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Luggage size decision

We choose 48x35x20 cm as our luggage size

Company Dimension fulfill? Company Dimension fulfill?


(cm) (cm)

Aeroflot 55 x 40 x 20 yes Virgin America 60.9 x yes


43.1 x
25.4
Air Asia 56 x 36 x 23 yes VivaAerobus 55 x 40 x yes
20
Air China 55 x 40 x 20 yes Volaris 39.8 x no
39.8 x
24.9
Air India 55 x 35 x 25 yes WestJet 53 x 38 x yes
23
ANA 55 x 40 x 25 yes Adria Airways 55 x 40 x yes
23
Asiana Airlines 55 x 40 x 20 yes Aegean Airlines 56 x 45 x yes
25
Azerbaijan 55 x 35 x 20 yes Aer Lingus 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 24
Bangkok Airways 56 x 36 x 23 yes Aeroflot 55 x 40 x yes
20
Cathay Pacific 56 x 36 x 23 yes Air Baltic 55 x 40 x yes
20
Cebu Pacific 56 x 36 x 23 yes Air Corsica 55 x 35 x yes
25
China Airlines 56 x 36 x 23 yes Air Europa 55 x 35 x yes
25
China Eastern 55 x 40 x 20 yes Air France 55 x 35 x yes
25
China Southern 115 linear yes Air Malta 55 x 40 x yes
20
El Al 56 x 45 x 25 yes Air Moldova 50 x 40 x yes
25
Emirates 55 x 38 x 20 yes Astra Airlines 50 x 30 x yes
20
Etihad Airways 50 x 40 x 25 yes Atlantic Airways 50 x 40 x yes
25
Eva Air 56 x 36 x 23 yes Aurigny 48 x 36 x yes
20
Garuda 56 x 36 x 23 yes Austrian Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
Indonesia 23
Georgian 55 x 40 x 20 yes Azores Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
Airways 20
Hainan Airlines 55 x 40 x 20 yes Belavia 50 x 40 x yes
20
Japan Airlines 55 x 40 x 25 yes BH Air 60 x 40 x yes
30
Jet Airways 55 x 35 x 25 yes Blue Panorama 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 20
Jetstar 56 x 36 x 23 yes British Airways 56 x 45 x yes
25
Korean Air 55 x 40 x 20 yes Brussels Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
23
Kuwait Airways 56 x 36 x 23 yes Bulgaria Air 55 x 40 x yes
20
Malaysia Airlines 56 x 36 x 23 yes Carpatair 55 x 40 x yes
20
MIAT Mongolian 55 x 40 x 20 yes Cobalt Air 56 x 45 x yes
Airlines 25
Oman Air 115 linear yes Condor 55 x 40 x yes
20
Philippines 115 linear yes Corsair 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines International 20
Qatar Airways 50 x 37 x 25 yes Croatia Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
20
Royal Jordanian 51 x 41 x 23 yes Czech Airlines 55 x 45 x yes
Airlines 25
S7 Airlines 55 x 40 x 20 yes easyJet 56 x 45 x yes
25
Saudia Airlines 115 linear yes Edelweiss 55 x 40 x yes
23
Singapore 115 linear yes Eurowings 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 23
Sri Lankan 56 x 36 x 23 yes Finnair 56 x 45 x yes
Airlines 25
Thai Airways 56 x 45 x 25 yes Flybe 55 x 35 x yes
20
TigerAir (Asia) 54 x 38 x 23 yes Georgian 55 x 40 x yes
Airways 20
UTair 55 x 40 x 20 yes Germania 55 x 40 x yes
20
Vietnam Airlines 56 x 36 x 23 yes Helvetic Airways 55 x 40 x yes
20
Xiamen Airlines 55 x 35 x 25 yes HOP 55 x 35 x yes
25
Air New Zealand 118 linear yes Iberia 56 x 45 x yes
25
Air Tahiti 45 x 35 x 20 no Icelandair 55 x 40 x yes
20
Air Tahiti Nui 115 linear yes Jet Time 55 x 40 x yes
20
Fiji Airways 55 x 40 x 23 yes Jet2.com 56 x 45 x yes
25
Jetstar 56 x 36 x 23 yes KLM Royal Dutch 55 x 35 x yes
Airlines 25
Qantas 56 x 36 x 23 yes LOT Polish 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 23
REX Regional 48 x 34 x 23 yes Lufthansa 55 x 40 x yes
Express Airlines 23
TigerAir 54 x 38 x 23 yes Luxair 55 x 40 x yes
Australia 23
Virgin Australia 48 x 34 x 23 yes Meridiana 55 x 40 x yes
20
Aeroméxico 56 x 36 x 23 yes Monarch Airlines 56 x 40 x yes
25
Air Canada 55 x 40 x 23 yes Montenegro 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 20
Air Transat 51 x 40 x 23 yes Niki 55 x 40 x yes
23
Alaska Airlines 61 x 43 x 25 yes Norwegian 55 x 40 x yes
23
Alitalia 55 x 35 x 25 yes Olympic Air 55 x 40 x yes
23
Allegiant Air 55.9 x 35.6 yes Pegasus Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
x 22.9 20
American 56 x 36 x 23 yes Primera Air 54 x 45 x yes
Airlines 25
Bahamasair 55.8 x 35.5 yes Ryanair 55 x 40 x yes
x 22.9 20
Cape Air 114.3 linear yes S7 Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
20
Caribbean 114 linear yes SAS 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines Scandinavian 23
Airlines
Cayman Airways 58.4 x 33 x no SmartWings 56 x 45 x yes
22.8 25
Copa Airlines 115 linear yes SunExpress 55 x 40 x yes
20
Cubana 115 linear yes Swiss 55 x 40 x yes
International Air 23
Lines
Delta Air Lines 56 x 35 x 23 yes TAP Portugal 55 x 40 x yes
20
Frontier Airlines 61 x 39.5 x yes TAROM 55 x 40 x yes
25.5 20
Hawaiian 55.9 x 35.6 yes Thomas Cook 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines x 23 20
Insel Air 55 x 35 x 20 yes Transavia 45 x 40 x no
25
JetBlue Airways 55.88 x yes TUIfly 55 x 40 x yes
35.56 x 20
22.86
LIAT Airlines 53 x 35 x 20 yes Turkish Airlines 55 x 40 x yes
23
Maya Island Air yes Ukraine 55 x 40 x yes
International 20
Airlines
Porter Airlines 55 x 40 x 23 yes UTair 55 x 40 x yes
20
Ravn Alaska 45.7 x 35.5 yes Virgin Atlantic 56 x 36 x yes
x 24.5 Airways 23
Southwest 61 x 40.6 x yes Vueling 55 x 40 x yes
Airlines 25.4 20
Spirit Airlines 56 x 46 x 25 yes Wizz Air 42 x 32 x no
25
Tropic Air yes WOW air 42 x 32 x no
25
United Airlines 56 x 35 x 23 yes XL Airways 55 x 35 x yes
France 25
Retractable Luggage Strap

Material

So for this retractable luggage strap to work efficiently the material chosen for this is very important.
There are few materials, yet we choose best two to compare which are nylon and polyester. We
would like to recommend Nylon because we are aware of its benefits.

Polyester resins combine excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties with very good
chemical resistance and dimensional stability. Polyesters also offer low moisture absorption and
have good flow properties.

Nylon is a group of synthetic polymers known as thermoplastics or aliphatic polyamides, which are
derived from petroleum. Nylon is made through a chemical reaction in a process known as ring-
opening polymerization. The molecules of the raw materials from which nylon is made are in ring
form. But a chemical reaction, usually between adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene diamine causes
the rings to open and flatten into curly strings that bond to one another. When nylon is stretched,
the fibers become thin and smooth yet retain their strength.

Nylon and polyester are both synthetic fabrics, but nylon production is more expensive, which
results in a higher price for the consumer. Nylon also tends to be more durable and weather-
resistant, which is why it is more likely to be used in outdoor apparel or gear. Both fabrics are flame
retardant, but nylon is stronger, while polyester is more heat-resistant.

Comparison chart:-

Nylon Polyester
Chemical Name Polyamide Polyethylene Naphthalate
Manufacture Created as a liquid, mechanically spun Spun into thread from chemical
and dried into individual fibers. solution.
Uses More common to certain kinds of More widely used in all kinds of
apparel, including lingerie, tights, apparel. Carpets, drapes,
raincoats, and swimwear. Carpets, and bedding. Some industrial use.
drapes, and bedding. More wide range
of industrial uses.
Wearability Low moisture absorbency Wrinkle resistant
Durability Exceptionally strong, abrasion Strong, resistant to stretching and
resistant, resistant to damage from oil shrinking, resistant to most
and many chemicals. chemicals, crisp and resilient wet or
dry, abrasion resistant.
Flammability Melts then burns rapidly Melts and burns at same time
Environmental Most nylon made from unavoidable oil Non-biodegradable, but can be
impact refinery byproducts recycled - possible to purchase 100%
recycled polyester
Comfort Light-weight, warm, smooth, soft, Quick drying, light-weight, smooth.
quick drying.
Styles Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, Every form of clothing
hosiery, lingerie, underwear, raincoats,
ski apparel, windbreakers, swimwear,
cycle wear.
Appearance Lustrous, wide range of colors. Wide range of colors, slightly slick.
Allergic Possible, more likely caused by Possible, more likely caused by
reactions finishing resins, fibers repel typical finishing resins, fibers repel typical
allergens. allergens.
Maintenance Easy to wash, mildew resistant. Easily washed, mildew resistant.
Cleaning Easy to wash, mildew-resistant. Can be Easy to wash, mildew-resistant. Can
dried on low heat cycle, but must be be dried on low heat cycle, but must
removed as soon as finished. Can be be removed as soon as finished. Can
ironed. Cannot be dry-cleaned. be ironed. Can usually be dry-
cleaned.
Materials Polyamide made from petroleum. Polymer production of coal, air,
water, petroleum products.
UV Resistance Somewhat Very
First Made First U.S. Commercial Nylon Fiber First U.S. Commercial Nylon Fiber
Production - 1939, DuPont Company Production – 1953, DuPont Company
Worldwide Around 3.9 million metric tons, 11% of Around 21 million metric tons, 58%
Production synthetic fiber production of synthetic fiber production

General Use

Both nylon and polyester can be used for bags and backpacks. Nylon is more durable and weather-
resistant, so it gets used for outerwear or outdoor gear. Polyester is better for companies with
intricate logos who want to use bags for branding purposes.

Comfort

Comfort wise, both nylon and polyester are light-weight, quick-drying and smooth. Nylon tends to be
warmer than polyester, and can often be sweatier or cling more to the body.

Physical Properties of Polyester:-

 Tensile Strength 2.5 N/mm²


 Notched Impact Strength 1.5 - 3.5 Kj/m²
 Thermal Coefficient of expansion 70 x 10-6
 Max Cont Use Temp 70 oC
 Density 1.37 g/cm3

Physical Properties of Nylon:-

 Tensile Strength 90 - 185 N/mm²


 Notched Impact Strength 5.0 - 13 Kj/m²
 Thermal Coefficient of expansion 90 - 20/70 x 10-6
 Max Cont Use Temp 150 - 185 oC
 Density 1.13 - 1.35/1.41 g/cm3

So based on this data, we would like to recommend nylon. Although polyester are still in use but
comparing to the characteristics of both material nylon is better as it has more convenient
properties which is suitable for luggage strap.
Difference between Typical Luggages

With conventional suitcases, you never know quite what to do with your other bags, patented
handbag docking system will ease your journey. The flat top tray and retractable strap will assist in
carrying extra bags. With this docking feature we can carry whatever we want, handbags large or
small, coats, umbrellas, even shopping bags all save and secure with retractable strap. Whether it’s a
puffy down jacket, an oversized handbag or a bulky backpack, the docking system can accommodate
items of various shapes and dimensions. The retractable elastic strap for fastening a second bag to
the handle without having to worry about losing half your luggage as you sprint to a boarding gate.

Design

The retractable strap is made with polyester with an aluminium head which can be locked at the
hook. The strap is long enough to hold almost all bags no matter the size and shapes. The length is
almost same as the height of the bag which is 40cm and the width is 5cm. This is an ergonomic
design which ease the customers to lock their bags by just hooking the strap to the hook.

Adjustable Laptop Stand

Material

Laptop stand must be durable and strong enough to hold laptop in position so that laptop don’t
topple off. As laptop stand there are some material which can be chosen as aluminium alloy, acrylic
and polycarbonates. We would recommend to use polycarbonates (PC)/ABS as laptop stand over
aluminium alloy and acrylic.

Transparency, excellent toughness, thermal stability and a very good dimensional stability make
Polycarbonate (PC) one of the most widely used engineering thermoplastics. Compact discs, riot
shields, vandal proof glazing, baby feeding bottles, electrical components, safety helmets and
headlamp lenses are all typical applications for polycarbonates. In recent years Polycarbonate blends
have become increasingly commercially important. Amongst the most significant are those
incorporating ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene).

Characteristics of Polycarbonate/ABS:-

 PC/ABS blends exhibit high melt flow, very high toughness at low temperatures and
improved stresscrack resistance compared to PC.
 Polycarbonates are strong, stiff, hard, tough, transparent engineering thermoplastics that
can maintain rigidity up to 140°C and toughness down to -20°C or special grades even lower.
 The material is amorphous (thereby displaying excellent mechanical properties and high
dimensional stability), is thermally resistant up to 135°C and rated as slow burning.
 Special flame retardant grades exist which pass several severe flammability tests.
 Constraints to the use of PC include limited chemical and scratch resistance and its tendency
to yellow upon long term exposure to UV light. However these constraints can be readily
overcome by adding the right additives to the compound or processing through a co-
extrusion process.

Physical Properties of Polycarbonate/ABS:-

 Tensile Strength 70 - 80 N/mm²


 Notched Impact Strength 60 - 80 Kj/m²
 Thermal Coefficient of expansion 65 x 10-6
 Max Cont Use Temp 125 °C
 Density 1.20 g/cm3

Comparison between Aluminium Alloy and Polycarbonate

As compared to aluminium alloy, under impact or stress polycarbonate can dent, and aluminium can
warp or dent. Aluminium can be damaged more easily than plastic. Under extreme impact
Polycarbonate can dent, and if you really go ballistic on it, you can break it. But mostly it just yields
to the stress and returns to its original shape. Like polycarbonate, aluminium can dent on impact.
But unlike polycarbonate it bends and warps under stress. It's usually some warping that cause
permanent deformation. Moreover, polycarbonates are scratch resistance as compared to
aluminium. Aluminium alloy is costly compared to polycarbonate because it is metal.

So for our laptop stand, we choose polycarbonate/ABS as our material as it is unbreakable plastic
and has more advantages than aluminium.

Comparison between Acrylic and Polycarbonate

These two polymers are extremely similar in appearance, yet their physical properties are quite
different making them naturally suited to totally different applications.

Acrylic Polycarbonate
Appearance Crystal clear, with clear edge Clear, with darkened edge

Hardness/ scratch resistance Much softer than glass, but Very soft, and therefore
much harder than scratches easily unless scratch
polycarbonate resistant coatings are applied

Impact strength / Abuse Modestly impact resistant. Extremely impact resistant.


tolerance Commonly used for storm Commonly used as part of
window glazing in sheet form, laminates for bullet resistance,
or for camera domes and for playground domes

Optical quality Superior optical quality in Good quality when viewed


every way when compared to with the human eye. Inferior in
other options formed camera domes
compared to acrylic

Weather ability – UV light Polymer is inherently stable, Polymer is inherently UV


stability and this is further enhanced unstable and is dependent on
with UV stabilizer additives. UV stabilizer additives for
Excellent outdoor application protection in outdoor
choice. applications. Good choice for
outdoor uses with proper
grades only

Cost Low Moderate to high


Availability in colors Wide variety exists, but some Limited variety exists, and
minimum quantities apply minimum quantities are high

As we can see, acrylic is more naturally suited to camera domes and other similar applications where
its superior optics and hardness and lower cost are appropriate. Polycarbonate is more naturally
suited to applications such as playground domes where the extreme abuse tolerance is needed,
especially for safety reasons.

Based on comparison between aluminium alloy, acrylic and polycarbonate, polycarbonate which
incarnated with ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) is suitable material for laptop stand because of
its strength and scratch resistance.

Difference between Typical Luggages

As we see most of the luggages are designed for more space compartment and USB powered battery
for electronic devices to charge. But we added features such as laptop stand to use laptop while its
charging and we don’t have to wait for laptop to be charged every time. Most of us have to place our
laptop on our lap or uneven surface of the luggage to use it at airport. Space is a constraint for us.
We are no longer limited by geographic boundaries. Ergonomic design with a flat top, allowing us to
work. We can place our laptop on the flat surface of the luggage and use the adjustable laptop stand
to hold our laptop in position.

Design

The laptop stand has width of 25cm and height 4cm and thickness of 0.4cm. we just need to press on
it to open the cover as it is adjustable. We can push our laptop screen lower as possible because the
stand as wide angle as its range. It is made up of polycarbonate/ABS and has spring to hold the back
cover of the laptop in position. We designed it to be in black colour and to hold all kind of laptop
with different sizes. The ergonomic design with flat top working surface allows us to use laptop in
any situation as the luggage is design to hold laptop.
WHEEL:
1. What kind of material can make this part?
 Market currently use the plastic and rubber made this part. Although both are
polymers, plastic and rubber differ because:

Plastic Rubber

Generic name for certain synthetic or An elastic material obtained from the latex sap of trees
semisynthetic materials that can be molded or (especially trees of the genera Hevea and Ficus) that
Definition
extruded into objects or films or filaments or can be vulcanized and finished into a variety of
used for making e.g. Coatings and adhesives. products.

Mostly obtained from organic substances such


Source Usually obtained from the trees branches.
as oil and petrol.

It has to be converted in its form after


It is obtained as it is from the trees and then dried so it
Conversion multiple processes and therefore is considered
is a natural product.
a by-product.

Cannot be deformed once it is hardened and Can easily be molded in different shapes even once the
Deformation
molded into a shape. shape is formed.

We chose rubber as wheel material because rubber more elastic and


durable as compare to plastic. more friendly to environmental. Besides,
making rubber is more environmental friendly as compare to plastic. We
can find that through the raw material of each product above table;
Plastic obtain from petrol but Rubber obtain from rubber trees branches.

2. After we had chosen the rubber as our wheel material, we need to understand more
information about this material. We will take some rubber material and compare their
properties and chosen the most suitable one as final material we use.

a. Information about compare strength and elongation:

Elongation Specific Heat Tensile Strength


Type of Material (%) Capacity (J/kg-K) (Mpa)
Isoprene (Natural) Rubber 600 1550 19
Chloroprene Rubber 380 1120 11
Ethylene Acrylate Rubber 340 14
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber 400 9
Styrene Butadiene Rubber 530 14
Polyurethane Rubber 580 1760 39
Comparsion Tensile Strenth and Elongation of all rubber

Polyurethane Rubber

Styrene Butadiene Rubber

Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber

Chloroprene Rubber

Ethylene Acrylate Rubber

Chloroprene Rubber

Isoprene (Natural) Rubber

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Tensile Strength (Mpa) Elongation (%)

b. Information about cost:

Type of Material Cost (US$/Metric Ton)


Isoprene (Natural) Rubber 1500~2500
Chloroprene Rubber 1200~1500
Ethylene Acrylate Rubber 1000~1200
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber 4500~5500
Styrene Butadiene Rubber 1600~1800
Polyurethane Rubber 1600~2200

-From the data we had collected, we can see that both of the Isoprene Rubber and
Polyurethane Rubber has high Elongation (%) but Polyurethane Rubber has almost
double value of max tensile strength of that in Isoprene Rubber. Besides that, both
materials are also in same price range. So, after we compare such more information
and we can say that Polyurethane Rubber is most suitable for our wheel material.

c. Information about sustainability:


- Along with the environmental protection consciousness unceasing enhancement
especially in a sustainable development society today, people more and more realize
the reasonable use of resources has been mentioned at a more important strategic
height.
- Polyurethane foam wastes must be effectively disposed and recycled, which not only
is the requirement of preventing pollution and environment protection, but also is the
need of the production cost reduction and material utilization improvement. Due to its
low density and high volume, polyurethane foam waste is difficult to treat and dispose
of in landfill. And incineration will produce poisonous gas. There are two primary
way to recycled polyurethane, physical recycling and chemical recycling, for
recycling polyurethane foam wastes.
- Polyurethane is recycled in two primary ways: mechanical recycling, in which the
material is reused in its polymer form, and chemical recycling that takes the material
back to its various chemical constituents.[1]
-Mechanical Recycling:
d. Rebonded Flexible Foam—Rebonded flexible foam is made with pieces of
chopped flexible polyurethane foam and a binder to create carpet underlay,
sports mats, cushioning and similar products. Rebond has been used for
decades and represents nearly 90 percent of the carpet underlay market in the
United States.

e. Regrind or Powdering—Sometimes called powdering, regrind recycling


takes polyurethane industrial trim or post-consumer parts and grinds them in
various ways to produce a fine powder. The resultant powder is mixed with
virgin materials to create new polyurethane foam or reaction injection molded
(RIM) parts.

f. Adhesive Pressing/Particle Bonding—These two recycling processes use


polyurethane from various applications, such as automobile parts, refrigerators
and industrial trim, to create boards and moldings, often with very high
recycled content. Used polyurethane parts are granulated and blended either
with a powerful binder or polyurethane systems, then formed into boards or
moldings under heat and pressure. The resulting products, analogous to
particleboard made from wood waste, are used in sound proofing applications,
furniture that is virtually impervious to water and flooring where elasticity is
needed.

g. Compression Molding—This recycling process grinds reaction injection


molded (RIM) and reinforced RIM parts into fine particles and then applies
high pressure and heat in a mold, creating products with up to 100 percent
recycled content and material properties that can be superior to virgin
materials.
-Chemical Recycling
a. Glycolysis—This process combines mixed industrial and post-consumer
polyurethanes with diols at high heat, causing a chemical reaction that creates
new polyols, a raw material used to make polyurethanes. These polyols can
retain the properties and functionality of the original polyols and can be used
in myriad applications.
b. Hydrolysis—This process creates a reaction between used polyurethanes and
water, resulting in polyols and various intermediate chemicals. The polyols
can be used as fuel and the intermediates as raw materials for polyurethane.
c. Pyrolysis—This process breaks down polyurethanes under an oxygen free
environment to create gas and oils.

d. Hydrogenation—Like pyrolysis, hydrogenation creates gas and oil from used


polyurethanes through a combination of heat and pressure and hydrogen.[2]

Recycling and Disposal Methods for Polyurethane Foam Wastes (PDF Download
Available). Available from:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257728834_Recycling_and_Disposal_Meth
ods_for_Polyurethane_Foam_Wastes [accessed Dec 17 2017].

https://polyurethane.americanchemistry.com/Polyurethane-Recycling/

3. Advantage of using this design:

Most rolling luggage are basically boxes on casters. Their little wheels break
more often; they travel badly over bumps, bricks, grates, snow and sand; they
weaken the luggage design with more rivets, screws and reinforcements; they
require more parts to assemble and break; they reduce the available volume;
and they often cause awkward nooks in the interior space.
a. Feel lighter. Because of their large diameter, the wheels support the load
closer to its center of gravity, so your bag balances better and feels
significantly lighter when you pull it.

b. Increased durability: Bigger wheels are made of polyurethane polymers that


strengthen the walls of the bag. Unlike traditional bags, the wheels are the
strength of this bag—not the weakness.

c. Packs smarter: there's more interior space than other bags of similar weight
and volume;
d. Rolls easier: The glides easily over many types of surfaces—cobblestones,
curbs, steps, gravel, snow, sand.

(from G-RO)
Telescoping handle

Telescoping handle is one of the major part and which most complex part in the luggage is. It can
lengthen the handle when people moving the luggage and shorten it when not in used.

Handle bar of telescoping handle

It is made by polymer and we had chosen two different kind of polymer which is polycarbonate (PC)
and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to compare and analyze the properties of those two material.

both are thermoplastic which is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable
above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling. It have lower production cost in mass
manufacturing and it is easy to recycle compare with thermosetting polymer.

polycarbonate (PC) polyethylene terephthalate (PET)


Uses various products associated with bottles, jars, containers and
electrical and telecommunications packaging applications
hardware
Compact Discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray
Discs
Flammability very good heat resistance and can be not result in the release of black
combined with flameretardant smoke, dioxins, or any other toxic
materials substances
without significant material
degradation
Environmental Bis-phenol A form at 70oC – 80oC, Non-biodegradable, but can be
impact and high humidity recycled
Allergic reactions Possible, more likely caused by Possible, more likely caused by
finishing resins, fibers repel typical finishing resins, fibers repel typical
allergens. allergens.
Cleaning Easy to wash, mildew resistant. Easy to wash, mildew resistant.
UV Resistance not suitable for long term exposure not suitable for long term exposure
to to
UV radiation. To overcome this the UV radiation. To overcome this the
primary primary
resin can have UV Stabilisers added resin can have UV Stabilisers added
Availability in vary vary
colors
Impact Strength: 140J/m 60 J/m
Notched Izod
Fatigue Strength 34MPa -
Tensile Strength: 110MPa 140 MPa
Ultimate
Glass Transition 150 °C 70 °C
Temperature
Density 1.3 g/cm3 1.4 g/cm3

So based on this data, we would like to recommend polycarbonate. It has higher impact strength,
glass transition temperature, and lower density.
Material selection of the handle arm

The handle arm of the luggage can be expanding when we moving the luggage. It usually made by
metal alloy because it has high Young’s modulus to reduce the deformation under loading. We
choose 1018 carbon steel and 2024 aluminum alloy to compare and choose the material of the
handle rod.

2024 T6 Aluminum alloy 1018 carbon steel


Elastic (Young's, Tensile) 71 190
Modulus, GPa
Fatigue Strength, MPa 130 180
Density, g/cm3 3 7.9
Tensile Strength: Yield 370 240-400
(Proof), MPa
Elongation at Break, % 5.1 17-27
Corrosion resistance Only surface oxidize and protect Poor, need other paint to
the inner part protect the steel

Finally, we choose the aluminum as the handle rod. It has lower density which make the handle
become lighter. It is the vital in the hand carry luggage. It has good corrosion resistance and it no
need paint anymore compare with carbon steel. It can save the cost of painting.

Difference between Typical Luggage

The telescoping handle of the luggage is embedding inside the luggage, we have design the a space
or pocket between two rod of the luggage, it can store some item such as liquid item which need to
take out during inspection and also have one USB port inside the pocket which connect to the USB
port at the outside of the luggage. Passenger can store their own power bank in the luggage and
charging the smart device more convenient during trip.

Design of the telescoping handle

Add it later…

Ergonomic of the design

We add a torus shape handle in the design, it can rotate 360 degrees. This is a great feature as it
minimizes the strain on the wrist and the forearm of the user where the muscle usually tenses
during the mode of transportation of the baggage.
Zipper classification
The zipper is an essential part in making the luggage functional where it keeps everything
intact despite the amount of belongings one fits in it. Therefore, it is the weakest and the
easiest part to malfunction making it extremely important to include better and stronger
material to extend its longevity. With the chosen material, users need not worry on the rough
handling on the luggage.
Currently, the most popular luggage zipper are the coil zippers as there are strong, durable,
smooth to operate and flexible. However, there are other competitive available zipper type
(chain zipper) where the pros’ and cons’ can be seen below.
Coil zipper Chain zipper
 Flexible  Highly durable
 Smooth to operate  High security
 Durable  Expensive
 Self-heal easily

We decided to select the coil zipper as it fits the consumer better in terms of material used
and strength. Coil zipper is made with nylon or polyester where it is heat, static and abrasion
resistant making them excellent in terms of durability and sustainability. Next, it is
inexpensive to manufacture and environmentally friendly which encourages many
manufacturer to mass produce such products.
The coil zipper consist of two coil on each side, stitched onto the zipper tape where the zipper
teeth’s are formed by the winding of the coil. The impressive benefit is the fact that it heals
easily where the distorted zipper can be restored to its original condition by pulling the slider
backwards.
For the main body of the luggage, we incorporate zipper with double sliders (arranged in
head to head relation) to accommodate the 3 digit pin lock. For the smaller opening on the
luggage, we have decided to use the closed-end zipper to ease the opening process.

Zipper with double sliders


Body material
Among all the materials available in market, the best material for the outer layer is
polycarbonate. It is light, durable, scratch resistant, and extremely resilient to rough handling.
It is also impact resistant which makes it ideal for rough handlers, where it absorbs impact
and flexes back into its original shape. This is vital as it proves the strength, durability and
sustainability of the whole luggage. For comparison, polycarbonate is also used for the
making of helmets and bulletproof glass which has a high Mohr’s hardness. Next, it comes
with different styles, colours, and pattern to suit people of all shapes and colours which is
versatile and human friendly.
The inner material we chose is the classic fabric which is nylon. Nylon has multiple
advantages where it is chemical resistant, radiation resistant, high tensile strength and high
permeability. The fabric have high tensile, tear and burst strength, and outstanding
uniformity. Next, it resists attacks from many solvent, alkalis and diluted acid making them
the safest options in case of any unnecessary accidents or spillage. They have a wide choice
of permeability which improves the humidity in the luggage itself where it keeps the inner
temperature cool.
Assembly method

We had found 4 type of the suitable for luggage assembly, which is welding, screw, rivet and
adhesive.

Welding Screw/bolt and Rivet Adhesive


nut
Cost Material is Cheap Cheap, but Cheap
cheap, but it need extra
need equipment
skillful worker,
energy usage
also need to
be consider
Space required Yes Yes Yes Very thin and it
can consider as no
space required
Weight Depend by the Moderate Light Very light
joint area
Strength Strong but also Strong and Strong and Strong, load
depend by the good in tension high uniformly
skill of worker load rather distributed
than shear load over the bond
area, adhesive
carries the load in
shear rather than
tension
Resistance to vibration Good May wear out Good, stand Good
after certain up to vibration
period better than
normal screws
Permanent/removable Permanent Removable Permanent Permanent
joint
Strength affected by No No No Yes
temperature?
Stress concentration Have stress Stress Stress No concentration
concentration concentration concentration since no need drill
on the welding appear appear on the the hole for
leg and vary by on the drilled drilled hole jointing
the skill of hole and thread
worker

We conclude that welding may not suitable for luggage assembly, the high temperature may
damage other part during assembly. The cost of welding need to consider the electrical usage and
skillful worker is needed, it increases the labor cost.

Screw/bolt and nut suitable for the telescoping handle assembly and the wheel of the luggage, those
part are relative easy to spoil, we can repair and change those part easily. The rivet is suitable for the
part is small, no intension to disassembly and under axial load, it can also reduce the space and
weight compare with screw/ bolt and nut since the stress concentration is lower than screw/ bolt
and nut. Adhesive such as rubber-modified epoxy high strength (20.7–41.4MPa) suitable use to
assembly to inner part and partition in the luggage. Adhesive required minimum space and weight
among all solution and good to withstand the shear load.

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