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37. What angular relation exist between resistance drop and reactance drop?

Between resistance drop

and armature-reaction drop?

- The same two factors are responsible for change in voltage of an alternator but, in addition, there is a
third factor: the reactance voltage drop. This drops results from the fact that the armature winding
possesses considerable inductance L, which, in a-c circuits, asserts itself as a reactance X L, where XL =
2πfL; the reactance drop, like a resistance drop, is then equal to IX L.

38. Why is it more important that automatic voltage regulators be used with alternators than with d-c

- In the first place, an alternator cannot be compounded to make it voltage vs. load characteristics
corresponds to those of the d-c compound generator. Thus the inherent voltage change in the alternator,
especially with low lagging power factor loads, cannot be compensated. Secondly, the voltage variations
resulting from load changes the power factor are considerably greater than those displayed by d-c
machines because of the greater effect of armature reaction and the additional influence of armature
resistance. And thirdly, the alternator must generally “feed” a comparatively long transmission system
consisting of wires and transformers whose resistances and reactance’s introduce additional voltage

39. Why does the load voltage tend to change more in a-c systems than in d-c systems?

- The minus(negative) relation calculated for the leading power factor load merely indicates that the full
load voltage is more than the no load voltage. In other words, the terminal voltage rises with increasing
kilowatt output as in the over compound d-c generator.

40. Describe the general principle of operation of a voltage regulator.

- Since large voltage fluctuations cannot be tolerated in otherwise satisfactory transmission systems,
specially designed regulators must be employed to operate with alternators; these function to act upon
the d-c field and the a-c generator so that a drop in a-c terminal voltage is accompanied by an inverse
adjustment of the flux.

41. Under what condition of loading does a voltage drop cause a drop in terminal voltage? A rise in
terminal voltage?

- The predominating ones, may produce either a voltage drop or voltage rise. As will be explained, a zero
lagging power-factor load causes a voltage drop, while a zero leading power-factor load produces a
voltage rise; a power factor between the two extremes can have either effect upon the terminal emf.

42. Using the current as a reference phasor, how is the armature resistance voltage drop related to it?
The armature-reactance voltage drop? The armature-reaction drop?

- It is proved that the current in a pure resistance circuit is in phase with the voltage required to cause
that current to flow through that resistance. It is also proved in a-c theory that the line current in a pure
resistance circuit(one processing inductance but no resistance) lags by 90 electrical degrees behind the
voltage requires to cause that current to flow. When load current flows through the armature winding of
that alternator, the resulting mmf produces flux. This armature flux reacts with the main pole flux,
causing the total(resultant) flux to become either less than or more than the original main flux.
43. Explain carefully, using Fig. 158, how a zero- lagging power-factor load current tends to demagnetize
the main field.

- For zero power-factor lagging, the currents in the armature conductors would have the directions
indicated in Fig. after the poles have moved to a new position 90 electrical degrees beyond because the
current lags behind the voltage by 90 electrical degrees.

44. Referring to the vector diagram of Fig. 159, explain how the armature-reaction voltage subtracts
directly from the no load voltage when the load power factor is zero lagging.

- When the lagging power-factor current I passes through the armature winding, its mmf produces
armature reaction flux, which in turn, develops the armature-reaction voltage E AR.

45. Explain carefully, using Fig. 160, how a zero-leading power-factor currents tends to aid the main-field

- The flux created by the armature mmf adds directly to the main flux. The latter may also be understood
if the right0hand rule is used for the conductors between n 1 and n2, assuming that the conductors from a
spiral about point p. Thus the armature flux reacts with the main-pole flux in such a manner as to
increase the latter in proportion to the value of the armature current if the iron is unsaturated.

46. Referring to the vector diagram of Fig. 161, explain why the armature-reaction voltage is added
directly to the no load voltage when the load power factor is zero leading.

- The main-field flux is responsible for the no-load generated voltage E G. then when the leading power-
factor current I passes through the armature winding, its mmf produces armature reaction flux, which, in
turn, develops the armature-reaction voltage EAR.

47. Define synchronous reactance; synchronous-reactance drop.

- It is proper, therefore, to designate this combined voltage drop, i.e., E X + EAR, as the synchronous-
reactance drop. If this synchronous-reactance drop is divided by the full-load current I L, the value in
ohms (ohms = volts/amperes) is called the synchronous reactance.

48. Define synchronous impedance; synchronous-impedance drop.

- It is shown in a-c theory that the resistance and reactance always bear the same relation with respect
to each other as do the sides of a right-angle triangle. If this is done for the values of R A and XS in an
alternator, the value of the impedance so determined is called the synchronous impedance, symbolizes
by ZS.