f. Deception. Adequate deception measures
the perimeter of the target zone, must be planned to further the success of the
within the target zone, and beyond main defile passage operation. Dummy equip-
the target zone up to holding areas ment should be placed at additional selected
on the far side. Wreckers should be defile sites to deceive the enemy and cause him
stationed at critical points along all to expend weapons on these sites.

Section V. FORTIFIED POSITIONS


6-13. Introduction are contained by minimum forces while the
A fortified area is one containing numerous
main force bypasses them and continues the
defensive works and localities, usually consist- advance to seize more distant and decisive ob-
ing of concrete, steel, or other permanent forti- jectives. If the fortified area
jectives. If the fortified Area is assaulted,
assaulted, re-
fications. The localities and works usually are
serves follow closely behind theisassault re-
echelon
disposed in great depth and width and in such to
t exploit the
the penetration, maintain the con-
a manner as to be mutually supporting. Con- tinuity of the attack, or defend critical areas
against
against counterattack.
counterattack. Reduction
Reduction ofof aa forti-
forti-
taminated areas may be used in conjunctiona siege or an attack
with these defensive works. Such fortifications from
from the
the rear.
rear. Airborne
Airborne forces
forces may
may be
be used
used
constitute one of the most formidable obstacles in conjunction with other attacks of the forti-
that advancing troops may encounter. A pri- fled area principally to block the movement of
mary purpose of a fortified area is to cause large enemy reserve forces and to attack the
the attacker to mass and present a profitable fortifications from the rear. Unless required
target. All commanders must recognize this for use by the attacker, captured enemy arma-
danger. Whenever possible, fortified positions ment and fortifications are moved or destroyed
AGO 5888A 6-13
FM 5-135

to prevent their use if recaptured. Detailed e. Laying smokescreens to conceal opera-


characteristics of fortified areas and tech- tions of the group.
niques of combat in them are contained in FM
f. Standing by as a contingent to replace
"3140. or reinforce, as casualties are normally heavy
6-14. Engineer Support in such operations,
Engineer support in an assault of a fortified 6-15. Reconnaissance
position is fundamentally an application of the
same techniques used for breaching any other to base training, rehearsals, and plans. Before
obstacle of magnitude. In this instance, how- the attack begins, a preliminary engineer
ever, engineer units are used in conjunction
with a reinforced infantry platoon as the basic
study is made of the terrain, bridges, routes
of communication, and artificial obstacles such
assault unit. During the attack, the principal
mission of the engineer is the breaching of the The techniques of attack and the requirements
outer and larger obstacles which protect the for engineer breaching personnel, supplies, and
main fortified position. Specially organized and
equipped infantry squads are charged with study. Information for
study. Information for the
the study may come
study may come
the reduction of weapons emplacements, from various sources, of which ground recon-
bunkers, and pillboxes, and the clearing of naissance is the most satisfactory. For areas
close-in and minor obstacles. Close coordina- beyond the reach of ground reconnaissance
~ion is essential between those engineers parties, information must come from aerial
breaching the line of obstacles and those in-
. si. A photographs and other sources. Ground recon-
fantry squads reducing the fortifications. At- naissance before the attack should, if possible,
ter the fortified line has been breached, the cover obstacles in front of and on the flanks of
primary engineer tasks tois ofand
maintenanc
routes throuthe and
the creation enemy position.
the enemy Minefields are
position. Minefields are reconno-
reconnoi-
maintenance of routes to and through the types of
mc o. r s tte tered to determine their boundaries,
gaps, with a secondary mission of destroying, mines; the presence of gaps in the field and
by demolition, the captured forts or pillboxes. nes; the presence of gaps n the field and
As the assaulting troops break through or en- whether and how they are marked; possible
and the location
detours and approaches; chemical of
velop the enemy position, engineers overcome defending weapons and and adio-
the remaining enemy obstacles. Immediate efendg weapons and chemal and rado-
logical contaminated areas. The reconnaissance
exploitation of success is imperative. If the parties seek to deted areas. The positions of the
position is organized in depth, the attack or
new attack, constituted by another combined obstacles which are best adapted for clearing
arms the must
to team, second
proceed
arms team, must proceed to the second line line operations, either because of their weakness
or because they are not well covered by fire.
of fortifications as soon as possible. The same
Normally,
who are toreconnaissance is done by the troops
breach the obstacles.
techniques are used in reducing a second line who are to breach the obstacles. Parties
Parties are
are
as in the case of the first line. Assault units given definite routes and areas; carefully in-
normally are organized into task groups for
structed in their duties; and, when possible,
Groups
specific functions.specific
Groups may be
may
functions. formed for
be formed for rehearsed. Personnel are briefed on all avail-
the following tasks: able information.
a. Clearance of antipersonnel mines in ad-
vance of breaching personnel. 6-16. Assault Methods
b. Breaching or otherwise neutralizing an The area selected for penetration must be
obstacle. isolated. Nuclear fires are particularly well
suited to this task. Smoke isolates individual
Marking lanesanthroudh.
gapafterthebreak- strongpoints from the observed fires of other
through* fortification. Indirect fire weapons destroy
d. Providing local security. camouflage, neutralize and destroy enemy field

6-14 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

fortifications and artillery, fire on enemy flame may be employed to neutralize a forti-
counterattacks, and screen the movement of flied area or to isolate sections of it. Combat
assault troops. When reducing field fortifica- engineer vehicles and self-propelled flame
tions by the use of explosives, the techniques throwers are used to great advantage against
employed are essentially the same as those fortified positions. Bulldozers are effective in
employed in the reduction of concrete walls. the surmounting or bridging of obstacles, and
Nuclear weapons facilitate the destruction and for constructing land maintaining routes into
neutralization of fortified areas. Nuclear and through the gaps. Other engineer equip-
bursts can create gaps in the fortified area or ment can be used to clear rubble and debris
isolate section of it. ADM may be used to re- resulting from the demolition of fortifications.
duce a fortification if its extent warrants it.
The resulting radiological contamination, how-
If all captured fortifications must be made un-
ever, must be eliminated, or materially re- usable, bulldozers can move earth into the en-
duced, if friendly forces are to occupy or pass trances of the captured fortifications instead
through the area. Toxic chemical agents or of demolishing them.

Section VI. INTELLIGENCE

6-17. Reconnaissance and fensive operation, and result in an acceleration


Counterreconnaissance of associated intelligence and topographic ac-
tivities. Often the advance will be into rela-
ofengineer information is a requirement for tively unfamiliar territory, necessitating rapid
updating of
all elements in an offensive operation. It is as updating of existing
existing maps;
maps; utilization
uti on of
of cap-
cap
continuous and detailed as conditions permit tured enemy maps; substitution of up-to-date
and is performed throughout the operation.
on engineer reconnaissane in the
,Details available; rapid establishment or reestablish-
movement to
movement to contact
contact are
are contained
contained in
in para-
para- ment of survey ground. control; and production
graph 6-3c; in the attack, in paragraph 6-4b. terrain and weather studies. In meeting
these intelligence needs, the battalion com-
b. Counterreconnaissance.Counterreconnais- mander provides intelligence and information
sance operations are measures taken to prevent to three users: division; corps engineer; and
or reduce the effectiveness of hostile observa- the battalion and its subordinate and support-
tion of a force, an area, or an installation, and ing units. The battalion intelligence officer
are supplemented by counterintelligence meas- (S2) assists the commander in these respon-
ures. Engineers contribute to these operations sibilities.
by installing camouflage and deception items.
and counterreconnais-
Reconnaissance a. Responsibility to Division. The division
Reconnaissance
annotyand counterreconnais- engineer furnishes timely information to the
sance cannot be completely separated. Each division commander and his staff on terrain;
may provide information related to the other. minefelds and obstacles; effects of weather;
Forces executing reconnaissance missions may
be employed on
be employed on counterreconnaissance
m
counterreconnaissance at
at the
the effects of nuclear detonation on the terrain;
same time. The order to the force must state their apabilitions; enemyengineer troops,
which mission has priority. Counterreconnais-
sance becomes more difficult as dispersion of technique; routes of communication, and
units increases, sources of usable engineer supplies and equip-
ment. He works closely with the G2 in the
preparation of the intelligence estimates and
6the intelligence annexes (FM 30-5). Spot re-
Intelligence, mapping, geodetic, and terrain ports on enemy engineer materiel should be
data are particularly important during an of- disseminated through the G2 to the units of the
AGO 5888A 615
FM 5-135

division as quickly as possible. The division agencies must allow for both time of physical
engineer assists the G3 in the preparation of transmission and time to clear intermediate
the operation orders on matters pertaining to headquarters before the item of intelligence
engineer intelligence, such as in the engineer reaches the ultimate user. This is especially
and barrier annexes. important in the case of dissemination down-
b. Responsibility
to Corps Engineer. The di- ward; it is also important, in a fast-moving
b. Responsibility to Corps Engineer. The di- situation, with respect to dissemination in any
vision engineer's principal responsibility is to situation,
direction. with respect cases,
In urgent to dissemination
partial or infrag-
any
furnish information on technical intelligence mentary reports may be sent; summaries may
Technical
items.items.
Technical intelligence
intelligence involves
involves the
the be 'sent by wire or radio, in advance of a com-
principles of design and operation, nomencla-
plete report; or incompletely processed infor-
ture, physical characteristics, performance, op-
erational capabilities, and limitations
erational
and capabilities, off
limitations tionary note incorporated into the text of the
foreign material and facilities used by or for
the support of military forces. For further in- port.
formation, see FM 30-16. The duties of the
division engineer are to- 6-20. Sources of Engineer Information
(1) Plan for and supervise the engineer a. The division engineer obtains engineer in-
technical intelligence effort within formation in three ways- by the study of
the division. documents, to include the interpretation of
(2) Organize and direct the system of photographs; from reconnaissance agencies;
acquisition of captured engineer ma- and by interrogation of individuals. More spe-
terial and its evacuation to higher cifically, the sources are as listed below.
echelon engineers. (1) Aerial and ground reconnaissance.
(3) Forward to the corps engineer data (2) Aerial and ground photographs.
developed for the division (a above). (3) Maps.
(4) Provide, within the engineer field of (4) Prisoners of war.
interest, information for the instruc- (5) Refugees.
tion of troops on foreign materiel to (6) Local civilians.
include recognition, characteristics, (7) Captured enemy materiel.
use, and interchangeability with (8) Captured enemy installations.
United States or allied equipment. (9) Captured enemy documents.
c. Responsibility to the Battalion. The divi- (10) Other documents, including texts,
sion engineer as the battalion commander, as- periodicals, and technical papers.
sisted by the battalion S2, directs the intelli- (11) Intelligence publications (including
gence activities of the battalion (FM 5-30). terrain and weather studies).
These activities are-receiving, evaluating, (12) Allied forces.
analyzing, and interpreting reconnaissance (13) Units in contact.
data into engineer intelligence; disseminating
all intelligence information to subordinate and b. These sources are available to, and used
supporting units: preparing terrain analyses by, the engineers of commands at all levels,
and studies for use of the battalion; and super- but in varying proportions. At divisional level,
vising intelligence training. ground and short-range aerial reconnaissance
and reports from other frontline troops are of
6-19. Timing vital importance. Such sources, supplemented
Engineer intelligence must be placed in the by data from local intelligence sources such as
hands of 'those agencies (troops commanders prisoner-of-war statements, bring up-to-date
or staff sections) which need it, in time to the available intelligence on terrain and enemy
permit them to make practical use of it in 'installations. In a fast-moving situation, these
their planning and operations. Disseminating may be the only sources of such intelligence.

6-16 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

6-21. Terrain and Weather Studies c. The engineer, under the staff supervision
a. The most effective employment of military of G2, is responsible for the production and
forces
forces requires co requs
consideration oof weather
w r ad
and maintenance of terrain studies based on tech-
terrain from the start of a plan through its nical analysis. These studies are either basic
final execution. Accurate interpretation of the or interpretive. Basic studies emphasize the
effects of weather and terrain not only in- natural factors such as relief and drainage,
creases the probability of success in operations, vegetation, and soils. Analysis of these result
but also helps determine probable enemy in interpretative studies which indicate the
courses of action. The study of the area of terrain's suitability for military operations,
operations aims to determine the effect of the such as its trafficability. Engineer terrain
terrain and weather upon the mission and studies generally take the form of overprinted
upon the capabilities of the enemy. This de- maps or overlays on which the various terrain
termination is based on the key terrain fea- characteristics are emphasized. This graphic
tures within the area and the best avenues description of terrain may, however, be sup-
of approach to them. The study frequently plemented by verbal summary. Typical studies
assists in eliminating those enemy capabilities include-relief (plastic relief and layer tint-
not favored by the conditions of terrain and ing); cross-country movement; vegetation;
weather. For detailed information on terrain
intelligence,
see FM 30-10. routes of communication; drainage; surface
materials; cover and fields of fire; and conceal-
b. A terrain analysis is an evaluation of a ment and observation.
piece of terrain in the light of the following
five military aspects: d. Weather forecasts originate in the USAF
(1) Key terrain features. and are desseminated through intelligence
(2) Observation and field of fire. channels. Weather forecasts covering periods
(3) Cover and concealment. ranging from less than 12 hours to more than
(4) Obstacles. 3 days can be obtained. In some instances,
(5) Avenues of approach. studies of the climate may be of use.

Section VII. SECURITY


6-22. Basic Considerations protect the main force against surprise attack
The divisional
engineer battalion com- and observation by enemy ground and air
The dvsonal
engineer battalion com forces and to maintain freedom of action for
mander is responsible for the security of his the commander by gaining the time required
battalion and all its units. However, in de- the commander by gaining the time required
to make proper
termining the security measures for the bat- equipment Since disposition of personnel
security forces lessen and
the
talion, the commander takes into consideration
the security measures of the division. strength of the companies, they are kept to
the minimum strength necessary to accomplish
a. Definition. Security embraces all meas- their missions. They should be mobile; and
ures taken by a command to protect itself they should have an efficient warning system,
from espionage, observation, sabotage, annoy- including observers and means of communica-
ance, or surprise. It may be active or passive. tion, to give prompt notice of any enemy
Active security involves firepower and the use threat from the ground or the air.
of troops. Passive security includes observa-
tion, cover, dispersion, camouflage, and the use 6-23. Security During Movement
of obstacles. The divisional engineer battalion
commander employs a combination of the two. a. (1)
General.
Security must be provided for the
b. Provision. Security detachments are re- movement of all engineer elements in
quired in all situations. Their mission is to the combat zone. The security tech-
AGO 5888A 6-17
FM 5-135

niques which the engineer commander prise, and to limit enemy observation
employs during movement of his unit from the front. An advance guard ac-
depend on the unit mission, security complishes its mission by searching
provided by others, terrain, visibility, the terrain to the front and on each
and expected enemy actions. Tactical side of the line of march and by over-
rather than administrative considera- coming hostile resistance that is con-
tions govern the conduct of the tacted. When contact with the enemy
march. is made, the advance guard will at-
(2) An engineer unit moving on an inde- tack aggressively to overcome resist-
pendent mission provides its own se- ance within its capabilities. If the
curity. It requires security for the enemy force is too large for the ad-
front (advance guards), for the rear vance guard to attack, the advance
(rear guards), for the flanks (flank guard will cover the deployment of
patrols), during halts (march out- the main body by maintaining pres-
posts), and against attacks from the sure against the enemy.
air. The security detachments should (3) A company acting as the advance
be more mobile than the main body guard for the battalion sends forward
of the unit. a squad as a point. The remainder of
(3) When there is a probability of contact the company constitutes the advance
with the enemy, as in a fluid situa- guard minus.
tion or when guerrillas are operating (4) In smaller units, such as the company
in the region, the commander pro- and platoon, the advance guard
vides for all-around security and de- usually consists of a point and an ad-
velops plans to meet the attack. In- vance party.
dividual weapons and ammunition are (a) The point is the leading element in
kept in the hands of troops. Machine- the movement. It protects the col-
guns are manned and rocket launch- umn from enemy surprise. When
ers are dispersed throughout the the point encounters the enemy, it
column. employs rapid fire and maneuver
(4) The engineer battalion must be well against the enemy force. It main-
trained in passive defense against air tains contact with the enemy until
attack. Distance between vehicles is the advance party has time to de-
greater than in rear areas. Panel sets ploy.
are kept in readiness for use to avoid (b) The advance party provides sup-
attack by friendly aircraft. port for the point in the event that
the point fails to eliminate the en-
(5) The importance of route reconnais- emy. The advance party takes ag-
sance and increases
road guides and markers gressive
gressive action
a night
during
march. action against
against the
the enemy
enemy
increases during a night march. and tries to overcome the force so
b. Frontal Security. that movement of the main body is
not delayed or halted. If the ad-
(1) Security in front is provided byadvance
an vance party
guard. Fortvance party fails
fails to
to eliminate
eliminate the
the
advance guard. For the battalion, its enemy force, it maintains contact
strength usually does not exceed a with it until the advance guard
company; for a company, a platoon; minus can be committed.
and for a platoon, a motor
one.or patrol of
two vehicles. (c)
(c) The
The advance
advance guard
guard minus
minus main-
main-
one or two vehicles. tains contact with the advance
(2) The mission of the advance guard is party and should always be pre-
to prevent unnecessary delay of the pared to assist the advance party
main body, to protect it from sur- in moving against the enemy force.

6-18 AGO 5s8sA


FM 5-135

If the advance guard minus is un- enemy to permit the next preceding
able to reduce enemy resistance, it unit to make suitable dispositions.
immobilizes the enemy by fire and Fire is opened at long range. Usually,
maneuver until the arrival of the elements do not move toward the en-
main body. emy to reinforce a lower element. The
(5) Distances between the point and the larger element occupies a delaying
advance party, between the advance position to cover the withdrawal of
party and advance guard minus and the smaller element. The element in
between the advance guard minus and contact with the enemy then with-
the main body vary according to the draws under the protective fires of
speed of movement, terrain, visibil- the element occupying the delaying
ity and enemy situation. Distances position. The rate of movement is co-
usually are decreased when enemy ordinated with the main body.
contact is imminent and during pe- (4) The rear point stops to fire only when
riods of reduced visibility. These dis- enemy action threatens to interfere
tances are great enough to allow each with the march. The rear point is not
succeeding element to deploy without reinforced-by other troops. When the
serious interference from the enemy rear point withdraws, it uses a route
when contact is made. However, these that does not mask the fire of the
distances are not so great as to pre- rear party.
vent each element from rapidly as-
sisting the element in front of it. At d. Flank Security. In open terrain, flank
high speed, distances are increased; security may be sufficiently assured by speed
at low speed, they are decreased. Ve- of movement and constant observation to the
hides are spaced at distances of from flanks. This usually will not suffice, however,
50 to 200 meters in order to provide in heavily wooded, rolling, or mountainous ter-
protection against air attack and to rain, or where the menace of guerrilla opera-
maintain uniform speed. tions exists. Continuous flank patrolling is pos-
sible only where a parallel route exists (a con-
dition not usually enjoyed by units of company
(1) Rear guards are used to protect the size), but effective employment can be made
rear of a column advancing toward of small flank patrols sent out to side roads,
the enemy if an attack or harassing commanding ground, and points of observa-
action from the rear is deemed within tion. Flank security detachments usually are
the enemy capabilities, or to protect not strong enough to effectively delay the en-
the rear of a column marching away emy. Their mission is to give early warning of
from the enemy. enemy activity; hence, they must be equipped
(2) A company should adopt a formation with adequate communication facilities.
similar to that of the advance guard
in the reverse order of march. The e. Motorized Security Patrols. The motor-
distances between elements of the ized security patrol is used for reconnaissance
rear guard vary with the situation, and all types of security operations and par-
the terrain, and the visibility. They ticularly as the point of an advance or rear
correspond generally to the distance guard. Motorized patrols are limited in effec-
between elements of the advance tiveness by the fact that they are roadbound
guard. When the column halts, the and easily ambushed and captured or de-
rear guard dismounts and forms a stroyed. Therefore, at least two vehicles plus
march outpost. any other vehicles required for messengers are
(3) When an enemy pursuit is close, ele- required. An engineer company moving alone
ments of the rear guard delay the has enough vehicles, weapons, and men to use
AGO 6888A 6-19
FM 5-135

more than one vehicle in either its advance providing their own security are grouped and
or rear security patrol. escorted through danger areas by armed se-
curity detachments. These detachments are
6-24. Security at Halt and in Assembly Area specially organized and trained to protect con-
Whenever an engineer unit is at a temporary voys from hostile guerrilla actions and may
halt during a march, or is in the assembly area, contain elements of armor, infantry, and en-
it provides its own security. It does this by gineers. The size and composition of a detach-
establishing an outpost system to secure the ment vary with the terrain, the capabilities of
main body against close observation and sur- hostile guerrilla forces, and the size and com-
prise by the enemy. The outpost system is so position of the convoy. Traffic through known
organized and disposed that it can deal with a danger areas normally is controlled by traffic
minor enemy threat without disturbing the control points and patrols. The engineer ele-
main body or forcing it to take action, and in ment is placed well forward in the column to
case of a major threat, it can at least hold off perform such engineer tasks as minor bridge
the enemy until the main body can make and road repair, obstacle removal, and detec-
preparation for action. The composition of the tion and removal of mines.
outpost varies for each situation. The outpost
system consists of outposts, sentinels, and 6-26. Unescorted Convoy Operations
visiting patrols. Outposts should be positioned When the divisional engineer battalion is
so they can achieve overlapping sectors of ob- not escorted through a danger area by a con-
servation and mutual fire support. Sentinels voy security detachment, it organizes its own
may be required at night or during other convoy security. Part ,of the available troops
periods of poor visibility to prevent surprise are placed well forward in the convoy and a
and for complete coverage of the area. Senti- strong detachment is placed in vehicles that
nels should be positioned forward of and be- follow the main body. Radio contact is estab-
tween outposts within rifle-support distance of lished between the two groups if possible.
the outposts. When observation is limited or Speed is essential. Sharp curves, steep grades,
when outposts are widely separated, visiting or other areas where low speed is necessary,
patrols may be used to operate between out- must be reconnoitered by foot troops. At the
posts and sentinels. Communication is estab- first indication of ambush, while the convoy
lished between all elements of the outpost is in motion, leading vehicles increase their
system and the main body. If the enemy pene- speed if the road appears clear. In this effort
trates any portion of the outpost system, the to run through the ambush area, they go as
main body takes measures to protect itself. fast as it is safe to drive. Drivers or assistant
The measures provide for personnel who form drivers of vehicles disabled by enemy fire or
a support or reserve force which counters the mines seek to direct their vehicles to the sides
enemy penetration. All other personnel take or off the roads so as not to block rear vehicles.
action to secure the unit's immediate area. Troops from vehicles stoped in the ambush
Interior guards, designated from elements of dismount and return fire, using all weapons.
the main body, continue to carry out their Troops from vehicles breaking through the
duties within their assigned area. The en- ambush dismount and attack back against a
gineer unit commander, if possible, halts in an flank of the ambush position. The rear guard
area where there are few or no civilians. If of the convoy, upon learning that the main
this is impossible, all personnel are warned to body has been ambushed, dismounts and at-
keep civilians, including children, away from tacks forward against the other flank of the
the area or not to allow them to enter until ambush position. If the enemy allows the main
they are screened. convoy to pass through and then ambushes the
rear guard, troops from the main body return
6-25. Convoy Security Detachments and relieve the rear guard by an attack against
Lone vehicles and convoys not capable of the flank of the ambush position.

6-20 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

6-27. Security at Worksites machineguns emplaced so that they can be used


against low-flying aircraft. For protection
a. The amount of security the engineer com- against air attack on a major rear-area proj-
mander furnishes at the worksite depends on ect, the responsible engineer officer requests
the engineer mission, guerrilla activity in the air defense artillery through channels.
area, the terrain, and the nearness of the
enemy. For larger tasks, such as the engineer e. For security of ADM operations see FM
battalion constructing a road, the division 5-26.
usually provides the security forces. For
smaller tasks, such as a company or platoon 6-28. Security Against Guerrilla Forces
constructing a bridge, when security forces are
not provided by the supported unit, the indi- Guerrlla bands usually employ offensive
vidual in
vvidual
in charge
charge of the construction
of the construction project
project tactics characterized by surprise, mobility, de-
provides security with personnel from his unit. ception, and decentralized operations (FM 1-
15). The divisional engineer battalion com-
b. In forward areas of the combat zone, the mander insures that all engineer units are
principal types of enemy action against which briefed on the fighting techniques of guerrilla
the working parties take security measures forces. The precautions and countermeasures
are dismounted patrols, motor or mechanized which the engineer units use against guerrillas
raids, and air attacks. Near the rear of the vary with the nature of the threat. At halts,
zone, there is less danger of enemy ground and in assembly areas, guards are posted at
action, except guerrilla attacks. Air, nuclear, all times including periods of rest and recrea-
biological, and chemical attacks may occur any- tion. Groups of local inhabitants of any con-
where. siderable size are not allowed near the asserm-
c. Enemy ground action usually can be bly area. Local civilians are subjected to rigid
guarded against by careful observation and by security checks before they are allowed to work
small security detachments covering probable in engineer installation. Working parties ob-
avenues of approach. These may be supple- serve security precautions while they are
mented by readily removable roadblocks, port- working, resting, and eating, and when they
able wire obstacles, and mines. The engineer are goig to and from the jobs. When a party
in charge of the vworksite withdraws as few leaves a task to return to camp, it takes with it
men as possible from work to use for security. all
all tools,
tools, transportation,
transportation, and readily removable'
and readily removable'
However, working parties are always prepared equipment. A party returning to an incom-
to defend against possible ground raids. They peted task itisgives
alertspecial
for ambushes
attention and booby
to the se-
traps, and
keep their weapons close at hand; and they are curity of arms, ammunition, and other equip-
trained to assemble, with their weapons, when ment of value to the guerrillas.
they receive the warning.
d. The engineer in charge of working parties 6-29. Security Against CBR and
prepares for security against air attack by Nuclear Attacks
training the parties in warning, concealment, The engineer battalion commander is re-
dispersion, and fire. He trains the men to iden- sponsible
sponsible for
for the
the security
security of
of the
the battalion
battalion and
and
tify friendly and enemy aircraft. He posts its components against chemical, biological,
guards at points of vantage; and he disperses and radiological (CBR) and nuclear attacks.
and conceals' equipment and vehicles which are For information pertaining to unit protective
not being used. He makes maximum use of the and defense measures see FM 21-40, FM 3-12,
combat engineer vehicles and the personnel and FM 101-31-1. For information pertaining
carriers, with their vehicular-mounted weap- to individual protection see FM 21-41. Indi-
ons. To provide security, when required, the vidual and unit training procedures are con-
individual in charge of the worksite has tained in FM 21-48.
AGO 5888A 6-21
FM 5-135

Section VIII. COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS

6-30. The Counterinsurgency Environment b. Providing training assistance and advice


In counterinsurgency operations many fac- to receiving state engineer forces
tors contribute to making the environment c. Planning, organizing, and supervising
different from that of limited or general war. construction projects to be carried out by in-
Among these factors are- digenous personnel in accordance with U. S.
a. The terrain is generally ill-suited to con- or receiving state civilian or military pro-
ventional military operations. grams.
d. Making engineer surveys to support fu-
b. Forces usually are dispersed over an ex- d. Making engineer surveys to support fu-
~tremely
area. wide ~ture engineer projects and to provide a basis
for increased engineer assistance should the
c. The adversary generally is elusive, hard insurgency escalate.
to identify, highly trained in the techniques e. Providing assistance in military civic ac-
of guerrilla warfare, and well motivated. e. Providing assistance in military civic ac-
tion projects (digging wells, building schools,
d. Winning the support of the people is a water irrigation systems, etc.) designed to im-
continuous requirement in counterinsurgency prove the well-being of the people and to en-
operations. In consideration of this, the appli- courage their support of the receiving state
cation of direct and indirect fires must be forces.
highly selective and restrained when operating
among a population whose material and physi- 6-33. Special Considerations
cal well being must be protected so as not to When divisional engineer battalions are
alienate the people from the government.
alienate
the governmentcommitted
the people from to counterinsurgency operations,
various problems and considerations will arise
6-31. Role of Engineers not normally associated with conventional en-
Divisional engineer battalions or elements gineer operations. Among these are the follow-
thereof will support counterinsurgency opera- ing:
tions by supporting the division or divisional a. Since units are usually dispersed over
elements in counterinsurgency missions or extremely wide areas, command supervision,
through independent operations designed to to include training, maintenance, and other
support receiving state forces or U.S. forces unit activities will be much more difficult.
already in country. Engineer combat elements
when committed usually will maintain their b. Because of the nature of the terrain, the
organizational integrity, but may be organized critical need for numerous construction proj-
provisionally into Itask forces, depending upon ects, and the nationwide lack of engineering
the particular engineering skills and equip- skills, there will be an especially heavy demand
ment required. For a general discussion of en- for engineer unit skills and knowledge.
gineer units in counterinsurgency operations, c. With all engineer activities and projects
see FM 31-22. generally susceptible to insurgent attack at
any time, engineer unit commanders must in-
6-32. Engineer Capabilities sure that-
Engineer combat elements in a counterin- (1) Personnel are fully trained'in the use
surgency role may help a receiving state all unit weapons and are inu-
counter insurgency by- ally alert to possible surprise insur-
gent attack.
a. Providing traditional engineer assistance (2) Defense measures are taken around
to indigenous military forces or to U. S. forces all engineer unit projects and activi-
committed to counterinsurgency operations. ties.

6-22 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

d. Small unit commanders will be required dertaking many military civic action projects
frequently to make decisions based upon their to improve the living conditions of the local
own judgments, considering the situation at populace. However, once a task is started it
hand, rather than upon specific guidance and must be completed, since construction pro-
directions received from higher headquarters. grams that are not completed furnish material
The imagination and initiative of individual for the insurgent propagandist. A carefully
engineer commanders will especially contribute planned military civic action program, prop-
to the effectiveness of the engineer effort in erly publicized, can create a favorable atmos-
counterinsurgency operations. phere and assist in developing a firm and
stable government. A PSYOP campaign should
6-34. Psychological Operations (PSYOP) be conducted before, during, and after the com-
Considerations pletion of an engineer project. Requests for
Engineering units, with attached psycho- PSYOP assistance should be forwarded to
logical operations elements, are capable of un- higher headquarters (see FM 33-1).

AGO 5888A
623
FM 5-135

CHAPTER 7
DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Section I. INTRODUCTION
7-1. Purpose and Forms of Defense attack. Mobility equal or superior to that of
the enemy is essential for all elements of the
a. Purpose. Defensive operations are actions defensive force. Figure 7-1 depicts a typical
to prevent, resist, repulse, or destroy an enemy defensive force Fgure 7-1 depicts a typical
attack isThedefenses
attack. The defense und e to develop
undertaken disposition of a divisional engineer battalion
more favorable conditions for subsequent of- in
in aa mobile
mobile defense.
defense.
fensive operations, economize forces in one c. Area Defense. The area defense is that
area in order to apply decisive force elsewhere, form of defense in which emphasis is placed
destroy or trap a hostile force, deny an enemy on retention of or control over specific terrain.
entrance to an area, or reduce enemy capabil- Reliance is placed on the ability of fires and
ity with minimum losses to friendly forces. forces deployed on position in the forward de-
The fundamental forms of defense are the fense area to stop and repulse the attacker.
mobile defense and the area defense. Generally, The forward defense area has a higher prior-
neither type is used in its pure form when ity for combat power than does the reserve.
conducting defensive operations. More often In the area defense, the defender plans to ac-
the most suitable form of defense for a given cept decisive engagement and to accomplish
situation will be some variation of either the his mission primarily by engaging the attacker
mobile or area defense, incorporating elements along the forward edge of the battle area with
of each. The defense established is that which a large volume and variety of fires. Counter-
best meets the requirements of the particular attacks are conducted primarily to eject or
situation. destroy enemy forces that penetrate the po-
sition and so to regain control of the forward
b. Mobile Defense. The mobile defense is defense area and terrain which the defense has
that form of defense in which minimum forces been designed to retain. Figure 7-2 depicts a
are deployed forward and priority is given to
use ofuse
mobile
of combat
mobile combat elements
elements and
and fires
fires con-
con- typical disposition of a divisional engineer bat-
centrated in the reserve. Primary reliance is t
placed on the use of offensive action by the
reserve to destroy enemy forces. In the mobile 7-2. Disposition of Engineer Support
defense, the defender plans to accept decisive Defensive areas include the security area,
engagement and to accomplish his mission pri- the forward defense area, and the reserve
marily by executing offensive action against area.
the attacking enemy forces. Control of the
forward defense area and the retention of a. Security Area. The division security area
terrain are not primary objectives of the begins at the forward edge of the battle area
counterattack. The fixing forces, those mini- (FEBA) and extends as far to the front and
mum necessary forces committed initially in the flanks as security elements are employed.
the forward defense area, conduct defensive, Forces in the security area furnish informa-
delaying, screening, or limited offensive opera- tion on the enemy; delay, deceive, and disrupt
tions in any combination required in order to him as much as possible; and provide a coun-
make the attacker vulnerable to the counter- terreconnaissance screen. They also may have
AGO 5888A 7-1
FM 5-135

the mission of locating and developing nuclear combat outposts, flank security forces, division
targets. Forces operating in the security area aerial surveillance elements, and patrols. There
may include elements from echelons higher is no prescribed organization for the general
than division, such as a corps covering force outpost or covering force. The GOP may be
and units to provide aerial surveillance and a brigade or elements thereof, the armored
flank security. Division forces in the security cavalry squadron, or a battalion task force as
area will consist of the general outpost (GOP), required. An engineer unit normally is at-

COVERING FORCE

(+)

(ATCHD. DS TO RES ON W/DWL)


FEBA
FEBA < }.BA ` FEBA

Iol ~1

l111(+) IrII(+)
DS DS
X X
X

xx
XX
Figure 7-1. Typical disposition of a divisional
engineer battalion in a mobile defense.

7-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-13&

tached to the GOP force. The engineer unit assignment is responsible for keeping open
commander advises the general outpost or cov- the main withdrawal route within its area and
ering force commander on engineer work and preparing the obstacles along that route. Each
assigns missions and areas of responsibility to unit is also responsible for preparation and
his subordinate units. Each unit with an area execution of obstacles on the lateral roads

COVERING FORCE

IM
(ATCHD)

COP COP

FEBA
FEBA FEBA

,, X
DS DS

X X

GS

XX
Figure 7-2. Typical disposition of a divisionta
engineer battalion in an area defense.

AGO ssA 7
FM 5-135

within its respective area. On the combat out- mander influences the defensive battle and re-
post (COP), engineers have generally the same gains the initiative. The combat power of the
mission as in the GOP, though on a smaller reserve may consist of nuclear weapons, ma-
scale. Engineer tasks would generally include neuver elements, or both. The reserve is or-
-preparation and execution of conventional ganized to destroy or repulse the enemy by
demolitions and atomic demolition munitions; offensive action and must be prepared for
preparation of obstacles; and pioneer construc- timely commitment on division order. Should
tion tasks. it be infeasible for the division to counter-
b. Forward Defense Area. The forward de- attack, the reserve may be employed in a block-
fense area extends rearward from the FEBA ing role to assist in containing the enemy pene-
to include that area organized by the forward tration prior to the launching of the corps
committed
committed units.
units. The
The composition
composition of
of forces
forces in
in counterattack. One brigade headquarters nor-
the forward area depends on the form of de- mally is designated to control the reserve. How-
ever, in some situations, the reserve may be
fense employed, but there is usually one engi- controlled by a provisional task force head-
neer company in direct support of each com- quarters or placed under division control.
mitted brigade. The remaining engineer com-
panies are in general support of the division d. Primary Combat Support Missions in 'the
and have a secondary mission of supporting Defense. Engineers may be attached to or
other task forces on order. In the mobile de- placed in direct support of the brigades. Nor-
fense, the fixing force commanders organize mal support is one engineer company for each
their areas by establishing defensive positions brigade, although this is varied to meet spe-
augmented by observation and listening posts cific requirements. Engineers with the security
and patrols. The positions are areas organized force normally are attached. The engineer bat-
for all-round defense by elements varying in talion, less elements attached to major sub-
size from a company to a battalion task force. ordinate units, is kept under division control.
They are located to control terrain that domi- The primary combat support missions of the
nates avenues of approach and to repel, delay, division engineers in the defense are to in-
or canalize attacking forces. Alternate or su- crease the defensive capabilities of combat
cessive positions are designated in depth. Be- troops by assisting in the organization of the
cause of the limited forces in the forward ground and in the preparation of defensive po-
area, these positions cannot be initially oc- sitions and to assist the movement of reserves
cupied in depth. The forward defense force is in the counterattack. Engineers may prepare
allocated the minimum essential forces to carry demolitions, lay minefields, and prepare and
out its mission. It normally is infantry heavy. maintain routes. Obstacles are used extensively
In the area defense, the forward defense area in the defense. Time permitting, the defensive
is organized into defensive positions which pro- capabilities of the ground are augmented by
vide good fields of fire, observation, and na- artificial obstacles and improvement of natural
tural defensive strength. Positions are pre- obstacles until a barrier system has been
pared to block avenues of approach at the created through which the enemy cannot pene-
FEBA and in depth to control the area. The trate without a costly expenditure of men and
natural defensive strength of the terrain is materials. The installation of obstacles is the
increased as time permits by the use of arti- responsibility of the area or sector com-
ficial obstacles, fortifications, and barriers. mander; however, the commander may call
upon engineers to supervise the construction
c. Reserve Area. The reserve area e~xtends and, if necessary, to perform the construction.
rearward from the forward defense area to For prescribed types of fortifications, see FM
the division rear boundary. The reserve echelon 5-15. The division engineer assists in the for-
mans the reserve area, consists of those un- mulation of the overall barrier plan and its
committed forces held under division control, implementation. When authorized, atomic
and is the pricipal means by which the com- demolition munitions may be used to deny spe-
7-4 AGO 6888A
FM 5-135

cific areas and strengthen the position. The tical unit to which it is attached, responsibil-
decision to employ an ADM rests with the ity for physical security of the ADM passes
commander to whom the weapon is allocated. to the tactical unit commander. Command of
The engineer is responsible for designating the an ADM operation normally is exercised by
emplacing and firing unit and for coordinating the tactical commander in whose area the em-
the supply and movement of equipment, mate- placement is located. He is responsible for gen-
rials, and personnel to support the mission. eral area security, liaison, communications,
The G3 coordinates tactical security and troop and gives the order to detonate the munition.
safety for ADM missions. The engineer bat- The ADM team chief directs all technical op-
talion commander is responsible for the physi-
cal
cal security
security of
of the
the munition,
munition, including
including ysi
the
the erations at the emplacement site, detonates the
time during which the ADM is en route from ADM on order from the tactical commander,
the special ammunition supply point (SASP). and conducts the necessary operations in the
However, when the ADM team joins the tac- event of a change of the ADM mission.

Section II. ENGINEER RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE DEFENSE

7-3. Security corps or higher. G3 has general staff responsi-


bility for the tactical employment of barriers
operation are essentially themapplication
s sint a d
of si
thee and obstacles, while the division engineerr has
basic
ofprinciples
maintaining
basic principles of maintaining security under
security under the special staff responsibility for their plan-
any(para
conditions
19 and 20) ning. The division engineer prepares terrain
and barrier studies for G2, and advises G3 as
to ways of improving and extending natural
7-4. Reconnaissance obstacles. He plans and supervises the technical
a. As in the offense, engineer reconnais- aspects of obstacle employment and prepares
sance in the defense is continuous and detailed. the barrier annex to the division operation
Emphasis is placed on the preparation of plan or order, under the direction of G3. Di-
routes for counterattack forces, obstacles, and vision barrier and obstacle planning usually is
demolition sites. supplemented by detailed planning of tactical
obstacles at the brigade level.
b. In an area defense the engineer battalion
reconnaissance teams search the area in detail b. The construction of obstacles for close de-
and report all items of engineer interest. These fense is the responsibility of the unit com-
become the basis for barrier and obstacle mander involved, and may be integrated with
plans; routes of supply, evacuation, and with- a barrier plan of higher echelon. Normally,
drawal, and denial operations plans. each combat units is responsible for the con-
struction of the obstacles or that part of a
c. A divisional defensive location is often on barrier system which lies within its area.
familiar terrain, and information on the area These obstacles normally are defended by in-
is available in corps or army. The division en- fantry or armored units.
gineer is responsible for the collection and
'utilization of such available information. c. Engineers furnish assistance to the com-
bat units in the form of effort, advice, and
technical supervision. They may be assigned
the responsibility for the siting and construc-
a. Barrier and obstacle planning is developed tion of obstacles or blocking positions when
concurrently with other plans, and can be one or more of the following conditions exists:
planned and executed by all echelons of corn- special skills and equipment are required;
mands. Extensive strategic or major tactical flanks and rear are exposed; the command as
barrier systems, however, are directed by a whole will benefit from the effort; the ob-
AGO 5888A 7-5
FM 5-135

stacles must be prepared before the arrival Denial operations involve the removal, damag-
of the troops who will occupy the position; or ing, or destruction of objects, or the denial of
the construction is beyond the capability of a ground through the use of mines, flooding, or
particular defending unit. demolitions. Toxic chemical and radiological
contamination may be used to restrict the use
d. In the defense, detailed coordination is
necessary to assure that installation of ob- of an area through threat of casualties A
stacles and barriers will not interfere with the theater
theater or
or theater
theater army
army denial
denial policy
policy normally
normall
freo
freedom of maneuver defensive fre.
o offdeesv
aeve forces. is the basis for detailed denial planning in the
Time permitting, the natural defensive char- combat zone It us a command responsbity
.. te
acteristics of the of.i the
terrain ae
are iimprovedd and with authority usually delegated to subordi-
nate commanderst to effect denials as a normal
noma-
augmented by artificial obstacles until a bar- e
rier zone has been developed which the enemy actity wth their areas, subect to the lhea-
cannot penetrate without a costly loss.p rlA
An. tation and directive published by higher head-
effective method of erecting an obstacle in quarters. The general and special staff respon-
ordinary terrain is by demolition of bridges sblte are the same for deal operations
plans as for barrier plans. In the division,
over unfordable streams. Brilges are pre-
denial operations normally are
pared for demolition and destroyed, on order, denal operations normally are incorporated
ncorporated inn
p a .red io
t dhemotonan
o the barrier plans. The divisional engineer bat-
to prevent them from falling into enemy
handsAll "prepared"
bridges must be ade- talion is well suited and equipped to supervise
and execute such denials. All troops, however,
quately guarded to prevent enemy interference
.withthe
with the explosive.
explosive. Craters or vertical
Craters or vertical ob-
ob- participate in certain aspects of denial opera-
tions, including the destruction of organic
stacles on main road nets in locations difficult tons, ncluding the destruction of organic
to bypass, such as heavy woods, steep sidehill equipment and supplies, procedures for which
arenormally
are or,
slopes,
slopes, or swamps, also swamps,
satisfactory ob- are included in the unit's SOP.
stacles. a. Items Denied the Enemy. Military sup-
plies and equipment are evacuated to the
e. In a mobile defense, obstacles and barriers extent possible. According to the Rules of Land
are employed to delay or canalize the enemy. Warfare of the Geneva Convention, medical
They must be carefully coordinated, however, supplies will not be destroyed intentionally but
because of the necessity for freedom of move- other supplies which cannot be evacuated are
ment of the maneuvering forces in a counter- destroyed. The division and the engineer bat-
attack. Gaps and lanes must be available for talion are interested primarily in the denial
friendly armor and infantry to move forward of such items as military equipment and instal-
or backward or to adjacent areas to occupy lations, military supplies, communication facil-
battle positions. ities (railroads and rolling stock, airstrips,
f. Mines are used as an obstacle, or as a sup- bridges, highways, signal communication
porting obstacle in a barrier system. The inte- items), and public utilities (power-plants,
gration of chemical mines in the system pro- reservoirs, and port facilities).
duces contamination which makes breaching b. Denial by Removal. Evacuation of mate-
operations more difficult and time consuming. rial is as much a part of denial operations as
Extensive use of mines, however, poses a logis- destruction. Evacuation must be started early
tical burden. Such use should be limited to and conducted in accordance with prepared
relatively static or economy-of-force defensive priority lists. Every available means of trans-
situations. portation must be used to capacity, to save as
much supplies and equipment as possible.
7-6. DenialOperations c. Denial by Destruction. All possible
A denial operation is a 'defensive measure methods of destruction are used. The most
designed to deny the enemy the use of material common are fire, flooding or drenching, mech-
objects, facilities, and geographical areas. anical methods (such as breaking with a

7-6 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

sledge hammer or cutting with an oxyacetylene and the scheme of maneuver. Well planned and
torch), and explosives (FM 5-25), including constructed fortifications should provide the
ADM and thermite incendiary grenades. So desired degree of protection, and also bring the
that material may be destroyed at the desired enemy under a maximum volume of effective
time, personnel to destroy each item are des- fire as early as possible. Precautions are taken
ignated in advance; supplies necessary for the to conceal from the enemy the location of
destruction are estimated and assembled at principal defensive elements. Concealment of
convenient locations; circumstances under real positions and the preparation of dummy
which the destruction is to take place are and decoy positions normally proceed concur-
definitively prescribed; and, if orders for de- rently with other work. Plans normally pro-
struction are to be issued, the mean of trans- vide for construction by phases, meaning that
mission are provided. the protective construction proceeds from the
minimum to the maximum practicable.
d. Atomic Demolition Munitions. Atomic
demolition munitions may be used in denial b. The siting and construction of field forti-
operations. Normally, the officer responsible fications for the protection of troops are the
for the execution of an atomic demolition mis- responsibility of the individual unit com-
sion will be the demolition guard commander. mander involved. The staff engineer assists by
However, the responsibility may fall to the preparing plans and orders and conducting
commander of the ADM firing party (see FM technical inspection. Engineer responsibilities
5-26). The commander of the ADM firing are primarily technical. The supervisory en-
party must be highly trained in all aspect of gineer personnel, however, are familiar with
the ADM operations that are the responsibility the tactical considerations affecting the organ-
of engineer personnel. He directs all operations ization of the ground. This allows them to give
at the emplacement site, takes emergency valuable technical assistance and advice. The
action in the event of a change of mission or engineer's primary responsibilities in the con-
misfire, and detonates the ADM on proper or- struction of field fortifications are to-
der. Engineer personnel prepare the emplace- (1) Furnish technical advice and assist-
ment site under the direction of the ADM fir- ance.
ing party commander. This preparation may (2) Accomplish large-scale excava-
include providing appropriate access roads, tion and backfilling.
installing antitank and antipersonnel mine- (3) Increase the effectiveness of exten-
fields or other obstacles when ordered, camou- sive emplacements through the cre-
flaging the area to avoid disclosure of the ation of protective obstacles.
operations, providing immediate security, and
providing communication facilities. Engineer c. Construction priority of weapons emplace-
personnel install the ADM in the emplacement ments, command posts, and other shelters
and complete all preparation of the munition provides for efficient use of available time, per-
and site. Detailed information on the employ- sonnel, tools, and materials. It insures that
ment of atomic demolition munitions is con- maximum value is derived from the time and
tained in FM 5-26. labor already expended, if the area is attacked
before construction is completed. Local mate-
7-7. Field Fortifications rials and expedient construction are used to
reduce logistical requirements. Construction
a. The defense is built around a series of work to strengthen the position is continued
organized and occupied tactical positions during the entire period of occupancy. For
which are selected for their natural defensive types of fortifications, see FM 5-15.
strength, their contribution to the mission, and
the degree of observation they allow. These 7-8. Camouflage
natural positions -are strengthened by field The basic principles of camouflage in an
fortifications, in consonance with the fire plan offensive operation are followed in a static or
AGO 5888A 7-7
FM 5-135

defensive situation (FM 5-20). The responsi- pendent upon the mobility of units and sup-
bility for camouflage rests on the commander. plies, it is of great importance that the roads
However, all troops must be trained in and and bridges be kept open at all times.
continously apply basic camouflage principles, b. Command Posts. Division and brigade
particularly in the concealment of themselves, command posts must attempt to avoid present-
their materiel, and their positions. Technical ing profitable targets for enemy nuclear weap-
advice and assistance are responsibilities of ons. Such command posts must be dispersed,
the engineers. The division engineer under the
g ol sf .fs te d. , concealed, and sufficiently dug in to prevent
general staff supervision of the division G2, excessive damage from nuclear attack. The
normally is responsible for camouflage plan- necessity for alternate command posts for di-
ning, in coordination with the operations and vision as well asas brigade headquarters will
supply sections. In a fast moving situation, increase appreciably the workload of the en-
time may not permit the extensive use of arti-
ficial concealment materials, and troops must gineers. The preparation of positions and ob-
stacles to provide a base of security for the
then use the terrain to maximum advantage b
division command post should e coordinated
be or
for concealment. Engineers can advise and as- divisionost
with the division provost marshal and the mili-
tary police security platoon leader.

7-9. Engineer Work in the Division c. Division Artillery Positions. Engineer


Rear Area effort may be required to assist in preparation
of artillery positions for rapid displacement of
Priority for engineer effort in the division artillery units.
rear area is in support of the reserve. Block-
ing positions in the rear of the forward de- d. Water and Water Points. The operation
fense area are planned by the division and of water points is the responsibility of the en-
are prepared by maneuver battalions of the gineer battalion S4, but the engineer compan-
reserve, assisted by engineers, or they may be ies assist in site preparation. This assistance
prepared by engineers under guidance of the includes clearing, construction of access roads,
commander of the unit which will occupy the and necessary leveling and excavation to make
position. Positions are selected and organized the sites suitable.
to prevent major penetrations tfrom securing e. Mine Removal. If the defense is to be
lightly held or exposed flanks. The positions undertaken in an area previously occupied by
may be occupied by elements of the division the enemy, minefields may have been breached.
reserve. Full advantage is taken of natural As the buildup of the area increases, it may
terrain features. Positions are prepared for be necessary for engineer units to enter these
all around defense. Emphasis is placed'on de- mined areas and remove or destroy the mines
sense against armored attack and possible still in place.
nuclear strikes. Engineers play an important
role in the preparation of rear area 'defense f. Prisoner of War Collecting Points. Al-
and in the construction of alternate positions. though military police are responsible for con-
Engineers in the rear area normally are in the trolling prisoners of war, engineers may be
general support and perform all types of en- required to construct prisoner of war facilities.
gineer work. Typical assignments for engineer
troops located in the rear area include- g. Air Landing Facilities. It will be neces-
sary to prepare landing facilities for aircraft
a. Road and Bridge Maintenance (Construc- (TM 5-330). This generally will consist of
tion and Repair). In the division rear area, clearing an area large enough to receive the
there will be a continual buildup and replenish- aircraft, and limited leveling and excavation
ment of supplies and equipment. This results to make the ground trafficable for the air-
in an added amount of traffic on the road net- craft. Examples of this type of work include
work. Since all defensive operations are de- clearing of brush, trees, or telephone lines

7-4 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135
from the sides of a road so that the road can sion rear area may require engineer effort.
be used as a landing strip, and filling craters This work will include emplacements for signal
or removing vegetation from an area of suffi- communications equipment, supplies, and prep-
cient size to allow helicopter landings. aration of areas for the medical battalion to
receive mass casualties. The supply and trans-
h. Preparationof Installations. Preparation portation and maintenance battalions may also
of support command installations in the divi- require assistance in preparing their areas.

Section III. DEFENSE AGAINST NUCLEAR ATTACK


7-10. Application protection or removal of exposed personnel;
Although this section is in the chapter on and decontamination of personnel, equipment,
defensive operations it is applicable generally structures, or terrain.,
to all forms of tactical operations, not only
defensive. 7-12. Prestrike Operations
Each commander is responsible for construc-
7-11. Engineer Effort tion of installations required for radiological
Division headquarters will control the engi- defense. He considers the protection to be
neer effort in defense against nuclear attacks. gained through special types of constructi
Such engineer work will be the measures taken the location of new shelters, and special com-
to reduce the vulnerability of friendly forces mand posts. Additional prestrike tasks include
to nuclear attack and to facilitate their re- the following, as time permits
covery after the attack. These measures in- a. Survey of area for suitable shelter loca-
elude duplication, dispersion, deception, cam- tions.
ouflage, and construction of protective shelters
before a nuclear attack. They include recon- b Dsperse unit personnel, equipment, and
struction and assistance in decontamination supplies consistent with operational practica-
and area damage control measures after the bility.
attack. The engineer effort expended on each c. Cover essential equipment and supplies
task will be determined by the situation and with canvas or other material for protection
the importance of the installation or facility against contamination.
to the division mission. The commander should
weigh these measures in deciding on the em- d. Organize unit medical , rescue, and evacua-
ployment of the engineer units in a damage tion teams.
control role. Nuclear defense, which includes e. Organize a radiological defense warning
radiological defense, is defined as the protec- system.
tive measures taken to minimize casualties and
materiel damage from the blast and thermal if. Prepare a radiological defense SOP based
and nuclear radiation effects of a nuclear upon that of the next higher headquarters
eapnd
It is interpreted to include measures p. The division engineer is responsible for:
wesuchapon. (1) Selection of alternate sites for water
points.
a. Training and distribution of personnel (2) Selection and preparation of alternate
with special reference to radiological special- bridge crossing operations;
ists.
b. Preparation and maintenance of fixed and 7-13. Poststrike Operations
portable structures and equipment. The engineer mission in case of a nuclear
c. Teaching defense techniques and proce- attack is expected to be essentially the same
dures, including use of detection equipment; as for other types of attack, but to be com-
AGO 5888A 7-9
FM 5-135

plicated in practice by the destructive effects d. Decontaminate vital areas or evacuate


of nuclear weapons and the additional hazards supplies to safe areas.
of residual radiation. Rescue squads will be
organized and equipped to' remove casualties
and render first aid. Labor and equipment f. Clear debris and trees blowdown from
squads will be organized and equipped to clear essential routes to facilitate relief, supply, and
debris, search for casualities, assist in decon- evacuation.
tamination, and evacuate materials. The re-
. . tev sw fm e o cg. Remove or cover radioactive materials in
moval of victims from the wreckage of col- contaminated re
contaminated areas.
lapsed buildings will often be a task requiring
structural knowledge and engineering judg- h. Assist in the extrication of units or ele-
mnent. After the burst, engineers may be re- ments trapped by blowdown, rubble, and fire.
quired to-- i. Produce potable water.
a. Perform first aid, rescue, and evacuation
].. Provide
Provide inforation to division traffic
information to division traffic
ta~sks. headquarters on the status or routes to include
b. Prepare personnel and equipment decon- estimates of times required to reopen closed
tamination stations. routes.
c. Make and post radiological contamination k. Perform other special and general en-
markers for contaminated areas. gineer tasks as required.

Section IV. ENGINEER RESPONSIBILITIES IN RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS

7-14. Retrograde Movements 7-15. Purpose


a. Introduction. Retrograde movements are Retrograde movements are conducted to ac-
movements to the rear or away from the complish one or more of the following:
enemy, and are classified as withdrawals, de- a. To harass, exhaust, inflict punishment
laying actions, and retirements (see FM 61- upon, resist, and delay the enemy.
100). b. To draw the enemy into an unfavorable
b. Conduct. Within a division in contact with situation.
the enemy a combination of these retrograde c. To permit the employment of all or a por-
. o
operations may be conducted simultaneously or ton of the command elsewhere.
in sequence as one operation develops into an- d.t.d. To avoid combat under unrdesirable con-
other. Such operations may be forced by enemy
action or
1action
or may
may bebe executed
executed voluntarily.
voluntarily. In
In e. To gain time and avoid fighting a decisive
either event, the operation must be approved engagement.
by the higher commander. A well planned, well f. To disengage from battle.
organized, and aggressively executed retro- g. To conform to movement of other
grade operation provides opportunities for in- friendly troops.
flicting heavy damage to enemy troops and h. To shorten lines of communication.
material. In the conduct of a retrograde opera-
tion, the division will employ a combination
of offensive, defensive, and delaying tactics. Withdrawals may be executed either during
Because of their inherent characteristics of daylight or at night and may be forced or
tactical mobility and extensive communica- voluntary. Night or voluntary withdrawals are
tions, the armored and mechanized divisions favored over daylight or involuntary with-
can cover a wider front in retrograde opera- drawals since the former are conducted with-
tions than the infantry division. out direct enemy pressure. Night or voluntary

7-10 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

withdrawals provide freedom of action, facili- the enemy. When a withdrawal precedes a re-
tate deception, and reduce the effectivness of tirement, the retirement begins after the main
observed enemy fires. A daylight withdrawal forces have broken contact with the enemy and
under enemy pressure is avoided if possible, march columns have been formed. Security for
because observed enemy fires may result in the main body is provided by advance, flank,
heavy casualties and loss of freedom of action. and rear guards. When the retirement is pre-
Regardless of the type withdrawal being con- ceded by a withdrawal, a strong rear guard
ducted, contact is maintained with the enemy will be required to employ delaying tactics to
forces. delay the advancing enemy and to prevent in-
terference with the movement of the main
7-17. Delaying Action body.
The division accomplishes a delaying mission
by delay on successive positions, delay on al- 7-19. Engineers in Retrograde Operations
ternate positions, or by a combination of the a. Engineers may be placed in support of,
two techniques. Continuous delay is inherent or attached to, combat maneuver units as the
in each of the techniques and requires constant situation demands. Execution of the division
contact with the enemy by some portion of the barrier plan, construction of obstacles and rear-
delaying force, including the use of long-range ward positions, and road maintenance may
firepower and maneuver, to cause him to de- dictate a centralized engineer effort. The re-
ploy, reconnoiter, maneuver, and take other quirements for engineers by units in contact
time-consuming measures. Delay on alternate with the enemy may dictate attachment of en-
positions can only be used when the division gineers to them. Brigades may further place
can accomplish its mission and occupy two engineers in support of battalion task forces.
positions simultaneously. This normally will Unless additional engineer support is fur-
occur when the frontage assigned the division nished from outside the division, attachment
is relatively narrow. Delay on successive posi- of engineers to combat units may decrease the
tions may be used when a relatively wide front effectiveness of the engineer effort.
is assigned to the division. In either technique,
b. One of the most important functions of
continuous delay is sought on and between the engineers will be to provide advice and as-
positions. Delaying positions should be far sistance in the overall formulation and imple-
enough apart to cause the enemy to regroup mentation of the barrier plan. Barriers (ob-
prior to continuing
priorthe
theto attack
attack from
continuing one post-
from one stacles) are used by the retrograde commander
tion to the next. Delaying positions are sought to delay the enemy or canalize him into areas
which incorporate the -following. where he can be destroyed with nuclear or non-
a. A series of parallel ridges across the lines nuclear fires. Well-planned and widespread use
of hostile advance. of barriers, to include chemical contaminated
barriers, assists in gaining time and in avoid-
ing close pursuit. Subsurface or surface nu-
other obstacles on the front and flanks. clear demolitions may be employed to create
c. High ground with good observation and craters and contaminated areas, and to slow
long-range fields of fire. or impede the enemy's advance (see FM 5-26).
Barrier plans are coordinated with higher
d. Concealed routes of withdrawal. headquarters to prevent interference with fu-
e. A road net and/or areas providing good ture operations. The barrier plan is developed
cross-country trafficability. and prepared as an annex to the operations
order (plan) by the division engineer in co-
7-18. Retirement ordination with the G3 (responsible staff of-
A retirement may be made following a with- ficer).
drawal or when there is no actual contact with c. Detailed plans are prepared for demoli-
AGO 5888A 7-11
FM 5-135

tions along enemy avenues of approach and Care is exercised to insure that bridges are
those routes which lead into the division sector. not destroyed prematurely or that they are
Particular attention is given to the destruc- not seized intact by the enemy. To accomplish
tion of bridges and tunnels. Demolitions are this, responsibility for destroying bridges
placed in defiles and on routes traversing nat- within his sector is delegated to the tactical
ural and artificial obstacles as well as lateral commander. This delegation of responsibility
routes through the division sector. Demolition is often subject to specfic restrictions imposed
plans include-- by the higher commander. A demolition firing
(1) Provisions for placing and firing the party and a demolition guard are designated
necessary demolitions. for each bridge to be destroyed. The guard
commander has the authority to destroy the
(2) Adequate guards to prevent prema- bridge, subject to conditions established by the
ture firing of charges or seizure by higher commander. A list of all units that are
enemy infiltrators. to use the bridge is furnished the guard com-
(3) Fixed responsibility for the destruc- mander. Each unit commander notifies the
tion of bridges. guard commander when his unit has cleared.
(4) Schedule for destroying bridges no After the main body has crossed, the majority
longer needed by friendly forces. of the bridges in the sector are destroyed. Cer-
tain predesignated bridges are left for use by
(5) Covering by fire, including chemical security elements. The demolition guard com-
or nuclear fires, those obstacles cre- mander is responsible for destroying the
ated by demolitions or other means. bridge to prevent its capture by the enemy,
d. The destruction of bridges is of major im- but will do so only in accordance with the
portance to the retrograde force commander. provisons of the demolition plan (app D).

7-12 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 8
ENGINEER REORGANIZATION FOR COMBAT

8-1. Introduction each company coordinate with the next higher


The divisional engineer battalion, or any headquarters and the supported force
element thereof, engages in combat when- 8-3. Employment
a. The enemy prevents access to the unit's It it becomes necessary to employ the engi-
job site. neer battalion or its elements in a combat role,
b. The enemy attempts to drive the'engineer the unit must be prepared to execute this
unit from a job site. mission with the minimum amount of delay.
c. The enemy prevents delivery of supplies. Engineer elements should be committed as a
unit to preserve unit integrity. The major
d. Enemy action forces a combat role. This force commander makes the decision to commit
may develop in several ways- engineer units to a combat role. Some situa-
(1) The unit commander is forced into a tions where an engineer unit may be com-
combat role in order to save the unit. mitted to a combat role are-an overextended
(2) Enemy action forces the unit to fight defensive area; a sudden enemy penetration or
in order that the higher command can envelopment; an enemy airdrop or guerrilla
accomplish its mission. activity in a rear area; or a need to relieve a
(3) Because of the situation, the major combat force that must be committed to a more
commander decides to commit the en- decisive combat role elsewhere. The major
gineer unit. force commander will commit the engineer
unit only after careful consideration of the
8-2. Contingency Planning following factors:
An engineer battalion usually has its combat a. The seriousness of the situation-will the
engineer companies in support of each com- enemy force be able to affect the command
mitted brigade with elements of the bridge seriously if the engineer unit is not committed?
company and the headquarters company's b. The loss of engineer support-can the
equipment platoon supporting these companies. command afford the temporary loss of engi-
The remaining "operational" elements of the neer support?
battalion are committed throughout the divi-
sion area in general support of the division. Strength of the engineer unit-does the
engineer unit have enough personnel to be ef-
Consequently, it is difficult to reorganize the fentively employed?
battalion as a unit for combat. However, the
battalion and each combat engineer company d. Support to the engineer unit-will the
must plan for such a contingency and for com- mission be of an offensive or defensive nature,
mitment in combat as separate elements with and what fire and logistical support can the
the supported forces. These contingency plans engineer unit expect to receive from adjacent
are established in the battalion and company and higher units in carrying out its mission?
standing operating procedures (SOP) and are
kept current based on the unit's current and 8-4. Types of Missons
anticipated missions and actual status. In the An engineer unit may receive an offensive or
development of these plans, the battalion and defensive mission. However, it has less combat
AGO 5888A 8-1
FM 5-135

effectiveness than an infantry unit of similar usually is time to make the necessary initial
size because it has less equipment and fewer changes before meeting the enemy. The bat-
supporting weapons. Also an engineer unit un- talion, battalion headquarters, headquarters
dergoes less extensive infantry combat train- company, and the -engineer companies are each
ing. In the defense, to compensate in part for organized into forward and rear echelons. The
these disadvantages, an engineer unit is as- forward echelon consists of sections and units
signed a smaller frontage than an infantry to accomplish the combat mission. The rear
unit of corresponding size. Additional fire- echelon includes all of the equipment and per-
power and fire support must be furnished by sonnel not essential to the mission. The num-
the force commander. ber of personnel assigned to the rear echelon
a. Offensive. The divisional engineer bat- is the minimum necessary to maintain the
talion might receive a mission to assist other mobility of the rear echelon, provide for its
combat forces in securing an objective of crit- local security, and perform essential support
ical importance to the overall operation, or to functions. The rear echelon moves to a rear
destroy an enemy stronghold in the division area designated by the commander.
zone, such as a small bypassed enemy unit- 8-6. Fire'Support and Communications
but this type of commitment is rare.
b. Defensive. The defensive type missionb.Defensive.
is
is Thedefensive
Engineer
typemission
units normally require additional
fire support when committed in a combat role.
the one most commonly assigned to division
engineer units. engineer
The major
The units.
major force
force commander
commander Fire support is best provided when the engi-
neer battalion is attached to the supported
should allow time for the engineer unit to force and is employed as a part of it. The force
prepare for this mission. Time is needed to co-
ordinatete the propr
ordinate the proper type of support and to commander then is responsible for furnishing
supporting fires. Forward observers from ar-
move nonessential personnel and equipment tog tillery and mortar fires. Forward
units joinobservers fromunits
the engineer ar-
a rear area where they will not be captured or as they would an infantry unit. If the battalion
destroyed by the enemy force. When ample lis committed as a unit, the combat engineer
warning time is available to the engineer com- vehicles from the companies can be grouped
mander, he prepares his unit for battle in the to
to be
be employed
employed as as directed
directed by
by the
the battalion
battalion
same way as any other combat force com- commander. The engineer unit enters the
mander. radio net of the organization to which it is
8-5. Preparation for Combat attached. The use of prearranged signals is
coordinated. In static situations, wire com-
Commitment of the engineer battalion in a munication may be established. In addition,
combat role normally is limited to headquar- messengers and sound and visual signals may
ters company and the combat engineer com- be used. Whenever possible, supporting artil-
panies. The bridge company usually remains lery units should continue their wire net down
intact, subject to call by the division engineer, to each deployed engineer company.
for assignment to division engineer missions.
When modified for combat, the engineer com- 8-7. Suggested Guide for Reorganization
pany is capable of furnishing command and for Combat
combat elements. Normal organization
combtelmt.
l oo N is A definite plan, a part of the unit's SOP,
changed to provide effective use and control of must be established which will enable the unit
crew-served weapons, for security of equip- to reorganize 'effciently for combat. It is not
ment not needed for combat, and for the re- desirable to establish a standard plan for all
quirements of command, communication, and engineer units. Each unit has individual op-
supply in combat. The extent of modification erating characteristics which must be consid-
for combat varies with the size of the unit, the ered in any plan for reorganization. Following
time available, and the mission. When engi- is a suggested guide for reorganizing for
neers are committed to a combat role, there combat.
8-2 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

a. Divisional Engineer Battalion (fig. 8-1). b. Headquarters and Headquarters Com-


(1) Forward echelon. The forward eche- pany (fig. 82).
Ion of battalion headquarters is under (1) Forward echelon. The forward eche-
the immediate control of the battalion lon of headquarters company consists
commander. It operates the battalion of the personnel and equipment of
command post and provides the staff battalion headquarters necessary to
agencies necessary for the conduct of establish, operate, and defend the
tactical operations. battalion command post. It is com-
manded by the company commander.
(2) Rear echelon. Members and equip- (2) Rear echelon. The rear echelon is
ment of the battalion staff sections composed of personnel and equipment
which are not required for the corn- not required in the forward echelon.
bat mission become part of the rear Available personnel and equipment of
echelon. The battalion rear echelon is the company may be detached and
commanded by the senior officer pres- used by the division engineer on en-
ent, usually the S4. gineer tasks elsewhere.

DIVISIONAL
ENGR BN

FWD ECH ECH


REAR ECH

BN(FWDHO
HO CO woCMBl

BN HO (EAR)
O CO (REAR IBRG CO EOP POOL

(1) Includes rear echelons of the engineer combat companies.

Figure 8-1. Divisional engineer battalion reorganized


for combat.

AGO 5888A 8-3


FM 5-195

H HQ
&I
CO

1 .

e~~~~~~~~~~~~~~H ECH
FWD

S3

(1) At division forward


|ADMIN SEC (-)| | 54 1 I BNMEAR E CH

Figure 8-2. Headquartersand headquarterscompany


reorganized for combat.

c. Combat Engineer Companies (fig. 8-3). (2) Rear echelon. The rear echelon moves
(1) Forward echelon. Personnel and to a rear area designated by the com-
equipment to accomplish the combat mander, normally with the remainder
mission are formed into a forward of the battalion rear. The mission of
echelon. Companies are modified so the rear echelon is to support the
that each will have a headquarters company's operation and to provide
and three combat platoons and, if its own security.
desired, a separate combat engineer
vehicle section.

8J4 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

COMBAT
ENGR CO

I"FWD
ECH REAR ECH

COMD ~COMM
SEC SUP SEC I MESS SEC MAINT SEC

|PAT HO | >

Figure 8-3. Combat engineer company reorganized for combat.

d. Bridge Company. The bridge company assists in providing part of the security ele-
normally is not committed in a combat role. ment for that area. The division engineer may
When the battalion is committed the bridge assign some essential engineer tasks to the
company normally moves to the rear and be- bridge company.
comes a part of the battalion rear echelon. It

AGO 6888A 8-5


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 9
COMMUNICATIONS

9-1. Introduction (4) Radio wire integration stations at


each signal center, except the one at
ne
a. The division area communication system si c
division rear, capable of interconnect-
ing mobile FM radio stations with
is installed, operated, maintained, and con-
trolled by personnel of the division signal bat- the telephone system at signal cen-
talion. The system is composed of forward ters
area signal centers and command signal cen-
ters interconnected through multi- and single- c. The signal centers provide points of entry
channel circuits, radio/wire integration sta- into the system for the supported headquar-
tions, and signal messenger service (FM ters, units, and installations to facilitate their
11-50). use of trunk lines and channels in the system.
b. The division communication system nor- For instance, if a company commander of an
mally will consist of- engineer company attached to a brigade has
(1) Command signal centers at each eche- 'to request specialized equipment from the en-
lon of the division headquarters gineer battalion, he may enter the communi-
(main, alternate and rear) and(main,the
thealternate
cations
andrear)
system
and through the signal center
support
support command headquarters, and and
commandheadquarters,
earest him by either FM radio or telephone.
three area signal centers in the for-
ward area of the division zone. These 9-2. Responsibilities
signal center provide message cen-
ter, messenger, cryptographic, tele- a. Each commander is responsible for the
type, telephone, and radio (excluding establishment, operation, and maintenance of
internal radio nets) service for all the communications system of his command.
units in their vicinity supplemental to Effective communication is essential to the
organic facilities. control of the battalion and its elements. The
Note. The material presented in this battalion uses a combination of radio, wire,
chapter is based on current TOE's. When visual, sound, and messenger communications.
TOE's are changed to reflect the applica- b. Effective communication is a result of the
tionr of Combat Developments Study "Field joint effort of units concerned, even though
Army Requirements for Tactical Communi- one of those units has primary responsibility
cations (TACOM)" a change to this manual for establishing and maintaining communica-
will be published. tions with another. In the event of a communi-
(2) Multichannel communication links to
(2) communication
Multichannel the
interconnect links
signalinterconnect
centers to
listed cations failure, units concerned take immediate
centers the signal action to locate and eliminate the trouble and
listed
above, headquarters division artillery, continue such action until contact is regained.
and headquarters of each brigade.
(3) A division ground messenger service c. Battalion headquarters includes a com-
and air messenger service (aircraft munications section. The section operates un-
provided by aviation battalion), link- der the immediate supervision of the communi-
ing echelons of the division headquar- cations officer, a member of the battalion staff.
ters with the major subordinate com- The communications section provides the fol-
mands of the division. lowing services:
AGO 5888A 91
FM 5-135

TO DIVISION COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

Bn CO

Bn XO

Admin Sec

Op Sec (2 lines)
SECTION
COMM
COMM SECTION
Co A
Intell Sec
Co B
2CoSWITCHBOARDS
C Supply Sec (2 lines)
Co C O
(SB-22PT)
Bn Maint Sec
Co D
Med Sec
Brg Co C- 29 LINE CAPACITY
Chaplain

Hq Co CO

Equip Plat

ADM Plot

Figure 9-1. Typical wire net for divisional engineer battalion.

(1) Supervises the operation of the bat- (3) Operates the battalion message cen-
talion communications system. ter and switchboard and provides
messenger service.
(2) Installs wire line to companies and (4) Operates panel displays and message
staff sections. pickup facilities.

9-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

(5) Operates the battalion command net assistant to the company commander in com-
(AM) and the battalion commander's munications matters. Company headquarters is
net (FM). authorized personnel to perform the following
(6) Monitors the division warning broad- tasks:
cast net (AM) and operates in the (1) Providing organizational mainte-
division general purpose net (RATT). nance on communications equipment
(7) Provides organizational maintenance of the company.
of communications equipment of (2) Supervising the operation of the
headquarters company, and assists company communications system.
the companies in performance of (3) Installing wire lines to platoons.
their maintenance. (4) Operating the company message cen-
(8) Provides facilities for encrypting and ter and switchboard.
decrypting messages. (5) Operating the company net (FM)
and operating in the battalion com-
d. Each engineer company commander is mand net (AM).
responsible for the installation, operation, and (6) Monitoring either the engineer bat-
maintenance of his portion of the communi- talion commander's net (FM) or the
cations system. He insures that his subordi- supported organization commander's
nates are properly trained to assist him in the net (FM). Also monitoring the divi-
execution of his communications responsibili- sion warning broadcast net (AM).
ties. The communications chief is the principal (7) Encrypting and decrypting messages.

Co CO

SWITCHBOARD Co Hq
TO BN. OR g (SB-22PT)
O Supply
SUPPORTED UNIT S.p.
12 LINE CAPACITY
Motor Pool

1st Plot 2nd Plot 3rd Plot


SWITCHBOARD SWITCHBOARD SWITCHBOARD
(SB-933GT) (SB-933GT) (SB-933GT)
6 LINE CAPACITY 6 LINE CAPACITY 6 LINE CAPACITY

1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd


Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd Sqd

Figure 9-2. Typical wire net for combat engineer company.

AGO 5888A 9-3


FM 5-135

Co CO

Co Hq

Heavy Raft or
SWITCHBOARD Brg Plt
TO BN OR (SB-22PT)
Heavy Raft or
SUPPORTED UNIT Brg PlatRaf or
Heavy
12 LINE CAPACITY AVLB Plat

Supply

Motor Pool

Figure 9-3. Typical wire net for bridge company.

9-3. Wire Communication command, the aviation battalion, and the three
forward area signal centers. The net control
a. The widely dispersed operations of the
engineer battalion preclude extensive use of station The communications section op
NCost.
organic wire for communication between ele- erates
ments of the battalion other than connections an /
to the nearest division signal center(s). Typi- b. Division CG/Command Net. This is an
cal wire nets for the battalion are shown in FM (frequency modulated) voice net. It links
the division commander and staff and Ithe com-
manders of all immediate subordinate units.
b. The battalion communications section in- The division engineer operates in this net and
stalls local telephones required for the opera- the assistant division engineer officer monitors
tion of the battalion headquarters, it.
c. Engineer companies enter the wire sys- c. Division Warning Broadcast Net (AM-
tem of the supported organization and the Voice). This net broadcasts air alerts, CBR
division area communications system. Wire attack warnings, radiological safety data,
communication is provided at worksites as re- nuclear strike warnings, fallout warnings, and
quired. Units use wire communication to con- similar information of an urgent operational
trol traffic through minefields and barriers. nature which applies to the division as a whole,
or to major divisional elements, which need
9-4. Division Nets not be handled through command channels.
a. Divisional General Purpose Net. This is Battalion headquarters and all companies mon-
an AM (amplitude modulated) RATT (radio itor this net using the AN/GRR-5.
teletypewriter) net which links division main
and the engineer battalion. This net also in-
cludes division alternate, division rear, support a. Engineer Battalion Command Net (AM).
9.4 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

COMM SECTION

DIVISION GENERAL PURPOSE


NET (RATT)

NCS

FIRING UNIT
AN/ORR-S ;WARNING-' COMMAND NET
BATTALION AN/GRC-19
COMMAND (AN/GRC-106)
r -NETS_ AN/VRC-46 - ----

BN CO
l 53 I' I ',Vl
V.N ICO
53 1TOCOMPANIES jia~ DIV LN OFF ADM PLAY LOR

AN/GRC-19 JI rIIAN/VRC-46 I
(AN/GRC-106) A

AN/VRC-47 TO DIV S4 I AN/RC

I G/COMMAND NET a 7 ASST DIV ENGR TA

IX0 RECON (INT) AN/VRC-46


I 22
I
" I TO DGC-TO--ADIV,--E2
AN/VRC-47 | AN/GRC.125 _" ,IAN/PRC-25
CG/COMMAND NET
GRC-19 LR C-I
GRC-C9
(AN/GRC-106) I(AN/GRC-106)

AN/VRC-47 -_J Figure 9-4. Radio nets, engineer battalion, infantry division.

legend
AM NET

- - - -- - FM NET
NOTE: AN/GRC-19 (STDB) WILL BE REPLACED WITH AN/GRC-106.

Figure 9-4. Radio nets, engineer battalion, infantry division.

The battalion command net links elements of ing another organization, the company comrn-
the battalion over the ranges expected during mander's and the company headquarters' FM
normal operations. Command, operational, in- radios normally monitor this net, and operate
telligence, and logistical traffic are carried on in the supported organization commander's
this AM net. It is the primary communication command net (FM). In these situations the
system for the battalion and may operate as a engineer battalion commander can maintain
voice or continuous wave (CW) net. contact with detached companies through the
b. Engineer Battalion Commander's Net battalion command net (AM). Figure 9-4 is
(FM-Voice). This net is primarily for the use
of the battalion commander for command and
control. It may replace or augment the AM battalion of an infantry division. The nets for
command net providing a voice link with each engineer battalions of the armored and mech-
of the companies. When a company is support- anized divisions are similar.
AGO 6888A
FM 5-135

NCS

DIVISION WARNING
AN/GRR-5D N BROADCAST NET
BN COMMAND NET AN/GRC-19
(AN/GRC-106)
COMPANY COMMAND NET
r---------- r-----
AN/VRC-47

CO COMDR PLAT LDR PLAT LDR PLAT LDR

I I I III~~~~~
!N/4
L' A N / V
6C- J
R -C4 6
I
PLAT SOT PLAT SOT PLAT SOT

II I I
AN/GRC-125 J
l

SOD LDR SOD LDR SOD LDR

legend
AM NET L R125 A
AN/RC-125
FM NET

NOTE: AN/GRC-19 (STD B) WILLBE REPLACED WITH AN/GRC-106.

Figure 9-5. Radio net, combat engineer company,


engineer battalion, infantry division.

9-6. Company Nets and mechanized infantry division battalions op-


erate a similar net. Figure 9-6 is a typical net
a. Organic equipment of the combat engi-
for
the the
M4T6bridge company when Aequipped
neer companies and the bridge company pro- or class 60 bridge slightly with
dif-
vides4 FM radios for internal command and the M4T6 or class 60 bridge. A slightly dif-
control and for contact with the supported ferent net is used when the company is
unit, an AM radio for maintaining contact
equipped with the MAB.
with battalion, and an AM receiver for mon- b. The communications section of the com-
itoring the division warning net. Figure 9-5 pany headquarters operates the net control
shows a typical net for a combat engineer com- station (NCS) for the company command net.
pany, engineer battalion, infantry division. The FM radio set has one receiver-transmitter
Combat engineer companies of the armored (RT) and one receiver. Normally, the RT is
e9. AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

NCS

BN COMMAND NET NRC


C C D AN/GRC-19 SUPPORTED UNITS (AS REO'D)

COMPANY COMMAND NET AN _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-

CO I BR PLAT LDR BRPLAT LDR AVLB PLAT LDR

AN/V}C-47
~j RN
AN/V RC-4
__---- ----' l 'e e'-'
CO XO |LAUNCHER 2ea LAUNCHER 2ea

Ir~~····· I-:- I · · · ·- · · u
I i I
AN/RC AN/PRC-25, A R1

||fPRC.2jC -I--
AN-PRCS
-C25 , -- ... I/
125 A|,5C-125

legend Figure 9-6. Radio net, bridge company, divisional engineer battalion
AM
__
FM (equipped with M4T6 or class 60 bridge).

NOTE: AN/GRC-19 (STD B) WILL BEREPLACED WITH AN/GRC-106.

Figure 9-6. Radio net, bridge company, divisional engineer battalion (equipped with M4T6 or class 60 bridge).

used to control the company command net. The gineer companies can operate in two
other receiver is used to monitor the engineer nets. One is the company command
battalion commander's net or, if the company net or, if the platoon is in a support
is in a support role, it monitors the supported role, the supported organization com-
organization commander's net. The transmitter mander's net; the other is the platoon
frequency is switched as required. net.
c. The company commander's radio is iden- (2) The platoon leaders of the bridge
tical to and used similarly to the one described company have radios similar to those
above. With his radio, the commander main- in company headquarters. Employ-
tains contact with his surbordinate elements ment of radios in the platoon is the
and monitors the battalion net or that of the same as in the combat engineer
supported organization commander.
e. The combat engineer vehicles of the engi-
d. The platoon communication capabilities neer companies and the armored vehicle
are as follows: launched bridge launchers of the bridge com-
(1) The platoon leaders of the combat en- pany operate in their respective units' net, ex-
AGO 5888A 9-7
FM 5-135

cept when in a support role, at which time lishes and maintains communication with the
they operate in the supported unit's net. supported divisional engineer battalion. This
communication is established through either
9-7. Radio Communication with Supporting the division or army area communication sys-
Engineer Units tem or the corps communications system, de-
Nondivisional engineer combat units of the pending on the location of the supporting
engineer combat groups use AM radios for unit's headquarters. If feasible, the unit will
their primary means of radio communication. operate in the divisional engineer battalion
A supporting engineer unit normally estab- command net (AM).

9-8 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 10
COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

10-i. Introduction service for all units assigned and attached to


the division. It also provides direct support
This chapter covers the method by which maintenance of electric accounting machine
the divisional engineer battalion receives its equipment.
equipment. The
The company operates under the
company operates under the
combat service support within the division.
general staff supervision of the division G1.
Additionally, it covers the administrative,
logistical, and maintenance areas of responsi- For details of the employment of the adminis-
bility within the battalion as well as the bat- trative company, see FM 12-11.
talion's responsibility to the division for pro- 10-2. Administration
duction of potable water. The procedures de- a. Administrative Responsibilities. Adminis-
scribed herein are intended as a guide and are trative responsibilities within the battalion in-
subject to modification by appropriate regula- elude maintenance of unit strength; submis-
tions, directives, and policies of higher head- sion of reports; provision of morale and per-
quarters. sonnel services, discipline, law, and order;
a. Division Support Command. The division civil affairs; and collection and evacuation of
has, as a major subordinate unit, a division the dead and of prisoners of war.
support command which is organized on a b. Maintenance of Unit Strength. The bat-
functional basis to provide division level com- talion adjutant forwards personnel requisi-
bat service support. It provides the following tions to the division adjutant general, using
support to all elements of the division: supply, as a basis vacancies existing in the companies.
transportation of supply (less class V), direct Receipt and processing of these individual and
support maintenance (except medical, crypto- unit replacements into the battalion is super-
graphic, and quartermaster air equipment), vised and coordinated by the adjutant. In the
medical service, and miscellaneous services. interest of morale and efficiency, replacements
Direct support maintenance of medical and are retained in the division replacement sec-
quartermaster air equipment is provided by tion for the shortest practicable time, about
field army support command (FASCOM) 48 hours. They are moved to the battalion
units. Direct support maintenance of crypto- under battalion escort, using either unit or
praphic equipment is provided by the division division transportation. Here they receive fur-
signal battalion. The division support com- ther indoctrination in the history, traditions,
mand is an operational command directly un- mission, and current situation of the battalion.
der the division commander (see FM 54-2). Replacements are then moved to their assigned
Detailed functions and procedures pertaining companies.
to subordinate units of the division support c. Submission of Reports. The companies in-
command are covered in separate field man- formally furnish the battalion adjutant with
uals. necessary information for the company morn-
b. Division Administration Company. The ing report, the personnel daily summary re-
division administration company, organic to port, and, when required, a casualty and loss
the division support command, provides the report. This information is relayed to the divi-
necessary personnel and administrative serv- sion administration company through the S1
ices to sustain the division. This includes re- section. The personnel staff NCO in the S1
placement support and a centralized personnel section of battalion maintains close liaison
AGO 5888A 10-1
FM 5-135

with the division administration company on f. Civil Affairs. The battalion S3 is respon-
these and other personnel matters. The bat- sible for the implementation of that part of
talion adjutant keeps the commander informed the command civil affairs program pertaining
concerning personnel policies of higher head- to the battalion and coordinates these activities
quarters and advises him on matters of per- with the civil affairs elements in his area of
sonnel, morale, discipline, and esprit de corps operation. In the event the elements are not
within the battalion. available, the S3 normally performs these
d. Morale and Personnel Services. The cor- functions. Therefore, the S3 must be thor-
pany commander is responsible for the morale oughly familiar with the policies and directives
and welfare of members of the company. He of higher headquarters concerning civil affairs
insures that leave and rest quotas are equitably operations and responsibilities The primary
allocated and that these quotas are filled when
conditions permit. Emergency leaves are control the civilian population and to minimize
processes expeditiously in accordance with interference with and obtain support for mili-
regulations and policies. He insures that all tary operations Support actions most likely
personnel are familiar with awards and deco- required will be in the areas of civilian labor,
public works and utilities, local supplies, build-
ings, and assistance in the control of displaced
tions are promptly forwarded to battalion for ngs, and assistance in the control of displaced
preparation in final form. He insures that the persons, refugees and evacuees. The company
commander executes such civil affairs respon-
pay and allotment of his men is correct, that sibilities as may be delegated to him by higher
delivered and properly
mail is promptly headquarters. He also insures that the utiliza-
that services
that
handled, andhandled, services
and such as
such legal as-
as legal ion of civilians by his unit conforms to direc-
sistance, welfare, army exchange, special serv-
ices, and chaplain's assistance are made tives of higher headquarters.
available and are properly utilized. The bat- g. Collection and Evacuation of the Dead.
talion adjutant assists the company com- The company commander is responsible for
mander in the foregoing responsibilities and collecting, identifying, and evacuating the
insures the overall efficient operation of these dead, and for safeguarding their personal ef-
services throughout the battalion. fects, while in the area of his control. The
e. Discipline, Law, and Order. The company dead are identified as early and as fully as
commander is responsible for all matters per- possible. Deceased personnel normally are
taining to discipline, law, and order within the evacuated to the battalion or supported organi
companyappropriate,
When he exercises zation's graves registration and evacuation
jurisdiction under article 15, Uniform Code
jurisdiction under article 15, Uniform Code point on available transportation. Personal ef-
of Military Justice, or prefers charges. Charge
sheets and allied papers normally are prepared burials are resorted to only as an emergency
by clerks of the battalion SI section from in- measure. When isolated burials are authorized,
formation furnished by the company com- they are
they are fully documented and
fully documented and reported
reptd
mander. The
mander. battalion commander
The battalion commander exercises
exercises promptly through graves registration chan-
summary and special courts-martial jurisdic- nels. Details of graves registrations service are
covered in FM 10-63.
tion. He appoints court-martial boards for
prompt disposition of cases occurring within h. Collection and Evacuation of Prisonersof
the organization. The battalion adjutant main- War. The company commander is responsible
tains statistics on all absences without leave, for the proper handling of prisoners of war
stragglers, awards and punishments, court- in accordance with the Geneva Convention of
martial actions, and other matters reflecting 1949 and for their evacuation to a prisoner
the status of discipline, law, and order within of war collecting point. The adjutant prepares
the command. He maintains records to insure and supervises the executions of plans for the
that corrective action is taken when required. collection and evacuation of prisoners of war.

10-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

He must be careful to insure that these plans and associated equipment and functions as the
conform to the directives of higher headquar- division water supply officer. He coordinates
ters and that they are sufficiently comprehen- with the other staff sections of the battalion,
sive. He coordinates with S2 for estimates on the S4 or G4 of the next higher headquarters,
prisoners anticipated and facilities for any in- and all supply establishments which are his
terrogation desired, and with S3 for necessary sources of supply. He also coordinates and es-
guards for prisoners while they. are being tablishes liaison with all maintenance agencies
evacuated. He coordinates with S4 for trans- which support the battalion. The primary
portation to evacuate prisoners of war and functions of the S4 include-
with the battalion surgeon for evacuation of (1) Supervising the battalion supply sec-
wounded prisoners. tion.
10-3. Supply Functions (2) Maintaining liaison with installation
supply and maintenance activities.
The principal functions of the battalion in supply
supply are those of acquisition and evacuation. (3) Training supply personnel.
The battalion draws supplies from sources out- (4) Providing guidance to unit comman-
side and makes distribution within the battal- ders on problems concerning supply.
ion. It also takes excess or unserviceable sup- (5) Informing the battalion commander
plies from subordinate units and disposes of on the status of supply operations
them through prescribed channels. The prop- within all elements of the command.
erty responsibilities of the commanders are (6) Establishing and maintaining the
identical with those of commanders at all property books and property records
echelons. These command responsibilities are for the battalion and its elements.
to insure that all property pertaining to the Duties of the property book officer
command is adequately administered, safe- are normally assigned to the supply
guarded, accounted for, and used. warrant officer and include-
(a) Maintaining battalion and installa-
10-4. Supply Responsibilities tion property books.
a. Battalion Commander. The battalion corn- (b) Maintaining a transaction register
mander discharges his supply responsibilities to reflect all supply actions ini-
through the supply staff officer (S4). He in- tiated by the battalion.
sures that commanders of subordinate units (c) Initiating all supply requisitions
properly conduct supply functions within their and turn-ins.
commands. He checks on the efficiency of sup- (d) Preparing adjustment transactions
ply operations through frequent personal in- as required.
spections and by reports of inspections turned (e) Maintaining a file of vouchers to
in by his S4. Immediate action to correct sup- support property book and trans-
ply problems or discrepancies found as a result action register entries.
of inspections is the responsibility of the c. Cormpany Commander. The company com-
commander. He must insure that his staff ac- mander is responsible for the supply and ad-
complishes proper corrective action. ministration of the company and any at-
b. Battalion Supply Officer (S4). The battal- tached elements. He makes timely requests for
ion supply officer (S4) is responsible for supplies and distributes them. The company
closely supervising the supply activities of all commander is assisted in these duties by the
subordinate units. He maintains informal ac- company officers, the first sergeant, the mess
countability for all military property in the steward, the supply sergeant, and the motor
possession of these units. His operations sup- sergeant. The specific responsibilities of a
port the tactical plan and are based upon the company commander in connection with prop-
orders of higher headquarters. He has primary erty administration are quite extensive. He
staff responsibility for the provision of ADM must-
AGO 5888A 10-3
FM 5-135

(1) Have in his possession, in serviceable crepancies and also reports them to the battal-
condition, all items authorized his ion S4. He checks on the timely delivery of
company. replacement items.
(2) Determine by frequent inspection
that all prescribed items of author- 105. Supply Procedures
ized equipment in the possession of a. Maps. Distribution of maps is accom-
officers or enlisted men are on hand plished by- the supply and transportation bat-
and serviceable. talion in accordance with priorities of alloca-
(3) Insure that all personnel, both officer tions made by the G2, in coordination with
and enlisted, are instructed in the the engineer battalion S2 and the division G3.
proper methods of use, care, and Quantities are based on army tables of map
maintenance of property, and that allowances. The engineer battalion S2 obtains
the instructions are followed. and distributes maps for the battalion.
(4) Maintain individual clothing records, b. Class I Supply. The battalion S4 for-
and such other records as are neces- wards the battalion's requirements for class I
sary to assure that the status of the supplies to the supply and transportation bat-
property for which he is responsible talion. Normally, rations are delivered to the
is accurately reflected at all times. supply and transportation battalion, which
(5) Obtain acceptable vouchers to cover breaks down the bulk supplies into unit lots.
loss, damage, or destruction to prop- Depending on whether unit or supply point
erty for which he is responsible, and distribution is in effect, the supply and trans-
process these vouchers in accordance portation battalion delivers rations to the en-
with appropriate regulations. gineer battalion area or the engineer battalion
(6) Upon transfer of property responsi- uses its organic transportation to pick up the
bility to his successor, take joint in- rations at the prescribed class I distributing
ventory, and initiate action to adjust point. In either case, the battalion S4 breaks
discrepancies. down and distributes rations to the company
(7) When desired, designate one or more kitchens. When companies are in support of
authorized representatives to receipt brigades and time and distance make this
for property in his name. The repre- method of supply infeasible, the battalion S4
sentative may be any member of his and the company commander concerned make
command, commissioned, warrant, or appropriate arrangements with the division
enlisted. The fact, however, that support command commander and the S4 of
property is receipted for by a repre- supported brigade.
sentative of the commander does not c. Class II and IV Supply. Class II supplies
in any way reduce his own respon- of all end items of supply of the various serv-
sibility for that property. ices, except medical supplies, are handled by
(8) Assume responsibility for all govern- the supply and transportation battalion. Class
ment property under his control, II and IV repair parts are supplied by the
whether receipted for or not. division maintenance battalion. Medical sup-
d. Platoon Leader. The platoon leader is re- plies are handled by the medical battalion
sponsible for the equipment organic to his Class IV supply is accomplished in generally
platoon. This equipment is issued to him on the same manner as class II Engineer forti-
hand-receipt by the battalion S4. He inspects fication materials normally are delivered by
the platoon to see that it is properly equipped the army supply points supporting the division
and that any shortages are replaced. In com- and are carried as far forward as possible
bat, he sees that the platoon is fed, and that without transshipment. The battalion S4 for-
supplies and materials are replenished. He in- wards the battalion requirements directly to
forms the company commander of any dis- the supply and transport battalion. Fast mov-

10.4
^AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

ing class II supplies are forwarded directly enough transportation, specialists, and helpers
from the army supply points or depots to the to operate the sets independently in establish-
division class II distributing point in the di- ing the water points required by the division.
vision support area or, where appropriate, Normally one team is in support of each bri-
directly to the battalion or company. Major gade, one is in support of the support com-
items of equipment are delivered as requested mand, and one is kept in reserve. Whether
by the division support command. Unit distri- sent to a specific location or attached to an
bution of fast moving class II items directly engineer company, the team operates alone.
to the battalion or to elements of the supply The location of the team determines how it
and transportation battalion operating with gets its rations. It may be attached to an ad-
the brigade trains is desirable. Normally, a jacent unit for rations; rations may be deliv-
combination of unit and supply point distribu- ered to it by the engineer company to which
tion will be employed. it is attached or by headquarters company; or
d. Class III Supply. The battalion S4 sub- the team may prepare its own food on small
mits a periodic forecast for POL products to cooking units.
the supply and transportation battalion, indi- b. Water Points. With the water purifica-
cating any change to the previously experi- tion sets, the water production teams establish
enced supply rates. Class III may be delivered the water points required by the division. Each
to the engineer battalion area by tankers of unit of the division draws water from the
the supply and transportation battalion, or the point nearest it. Water point locations are re-
engineer battalion may use its organic tankers ported to the supported brigade and to the
to draw vehicle fuel from the class III distri- engineer battalion headquarters. Battalion, in
buting points which are established normally turn, reports these locations to the G4.
by the supply and transportation battalion in c. Sources of Water. Water usually is ob-
the division support and brigade trains areas. taied from local sources determined by re-
Individual vehicles moving to the rear on other connaissance by S4 personnel. It is made
tasks habitually replenish their fuel at division potable with water purification equipment or-
mobile filling stations. ganic to the engineer battalion. When a source
e. Conventional Class V Supply. Ammuni- of water is not available in the division area,
tion requisitions for class V are prepared by the division engineer has the staff responsibil-
the battalion S4 and are presented at the di- ity for obtaining water elsewhere and stocking
vision ammunition office for authentication by it at division water points.
the division ammunition officer (DAO) who d. Operation of Water Points. The tactical
normally is located in the division support situation and the sources of water normally
area. He may be located at the army ammuni- dictate the location and hours of operation of
tion supply point (ASP). Class V normally is water point. Road nets, parking areas, and
supplied through supply point distribution.
The battalion does not carry a reserve class V. considerations. Normally, units are permitted
considerations. Normally, units are permitted
The only ammunition held in the battalion is to draw water at any time the water point is
in the company basic loads. Supply procedures in opera water is limited in quantity
in operation. If water is limited in quantity
are described in FM 9-6. or the demand excessive, units may be per-
f. Special Class V Supply. Special ammuni- mitted to draw water only at scheduled times.
tion supply procedures are described in FM's Normally, the G4 establishes these schedules.
101-10-3 and 9-6. Units should draw water as soon as practi-
cable after the opening of the water point,
10-6. Water Purification as the water purification equipment must be
a. Water Production Teams. The divisional dismantled before the next move in time to
engineer battalion has five water production accompany the force which it is supporting.
teams, with five water purification sets. It has The battalion S4 is responsible for coordina-
AGO 888A 10-5
FM 5-135

tion of displacement of water points with the ment. Normally, one forward support company
water point teams and with G4 for close-out is placed in support of each brigade and op-
times of old points and opening times and erate in the brigade trains area. It provides
locations of new points; and for coordination direct support maintenance for engineer, ord-
with the battalion S3 for preparation of nance, and signal equipment for the units in
water point sites, with the division surgeon the area. The forward support company has
for water purity control, and with the provost a limited materiel recovery and evacuation
marshal for traffic control. capability. The main support company oper-
ates in the division support area, providing
10-7. Maintenance direct maintenance support to the division
a. Organizational Maintenance. The battal- elements not supported by the forward sup-
ion maintenance section, under the control of port companies, and backup maintenance sup-
the maintenance warrant officer, insures that port to the forward support companies. The
the organizational maintenance requirements battalion maintenance section requisitions re-
of the battalion are satisfactorily met. Incom- pair parts from the support company desig-
Ing repair work is checked to see if proper nated. The basis of requisition will be to
operator maintenance has been performed and replenish its prescribed load of repair parts.
to determine the extent of repairs needed. c. Evacuation of Damaged Material. Units
Completed work is checked to see that equip- of the battalion are responsible for initial re-
ment is in operating condition before it is covery of damaged equipment. Large items
released from the maintenance section shop. such as cranes or other vehicles may be evac-
The battalion maintenance section also pro- uated to the brigade axis of evacuation or to
vides technical help to company motor pool division collection points. Small items are
personnel. evacuated to the collection points. The main
b. Direct Support Maintenance. The main-
Direct SupportThe main-
bMaintenance support company of the maintenance battalion
tenance battalion of the support command
provides direct support maintenance for all operates the main division collection point and
material except medical, electric accounting, provides evacuation service for the materiel
quartermaster air, and cryptographic equip- supported.

10-6 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

CHAPTER 11
TRAINING

11-1. Battalion Training ance and proficiency standards are in


line with the standards of the De-
a. Introduction. The divisional engineer bat- partment of the Army; and procures
talion trains to develop operating techniques and controls the use of training faci-
that will enable it to function efficiently when and equipment He issues
integrated with other units of the division. the training memorandums necessary
the training memorandums necessary
Training never ceases. It is continuous before to implement his training mission.
battle, during battle, and after battle. This
chapter outlines the progress of training from (2) Operations officer. The battalion op-
the basic combat training of the individual to erations a training officer (3)
field exercises and maneuvers involving large prepares a training program and
units. As a general guide, training follows the makes recommendations concerning
Army Training Programs (ATP's) provided training to the battalion commander.
by Department of the Army. This training is He also establishes battalion-level
designed to instill in every man a thorough schools for officers, noncommissioned
knowledge of his job and the ability to work officers, and specialists. Members of
with others in a team. The ideal unit is well the battalion staff assist in the plan-
disciplined, thoroughly grounded in its mission, ning and supervision of trspeciaized
high in morale, and able to act promptly as a which pertains to their specialized
team. From the outset, each member of the
battalion must be taught to perform under (3) Company commander. The company
conditions of nuclear, chemical, and biological commander is responsible for train-
warfare. ing his company in accordance with
battalion memorandums and policies.
b. Military Training. AR 350-1 sets forth Each company commander supervises
the broad training policies and general guid- the training of his organization.
ance for all commanders charged with super-
vising or conducting military training in the 11-2. Training Phases
Army.
a. Introduction. The training to be conducted
c. Responsibility. and the time to be devoted to training during
(1) Battalion commander. The battalion each of the five formal phases of training
commander is responsible for train- (phase (1) through phase (5), below) are pre-
ing the battalion to perform its pri- scribed in ATP and subject schedules. Indi-
mary mission. He plans, directs, vidual and unit proficiency are tested at vari-
conducts, and supervises the training ous stages of the training cycle by the use of
of the battalion. He specifies the army training tests (ATT). A unit normally
training which is to be conducted, starts the ATP cycle as soon as it is activated.
within the outline provided by the It may repeat all or any part of this training
directives and policies of division at any time that it is judged to have fallen be-
headquarters; assigns responsibility low the level of adequate operational profi-
for the conduct of the training; in- ciency, or when the turnover of personnel
sures that the battalion's perform- makes retraining of a major portion of the
AGO 5888A 11-1
FM 5-135

unit necessary. Closely tied in to all engineer fantry combat. In this phase, the recruit is
training is progressive instruction in combat taught how to adapt himself to army life and
principles, applied particularly in conjunction to live with, work with, and understand his
with security on the march, in assembly areas, fellow soldier. When this phase is completed,
and at worksites. Infantry methods and forma- he understands why he is to fight; and his
tions, prescribed in FM 7-11, FM 7-20, FM physical condition is good enough to enable
7-30, and FM 21-5, should be used as guides; him to fight effectively. He understands and is
however, they must be adapted to engineer able to apply, under simulated or actual com-
strength, armament, and organizations. bat conditions, the principles of concealment
b. Army Training Program. The provisions and camouflage, cover, and movement, and is
of the ATP normally are followed in detail, able to provide individual protective actions
but at times it becomes necessary for a com- against aircraft, armor, arid dismounted
mander to make modifications so as to conform ground attacks. Further, he is able to partici-
to conditions of the training situation, or to pate as a member of a patrol or act as an indi-
facilitate the achievement of the training ob- vidual scout or observer. He has qualified with
jective. A general breakdown showing the total his basic weapon, the rifle, and has fired for
time to be devoted to each subject in a 44- or familiarization other weapons, including gre-
48-hour week is given in the ATP. This is the nades.
minimum training week. Night operations and 11-4. Advanced Individual Training Phase
field exercises ordinarily require much more
time. Variables which affect training time and In this phase the basic soldier improves his
methods are: basic military skills and becomes MOS quali-
(1) Specific battalion mission. flied. The engineer soldier, for example, re-
ceives more training in combat tactics and
() rnnlsearns the technical skills which qualify him in
(3) Personnel situation. his military occupational specialty (MOS),
(4) Time available for training. such as combat construction specialist, demo-
(5) Weather. lition specialist, or water-supply specialist. The
(6) Training areas and facilities. training in this phase consists of general train-
(7) Status of equipment. ing and specialist training, which are inter-
woven throughout the entire advanced indi-
c. Phases of Training. For convenient refer- vidual phase.
ence and to indicate definite stages of progress,
training is divided into the following phases: a. General Training. The objectives of gen-
eral training are to train the soldier in engi-
pBersnnel without
personnel without prinor
prior military
military serv
serv- neer and additional military subjects which
ice). will insure that he is fully capable of perform-
*2)dvaned idiviual ainng 'i ing the basic duties of an engineer soldier in
(2) Advanced individual training (in- the unit to which assigned; to insure that he
eludes specialist traininfg). is able to use and maintain in good repair
(3) Basic unit training. engineer tools and equipment essential to unit
(4) Advanced unit training. operations; and to insure that he is capable of
(5) Field exercise and maneuver train- working or fighting for extended periods under
ing. adverse conditions. To be more specific, the
(6) Operational readiness training. engineer soldier is trained to-
(1) Understand the nomenclature of engi-
11-3. Basic Combat Training Phase neer tools, equipment, materials, and
The objective of the basic combat training tasks.
phase is to train the soldier in basic military (2) Use engineer hand and power tools
subjects and the fundamentals of basic in- in the equipment sets of the squad

11-2 AGO b888A


FM 5-135

and platoon with efficiency and safety, a. Basic. During the basic unit training
and to keep them in good repair. phase the individually skilled soldiers are
(3) Perform individual tasks in clearing, trained to function progressively as members
grubbing, lashing, rigging, rough of squads, sections, platoons, and companies.
carpentry, barbed wire erection, dem- b. Advanced. During the advanced unit train-
olition, placing and removal of mines ing phase, companies are trained to function
and boobytraps, lifting and carrying together as an integral part of a battalion; the
of heavy loads, and assembly of ele- battalion is thus trained to operate as a unit.
ments of fixed and floating bridges. Combined arms training is achieved by pro-
(4) Recognize and report engineer infor- gressively integrating the training of units of
mation and correctly locate informa- varying arms and services throughout these
tion on maps. two phases. For example, each of the com-
(5) Dig a foxhole of sufficient depth and panies of the divisional engineer battalion
design to withstand the crushing ef- trains with a brigade,, and perhaps one or more
fect of a tank passing over it or in artillery battalions, during this phase. Ele-
the near vicinity. ments of the bridge company and equipment
(6) Maintain his physical condition so he platoon are employed with the line companies.
can march long distances and arrive The command and staff of the various elements
at destination in condition to perform of the battalion receive practical and intensive
engineer missions or participate in training in their respective fields.
combat. 11-6. Field Exercise and Maneuver Phase
b. Specialist Training. Specialist training This phase provides for the training of large
prepares the soldier to perform the duties of This phase provides for the training of large
units under
his particular MlIOS. For instance, a water-
units under simulated
simulated combat
combat conditions.
conditions.
hisaparticular
water-MOS.
For
These
instance,
maneuvers include many types of units,
production specialist will receive training in to insure maximum combined arms training
the characteristics of water and the operation For
For instance,
instance, in in the
the advanced
advanced unit
unit training
training
of the diatomite filter, while a clerk-typist will
be taught typing and administrative proce- phase the engineer line company has trained
dures. In our highly specialized army, prac- with its parent division engineer battalion and
dures.
specialized
In ourhighly
ary, prac- with a division brigade. During this phase, the
tically every soldier has a more or less complex entire battalion will work in general support
specialty. Most of these specialists can be of
of its
its parent
parent division,
division, and
and possibly,
possibly, will
will be
be
trained in the unit, but some have to be sent working in conjunction with engineer
working in conjunction with engineer combat combat
to specialist schools. Since these schools some-
times last longer than the advanced individual groups which have been placed in support of
phase, specialist training may extend into the
unit training phase; these specialists often
have to make up the general training which
they missed while they were at school during a. Introduction. Operational readiness train-
the unit training phase. Personnel who corm- ing is that stage of training undertaken by
plete specialist training before the beginning units which have completed the formal phases
of the basic unit subphase should be given of training and which are assigned the respon-
additional on-the-job training. sibility for continuous readiness for deploy-
ment. There is no formal training program for
11-5. Unit Training Phases this phase of training. The objectives of op-
After the fillers have become skilled they erational readiness training are contained in
are taught to coordinate their efforts toward AR 350-1. Entry of units into this phase will
the accomplishment of the unit's missions. be as determined by major commanders.
Most of the training throughout the phases is b. Concurrent Training. To make training
operational-the troops learn by doing. more realistic and effective, arbitrary boundar-
AGO 5888A 11-3
FM 5-135

ies between training phases must be avoided. training for staff officers and other key per-
Each subject is related to other subjects, and sonnel may be received in special schools con-
all subjects are intergrated into the team mis- ducted by battalion or higher headquarters.
sion. This entails, to some degree, conducting c. Training of Other Arms and Services. The
basic and advanced individual, specialist, and engineer battalion is sometimes called upon
unit training concurrently. Reviews of basic to conduct a demonstration of mine laying,
subjects are incorporated regularly in the pro- mine clearing, or bridge construction for non-
gressive training phases. In many technical engineer troops of the division. Such demon-
exercises, tactical requirements are included, strations usually are staged by squads or
such as providing security for bridge construc- platoons. The battalion frequently furnishes
tion projects, and protecting working parties individual instructors in engineer subjects for
and obstacles from both ground and air attack. the training of other troops. Subjects taught
Throughout all phases of training, 'and par- include mine warfare, use of explosives, cam-
ticularly during unit training and field exer- ouflage, rigging, field fortifications, and bridge
cises and maneuvers, initiative and a sense of and road building expedients. Instructors
responsibility must be developed in officers, usually are selected from the officers or key
noncommissioned officers, and others who show noncommissioned officers of the line companies.
potential leadership ability. Members of the
battalion are instilled with the importance of 11-8. Training References
making decisions in situations which are not The following publications are essential for
covered by specific orders. Each commander effective training in the divisional engineer
includes leadership exercises in all training battalion.
phases, particularly during periods of tactical a. The current issues of TOE 5-145, 5-146,
and technical training. Command is decentral- 5-147, 5-148, 5-155, 5-156 and 5-157.
ized, and interference with subordinate com- b. Army training programs, Field Manuals,
manders is kept to a minimum. Additional and Technical Manuals as listed in appendix A.

11-4 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

APPENDIX A
REFERENCES

A-1. Department of the Army Pamphlets (DA Pam)


310-series Indexes Pertaining to Administration, Training, Maintenance, and
Supply.
750-1 Preventive Maintenance Guide for Commanders.

A-2. Army Regulations and Special Regulations (AR and SR)


55-203 Movements of Nuclear Weapons Components and Nuclear Weapons
Materiel.
190-60 Physical Security Standards for Nuclear Weapons.
220-346 Journals and Journal Files.
320-5 Dictionary of United States Army Terms.
320-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes.
350-1 Army Training.
380-5 Safeguarding Defense Information.
580-15 Security Requirements for Nuclear Weapons.
600-20. Army Command Policy and Procedures.
611-101 Manual of Commissioned Officer Military Occupational Specialties.
611-112 Manual of Warrant Officer Military Occupational Specialties.
(C) 611-202 Manual of Enlisted Military Occupational Specialties (U).
622-5 Qualification and Familiarization.
750-1 Maintenance Concepts.
750-8 Command Maintenance Management Inspections.

A-3. Field Manuals (FM)


3-5 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Operations.
3-10 Chemical and Biological Weapons Employment.
3-12 Operational Aspects of Radiological Defense.
3-50 Chemical Smoke Generator Units and Smoke Operations.
5-1 Engineer Troop Organizations and Operations.
5-20 Camouflage, Basic Principles and Field Camouflage.
5-22 Camouflage Materials.
5-23 Field Decoy Installations.
5-25 Explosives and Demolitions.
(S) 5-26 Employment of Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADM) (U).
5-29 Passage of Mass Obstacles.
5-30 Engineer Intelligence.
5-34 Engineer Field Data.
5-35 Engineers' Reference and Logistical Data.
5-36 Route Reconnaissance and Classification.
5-142 Nondivisional Engineer Combat Units.
AGO 5888A A-1
FM 5-135

5-144 Engineer Shore Assault Units.


7-11 Rifle Company, Infantry, Airborne, and Mechanized Infantry.
7-20 Infantry, Airborne Infantry, and Mechanized Infantry Battalions.
7-30 Infantry, Airborne, and Mechanized Division Brigades.
8-35 Transportation of the Sick and Wounded.
8-50 Bandaging and Splinting.
9-6 Ammunition Unit Operations in the Field Army.
9-30 Maintenance Battalion, Division Support Command.
10-50 Supply and Transport Battalion, Division Support Comrmand.
10-63 Handling of Deceased Personnel in Theaters of Operations.
12-11 Administration Company, Airborne, Armored, Infantry, and Mechanized
Divisions.
17-1 Armor Operations.
17-15 Tank Units; Platoon, Company, and Battalion.
17-30 The Armored Division Brigade.
19-40 Enemy Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees.
20-32 Land Mine Warfare.
20-33 Combat Flame Operations.
21-5 Military Training Management.
21-6 Techniques of Military Instruction.
21-10 Military Sanitation.
21-11 First Aid for Soldiers.
21-26 Map Reading.
21-30 Military Symbols.
21-40 Small Unit Procedures in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR)
Operations.
21-41 Soldiers' Handbook for Chemical and Biological Operations and Nuclear
Warfare.
21-48 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) and Nuclear Defense
Training Exercises.
21-60 Visual Signals.
22-5 Drill and Ceremonies.
24-18 Field Radio Techniques.
24-20 Field Wire and Field Cable Techniques.
27-10 The Law of Land Warfare.
30-5 Combat Intelligence.
30-10 Terrain Intelligence.
31-10 Barriers and Denial Operations.
31-15 Operations Against Irregular Forces.
31-22 U. S. Army Counterinsurgency Forces.
31-25 Desert Operations.
31-30 Jungle Training and Operations.
31-50 Combat in Fortified and Builtup Areas.
31-60 River Crossing Operations.
31-70 Basic Cold Weather Manual.
31-71 Northern Operations.
31-72 Mountain Operations.
33-1 Psychological Operations--U. S. Army Doctrine.
54-2 Division Support Command.
61-100 The Division.
A-2 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

100-5 Field Service Regulations-Operations.


100-10 Field Service Regulations-Administration.
101-5 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Staff Organization and Procedure.
101-10-1 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Organizational, Technical, and Logistical
Data-Unclassified Data.
101-10-2 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Organizational, Technical, and Logistical
Data-Extracts of Tables of Organization and Equipment.
(S) 101-10-3 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Organizational Technical and Logistical
Data-Classified Data (U).
101-31-1 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Nuclear Weapons Employment.
(S) 101-31-2 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Nuclear Weapons Employment (U).
101-31-3 Staff Officers' Field Manual; Nuclear Weapons Employment.

A-4. Technical Manuals (TM)


3-210 Fallout Prediction.
3-220 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Decontamination.
3-225 Radiological Recovery of Fixed Military Installations.
3-1040-209-series Flamethrower, Mechanized Main Armament, M 10-8.
5-210 Military Floating Bridge Equipment.
5-216 Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge.
5-220 Passage of Obstacles Other Than Minefields.
5-277 Panel Bridge, Bailey Type, M2.
5-302 Construction in the Theater of Operations.
5-312 Military Fixed Bridges.
5-330 Planning, Site Selection, and Design of Roads, Airfields, and Heliports in
the Theater of Operations.
5-335 Drainage Structures, Subgrades, and Base Courses.
5-460 Carpentry and Building Construction.
5-461 Engineer Handtools.
5-700 Field Water Supply.
5-725 Rigging.
9-1910 Military Explosives.
9-1375-200 Demolition. Materials.
21-200 Physical Conditioning.
21-300 Driver Selection and Training (Wheeled Vehicles).
21-301 Driver Selection, Training, and Supervision; Tracked Vehicles.
38-750 Army Equipment Record Procedures.
38-750-1 Maintenance Management; Field Command Procedures.

A-5. Army Training Programs (ATP)


5-25 Airborne, Armored, Infantry, and Mechanized Division Engineer
Battalion.
21-114 Male Military Personnel Without Prior Service.

A-6. Stanags
2071 Orders to the Demolition Guard Commander.

AGO 5888A A-3


FM 5-135

APPENDIX B
RECOMMENDED OUTLINE FOR AN SOP

Standing Operating Procedure


Hq,____
- Engr Bn
APO------__----, US Army
DATE

Section I. INTRODUCTION
1. APPLICATION (to operations, relations to prior SOP's, lower units to
conform).
2. PURPOSE
3. REFERENCES (AR's, FM's, and TM's)-Annex A.
4. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SOP (preparation, changes, and revisions).
5. EFFECTIVE DATE

Section II. COMMAND, STAFF, AND LIAISON


6. ORGANIZATION
a. Normal.
b. Special Internal Attachments and Organization.
c. Normal and Special External Attachment and Support (brigades,
tasks forces, etc.).
7. COMMAND POSTS
a. Normal location (in relation to the next higher headquarters).
b. Reporting Change of Location (coordinates and time).
c. Forward CP's.
(1) When (situation for which required).
(2) How organized.
(3) Personnel and equipment.
8. STAFF DUTIES
a. Duties That Are Special or Additional to Those in FM 5-1 and FM
101-5.
b. Duties of Such Other Important Special Staff Officers as the Com-
mander Desires To Prescribe (paragraph for each).
9. LIAISON (FM 5-1 and FM 101-5)
a. Duties of Liaison Officers.
b. Responsibilities of Liaison (with next higher, lower, and adjacent
units).
AGO 6888A B-1
FM 5-135

Section III. ADMINISTRATION


10. GENERAL (Channels) (FM 100-10)
11. REPORTS
a. Routine.
b. Special.
c. Information Concerning Submission of Reports-Annex B.
(1) Title and reports control symbol.
(2) Form of report.
(3) Date due.
(4) Number of copies.
(5) Negative report required or permissible.
12. PROMOTIONS (policies)
a. Officer.
b. Enlisted.
c. Battlefield.
13. COURTS-MARTIAL (MCM, US 1951)
a. Local Jurisdiction.
b. Procedure for Submitting Charges.
14. MAIL
a. Handling Official Mail.
b. Handling Personal Mail.
15. LEAVES AND PASSES
a. Policy of Command (frequency, conduct, VD policies, etc.).
b. Authority To Grant.
16. JOURNALS AND HISTORY (AR 220-346)
a. Responsibility for Unit Journal and History.
b. Maintenance of Staff-Section Journals.
17. DISTRIBUTION OF MILITARY PUBLICATIONS (AR 310-1).
18. HANDLING PRISONERS OF WAR
a. Reference to FM 19-40 and FM 27-10.
b. Special Instructions for Capturing Units.
19. AWARDS AND DECORATIONS
a. Channels.
b. Forms.
c. Presentations.
20. ORDERS (FM 101-5)
a. Combat Orders.
b. Memoranda of Combat Orders to S3.
21. BILLETS AND ASSEMBLY AREAS
a. Billeting Policies (occupation and vacating).
b. Billeting Party (organization and duties).

B-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

Section IV. RECONNAISSANCE, INTELLIGENCE, AND


COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
22. RECONNAISSANCE
a. Reconnaissance a Continuing Function.
b. Essential Elements of Engineer Information.
23. ENGINEER INTELLIGENCE (FM 30-5)
a. Evaluation.
b. Preparation of Reports.
c. Dissemination.
24. COMBAT INTELLIGENCE (FM 30-5)
a. Definition of "Spot Report."
b. "Spot Report" Required.
(1) Initial contact with enemy.
(2) Marked changes in enemy disposition or situation.
(3) Attack by enemy ground, aircraft, or airborne forces.
(4) New units identified.
(5) Enemy strength, composition, and movement.
(6) Location of enemy installations.
(7) Use of chemicals or new weapons.
(8) New enemy materials or equipment.
25. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
a. Mail Censorship.
b. Blackout Discipline.
c. Extent of Information Given, if Captured.
d. Signs and Countersigns.
e. Destruction of Classified Material.
f. Civilian Control.
g. Secrecy Discipline.
h. Information to Press Representatives.
Section V. OPERATIONS
26. ORDERS (FM 101-5)
a. Fragmentary Orders.
b. Written Orders.
c. Use of Overlays, Tables, and Charts.
27. SECURITY-ANNEX C
a. Responsibilities of Battalion in Rear Area.
b. Responsibilities of Unit Commander.
28. COMBAT
a. Reorganization for Combat. Annex D.
b. Responsibility for Contact.
c. Coordination of Request for Fire Support and Tactical Air Support.
d. Spot Reports.
e. Situation Reports.
f. Minefields.
AGO 5888A 53
FM 5-135

g. CBR and Nuclear Warfare. Annex E.


(1) Defensive.
(2) Offensive.
h. Smoke.
(1) Request for use.
(2) Coordination.
i. Defense Against Air Attack.
j. Employment of ADM. Annex F.
k. Bomb and Shell Disposal.
29. MOVEMENT
a. General.
(1) What constitutes a convoy.
(2) Required road clearances.
(3) Requests for augmented transportation.
(4) Loading plan. Annex G.
b. Responsibilities.
(1) S-1.
(a) Coordination with civil and military police.
(b) Commands quartering party.
(2) S-2.
(a) Security of bivouac and halt areas.
(b) Reconnaissance of route.
(c) Posting of road guides.
(3) S-3.
(a) Warning order.
(b) Movement order.
(c) Selects routes.
(d) Arranges for road clearances.
(4) S-4.
(a) Arranges for augmented transportation.
(b) Responsible for traffic planning.
(5) Engineer equipment officer.
Responsible for maintenance.
(6) Company commander.
(a) Prepares company loading plan.
(b) Furnishes S-3 with lists of vehicles, equipment, and materials.
(c) Conducts necessary training for movement.
(d) Polices area.
c. Motor Movement. Annex H.
d. Rail Movement. Annex I.
e. Alert Plans.
(1) Unit plans.
(2) Alert rosters.

Section VI. LOGISTICS


30. CLASS I SUPPLY
a. Ration Pickup.
b. Daily Ration Return and Ration Cycle.
AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

c. Reserve Rations Carried.


(1) By unit.
(2) By individual.
d. Responsibility for Attached Units.
31. WATER PROCESSING AND PURIFICATION
a. Authorized Sources.
b. Purification by Expedient Methods.
c. Water Economy.
32. CLASS II AND CLASS IV SUPPLY
a. Requisition Days for Various Services.
b. Pickup Procedure.
c. Salvage Turn-in Procedure.
d. Droppage by "Battle Loss Certificate."
e. Basic Loads. Annex J.
33. CLASS III SUPPLY
a. Method of Supply.
b. Fuel Sources.
34. CLASS V SUPPLY
a. Method of Requisitioning.
b. Forms Used and Certificates Required.
c. Basic Load. Annex J.
d. Salvage.
35. MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT
a. Organizational Maintenance.
b. Maintenance Officer's Responsibilities.
c. Forms Used.
d. Priorities.
36. REPAIR PARTS
a. Method of Requisitioning Engineer and Ordnance.
b. Maintenance of Stock Levels.
c. Inspection for Maintenance and Stock Levels.
,d Parts and Equipment Records.
37. EVACUATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT
a. Division Support Command.
b. Maintenance Battalion.
38. EVACUATION AND HOSPITALIZATION-Annex K.

Section VII. COMMUNICATIONS


39. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN UNITS
a. Radio (FM 24-18). Annex L.
b. Wire (FM 24-20). Annex M.
c. Responsibility for Installation.
d. Visual (FM 21-60).
AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

40. COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES


a. Division Communications.
b. Radiotelephone Voice Procedure (FM 24-18 and FM 24-20).
c. Citation of SOI and SSI of Higher Headquarters.
41. MAINTENANCE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMUNICATIONS
OFFICER
GREEN
Lt Col
Annex A-References (omitted)
B-Reports (omitted)
C-Security
D-Reorganization for Combat
E-CBR and Nuclear Warfare
F-Employment of ADM (omitted) (See FM 5-26)
G-Loading Plan (omitted)
H-Motor Movement
I -Rail Movement
J -Basic Loads (omitted)
K-Evacuation and Hospitalization (omitted)
L-Radio Communication Nets (omitted)
M-Wire Communication Nets:(omitted)

OFFICIAL
/s/Black
BLACK
Adj

ANNEX C (SECURITY) TO SOP, .________ENGINEER BATTALION


1. GENERAL SECURITY
Policy and Responsibilities.
2. SECURITY DURING MOVEMENT
a. Air Guards.
b. Manning of Vehicular Weapons.
c. Camouflage During Halts.
d. Advance, Flank, and Rear Guards.
e. Action in Case of Attack.
(1) Air.
(2) Mechanized.
(3) Nuclear, biological, and chemical.
3. SECURITY IN ASSEMBLY AREA (FM 5-15, FM 5-20, FM 5-31
and FM, 61-100).
a. Camouflage.
b. Mines and Booby Traps.
c. Placement of Weapons.
1-6 AGO 6888A
FM 5-135

(1) Air attack.


(2) Mechanized.
(3) Nuclear, biological, and chemical.
d. Joint Security.
e. Security Plans.
f. Sentry Posts and Outposts.
4. REAR-AREA OBSERVATION
a. Formation of Rear-Area Observation Groups.
b. Selection of Rear-Area Observation Posts.
c. Twenty-Four-Hour Manning Posts.
d. Observation of Rear Areas When Required.
e. Communications for Observation Posts.
5. SECURITY OF WORKING PARTIES
a. Responsibility.
b. Camouflage of Equipment.
c. Combat Readiness.
6. SECURITY WARNING SIGNALS
a. Air Attack.
b. Airborne Attack.
c. Mechanized Attack.
d. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Attack.
7. FIRE SAFETY AND FIREFIGHTING
a. Plan (general).
b. Fire Personnel and Duties.
c. Safety Rules (motor pools, kitchens, and so forth).

8. ALERT PLANS
a. Unit Plans.
b. Alert Roster.

ANNEX D (REORGANIZATION FOR COMBAT TO SOP,


________________ENGINEER BATTALION

1. GENERAL
a. Requirement.
b. Prior Approval of the Battalion Commander.
2. DESIGNATION OF FORWARD ECHELON
a. Personnel.
b. 'Equipment.
3. DESIGNATION OF REAR ECHELON
a. Personnel.
b. Equipment.

Aco 5888A 8-7


FM 5-135

4. SUPPLY
a. Ammunition.
b. Unit Trains.
5. COMMUNICATIONS
6. MEDICAL EVACUATION
7. STATEMENT OF EFFECT ON REGULAR MISSION

ANNEX E (CBR AND NUCLEAR WARFARE) TO SOP,----___---


ENGINEER BATTALION

1. GENERAL
a. Purpose.
b. Subordinate Units To Issue SOP's To Conform.
2. REFERENCES
a. FM 21-40 (other pertinent doctrinal sources).
b. Division Training Directive No.------.
c. Orders, SOP's and Annexes.
3. ORGANIZATION
a. Command and Staff Structure.
b. Specialists.
4. RESPONSIBILITIES
a. Individual.
b. Company Commanders.
(1) Plans.
(2) Proficiency of unit personnel.
(3) Safeguarding and processing of captured enemy CBR personnel
and equipment.
(4) Unit CBR equipment.
(5) First- and second-echelon decontamination.
c. Large-Scale Decontamination (see Engineer Annex, Div SOP
No. ______------
5. DISPERSION
Guide to Minimum Distance Maintained Between Various Type Sec-
tions.
6. CBR ALARMS
a. General Alarm. Attack Considered Imminent.
b. Actual Attack.
c. All Clear.
7. PROCEDURE IN CASE OF CBR OR NUCLEAR ATTACK
a. Action Prior to Attack.
b. Action During Attack.

AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

(1) Protective equipment.


(2) Cover and movement.
(3) Unit protective measures.
(4) Coordination between higher, lower, and adjacent units.
c. Action After Attack.
(1) All-clear signal.
(2) Continuation of mission.
(3) Resupply of protective equipment and material.
(4) Marking and reporting of contaminated areas.
(5) Decontamination.

8. PROTECTION
a. Individual.
b. Unit.
c. Tactical.

9. SUPPLY
a. Emergency Requisitions.
b. Authorized Levels of CBR Equipment.

10. TRAINING
See Division Training Directive No.-____---- .

ANNEX H (MOTOR MOVEMENT) TO SOP, ____-_____ ENGINEER


BATTALION

1. GENERAL (Division SOP and march orders).


a. Preparation of Vehicles.
b. Motor Marches.
(1) Strip maps.
(2) Route reconnaissance.
(3) Messing and refueling.
(4) Night marches.
(5) Composition of march units and serials.
(6) Distances to be maintained.
(7) Speeds and rate of march.
(8) Posting of traffic guards during halts.
c. Conduct of Personnel During Movement.
d. Maintenance on Marches and Movement.

2. VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS


a. Motor Pool
(1) Dispatch.
(2) Service.
(3) Maintenance.
b. Regulations for Administrative Vehicles.
AGO 5888A B-9
FM 5-135

ANNEX I (RAIL MOVEMENT) TO SOP, -------------- ENGINEER


BATTALION

1. ACTION BY S1
Troop Lists.
2. ACTION BY S2
a. Railroad Reconnaissance Report.
b. Security.
3. ACTION BY S3.
a. Determine Rolling-Stock Requirements.
b. Coordinate Loading Plans.
c. Prepare Loading Schedule and Designate Areas.
4. ACTION BY S4.
a. Initiate Transportation Requests.
b. Troop and Guard Mess.
c. Procurement of Blocking Materiel and Dunnage.
d. Prepare Shipping Documents.
e. Movement Policy.
f. Designation of Movement Control Personnel.

1bi 04 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

APPENDIX C
EXAMPLES OF ENGINEER ANNEXES TO A DIVISION
OPERATION PLAN

EXAMPLE 1. ENGINEER ANNEX TO A DIVISION


OPERATION PLAN
(Not a Copy of Any Known Plan.)

(Classification)
(No change from verbal orders except paragraph lb(3).)

Copy No. 5
4th Division
TOWNVILLE (XU2484)
AGGRESSORLAND
251500 Jul 19
MCR3

Annex D (Engineer) to Operation Plan STORM


References: Maps, AGGRESSORLAND, 1:50,000, TOWNVILLE, FARM-
VILLE, DELTA, revised May 19__.
1. SITUATION
a. Enemy forces. Annex A (Intelligence) to OPLAN STORM.
b. Friendly forces.
(1) Annex B (Operations Overlay) to OPLAN STORM.
(2) Appendix 1 (Barrier Plan) to Annex B (Operations Overlay) to
OPLAN STORM.
(3) Corps Arty furnishes AD protection to engineer equipment
parks, bridge and ferry sites in zone.
(4) Corps engineer assumes responsibility for division engineer area
and task assignments at effective time and date of execution of
OPORD 13.
c. Attachments and detachments.
121st Engr Bn (C) attached effective 260400 July 19__.
d. Assumptions.
(1) Para ld OPLAN STORM.
(2) Terrain will initially require utilization of AVLB. During Phase
2 stream crossings will require rafting and float bridge equip-
ment.

(Classification)
AGO 5888A C-I
FM 5-135

(Classification)
2. MISSION
Organic and attached engineer units support operation by breaching
obstacles and minefields, maintaining roads in zone, and constructing
bridges over streams and dry gaps.

3. EXECUTION
a. Concept of operations.
(1) Paragraph 3a, OPLAN STORM.
(2) Organic engineer units will provide support to commiitted
brigades with priority of support to brigades.
Organic Bn (-) and attached Engr Bn (C) will provide general
support on area basis, prepared to provide direct support to
brigade when committed.
b. 4th Engr Bn.
(1) Attach one Engr Co reinforced with one platoon and one Sec
AVLB of Bridge Co to brigade.
(2) Attach one Engr Co reinforced with one Sec AVLB to
brigade.
(3) Bn (-): GS.
(4) Be prepared to attach one Engr Co reinforced with heavy raft
platoon of Bridge Co to brigade on order.
(5) Be prepared to establish a minimum of three WSP east of
NARROW River.
c. 121st Engr Bn (C).
(1) Operate 3 WSP in zone.
(2) Maintain Div MSR.
(3) Be prepared to assist in construction of floating and/or fixed
bridges on order.
(4) Be prepared to conduct roadblocks east of DELTA (XY4188) on
order.
d. Coordinating instructions.
(1) WSP will be leapfrogged to insure continuous water supply.
(2) Direct liaison authorized between 4th Div Engr and 1st and 2d
Div Engr.
(3) After opening bridges across NARROW River, maintain two
rafts in operation at each bridge site for return traffic until
261800 Jul 19.
(4) This plan effective for planning on receipt, becomes OPORD 13
for execution on Div order.

(Classification)
C-2 AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

(Classification)
4. ADMINISTRATIO14 AND LOGISTICS
a. ADMINO 5 remains in effect, except paragraph lb.
b. App 1-Allocation of Engr C1 I, II, and IV, Equip and Sup.
c. Location of Engr Equip parks as follows:
(1) No. 1-Vic HIGH RIDGE (VT2439).
(2) No. 2-LOW KNOB (ST 2324).
(3) No. 3-FLAT LAND (TT2556).

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL


a. Annex H (Signal) to OPLAN STORM; Index 9, SOI.
b. CP's:
(1) 4th Engr Bn, TOWN (AB4087).
(2) Other CP's report location.
c. Axis of signal communications. TOWN (AB4087)-VILLAGE
(EF6389)-CITY (IT7843).
Acknowledge.
FLEXO
Maj Gen
Appendixes: Appendix I-Allocation of Engr C1 I, II, and IV Equip and
Sup (omitted)
DISTRIBUTION: A

OFFICIAL:
/s/Price
PRICE
GS

(Classification)
AGO 6888A C3
FM 5-135

EXAMPLE 2. BARRIER ANNEX TO A DIVISION


OPERATION PLAN

(Not ,a Copy of Any Known Plan)

(.Classification)

(No change from verbal orders.)

Copy No. 3
4th Division
BOBS (RC4098)
AGGRESSORLAND
181945 Feb 19_
GCW 7

ANNEX F (Barrier Plan) to Operation Plan LANCE


Task Organization: Annex A, Task Organization, to OPLAN LANCE,.
References: Maps, AGGRESSORLAND, 1:100,000, ROTHEN, Edition 5;
AGGRESSORLAND, 1:500,000, MERGEN, Edition 2.

1. SITUATION
a. Enemy forces. Annex B (Intelligence) to OPLAN LANCE.
b. Friendly forces.
(1) Paragraph lb, OPLAN LANCE.
(2) 11th Engr Gp (C) supports 4th Div with one Float Bridge
Company or order.
c. Attachments and detachments.
11th Engr Bn (C) attached effective 181945 Feb 19_.
d. Assumptions.
(1) Paragraph ld, OPLAN LANCE.
(2) Forward units will have a minimum of 24 hours to prepare
barrier before receiving enemy pressure.

2. MISSION
Division, acting as corps covering force, executes barrier system and
extends corps barrier in sector to disorganize, deceive, and delay the
enemy in front of the GOP, and to force concentration of enemy forces
in the valley of the UMP and WACH Rivers if RED River is crossed.

3. EXECUTION
a. Concept of operations.
(1) Paragraph 3a, OPLAN LANCE.

(Classification)
AGO 5888A
FM 5-135

(Classification)

(2) Barrier system east of RED River designed to disorganize,


deceive and delay the enemy; barrier system west of RED River
designed to force concentration of enemy forces in the valleys
of the UMP and WACH Rivers.
b.….____Brigade.

Target
Barrier Priority date for Remarks
completion

BAL River _ 1 191945 Demolish all bridges on BAL River; crater,


demolish, and mine with both AT and
APers mines the approaches through ridge
MESSEL (EF4810)-BRON (GH5107).
E ----------. 1 191945 Crater and mine defile at ALT (H14598)
with AT and APers mines.
FK -- ___---- 2 211800 Mine saddle from WEIGER (BL4000) to
Jung (BC4007) with AT mines only.
HL -- ___--- _ 3 211800 Mine ridge UTTING (EF4299) to RJ at
EF425990 with AT mines only.

c. ______ Brigade.

Target
Barrier Priority date for Remarks
completion

AB ---- _---- 1 200200 Mine entrance to UMP River Valley with


both AT and APers mines; improve RED
River banks to form effective obstacles;
demolish bridges over RED River on Div
order.
ED --------- 2 210600 Prepare wire obstacles and mine ridge with
AT mines; be prepared to reinforce with
APers mines.
AE -- ____-- 3 211800 Mine UMP River Valley with both AT and
APers mines.

d.______ Brigade.
Target
Barrier Priority date for Remarks
completion

BC --------- 1 191945 Improve RED River banks to form effective


obstacle and mine with both AT and APers
mines; demolish all bridges over RED River
on Div order.
DG -------- 2 210600 Prepare wire obstacles and mine ridges D to
G with AT mines only initially; be pre-
pared to reinforce with APers mines.
GI --------- 3 211800 Mine WACH Valley with both AT and APers
mines.

(Classification)

AGO 56888A CS
FM 5-135

(Classification)

e. 4th Engr Bn.


Target
Barrier Priority date for Remarks
completion

JK --------- 1 201945 Mine ridge with AT mines only initially;


be prepared to reinforce with APers mines
on order.
EJ --------- 1 201945 Prepare for demolition all bridegs over LIMP
River; mine with both AT and A.Pers
mines.
TM _________ 2 211800 Prepare for demolition all bridges over
WACH; mine with both AT and APers
mines.

f. 11th Engr Bn (C).

Target
Barrier Priority date for Remarks
completion

KLM -----
_- 1 201945 Mine ridge with AT mines only initially; be
prepared to reinforce with APers mines
on order.
MP …________
2 211800 Prepare for demolition all bridges over
WACH; mine with both AT and APers
mines.

g. Coordinating instructions.
(1) Brigades will prepare additional barriers forward of GOP which
block high speed avenues of approach and lateral barriers be-
tween adjacent brigades.
(2) Brigades coordinate extent of and location of lanes and gaps
with adjacent corps. Direct liaison is authorized.
(3) Provisions will be made to cover barriers with heavy weapons
fire; smallarms fire coverage wherever possible.
(4) Gaps and lanes in minefields will remain open until ordered
closed by Div Hq or until threat of capture by the enemy.
(5) Demolitions, including bridges and cratering of routes, executed
only on order Div Hq or on brigade order if threat of capture
by the enemy is imminent
(6) Appendix 1, Barrier Overlay.
(7) Appendix 2, Minefield Location Plan.
(8) Appendix 3, Obstacles and Demolitions Plan.
(9) This barrier plan not taken forward of brigade CP.
(10) This plan effective for planning or receipt becomes OPORD 25
on Div order.

(Classification)

~4~ AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

(Classification)

4. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS


a. ADMINO 18 continues in effect except paragraph lb.
b. AT and APers mines, demolitions, and napalm available ASP 182100
Feb 19_.
c. Minefield marking materials, wire, and fortifications materials avail-
able Sup Pt 182100 Feb 19_.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL


a. Signal. Index 3, SOI.
b. Reports.
(1) Minefields. Report intended location, extent, estimated time of
completion, type and density of mines; follow with standard
minefield laying report including sketches.
(2) Other obstacles and demolitions. Report location, type, extent,
and estimated time of completion.

Acknowledge.
FLEXO
Maj Gen
Appendixes: 1-Barrier Overlay (omitted)
2-Minefield Location Plan (omitted)
3-Obstacles and Demolitions Plan (omitted)
4 -Allotment of C1, I, IV, and V Equipment and Supply
(omitted)

DISTRIBUTION: A
2d Corps
3d Corps

OFFICIAL:
/s/Price
PRICE
G3

(Classification)
AGO 5888A C-7
FM 5-135

APPENDIX D
ORDERS TO THE DEMOLITION GUARD COMMANDER AND
TO THE DEMOLITION FIRING PARTY

1. Three commanders normally are concerned with the execution of a


demolition-
a. The military authority who has overall responsibility, i.e. the officer
empowered to order the firing of the demolition (referred to hereafter
as "the authorized commander").
b. The commander of the demolition guard.
c. The commander of the demolition firing party.
2. Each authorized commander will-
a. Determine the requirement and allot responsibility for a demolition
guard.
b. Establish a clear cut channel from himself to the commander of the
demolition guard for transmission of the order to fire the demolition.
c. Insure that this channel is known and understood by all concerned.
d. Insure a positive, secure means for transmitting the order to fire.
e. Specify whether the demolition guard commander is authorized to
order the firing of the demolition on his own initiative if the enemy is in
the act of capturing it.

3. Where a demolition is to be prepared which is important to the op-


erational plan, the authorized commander normally will appoint a demoli-
tion guard, the commander of which will be responsible for-
a. Insuring, if so ordered, that the demolition is not captured intact by
the enemy, and,
b. Giving to the demolition firing party commander the orders for
changing the state of readiness of the demolition and the firing orders.
4. The following formats will be used for the orders to the commander
of a demolition guard and the commander of a demolition firing party
whenever time and conditions permit. After all parts of these formats
have been completed by the appropriate authority they will be issued to
the commanders of the demolition guard and the demolition firing party
and will be retained by them until the demolition has been completed.
5. The contents and paragraph numbers of the formats issued by each
authority will conform exactly to the following examples.
6. To facilitate the use of these formats, it is recommended that general
instructions be included in appropriate unit standing operating proce-
dures.
AGO 58SA D-1
FM 5-135

Serial No.-_____________________ Security Classification________ ___-

ORDERS TO THE DEMOLITION GUARD COMMANDER

NOTES. 1. This form will be completed and signed before it is handed to


the commander of the demolition guard.
2. In completing the form, all spaces must either be filled in or
lined out.
3. The officer empowered to order the firing of the demolition is
referred to throughout as the "authorized commander."

From To ---------------------------

PART I-PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS

1. a. Description of target ___________________________________---


b. Location:
Map Name and Scale ______________________________________
Sheet No. ________________________ _______ __________________
Grid Reference _____------------------------------------------
c. Codeword or codesign (if any) of demolition target _____-___---

2. The authorized commander is ___-------_


_ _ _________________

(give appointment only). If this officer should delegate this authority, you
will be notified by one of the methods shown in paragraph 4, below.

3. The Demolition Firing Party has been/will be provided by ----------

4. All messages, including any codewords or codesign (if any) used in


these orders will be passed to you by-
a. Normal command wireless net, or
b. Special liaison officer with communications direct to the authorized
commander, or
c. Telephone by the authorized commander, or
d. The authorized commander personally, or

(Delete those NOT applicable)

NOTE. All orders sent by message will be prefixed by the codeword or


codesign (if any) at paragraph Ic, and all such messages must be
acknowledged.

D-2 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

PART II-CHANGING STATES OF READINESS


5. The demolition will be prepared initially to the State of Readiness
--------- by ____________ hours on ----------------------- (date).
6. On arrival at the demolition site, you will ascertain from the com-
mander of the demolition firing party the estimated time required to
change from State "1" (SAFE) to State "2" (ARMED). You will insure
that this information is passed to the authorized commander and is ac-
knowledged.
7. Changes in the State of Readiness from State "1" (SAFE) to state
"2" (ARMED) or from State "2" to State "1," will be made only when
so ordered by the authorized commander. However, the demolition may
be ARMED in order to accomplish emergency firing when you are au-
thorized to fire it on your own initiative.
8. A record of the changes in the State of Readiness will be entered by
you in the table below, and on the firing orders in possession of the com-
mander of the demolition firing party.

State of Readiness Time and date Authority Time and


order "1" (SAFE) change to be date of
or "2" (ARMED) completed reecipt of
order

NOTE: If the order is transmitted by an officer in person, his signature


and designation will be obtained in the column headed "Author-
ity."

9. You will report completion of all changes in the State of Readiness


to the authorized commander by the quickest means.

PART III-ORDERS FOR FIRING THE DEMOLITION


10. The order for firing the demolition will be passed to you by the author-
ized commander.
11. On receipt of this order you will immediately pass it to the commander
of the demolition firing party on his demolition orders form ("Orders to
the Commander of the Demolition Firing Party").
12. After the demolition has been fired you will report the results im-
mediately to the authorized commander.
13. In the event of a misfire or only partially successful demolition you
will give the firing party protection until such time as it has completed
the demolition and report again after it has been completed.
AGO 5888A
FM 5-135
PART IV-EMERGENCY FIRING ORDERS

NOTES. 1. One subparagraph of paragraph 14 must be deleted.


2. The order given herein can only be altered by the issue of a
new from, or, in emergency by the appropriate order (or code-
word if used) in Part V.
14. a. You will order the firing of the demolition only upon the order of
the authorized commander.
OR
b. If the enemy is in the act of capturing the target you will order the
firing of the demolition on your own initiative.

PART V-CODEWORDS (IF USED)

Codeword
Action to be taken Codeword
(if used)
a. Change State of Readiness from "1" to "2" (see para 7)

b. Change State of Readiness from "2" to "1" (see para 7)

c. Fire the demolition (see para 10)

d. Paragraph 14a is now cancelled. You are now authorized to


fire the demolition if the enemy is in the act of capturing
it.

e. Paragraph 14b is now cancelled. You will order the firing of


the demolition only upon the order of the authorized com-
mander.

f. Special authentication instructions, if any.

PART VI

Signature of officer issuing these orders ----------------------------

Name (printed in capital letters) ---------------------------------

Rank ----------------------- Appointment -----------------------

Time of issue -------- hours, -------------------------- (date).

AGO S88SA
D..4
FM 5-135

PART VII-DUTIES OF THE COMMANDER OF THE


DEMOLITION GUARD

15. You are responsible for_


a. Command of the demolition guard and the demolition firing party.
b. The safety of the demolition from enemy attack of sabotage.
c. Control of traffic and refugees.
d. Giving the orders to the demolition firing party in writing to change
the state of readiness.
e. Giving the order to the demolition firing party in writing to fire
the demolition.
f. After the demolition, reporting on its effectiveness to the authorized
commander.
g. Keeping the authorized commander informed of the operational
situation at the demolition site.

16. You will acquaint yourself with the orders issued to the commander
of the demolition firing party and with the instructions given by him.

17. The'demolition guard will be so disposed as to insure at all times


complete all-around protection of the demolition against all type of at-
tack or threat.

18. The commander of the demolition firing party is in technical control


of the demolition. You will agree with him on the site of your HQ and of
the firing point. These should be together whenever practicable. When
siting them you must give weight to the technical requirements of being
able to view the demolition and have good access to it from the firing
point.

19. You will nominate your deputy forthwith and compile a seniority
roster. You will insure that each man knows his place in the roster, un-
derstands his duties and knows where to find this form if you become
a casualty or are unavoidable absent. The seniority roster must be made
known to the commander of the demolition firing party.
20. Once the state of readiness "2" (ARMED) has been ordered, either
you or your deputy must always be at your HQ so that orders can be
passed on immediately to the commander of the demolition firing party.

AGO 888A D-
FM 5-135

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
SERIAL NUMBER
ORDERS TO THE COMMANDER, DEMOLITION FIRING PARTY

NOTE: Parts I, II and III will be completed and signed before this form is
handed to the commander of the Demolition Firing Party. Paragraphs 4
and 5 can only be altered by the authority issuing these orders. In
such cases a new form will be issued and the old one destroyed.
FROM: T:

PART I - ORDERS FOR PREPARING AND CHARGING THE DEMOLITION TARGET


la. DESCRIPTION

b. LOCATION c. CODE WORD OF DEMOLI-


MAP NAME AND SCALE SHEET NO. GRID REFERENCE TION TARGET (If any)

d. ATTACHED PHOTOGRAPHS AND SPECIAL'TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS

2. THE DEMOLITION GUARD IS BEING PROVIDED BY (Unit)

3. YOU WILL PREPARE AND CHANGE THE DEMOLITION TARGET TO THE STATE OF READINESS

BY HOURS ON (Date)
ANY CHANGES MAY BE MADE ONLY ON THE ORDER OF THE ISSUING AUTHORITY, OR BY
THE OFFICER DESIGNATED IN PARAGRAPH 4d AND WILL BE RECORDED BELOW.
STATE OF READINESS TIME AND DATE AUTHORITY TIME AND DATE OF
ORDERED CHANGE TO BE RECEIPT OF ORDER
"1"(SAFE) or "2"(ARMED) COMPLETED

NOTE: All orders received by message will be verified by the code word at
Paragraph lc. If the order is transmitted by an officer in person, his
signature and designation will be obtained in the Column headed
"Authority".
PART II - ORDERS FOR FIRING
NOTE: The officer issuing these orders will strike out the subparagraphs of
Paragraphs 4 and 5 which are not applicable. When there is a demolition
guard, Paragraph 4 will always be used and Paragraph 5 will always be
struck out.
4a. YOU WILL FIRE THE DEMOLITION AS SOON AS YOU HAVE PREPARED IT.
b. YOU WILL FIRE THE DEMOLITION AT HOURS ON (Date)
c. YOU WILL FIRE THE DEMOLITION ON RECEIPT OF THE CODE WORD :
d. YOU WILL FIRE THE DEMOLITION WHEN THE OFFICER WHOSE DESIGNATION IS
HAS SIGNED PARAGRAPH 8 BELOW.
5. EMERGENCY FIRING ORDERS (ONLY applicable when there is NO demolition guard)
a. YOU WILL NOT FIRE THE DEMOLITION IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCES EXCEPT AS ORDERED IN
PARAGRAPH 4 ABOVE.
b. YOU WILL FIRE THE DEMOLITION ON YOUR OWN INITIATIVE IF THE ENEMY IS IN THE
ACT OF CAPTURING IT.
DA FORM 2050-R, 1 NOV 57 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

D-6 AGO 5888A


FM 5-135

SCURITY CLASSIFICATION
PART III - ORDERS FOR REPORTING
6. AFTER FIRING THE DEMOLITION YOU WILL IMMEDIATELY REFORT RESULTS TO THE OFFICER WHO
ORDERED YOU TO FIRE. IN THE EVENT OF A PARTIAL FAILURE YOU WILL WARN HIM, AND IW-
MEDIATELY CARRY OUT THE WORK NECESSARY TO COMPLETE THE DEMOLITION
7. FINALLY, YOU WILL PIJ)IATELY REPORT THE RESULTS TO YOUR 1UNT COMMAINDIG OFFICER
(See Paragraph 13S.

SIGNA E OFFICER ISSUIN G


OF NAME (In capitals) TIME OF DATE OF ISSUE
DESIGNATION

PART IV - ORDER TO FIRE


8. BEING EM#ERD T DO SO, I ORDER YOU TO FIRE NOW THE DEMOLITION DESCRIBED IN
PARAGRAPH 1.
SIGNATURE NAME (In capitals)TIME DATE

DESIGNATION

PART V - GENERAL INSIRUCTIONS (Read These Instructions CarefullvT

9. YOU ARE IN TECHNICAL CHARGE OF THE PREPARATION, CHARGING AND FIRING OF THE DEMDLITION
TARGET DESCRIBED. YOU WILL NOMINATE YOUR DEPUTY FORTHWITH AND COMPILE A SENIORITY
ROSTER OF YOUR PARTY. YOU WILL INSURE THAT EACH MAN KNOWS HIS PLACE IN THE ROSTER,
UNDERSTANDS TES INSTRUCTIONS, AND KNMWS WHERE TO FIND THIS FORM IF YOU ARE HIT OR
UNAVOIDABLY ABSENT. YOU WILL CON!ULT WITH TIE COMANDER OF THE DEMDLITION GUARD ON
TIE SITING OF THE FIRING POINT.
10. YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THAT THE COWANDER OF TIE DEDnLITION GUARD (where there is one)
IS RESPONSIBLE FOR:
a. OPERATIONAL COMMAND OF ALL THE TROOPS AT THE DEDLITION SITE. (You are there-
fore under his connmand.)
b. PREVENTIIG TlE CAPTURE OF THE DEMOLITION SITE, OR INTERFERENCE BY THE ENEMY WITH
DEMOLITION PREPARATIONS.
c. CONTROLLING ALL TRAFFIC AND REFUGEES.
d GIVIND YOU THF ORDER TO CHANGE THE STATE OF READINESS FRCOM1"SAFE) TO "2(ARMED)
OR BACK TO "1iSAFE)' AGAIN. YOU WILL INFORM HIM OF THE TIME REQUIRED FOR SUCH A
CHAN3E.
e. PASSING TO YOU THE ACTUAL ORDER TO FIRE.
11. WHEN THERE IS ND DEMOLITION GUARD AND YOU ARE INSTRUCTED IN PARAGRAPH 4 TO ACCEPT
THE ORDER TO FIRE FROM SOME PARTICULAR OFFICER, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU ARE ABLE TO
IDENTIFY HIM.
112 IF YOU GET ORDERS TO FIRE, OHR THAN THOSE LAID DOWN IN PARAGRAPH 4; YOU SHOULD
REFER THEM TO THE DEMOLITION GUARD COMMANDER OR, IF THERE IS NO DEMOLITION GUARD
COMMANDER, TO YOUR IMMEDIATE SUPERIOR. IF YOU CANNOT DO THIS, YOU WILL ONLY DE-
PART FROM YOUR WRIITENINSIRUCTIONS WHEN YOU ARE SATISFIED AS TO THE IDENTITY AND OVER-
RIDING AUTIDRITY OF WHOEVER GIVES YOU THESE NEW ORDIRS, AND YOU WILL GT HIS SIG-
NATURE IN PARAGRAPH 8 WHENEVER POSSIBLE.
13. TIE REPORT TO YOUR UNIT COMMANDING OFFICER, AS CALLED FOR IN PARAGRAPH 7, SHULDW
CONTAIN THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION (where applicable):
a. IDENTIFICATION REFERENCE OF DEM)LITION.
b. MAP REFERENCE.
c. TIME AND DATE WHEN DEMOLITION WAS FIRED.
d. EXIENT OF DAMAGE ACClOMPLISHED, INCLUDING:
ESTINATE WIDITH OF GA IN CA OF A BRID .
NMBER OF SPANS DONN
SIZE AND LOCATION OF CRATEI IN A ROAD CR RUMAY.
IUS LAID.
e. SKETCH SHWING EFFECT OF IBLITION.

SECtRITY CLASSIFICATION

AGO S1SA D-7

*U.S. Government Printing Office: 1965- 200-504/5858A


FM 5-135

INDEX

Paragraph Page Paragraph Page


Administration ___-----_ ________ 10-2 10-1 Demolition firing party commander App D D-1
Advanced individual training ---- 11-4 11-2 Demolition guard commander ---- App D D-1
Airmobile Operations _---______ __ 2-5h 2-3 Denial operation ----__---------- 7-6 7-6
Area defense -----------_____--- 7-1c 7-1 Discipline, law, and order __-_--- 10-2e 10-2
Army training program _________ 11-2b 11-2 Disposition of engineers:
Assistance to divisional engineers _ 6-2c 6-2 Advance guard -__------.----. 6-3e 6-6
Atomic demolition munitions Covering force ---____-____-- 6-3d 6-6
(ADM), use: Flank and rear security forces 6-3f 6-7
Against fortified positions ___ 6-16 6-14 Forward defense area ------- 7-2b 7-4
In denial operations _________ 7-6d 7-7 Main body --- _-__---------- 6-3g 6-7
Attack, engineers in the ________ 6-4 6-7 Reserve area ---_____------- 7-2c 7-4
AVLB, employment ------------- 5-6b 5-5 Security area -____--------- 7-2a 7-1
Division administration company - 10-lb 10-1
Barriers and obstacles ---_____-__ 7-5 7-5 Division radio nets --_____-_----- 9-4 9-4
Basic combat training __________- 11-3 11-2 Division support command ____--- 10-la 10-1
Battalion radio nets ------------- 9-5 9-4 Divisional engineer battalion:
Bridge company: Capabilities. _---__----_----- 2-3a 2-1
Capabilities ---------------- 5-3 5-2 Employment _______________ 2-5 2-2
Employment ------- _------- 5-6 5-5 Equipment ---______________ 2-4 2-2
Equipment ----------------- 5-5 5-5 Limitations _----_____--_-- _- 2-3b 2-2
Mission -------------------- 5-2 5-1 Mission ---------
_____------ 2-2 2-1
Mobility __-------- ____------ 5-4 5-5 Mobility __---__________----- 2- 2-3
Organization -------- _._---- 5-1 5-1 Organization ---_____--_---- 2-1 2-1
Combat engineer company: Echelons for battalion operations _ 3-5b 3-2
Capabilities ---------------- 4-3 4-1 Engineer effort in the offense _____ 6-2 6-2
Employment __-----_______- 4 .4-2 Engineer support in the defense __ 7-2 7-1
Equipment ----------------- 4-4 4-1 Evacuation:
Mission -------------------- 4-2 4-1 Damaged material _____----- 10-7c 10-6
Organization --------------- 4-1 4-1 Dead ----------__-______-- - 10-2g 10-2
Combat engineer vehicle (CEV): POW ____------_____---_--- 10-2h 10-2
Capabilities ---------------- 4-6a 4-2
Limitations ----------------- 4-6b 4-3 Field fortifications --___--------- 7-7 7-7
Camouflage ------------- _______ 7-84 1-7 Floating equipage, employment of 5-6c 6-5
Civil affairs _-------------_---- 10-2f 10-2 Fortified positions, assault of __-- 6-16 6-14
Communications:
Communications: Gap crossing ------------------- 6-11 6-11
Radio __________--
- ________ 9-4, 9-5 9-4
9-6 9-6 Headquarters and headquarters
Responsibilities -----
_------- 9-2 9-1 Company:
Wire ----------------------- 9-3 9-4 Capabilities _--_______------ 3-3 3-2
Company radio nets ------------- 9-6 9-6 Equipment ____-______-__--- 3-4 3-2
Counterreconnaissance ---------- 6-17b 6-16 Operation ____--___________- 3-5 3-2
Organization ---______------- 3-1 3-1
Defense:
Area ______--- -------------- 7-1c 7-1 Intelligence:
Disposition of engineer Responsibilities ______--_---- 6-18 6-15
support ------------------ 7-2 7-1 Sources -------------------- 6-20 6-16
Mobile ___---_------_ ____-- _ 7-lb 7-1 Studies, weather and terrain _ 6-21 6-17
Purpose and forms ---------- 7-1a 7-1 Timing -------- _----------- 6-19 6-16
Reconnaissance ------------- 7-4 7-5
Defense against nuclear attack_7-10 to 7-13 7-9 Maintenance -------------------- 10-7 10-6
__-----
Defiles, passage ---------- 6-12 6-11 Map supply -------------------- 10-Sa 10-4
Delaying action ---------------- 7-17 7-11 Mobile defense __----_____------- 7-lb 7-1

AGO 5888A Index-1


FM 5-135

Paragraph Page Paragraph Page


Morale and personnel services _--- 10-2d 10-2 River crossings--continued
Movement to contact ------------ 6-3 6-3 Hasty --------
______-------- 6-6 6-8
Obstacles ----------------------- 7-5 7-5 control --------.------ 6-10 6-10
........ .............
Obstacles 7-6 7-6Traffic
Passage of defiles _-------------- 6-i2 6-11 Security:
Prestrike operations -------------- 7-12 7-9 Against guerrillas ---------- 6-28 6-21

Radio nets: Against CBR and nuclear


Battalion… ----------------- 9-5 9-4 attacks ------------------- 6-29 6-21
Company ------------------ 9-6 9-6 At halts and assembly areas - 6-24 6-20
Division…______________----- 9-4 9-4 Basic considerations -------- 6-22 6-17
Rear area work ---------------- 7-9 7-8 Convoy ------------------ 6-25, 6-26 6-20
Reconnaissance _-__________-----3c, 6-17a 6-5, 6-15 Worksite------ 6-27 6-21
Reorganization for combat: SOP, recommended outline _------ App B B-1
Combat missions ------------ 8-4 8-1 Supply:
Guide- _-------------------- 8-7 8-2 Functions ------------------ 10-3 10-3
Planning- _----------------- 8-2 8-1 Procedures ----------------- 10-5 10-4
Preparation ---------------- 9-6 8-2 Responsibilities ------------- 10-4 10-3
Retirement ---------------------- 7-18 7-11 Training:
Retrograde movements:; Phases --------------------- 11-2 11-1
Engineer responsibilities ----- 7-19 7-11 Responsibility -------------- 11-1c 11-1
Purpose ---------- __---- 7-15 '10 Unit training ------------------- 11-5 11-3
River crossings:
Basic considerations --------- 6-5 6-7 Water purification -------------- 10-6 10-5
Crossing sites --------------- 6-9 6-9 Wire communications ----------- 9-3 9-4
Deliberate ------------------ 6-7 6-8 Withdrawals ------------------- 7-16 7-10

Index-2 AGO 6888A


FM 5-135

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

HAROLD K. JOHNSON,
General, United St&tes Army,
Official: Chief of Staff.
J. C. LAMBERT,
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.

Distribution:
Active Army:
DCSPER (2) USACDCEC (10)
DCSOPS (2) ARADCOM (10)
ACSI (2) ARADCOM Rgn (10)
DCSLOG (2) OS Maj Comd (5)
ACSFOR (2) LOGCOMD (5)
CORC (2) MDW (2)
CRD (1) Armies (25)
COA (1) Corps (15)
CINFO (1) Div (10)
TIG (1) Div Arty (5)
TJAG (1) Engr Bde (5)
TPMG (1) Engr Gp (5)
TSG (1) Engr Bn (8)
OPO (1) Inf Bn (5)
CofEngrs (2) Armor Bn (5)
CofCh (1) Engr Co (2) except
USAMB (2) TOE: 5-146 (5)
USACDCEA (10) 5-147 (5)
USACDCCBRA (5) 5-148 (5)
USACDCCARMSA (5) 5-156 (5)
USACDCADA (1) 5-157 (5)
USACDCIA (2) Ft Riley (8)
USACDCARTYA (2) USATC (5)
USACDCMPA (2) Br Svc Sch (10) except
USACDCARMA (5) USAOC&S (70)
USACDCSWA (5) USAAMS (25)
USACDCCEA (2) Svc Colleges (10)
USACDCQMA (2) Joint Sch (5)
USACDCTA (5) USACDCCCISG (1)
USACDCAVNA (2) USACDCCAG (5)
USACDCCAA (4) USACDCSSG (5)
USACDCMSA (4) USACDCSWCAG (5)
USCONARC (10) USACDCIAS(1)
USACDC (10) USACRCNG (1)

NG: State AG (3); units-same as active Army except allowance is two (2) copies to each unit.
USAR: Units-same as active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit.
For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.