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7 Philosophies of Proponents Purpose of the Subjects to be Taught Teaching Strategies

Curriculum and Approaches


Education
Essentialism William Bagley The purpose of this  Reading & Writing Teachers on this school
philosophy is to help the  Math focuses on the mastery of
learners acquire basic skill  Natural Sciences subject matter and basic
set, intelligence and morals  History skills through the use of
for them to become model  Foreign Languages prescribed textbooks, drill
citizens.  Literature method and the lecture
method.
Progressivism John Dewey This aims to develop the  Skills in Gathering and Teachers use experimental
learners to become Evaluating Information methods in teaching that
enlightened and intelligent  Problem Solving Skills encourage the learners to
citizens of a democratic  Natural and Social gain knowledge from actual
society. They encourage the Sciences experience. Teachers in this
learners to live fully NOW school of educational
instead of preparing for adult philosophy also use the
life. “hands-on-minds-on-hearts-
on” teaching methodology to
let the students interact with
nature and society.
Perennialism Robert Hutchins and Mortimer This aims to develop the  Humanities The teaching is centered on
Adler learners’ rational and moral  General Education the teacher. They utilise the
powers and to let them use  Principles of Natural Socratic method of teaching
their reasoning skills and Science and mutual inquiry sessions.
higher faculties according to  Philosophy
their passions and appetites.  Language
 History
 Conceptual Thinking
The 7 Philosophies of Education

7 Philosophies of Proponents Purpose of the Subjects to be Taught Teaching Strategies and


Curriculum Approaches
Education
Essentialism William Bagley The main purpose of this  Reading & Writing Teachers who follow the
philosophy is to help the  Math essentialist way of teaching
learners acquire basic skill set,  Natural Sciences focuses mainly on the mastery
intelligence and morals for  History of subject matter and basic
them to become model citizens.  Foreign Languages skills through the use of
 Literature prescribed textbooks, drill
method and the lecture method.
Progressivism John Dewey This philosophical school of  Skills in Gathering and Teachers following this
education aims to develop the Evaluating Information philosophy of teaching use
learners to become enlightened  Problem Solving Skills experimental methods in
and intelligent citizens of a  Natural and Social teaching that encourage the
democratic society. They Sciences learners to gain knowledge
encourage the learners to live from actual experience.
fully NOW instead of preparing Teachers in this school of
for adult life. educational philosophy also use
the “hands-on-minds-on-hearts-
on” teaching methodology to let
the students interact with nature
and society.
Perennialism Robert Hutchins and Mortimer The curriculum for this  Humanities The perennialist way of
Adler philosophical school of  General Education teaching is centered on the
education aims to develop the  Principles of Natural teacher. They utilise the
learners’ rational and moral Science Socratic method of teaching and
powers and to let them use their  Philosophy mutual inquiry sessions.
reasoning skills and higher  Language
faculties according to their  History
passions and appetites.
 Conceptual Thinking


Existentialism Jean Paul Sartre This school of philosophy deals  Humanities The teaching-learning process
with the development of the  Vocational Education in an existentialist classroom is
learner as a whole person and  History self-paced and self-directed. It
not just the development of the  Fine Arts encourages an open and honest
mind. They do this by helping  Drama individual relationship between
the students understand and  Creative Expression the learner and the teacher. The
appreciate themselves as unique  Literature teachers use the values
individuals who accept  Philosophy clarification strategy.
complete responsibility for their
thoughts, feelings and actions
Behaviourism Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, The main purpose of the  Psychology of Human Teachers under this school of
John Watson and Burrhus behaviourist curriculum is to Behaviour philosophy use behaviourist
Frederic Skinner develop a favourable learning  Stimuli-Response method of teaching in which the
environment for the learners to Relationship teacher control physical
develop desirable behaviour in variables to get the desired
the society. responses from the learners.
Linguistic Philosophy Jurgen Habermas and Hans Georg Linguistic educational  Verbal Communication The experimental method is the
Gadamer philosophy works toward the  Nonverbal most popular teaching strategy
development of the learners’ Communication used by the teachers under this
communication skills from  Paraverbal philosophy since it is the most
them to be able to express Communication effective way of teaching
themselves and their ideas.  Foreign Language language and communication.
Constructivism Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky This philosophy of education  Knowledge Evaluation A constructivist teacher
aims to develop learners to and Synthesis provides the learners adequate
become independent and  Learning Process and data and information and
inherently motivated so that Skills encourage them to interact with
they can construct new ideas  Research and this data to form their own
with the help of proper learning Experimentation hypothesis, predict the outcome,
skills. investigate, and invent new
ideas and to research for further
information.

Prepared By: Lea Jane I. Razona


3rd year BSEd