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Brasov, 24-26 May 2012



Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA*, Anca BADULESCU*

*Department of Literature and Cultural Studies - Faculty of Letters,

TRANSILVANIA University of Brasov, Romania

Abstract: The present paper analyzes the multifarious narrative techniques depicting essential aspects of
the impossible reconciliation between two separate worlds represented by multiple voices: on the one
hand, the strong traditional Native American thread and on the other hand, the weaker and weaker
“civilized” Minneapolis’ statement of the 1990s. Erdrich’s contrast between the well-defined and pale
utterances manages to bring into focus the tremendously rich heritage of the Native American civilization
as it is presented in “The Antelope Wife”. The diverse narrative structures constantly interweave, thus
creating a complex vista of the contemporary American society.

Keywords: Native Americans, narrative techniques, multiple voices, heritage, civilization, weaving.

The Antelope Wife is a hybrid piece of
Karen Louise Erdrich is a famous Native work in which Louise Erdrich blends poetry
American writer belonging to the second wave with short story fragments. The multiple tales
of the Native American Renaissance. She was stand for narrative threads which are
born in Little Falls, Minnesota and grew up in interwoven by the multiple characters.
a family of storytellers in Wahpeton, a small Erdrich’s main technique is that of
town in North Dakota. weaving stories together using multiple
Erdrich’s novel entitled The Antelope Wife narrators within the framework of a mythic
can be considered a mixture of independent landscape. Her characters, be they strong
tales told in her own way thus shaping an female ones or pale male representations, are
intricate narrative design. part of the landscape presented in her novel.
Her fiction consists of patterned designs The same technique is used by William
highlighted by motifs and themes derived not Faulkner in his Yoknapatawpha novels. The
only from the Ojibwa culture inherited from multiple tales are not necessarily presented in
her mother and grandfather who was a tribal a chronological order.
chief belonging to the Turtle Mountain Band Louise Erdrich uses a wide range of
as well as a fine storyteller and beader, but narrative techniques: multiple narrative points
also from her father who was of German origin of view, multiple tales, the strategy of weaving
and whose parents owned a butcher shop stories together as well as multiple narrators.
which turns into a bakery shop in the Antelope Erdrich’s storytelling includes poetic
Wife. rhythms as well as sensible images as poetry
aims at connecting the written text to the oral
tribal tradition, thus her readers turn into a patterns of the Native American culture and
kind of listeners. existence.
The metaphor is highly used in Erdrich’s Part Four, Neewin, starts with the same
fiction and the best examples might be the metaphor of beading: ‘THE RED BEADS
metaphors of beading and sewing, different WERE HARD to get and expensive, because
tinges of color being blended, such colorful their clear cranberry depth was attained only
patterns being dyed on the Ojibwa quills. by the addition, to the liquid glass, of twenty-
The novel is divided into four different four-carat gold. Because she had to have them
parts, each part starting with the same in the center of her design, the second twin
recurrent motif. gambled, lost, grew dcesperate, bet everything.
Part One, entitled Bayzhig, starts as At last, even the blankets of her children’
follows: ‘EVER SINCE THE BEGINNING (Erdrich, 2002:183).
these twins are sewing. One sews with light As we have previously mentioned, each
and one with dark. The first twin’s beads are part starts with a short introduction acting as
cut-glass whites and pales, and the other twin’s connector, thus giving access to the tales told
beads are glittering deep red and blue-black in that particular part.
indigo. (…) They sew with a single sinew Erdrich’s novel includes interesting aspects
thread, in, out, fast and furious, each trying to from both the Native American tribal
set one more bead into the pattern than her storytelling and the Western forms including
sister, each trying to upset the balance of the German influences.
world’ (Erdrich, 2002:1). Thus, women decide In The Antelope Wife, Erdrich uses an
the most important things in life weaving the Anishinaabe worldview and an Ojibwa word,
pattern of their existence. which turns into a recurrent motif: that is,
Part Two, entitled Neej, starts with the daashkikaa meaning ‘splitting apart’ or
same motif: ‘THE PATTERN GLITTERS ‘cracked apart’, a split between cultures,
WITH CRUELTY. The blue beads are colored identities as well as languages.
with fish blood, the reds with powdered heart. Each part bears dual titles: the English
The beads collect in borders of mercy. The version -Part One, Part Two, Part Three, Part
yellows are dyed with the ocher of silence. Four and the Ojibwa variant - Bayzhig, Neej,
(…) The design grows, the overlay deepens. Niswey, Neewin meaning one, two, three, four
The beaders have no other order at the heart of in the Ojibwa language. Thus, there is a split
their being. Do you know that the beads are and a mixture of languages and cultures.
sewn onto the fabric of the earth with endless The Ojibwa word daashkikaa refers to two
strands of human muscle, human sinew, different worlds which are fused in the present
human hair?’ (Erdrich, 2002:73). As we can narrative pattern: the strong traditional Native
see from the previously presented quote, the American thread and the weaker and weaker
narrators address directly the readers turning ‘civilized Minneapolis’ statement of the 1990s.
them into the listeners of the tale, thus they are
‘you’, the style being colloquial. 3. NATIVE AMERICAN VOICES
Part Three, Niswey, has the following
opening quote: ‘SOUNDING FEATHER, Erdrich’s novel entitled The Antelope Wife
GREAT GRANDMA of first Shawano, dyed is representative for the Native American
her quills blue and green in a mixture of her culture and literature. The author creates a
own piss boiled with shavings of copper. No fictional realm inhabited by multiple narrators
dye came out the same way twice. (…) The whose voices are interwoven in a very
final color resulted from what she ate, drank, sophisticated pattern.
what she did for sex, and what she said to her In her fictional world, by means of her
mother or her child the day before’ (Erdrich, multiple narrators, Erdrich creates a
2002: 99). The numberless color nuances on community within which multiple life
the Ojibwa quills represent the multicolored experiences are interconnected. The narrative
voices address directly the audience, the style


Brasov, 24-26 May 2012

being informal. Her characters tell stories, 2002:135). And thus the story of the
sew, cook and their names bear certain Blitzkuchen is retold just as the re-baking of
significances. the Blitzkuchen by Frank Shawano, his
Several narrative threads are interwoven brother, will be a climax in the later
around the Roys, the Whiteheart Beads and the development of the novel.
Shawanos throughout several generations in Frank strives all his life to achieve the
between the 1880s and the 1990s. Blitzkuchen he had once tasted in an ecstatic
Among the narrators, there are both human moment. ‘They breathed together. They
and non-human voices, each contributing to thought like one person. They had for a long
the pattern of the Native American existence. unbending moment the same heartbeat, same
For instance, Klaus Shawano when blood in their veins, the same taste in their
explaining why he is ‘no longer friends with mouth’ (Erdrich, 2002:139), but he fails in his
Whiteheart Beads’ is weaving part of the endeavor and is deeply disappointed.
Native American design in the novel. The In opposition to the previous weak voice of
whole chapter four which belongs to Part One Klaus, Cally’s strong voice is echoed several
is a monologue, Klaus asking and answering times throughout the second half of the novel.
his own questions. ’Richard Whiteheart Beads, Cally is Rozin and Richard Whiteheart
I’ve thought so often, foe or friend? I decided Beads’s daughter. Tormented by the past and
on the first because he cost me everything I especially by the death of her twin sister, she
had. I did manage to keep my life, but aside tells a tale of the past at the same time trying
from that – my clothes, my savings, my house, to guess what the future would be like for her
my boat, and even, yes, my wife, Sweetheart mother and former lover, Frank ‘Mama is
Calico. My Antelope Girl. Gone. Due to uncomfortable, even standoffish with Frank
Whiteheart’ (Erdrich, 2002:43). Along eight Shawano. Or it could be that she is locked up
pages, he recalls bits of conversation with in the past. She figures that she is done with,
Richard, Rozin’s husband, and analyzes their finished, all over with love and those
relationship in minute details. The whole complications. No more. A relief. I understand
chapter is structured like very many other her and that makes sense. But here is Frank, so
fragments of the novel resembling a diary kind, his hands plucking cotton candy off a
entry. paper cone to hand first to her, then me. And
In subchpater 13, entitled The Blitzkuchen, so unassuming’ (Erdrich, 2002:144).
belonging to Part Three, the same narrator, Although still very young, she is a very
Klaus Shawano, tells a story. This time the tale experienced observer of the people who
is retold being an objective one. The events surround her: her mother, Frank, Cecille –
narrated are filtered through his life Frank’s sister, her grandmothers, Mary and
experience. It is as if he recalls happenings Zosie: ‘For instance, Mary and Zosie, the two
before his own birth. ‘From inside the kitchen, powerful twins, have the complex history of
then, where Frank had stubbornly placed having loved the same vanished man’
himself and from where Regina, heavy as the (Erdrich, 2002:197). Interestingly enough, she
stove herself, refused to move, they got as succeeds in being both subjectively and
much of the story as they could, or maybe as I objectively involved in the ‘colliding histories
was ever supposed to know’ (Erdrich,
and destinies. Loss, darkness’, this being the pull all the strings together. This is how the
only universe she knows. pieces fall into their places and the pattern is
Another interesting voice, this time a non- masterfully completed.
human one, is that of Almost Soup, an ‘extra Here is the ending quote of The Antelope
clever’ dog stating the following: ‘I survived Wife: ‘Who is beading us? Who is setting
into my old age through dog magic. That’s flower upon flower and cut-glass vine? Who
right. You see me, you see the result of dog are you and who am I, the beader or the bit of
wit. Dog skill’ (Erdrich, 2002:75). colored glass sewn onto the fabric of this
Almost Soup tells the amazing story of dog earth? (…) We stand on tiptoe, trying to see
survival. According to a Native American over the edge, and only catch a glimpse of the
custom white puppies born on a reservation next bead on the string, and the woman’s hand
were destined to give substance to soup. This moving, one day, the next, and the needle
dog knows how to escape his fate by doing flashing over the horizon’ (Erdrich, 2002:
everything humans want to see: ‘I throw 240).
puppy love right at her in loopy yo=yos, puppy The Antelope Wife is a novel which teaches
drool, joy, and big-pawed puppy clabber, ear us, the readers, a lesson: the lesson of
perks, eye contact, most of all the potent humility. Are we in the hands of someone
weapon of all puppies, the head cock and stronger than us or is it possible for us to forge
puppy grin’ (Erdrich, 2002:78). our own destiny? The answer is maybe that we
The consciousness of a dog proves to be have the power to change the course of our
more experienced and wiser than that of a lives if we act positively at crucial moments,
human. Like most of the main characters, like Almost Soup did when on the verge of
Almost Soup is a looker on, an attentive losing his life.
perceiver of important details and even gives
advice to puppies like himself but also humans 4. CONCLUSIONS
surrounding him: ‘Avoid all humans when
they get into a feasting mood’ (2002:79); ’I tell Louise Erdrich’s novel can be considered a
you, when a man goes out drunk in his tapestry of culture and myth, a very
motorboat, hide.’ (2002:80); ‘Humans call that sophisticated tale of family with a very
fate. We dogs call that stupidity’ (2002:80). complicated pattern consisting of the
The story very nicely told by Almost Soup interwoven lives of the family members.
is the story of love and reliability between a Erdrich’s The Antelope Wife can be
master and his dog: ‘my friends and relatives, considered a re-dimensioning of the Native
we have walked down the prayer road clearing American voices, a re-birth of the Native
the way for humans since before time started. American culture.
We have gone ahead of them to present their
good points to the gatekeeper at that soft REFERENCES
pasture where they eat all day and gamble the
night away. (..) The dog is bound to be human. 1. Erdrich, Louise. The Antelope Wife.
Raised alongside the human. With the human. London: Flamingo (2002).
Still, half the time we know better than the 2. Lee, A. Robert. Multicultural American
human’ (Erdrich, 20002:81). Literature. Comparative Black, Native,
Therefore, these are only three of the Latino/a and Asian American Fictions.
narrative voices heard in the novel, but there University Press of Mississippi (2003)
are several other utterances who take part in 3. Stookey, Lorena L. Louise Erdrich: A
the creating of the network of strings and Critican Companion. Westport: Greenwood
beads some of which are strong voices, others Press (1999).
being only weakly perceived. 4. Witalec, Janice (ed.) Smoke Rising: The
There is also a unifying utterance, that of Native North American Literary Companion.
an objective anonymous narrator who seems to Detroit: Visible Ink Press/ Gale (1995).

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