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College of Medicine

Unit VI: Gastrointestinal System Unit

Student’s Guide
Academic Year 2017 - 2018

Year 2, Semester 4
Table of Contents

Introduction …………………………………………….4

Section One: The Curriculum at a Glance

Thematic organization of the curriculum and

related competency domains …………………………………………….7

Curriculum map ……...………………..…………………....9

Section two: GI Unit

Objectives of the unit …………………………………………….11

Summary of unit problems …………………………………………….13

Summary of unit mini problems …………………………………………….14

Clinical skills themes …………………………………………….16

Section three: learning strategies

Small group PBL tutorials ……………………………………………18

Resource sessions ……………………………………………20

Review sessions – concept of Team Based

Learning (TBL)

Basic sciences laboratories ……………………………………………21

Professional clinical skills sessions ……………………………………………21

Self-directed learning ……………………………………………21

PBL-Oriented Research program guidelines ……………………………………………22

DxR cases relevant to the GI unit …………………………………………...24

Learning basic medical sciences in a clinical

environment …………………………………………….25

Timetable template ………………………………………………27

Section four: learning resources

List of essential and optional books …………………………………………...29

Useful e-learning resources …………………………………………...32

Section five: faculty and advisors

Unit committee …………………………………………...35

PBL facilitators …………………………………………...35

Subject matter resource faculty …………………………………………..36

Section six: student assessment

Student PBL tutorial assessment form
Student portfolio assessment form
Learning Basic Medical Sciences in the
Clinical Environment Reflection Form

Section seven: GI Unit evaluation forms

Student unit evaluation
Student evaluation of the manual
Section eight: Appendix
Vision, mission and values
Medical graduate profile and curriculum …………………………………………..51
outcome competencies

The purpose of this study guide is to introduce the student to the gastrointestinal (GI)
unit structure, organization, contents, and expected learning outcomes, strategies of
learning and recommended resources. It emphasizes how the unit objectives are related
to the outcome competencies of the curriculum.

In this unit you will learn about basic, clinical and behavioral sciences through six
problems and fourteen mini problems. The problems are based on common patient’s
presentation with gastrointestinal symptoms including heart burn, abdominal pain,
diarrhea alternating with constipation, obesity, jaundice, and acute epigastric pain with

The unit study guide is composed of seven sections that will lead you through the
course. You will find an introduction to the problems and mini problems of each week of
the unit. There is a short description of the general teaching strategies of the unit. You
will also find hints to the core knowledge of the gastrointestinal system related to
anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, behavioral
sciences, genetics and clinical sciences. The guide provides an overview of the
parallel/coordinated programs (themes) like Research, Learning Basic Medical Sciences
in a Clinical Environment, Clinical Skills and the Community Health programs. Those
programs are intended to provide the essential training needed to acquire clinical and
professional skills as well as research skills. One of the sections is about recommended
resources including hypertext links to e-learning resources. The unit guide ends with a
section on program evaluation forms that are used during the unit.

What is new this year?

Every year the unit is reviewed and updated based on the student, tutor, and faculty
feedback. This year the unit committee agreed the followings:
- The immunology contents will be reviewed and delivered by Prof Azzam
- Continue the extra week that has been added to the first case in order to fulfil the
objectives, so that the oesophagus will be covered in the first week followed by
the stomach in the second week.
- The problems and mini-problems were reviewed with some rearrangement and
- Hands on training of students on abdominal ultrasound will show better
- Surface anatomy and radiological anatomy are strongly linked and emphasized in
practical anatomy sessions and clinical skills program.
- Hospital visit tasks have been refined and become more focused to achieve the
objectives of learning basic medical sciences in a clinical environment.
- The behavioural sciences objectives had been revised and modified according to
the weeks objectives.
- Additional Resource session on Medical Nutrition Therapy for Upper
Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders (Dysphagia, GERD, Ulcers) were incorporated.

We look forward to your continuous feedback. Do not wait to the end of the unit; share
with us any suggestions for improvement. We listen, evaluate and act.
Please email your comments to:
Unit Chairman: Dr. Anu Vinod Ranade, aranade@sharjah.ac.ae,
Unit co-coordinators Dr. Mohamed Eladl meladl@sharjah.ac.ae, Dr. Ibrahim
Year coordinator: Dr. Maha Mohamed Saber msaber@sharjah.ac.ae

Section One
Curriculum at a Glance

 Thematic organization of the curriculum and related

competency domains.
 Curriculum map.
This section describes the program structure and rationale aided by curriculum map and
a table demonstrating the six outcome competency domains and the four thematic
presentations throughout the five years including (1) personal and professional
development (2) population health (3) Foundation of medicine and (4) Clinical skills.

It describes how the foundation of medicine (knowledge) theme is integrated

horizontally with the parallel programs covering population health and clinical skills.

The curriculum is designed in such a way that learning during pre-clerkship phase is
built on and revisited during the clerkship phase, making the spiral curriculum.

Thematic Organization of the Curriculum and Related Competency Domains
(The Curriculum at a Glance)

Personal & Professional Development Population Health Foundations of Medicine Clinical Skills

- Ethics & Professionalism  Evidence-Based Practice and Lifelong  Knowledge  Patient & Population Care
Competency Learning  Interpersonal and Communication
domains  Health care Systems and Cost Effective Skills
- Modify his/her learning style from teacher  Recognize the spectrum of health and Medical Education Health and wellness
dependent to self-directed learner. wellness concepts, and the role of
 Understand the expected outcomes of
health professionals in maintaining and  Problem-based learning
studying medicine and core
- Change their learning style from promoting it.
competencies, the graduate of the  Small group learning
superficial rote learning to deep learning  Identify the reasons for measuring  Concept – mapping
medical and dental program should
and critical thinking. health and commonly used measures acquire the “Road Map”.  Experiential, reflective learning
- Work efficiently in small groups and

of ill health, disease, and premature and developing an educational

 Outcome based Education
Learning objectives

recognize its educational value. death; portfolio

 Adult learning principles
- Pursue his / her education in the next  Apply concepts of health and wellness  Constructive feedback.
phase of their study equipped with  Problem-based learning
to different stages of life;  Literature search, organization
important “study skills” e.g. Concept Map, information management and
Reflective Portfolio etc Health and wellness
- Self-awareness and insight  Understand concept of health and
 Recognize different models of health
 Identify factors influencing health
 Explain the health-wellness continuum
and its application to deferent stages of
 Discuss health and wellness dimensions
 Identify health measurements.
- Introduction to Medical Ethics & - PBL-oriented Research - Life Cycle - Communication Skills
Ethical Theory – Hippocratic Oath - IT/ IM (DXR) - Genes & Molecules - Physician-patient relationship
- Public Duties, Values & Ethical - Demography - Man & His Environment - Medical Interview

Behavior of the Physician; Autonomy, - Health Indicators - First Aid

Beneficence, Non-malificence & double - Measuring Disease Morbidity
effect - Measuring Disease Mortality
- Ethical Issues Related to Life - PBL-oriented Research - Musculoskeletal - History Taking

Neuroscience –I

- Ethical Issues Related to Death & - Screening for Diseases - - Physical examination of
Dying - Outbreak Investigation - DSM-IV Musculoskeletal system
- Bioethical Issues in Medical Research - PBL-oriented Research - Cardiovascular system - History taking & examination of
- Ethical Dilemma - Health Promotion - Respiratory system Cardiovascular system
- Research Methodology - Endocrine system - History taking & examination of

Respiratory system

- History taking & examination of

Endocrine (Thyroid) system
- Patient Confidentiality & Medical - PBL-oriented Research - Gastroenterology & Nutrition / - History taking & examination of

Records - Health Promotion Metabolism GIT system

- Patient Informed Consent & Refusal of - Applied Research (Field work) - Renal & Reproductive systems - History taking & examination of
Treatment - Biostatistics 7 reproductive system
Themes Personal & Professional Development Population Health Foundations of Medicine Clinical Skills

- Ethics & Professionalism  Evidence-Based Practice and Lifelong  Knowledge  Patient & Population Care
Competency Learning  Interpersonal and Communication
domains  Health care Systems and Cost Skills
Effective Practice
- Professional Liability & Medical - PBL-oriented Research - Neuroscience II and Integumentary - History taking & examination of
Malpractice - Preventive Medicine multi-System I neurological system
- Sources & Classification of Laws - Applied Research - Hospital-based Medicine and Surgical - Breast examination
- Community Health Activities - Diabetic review
- Organic Disorders - Radiological Imaging
- Workplace Law & Ethics - PBL-oriented Research - Integrated Medicine & Surgery - Clinical & procedural Skills in
- Importance of the Legal System for the - Community Health Program (CHP) Medicine & Surgery e.g. Lumbar
Physician - Family Health Program Puncture, Suturing in patient safety

- Occupational Health perspective, Urinary Catheterization

- Environmental Health - Hypothesis-driven physical

- Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) examination

- Patient Safety
- Field Placements in CHP
- Communicable Disease Center
- Old People’s Home
- Maternal and Child Health
- Sharjah Municipality
- Ethics of clinical practice reports (case- - EBM Application - Clerkship rotations in Surgery - Clerkship rotations in Surgery
based ethics) - Proactive use of technology (IT/ IM) - Clerkship rotations in Medicine - Clerkship rotations in Medicine

- Health Promotion - Clerkship rotations in Pediatrics - Clerkship rotations in Pediatrics


- Clerkship rotations in Obs & Gyn - Clerkship rotations in Obs & Gyn
- Ethics of clinical practice reports (case- - EBM Applications - Clerkship rotations in Surgery - Clerkship rotations in Surgery
based ethics) - Health promotion - Clerkship rotations in Medicine - Clerkship rotations in Medicine

- Clerkship rotations in Pediatrics - Clerkship rotations in Pediatrics

- Clerkship rotations in Obs & Gyn - Clerkship rotations in Obs & Gyn

- Ethics of clinical practice reports (case- - EBM Application - Surgery II (10 weeks)
based ethics) - Medical informatics in practice (IT/ - Medicine II (10 weeks)
IM) - Urology(2 weeks)

- Cardi (2 weeks)
- Ortho (2 weeks)
- Neuro (2 weeks)

- Ethics of clinical practice reports (case- - EBM Application - Anaes (2 weeks)

based ethics) - Derma (2 weeks)
- A & E (2 weeks)

- Radio (2 weeks)
- ENT (2 weeks)
- Opth (2 weeks)
- Family Medicine & Psychiatry (10 weeks)


Section Two
Gastrointestinal Tract Unit

 Objectives.
 Summary of unit problems.
 Summary of unit mini problems.
 Clinical skills competencies for the GI unit.

Objectives of the GIT Unit
The objectives of the GI unit listed below have been derived from the core curriculum
content and mapped to the “medical knowledge” outcome competency domain,
competencies and objectives (see appendix). They are based on GI presentations
which were selected to reflect prevalent and important clinical problems/presentation in
the community and main pathologies/ diagnosis for each presentation. The diagnoses
are then translated to specific learning objectives for each discipline that students are
expected to accomplish at the end of the unit and the expected level of performance.

In addition to the core medical knowledge students are expected to achieve specific
objectives related to parallel programs including clinical skills and population health
programs. The clinical skills program is integrated horizontally and vertically such that
during the GI unit, students learn communication, clinical reasoning, history taking and
physical examination of patients with GI problem as well as procedures such as per
rectal examination and observe endoscopy/ laparoscopy procedure. The population
health objectives during GI unit include epidemiology and risk factors for GI problems
and prevention/ screening.

GIT Unit objectives are:

• Recognize the normal structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract and its
associated glands, particularly the liver and exocrine pancreas.

• Define the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms that are important in
digestion, absorption, metabolism and excretion.

• Identify the various causes (genetic, developmental, metabolic, toxic,

microbiologic, autoimmune, neoplastic, degenerative, and traumatic) of
gastrointestinal diseases and the ways in which they operate (pathogenesis).

• Describe the altered structure and function (pathology and pathophysiology) of

the gastrointestinal system diseases and conditions. Those include pathologies
of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, extra-hepatic
biliary passage and pancreas.

• Outline the most frequent clinical, laboratory, radiological, and pathologic

manifestations of common diseases related to the gastrointestinal system.

• Appraise the power of the scientific method in establishing the causation of

disease and efficacy of traditional and non-traditional therapies.

• Recognize the principles of gastrointestinal and nutritional disease prevention

and behaviour change appropriate for specific populations

• Identify the important non-biological determinants of (poor) health and of the
economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the
development and/or continuation of some gastrointestinal maladies.

• Clarify the epidemiology of common gastrointestinal diseases and the systematic

approaches useful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of those diseases.

Summary of the Unit Problems

Week / Case Summary Problem

presentation Coordinator
Case 1: A 55-year-old male developed burning feeling in the Dr. Maha Guimei
21st Jan – 1st chest and weight loss of few months duration. The
Feb 2018 pain is exacerbated by spicy food, eating a large meal
and when he goes to bed.
Case 2: A 40-year-old male has a long standing history of Prof. Sanjay
4th – 8th abdominal discomfort, diarrhea and bulky stools. He
February 2018 was recently discovered to be anemic.
Bulky loose
stools (1)
Celiac disease
Case 3: A 58-year-old male presented with progressive Dr. Nabil Sulaiman
11th Feb – 15th tiredness and fatigue for 8 months. He has history of
Feb 2018 recent changes in his bowel motions and loss of
Alteration of
bowel motion
Case 4: A 46-year-old woman is being putting-on a lot of Dr. Samrein Ahmed
18th – 22nd Feb weight and becoming very conscious of her changes in
2018 body shape. She tried different diets but was
unsuccessful in reducing her weight.
Obesity (1)
Case 5: A 27-year-old dentist presented with yellowish Dr. Nihar Dash
25th Feb – 1st discoloration of the eyes of few days duration. He has
March 2018 fever, arthralgia, nausea and passage of dark colored
Jaundice (1)
Case 6: A 48-year-old man presented with acute epigastric Prof. Sanjay
04th – 8th March pain associated with nausea and vomiting of one day
2018 duration. He has a history of heavy alcohol use.
Upper abdominal
pain (2)

Summary of the Unit Mini PBLs

Week Case presentation Summary Problem Writer/

1 Epigastric pain A 35-year-old man has had epigastric pain for Dr. Maha Guimei
over 1 year. The pain tends to occur 2 to 3
hours after a meal and is relieved by
Nausea and dark A 55-year old woman presented with malaise,
stools nausea, loss of weight and dark stools for two
months duration.
2 Bloody mucoid A 38-year-old man presented at the health Dr. Nihar Dash
diarrhea (2) center with a 4-week history of passage of
bloody mucoid stool 4-6 times per day.
3 Colicky abdominal A 60-year-old man with a previous history of Dr. Nabil Sulaiman
pain (4) appendectomy 30 years ago presents with
colicky abdominal pain. The pain builds up
and then improves on its own.
Abdominal A 7-day-old boy presented with abdominal Dr. Sanjay
distension in a new distension. He did not pass meconium for the
born first 48 hours. Radiological studies showed
dilated bowel loops with air fluid levels.
4 Childhood obesity A 7-year-old girl is progressively putting on Dr. Ahmed El-Serafy
weight. She has problems at school about her
body shape. The physician recommends
doing genetic testing.
5 Jaundice in a new An otherwise healthy 26-hour-old female Dr. Sanjay and Dr.
born infant born at 37 weeks of gestation is noted Samarine
to have yellowed skin.
Jaundice (1) A 33-year-old female presented with malaise, Dr. Nihar Dash
nausea, and jaundice. Laboratory data
confirmed hepatitis A infection.
Abdominal A 39-year-old man who had a past history of Dr. Nihar Dash
distension (1) blood transfusions presented with easy
fatigability and ascites. He was found positive
for hepatitis C.
6 Upper abdominal A 49-year-old female presented with acute Dr. Anu
pain (3) colicky abdominal pain. The pain was initially
felt in her epigastric region then shifted under
her right ribs and around to her back.
Jaundice (3) A 50-year-old woman presents with Dr. Taher Soliman
generalized itching, jaundice and weight loss
for several months. She recently noticed the
passage of tea-colored urine.

Clinical Skills Themes

Sem 4 Presentation Clinical skills

1. Heart Burn GIT Examination 1
2. GIT Examination 2
3. Change in bowel habit GIT Imaging (X-ray/US)
4. Unhealthy eating habits PR exam + Formative CIVA
5. Yellow eyes GIT History taking
6. Acute abdomen Interpretation of GIT-related
investigations + Clinical
Reasoning with DxR
7. Acute swelling of hands FORMATIVE OSCE
and feet

Section Three
Learning Strategies

 Small Group PBL Tutorials.

 Resource sessions.
 Review Sessions – Concept of Team Based Learning (TBL).
 Basic Sciences Laboratories and Anatomy Demonstration.
 Professional Clinical Skills Sessions.
 Self-Directed Learning.
 PBL Oriented Research.
 DxR (Diagnostic Reasoning) Clinician.
 Learning Basic Medical Science in a Clinical Environment,

There are many opportunities for your learning:
1. Small Group PBL Tutorials:
Every week, students study a problem in a small group (9-10 students) in the
presence of a tutor. Students meet with the tutor on Sunday (first session) and
Thursday (second session) every week.
In the first PBL tutorial session, students:
a) Read and interpret the case scenario and define technical terms.
b) Identify the key issues of the problem.
c) Brainstorm, ask questions and generate hypotheses (possible causes and
d) Indicate additional information, procedures, required to sort through the
hypotheses and what you except to learn from the additional information.
e) Identify their learning needs i.e. objectives.
In between the first and second sessions, students follow a self-directed learning
approach, using the relevant learning resources in studying the identified learning

In the second PBL

tutorial session,
-Present the newly
gathered knowledge.
- Relate it to the
context of the problem.
- Integrate the
physical, biological
and behavioral
components in every
- Evaluate their tutorial

At the end of the second session, students will receive "Mini problems" related
to the problem of the week along with some relevant formative quiz. Students have to
prepare the answers for these questions to be discussed in the following Review
You are required to write your own concept map of the problem of the week and
submit one copy to your facilitator/tutor and keep another copy in your portfolio after
been signed by your tutor

"Remember that you are an important key element of PBL"

Tips for PBL:
1. Read and analyze the problem scenario. Check your understanding of the scenario
by discussing it within your group. A group effort will probably be more effective in
deciding what the key factors are in this situation. Because this is a real problem solving
situation, your group will need to actively search for the information necessary to solve
the problem.

2. List what is known. Start a list in which you write down everything you know about
this situation. Begin with the information contained in the scenario. Add knowledge that
group members bring. (You may want a column of things people think they know, but
are not sure!)

3. Develop a problem statement. A problem statement should come from your

analysis of what you know. In one or two sentences you should be able to describe
what it is that your group is trying to solve, produce, respond to, or find out. The problem
statement may have to be revised as new information is discovered and brought to bear
on the situation.

4. List what is needed. Prepare a list of questions you think need to be answered to
solve the problem. Record them under a second list titled: "What do we need to know?"
Several types of questions may be appropriate. Some may address concepts or
principles that need to be learned in order to address the situation. Other questions may
be in the form of requests for more information. These questions will guide searches
that may take place on-line, in the library, or in other out-of-class searches.

5. List possible actions. List recommendations, solutions, or hypotheses under the

heading: "What should we do?" List actions to be taken, e.g., question an expert, get
on-line data, visit library.

6. Analyze information. Analyze information you have gathered. You may need to
revise the problem statement. You may identify more problem statements. At this point,
your group will likely formulate and test hypotheses to explain the problem. Some
problems may not require hypotheses; instead a recommended solution or opinion
(based on your research data) may be appropriate.

7. Present findings. Prepare a report in which you make recommendations,

predictions, inferences, or other appropriate resolution of the problem based on your
data and background. Be prepared to support your recommendation.

Note: The steps in this model may have to be visited several times. Steps two through
five may be conducted concurrently as new information becomes available. As more
information is gathered, the problem statement may be refined or altered

Concept Mapping
A particularly good way to organize information about a problem or subject is to
construct a "concept map." Construction of concept maps helps us pull together

information we already know about a subject and understand new information as we
learn. They are useful in organizing, learning, and demonstrating what we know
about a particular topic.
2. Resource sessions:
These are scheduled sessions where resource persons (faculty specialists) give
interactive sessions about topics in different disciplines related to the problem of the
 To benefit the most from resource sessions, come prepared with questions
related the topics explained in the resource sessions.

3. Review Sessions - Concept of Team Based Learning (TBL):

At the end of each week, students, subject matter experts and PBL coordinators come
together for the weekly "Review Session". In this plenary session, content experts from
both the basic and
clinical sciences, who
have familiarized
themselves with the
weekly objectives and
the PBL case, provide
an opportunity for
students to discuss
and resolve any
uncertainty that has
arisen during their
studies of the PBL case, the resource sessions, and the clinical demonstration.
Essentially, the system proceeds after the following manner:
I. At the end of the second PBL session (i.e. on completion of the main problem of
the week), students are given a set of miniproblems and questions to prepare on
their own.
II. Students are often required to submit written answers to assure individual
III. At the review session, held in a large lecture room prior to session I of the next
weeks PBL, students sit in small groups to discuss their pre-assigned
IV. A member of each group then presents answers to their question(s), followed by
discussion in the class.
V. The relevant subject matter expert then summarizes the material or clarify any
outstanding issues when necessary.
The TBL format is also implemented in Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT)
and Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT). The system proceeds after the following

I. A test sheet containing 10-12 MCQs related to the week problem is distributed to
students at the beginning of the review session.
II. IRAT: Individual students should answer the questions within the pre-determined
time and return back their answers individually to be evaluated.
III. GRAT: Groups of students discuss the questions and come to a unified group
answer. This takes place only after each student submits his individual answer
IV. Subject matter experts discuss the answers with the groups. A representative of
the group should be able to defend the group answer.
V. Groups submit group answer sheet to be evaluated.
This format has been found to foster more interactivity and appears to enhance the
learning process.

4. Basic sciences Laboratories & anatomy demonstration:

These labs are scheduled to provide you with necessary laboratory skills related to
each problem. They are usually between 1-2 hours. These labs include Biochemistry,
Physiology, Microbiology and Pathology. Anatomy demonstrations are structured
sessions to help you in understanding the anatomical principles of the clinical problem
related to the week.
 Attendance in the labs is a must for all students
5. Professional Clinical Skills Sessions:
This program is horizontally and vertically integrated within the curriculum. The main
objective of clinical skills for each unit reflects the core clinical skills for that unit. For the
GIT unit, students should be able to communicate effectively with patients presented
with GI problem, acquire/demonstrate clinical reasoning, examine the GIT system,
conduct core procedures such as Per-rectal examination and observe endoscopic and
laparoscopic procedures. Students learn these clinical skills in parallel/ coordinated with
clinical problem studied during the week whenever possible. All training are supervised
by expert clinical tutors. Many clinical techniques are taught on models and on
simulated patients in our four state-of-the-art labs.

6. Self-Directed Learning:
Self-learning is one of the main objectives of PBL. The library is rich with many
textbooks and periodicals you will need for your self-study. There are also computers
with Internet connections that will help you in searching any database. You can borrow
books. Photocopying is also available. Computer services and the Audiovisual
Department will help in preparing material for presentations at meetings and for
educational videotapes.

7. PBL-Oriented Research
The aim of research studies in Problem Based Learning (PBL) is to train and engage
the students in a culture of research/ evidence based health care theory and practice as
early as possible in their medical education.
Sunday‘s PBL Tutorial
• PBL group identifies the learning objectives of the PBL scenario.
• At the end of the tutorial, two students from each of the designated PBL groups to
present in that week volunteer/ are assigned to search for a research article
related to the problem of the week.
PBL groups are designated to present on specific weeks according to the following
alternate pattern :
Current New Assigned weeks
Group’s Name Group’s Name
Year 2
Group A Hippocrates ODD weeks (Week 1, Week 3, Week 5,
Week 7, Week 9 and Week 11)
Group B Galen EVEN weeks (Week 2, Week 4, Week 6,
Week 8, Week 10 and Week 12)
Group C Vesalius ODD weeks
Group D Harvey EVEN weeks
Group E Snow ODD weeks
Group F Jenner EVEN weeks
Group G Herophilus ODD weeks
Group H Schwan EVEN weeks
Group I Koch ODD weeks

Monday - Wednesday
• Assigned students send by email a copy of the chosen research article to their
PBL tutor, group members.
• Assigned students send by email a copy of the chosen research article and its
summary to the secretary Ms. Salam.
Thursday’s PBL Tutorial
• Groups present and discuss the learning objectives of the week.
• The assigned two students present the research article and a discussion is carried
out within the PBL group .
• Students read summaries of all RAs uploaded on blackboard by all PBL groups
• Each student selects one article that he finds Essential to read and writes a
paragraph justifying his selection (Why he considered that article as essential to
read) & includes that in his/her Portfolio.

Following Sunday’s PBL Session
• Students conduct with their tutor a discussion on the other research articles that
were uploaded on the blackboard by the other PBL groups.
• Students with their tutor fill out the voting sheet and categorize each article as Nice
or Essential to read.

DxR (Diagnostic Reasoning) Clinician©
The DxR Clinician© is a performance-based learning, highly interactive multimedia
platform that provides a simulated patient for the student to examine through history,
physical examination, lab investigations and treatment. This provides another important
opportunity for guided as well as self-directed learning during the week.
The College of Medicine has acquired the DxR software with more than 100 cases
covering all the systems. Students are required to use relevant cases to improve their
clinical reasoning skills and direct their personal exploration of information.
The following is a list of DxR cases relevant to the GI unit:
Week Patient’s name Presentation
Corelli Chest Pain #6 [Catalog No CHP_06] Barrett's
1 Jones EMR #2 [Catalog No EMR_02] bleeding peptic
Becker Fatigue #3 [Catalog No FTG_05] GERD
Holmes Abdominal Pain #3 [Catalog No ABP_03]
Jackson Abdominal Pain #6 [Catalog ABP_06] Acute
2 Appendicitis
Greene Abdominal Pain #4 [Catalog No ABP_04]
Diverticular disease
Gray Rectal Bleeding #2 [Catalog No RBE_02]
Morgan Rectal Bleeding #1 [Catalog No RBE_01]
3 Carcinoma in the colon
Jenkins Fatigue #7 [Catalog No FTG_07]
Clarke Abdominal Pain #2 [Catalog No ABP-02]
common bile duct obstruction
Winters Confusion #1 [Catalog No CNF_01] Hepatitis,
encephalopathy, upper GI bleed
5 None None

Learning Basic Medical Science in a Clinical Environment
(Task-Based Learning)

The College of Medicine, University of Sharjah provides the opportunity for students to
visit the University Hospital of Sharjah to allow them in the pre-clerkship phase of the
integrated, PBL, organ system curriculum to work around tasks which demonstrate in
action the clinical application of basic medical sciences. These tasks are mainly related
to clinical investigation, monitoring and / or management of patients in the hospitals.

Task Based Learning is an approach in which learning is built around the task. Learning
results from the process of understanding the concepts and mechanisms underlying
those tasks. The student learns about the different facets related to the task, basic
sciences, pathology, pharmacology, decision making, communication skills, ethics etc.
Task-based learning offers a practical approach to integration in the curriculum.

There will be weekly visits to the University Hospital of Sharjah. Students will be divided
into groups and subgroups. The following is a list of the hospital visit titles, faculty in
charge and the tasks you are expected to achieve during the six weeks of the unit:

Title The tasks Faculty in

1 Laboratory • Understand the principles of investigation for Dr. Nihar
Diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections Dash
Gastro- • Recognize the collection & processing of stool for
intestinal microbiological investigations and the criteria for
Tract specimen rejection
Infections • Identification of some common pathogens involved in
gastrointestinal infections.
• Identify cysts, eggs and ova for parasite infections.
2 Introduction • Demonstration on the PACS system, Dr. Abdul-
to GI • Changing the windows and level of a radiologic munhem
imaging images Obaideen
• Compare old and recent images
• Describe the findings in a plain x-ray of the abdomen
• How to review a CT scan of the abdomen
• How to review an MRI
• Understand the principles of most common imaging
• Know how to request the most appropriate
investigation in specific diseases.
• Analyze the plain abdomen x-ray independently
• Use the PACS system smoothly
3 Liver • Be able to prepare patient, blood sample and Dr.
function reagents used in measuring liver and pancreatic Samrein
tests and profile. Ahmed.

pancreatic • Be able to perform liver function and pancreatic Dr.
enzymes enzymes tests. Ahmed El-
• To follow at all time, lab regulations and safety Serafy
• To follow safe and accurate method, for blood
collection and handling.
• To use accurate and method to measure liver
function and pancreatic enzymes.
• Be able to interpret the results of liver function and
pancreatic enzyme tests.
4 Abdominal • Demonstrate the function of ultrasound machine. Dr. Abdul-
Ultra- • Give some orders to the patient to be well prepared munhem
sonography for ultrasound of the abdomen Obaideen
• Self-examination.
• Recognize different organs echogenicity.
• Practice how to change the gain and focus.
• Practice how to measure the size and volume of
abdominal organs.
• Practice how to print out an ultrasound image.
• Recognize the different abdominal organs
• Identify which patient can get benefit of ultrasound

Details of the intended knowledge, skills, and attitude outcomes of each visit are
detailed in the GIT logbook. The logbook will be distributed electronically to students on
a weekly basis prior to the hospital visit. The road map to the student’s reflection form is
illustrated in page 38.

Timetable Template


08:00 – 09:00 SELF Practical C. Skills
Resource session – Gr 01 &2 Gr 2 - 3 Resource session –
DIRECTED 1 08:30-10:30 8:30 – 10:30 4
LEARNING 09:30 – 10:30 L Hall 047 Room 199-E 09:30 – 10:30 CBR
L Hall 029 L Hall 029

09:00 – 10:00
Resource session – C. Skills Practical Resource session –
10:00 – 11:00 Review session 2 Gr 01&2 – Gr 01 &2 5
10:00 – 11:30 10:30 – 11:30 10:30- 12:30 10:30-12:30 10:30 – 11:30
L Hall 047 L Hall 029 Room 199- L Hall 047 L Hall 029
11:00 – 12:00 E

Resource session – 3
10:00 – 11:30 Resource session – 7
12:00 – 13:00 Compulsory Unit L Hall 029 Compulsory Unit 12:00 – 01:30
12:30 – 2:30 12:30 – 2:30 L Hall 029
PBL – session 1
13:00 – 14:00 1:00 – 3:00 PBL – session 2
SELF SELF DIRECTED Resource session – 1:00 – 3:00
14:00 – 15:00 DIRECTED LEARNING 6
SELF 10:30 – 11:30
15:00 – 16:00 DIRECTED L Hall 029
16:00 – 17:00

Section Four
Learning Resources

 Books.
 E-learning links.

Learning Resources
In our opinion, we found that the following list of books (highlighted in yellow) is good
reference, up-to-date, easy to understand, and reflect our PBL objectives. The list
includes other optional books which you may consider.

You can also refer to the e-learning list that follows. The list includes selected websites
to navigate, recommended YouTube channels to subscribe, other online social network
platforms to follow, iTunes U course to enroll, and a short list of mobile devices Apps
and podcasts. The list is hyperlinked to simplify access.

On the other hand, you are free to choose the learning resources which you feel
comfortable. You may also share those resources with your colleagues and with us.

Subject Title Author Edition Publisher Year

Clinically Oriented Anatomy Moore KL et
6th Ed. Williams & 2010
(essential) al.
Langman’s Medical Embryology 10th Ed
Sadler TW Williams & 2006
(essential) .
Young B,
Wheater’s functional histology Lowe JS,
5th Ed. Livingstone 2006
(essential) Stevens A &
Heath JW
Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy Agur AMR & Lippincott
(optional) 11th Ed. Williams & 2005
Dalley AF
Anatomy Atlas of Human Anatomy Saunders
(optional) Netter FH 5th Ed. 2010
McMinn’s Color Atlas of Human Abrahams et
5th Ed. Mosby 2003
Anatomy (optional) al.
Grant’s Dissector (optional) 13th Ed. Williams & 2005
Clinical Anatomy by Systems
Snell R 1st Ed. Williams & 2007
Moore KL
The Developing Human: Clinically
& Persaud 7th Ed. Saunders 2003
Oriented Embryology (optional)

Subject Title Author Edition Publisher Year
Illustrated Review of Biochemistry Champe PC
4th Ed. Lippincott 2008
(essential) & Harvey RA
Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pamela
Biochemistry Biochemistry (CR-ROM) Champe et 3rd Ed. Image Bank 2004
(optional) al.
Clinical Chemistry Principles,
Procedures, Correlations Michael 2004
5th Ed. Lippincott
Handbook(optional) Bishop

Textbook of Medical Physiology Elsevier

Guyton & Hill 11th Ed. 2006
(essential) Saunders
Physiology Anatomy and Physiology: The
3rd or
Unity of Form and Function† Saladin K McGraw Hill
4th Ed.

Medical Microbiology (essential) Murray et al. 6th Ed. Mosby 2009

Cedric Mims Mosby
Medical Microbiology (optional) 3rd Ed. 2004
et al. Elsevier
Talley NJ & Churchill
Clinical Examination (essential) 5th Ed. 2005
O'Connor S Livingstone
Communications Skills in Lloyd M & Churchill
2nd Ed. 2004
Medicine (essential) Bor R Livingstone
Clinical skills
Skills For Communicating With Silverman J
2nd Ed. Medical 2005
Patients (Paperback) (optional) et al.
Cox N &
Clinical Skills (optional) University 2005
Roper TA
Study Guide to Epidemiology and Hebel JR & Jones and
6th Ed. 2006
Biostatistics (essential) McCarter RJ Barlett
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mosby
and Nordness R 1st Ed. 2006
secrets (essential) Elsevier
Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Jekel JF et WB
2nd Ed. 2001
Preventive Medicine (essential) al. Saunders
Medical Genetics (essential) Jorde et al. Mosby 2006
Human Genetics: from molecules Wolters
Schaaf et al. 1st Ed. 2012
to Medicine (optional) Kluwer

Subject Title Author Edition Publisher Year
Muir’s Textbook of Pathology Levison et 14th
Hodder 2008
(essential) al. edition
Robbins basic pathology Kummar et 8th
Saunders 2008
(optional) al. edition
Radiology Imaging for medical 7th Churchill
David Sutton 2002
students (essential) edition Livingstone
Armstrong et 6th Wiley-
Diagnostic Imaging (optional) 2009
al. edition Blackwell

Useful e-learning resources
1. http://www.medicalstudent.com/ (A digital library of authoritative medical information for
all students of medicine).
2. http://www.e-anatomy.org/ (Free interactive atlas of human anatomy)
3. Zygote Body: 3-D anatomy models http://www.zygotebody.com/
4. Medical Gross Anatomy Learning Resources. The University of Michigan Medical
School. Contains self-assessment questions, videos, lecture notes, tables and clinical
5. Human Anatomy and Development. Yale University School of Medicine. Anatomy
Clinic. Contains self-assessment questions and clinical cases.
6. Blue histology. School of Anatomy and Human Biology - The University of Western
Australia. http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/
7. UNSW Embryology. An educational resource for learning concepts in embryological
development. Dr Mark Hill. http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryo.htm
8. University of Kansas Medical Centre. Radanatomy.
9. Medical mnemonics. http://www.medicalmnemonics.com/
10. Anatomy atlases. http://www.anatomyatlases.org/
11. The anatomy lesson. Contains self-assessment questions. http://www.wesnorman.com/
12. Radiology. http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/p420cd11061ecd/abdomen.html

Recommended YouTube Channels to subscribe:

1. Human Anatomy Education by Dr. Akram Jaffar: http://www.youtube.com/user/akramjfr

2. Anatomy Guy Dissection Videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/MrAnatomyGuy
3. Dr Gunied Channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/DrGunied
4. Dr Najeeb lectures: http://www.youtube.com/user/DoctorNajeeb

Recommended Twitter accounts to follow:

1. AkramJaffar: http://twitter.com/#!/AkramJaffar
2. Ultrasound education by SonoSite FUJIFILM:
3. MANanatomy: http://twitter.com/#!/MANanatomy
4. Pocketanatomy: http://twitter.com/#!/pocketanatomy
5. SympoAnatomy: http://twitter.com/#!/SympoAnatomy

Recommended Facebook pages to follow:
1. Human Anatomy Education by Dr Akram Jaffar:
2. Human Anatomy and Embryology by Dr Mohamed Eladl:
3. Online medical training for healthcare professionals:
4. The Anatomy Guy: www.AnatomyGuy.com

Recommended iTunes U store podcasts and videos to download or subscribe:

1. Clinical Anatomy. Stanford University: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/itunes-u/clinical-

2. Gross Anatomy Dissection. University of Michigan: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/itunes-
3. Aspects of Anatomy. University of Warwick: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/itunes-u/aspects-
4. Clinical Anatomy. University of Warwick: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/itunes-u/clinical-

Recommended iPhone, iPad, & iPod Apps to download

1. Moore’s Clinical Anatomy Q&A: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/app/moores-clinical-anatomy-

2. Instant Anatomy Lectures, Thorax and Abdomen:
3. iCat Xrays HD: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/app/icat-xrays-hd/id443909307?mt=8
4. Sliced Sapiens HD: http://itunes.apple.com/ae/app/sliced-sapiens-hd/id421929338?mt=8

Section Five
Faculty and Advisors

This section contains names, locations and contact information of the GI unit
management committee, PBL facilitators, Resource faculty, and University Hospital
Please email your comments to:
.randa@sharjah.ac.ae , ajaffar@sharjah.ac.ae , or meladl@sharjah.ac.ae

GI Unit Committee
Year 2 coordinator and unit committee member:
: Dr. Maha Mohamed Saber
GI system unit Chairman:
Dr. Anu V Ranade
GI system co- coordinators:
Dr. Mohamed Eladl
Dr. Ibrahim
Dr. Nabil Suliman
Dr. Samrein Ahmed
Dr. Nihar Dash
Dr. Maha Mosheer Guimei
Dr. Maha Saber
Dr. Abdulmunhem Obaideen
Prof. Salman
Dr. AL-Nogoomy
Dr. Saravanan
Prof. Azzam
Dr. Sanjay
Dr. Bashair
Dr. Bataineh
Ms. Amel
PBL Facilitators in the Unit
Group ‘A’ Room 154-A Dr Saravanan Coumaravelou
Group ‘B’ Room 154-B Dr Rabah Almahmoud
Group ‘C’ Room 155-A Dr Anu Ranade
Group ‘D’ Room 155-B Dr Eman Ayoubi

Group ‘E’ Room 150 Dr Firdaws Fernini
Group ‘F’ Room 158-B Dr Mohammed Al Bataineh
Group ‘G’ Room 199-G Dr Mohamed Eladl
Group ‘H’ Room 110 Dr Elnaz Ghasemi
Group ‘I’ Room 181 Dr Mahmood Yaseen
Group ‘J’ Room 158-A Dr Mada Daghistani
Standby: Dr Rifat Hamoudi, Dr Mohamed Rahmani, Dr Adel Elmoselhi

Subject Matter Resource Faculty of the Unit

Department Name of the faculty Contact

Anatomy Dr. Mohamed Eladl meladl@sharjah.ac.ae
Dr Anu V Ranade aranade@sharjah.ac.ae
Physiology D. Sanjay Kumar ssood@sharjah.ac.ae
Dr. Bashair
Pharmacology Dr Maha Saber msaber@sharjah.ac.ae
Biochemistry / Dr Samrein Ahmed samahmed@sharjah.ac.ae
Genetics Dr Ahmed El-Serafy aelserafy@sharjah.ac.ae
Microbiology Dr Nihar Dash dash@sharjah.ac.ae
Dr. Bataineh nmalbataineh@sharjah.ac.ae
Pathology Dr. Maha Mosheer mguimei@sharjah.ac.ae
Family Medicine, Dr Nabil Sulaiman nsulaiman@sharjah.ac.ae
Medicine &
Immunology Prof. Azzam amagazachi@sharjah.ac.ae
Clinicians (University Hospital of Sharjah and Other Hospitals)
Surgery Prof. Salman sguraya@sharjah.ac.ae

Radiology Dr. Abdulmunhem Obaideen abdulmunhem.obaideen@uhs.ae

Section Six
Student Assessment

 Overview.
 Student PBL tutorial assessment form.
 Student portfolio assessment form.
 Learning basic medical sciences in the clinical environment
reflection form.


You will be assessed by several methods including:

 Continuous assessment of PBL tutorials in which the group as a whole will be evaluated
for achieving the learning objectives. In addition you will be assessed on individual basis
on a scale of 1-10 depending on punctuality, participation in a constructive and scientific
manner, identifying learning objectives, and understanding of material, participation in
the discussion of the research article, level of knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The
latter assesses qualities such as respect, listening, taking turns, cooperation, and
teamwork. Your PBL facilitator will provide you with some feedback with particular
reference to strengths and areas of improvement.

 Portfolio assessment in which your portfolio is evaluated according to its content and
quality including concept maps, documentation of selected material related to identified
learning issues, documentation of mini problems related answers, logbook, reflections of
hospital visits, and availability of weekly self-reflection on learning. Assessment also
includes organization of the portfolio and its uniqueness. Students must have at least
80% of the concept maps for the assessment period to be graded for this category;
otherwise a score of (0) would be given automatically.

 End of unit summative assessment: The end of unit summative assessment will
take place by the middle of May 2018. The dates & timetables will be announced
later. The examination will cover:
- Unit 6: GIT & nutrition/ metabolism
- Unit 7: Renal and Reproductive system subunits
The exam will comprise of:
- Written paper: MCQ + EMQ for unit 6
- Written paper: MCQ + EMQ for unit 7

(To be filled by the tutor at the end of each unit and submitted with Assessment of Student
Portfolio form)
Name of Student: ____________________ ID No: ________
Group: ____________________ Semester: ________
Name of Tutor: ____________________ Date: ________

Please rate the student’s performance in the PBL Tutorials by using the following
criteria and marks:
S.No Description Score

1. Group Assessment:
A Achieving learning objectives as a group ________/ 15

2 Individual Assessment:
A Punctuality and full attendance ________/ 10

B Participating in a constructive and cooperative ________/ 15

C Identifying learning objectives ________/ 10

D Understanding of material/level of knowledge ________/ 20

E Helping others to learn by explaining or ________/ 15

summarizing relevant concept
F Participating in the discussions of research ________/5
G Attitude and behavior (respect, listening, taking ________/ 10
turns, cooperation, teamwork, etc.)

Overall marks ________/ 100

What are the strengths of the student?


Provide suggestions for improvement


Signature of faculty

(To be filled by the tutor at the end of each unit and submitted with PBL assessment form to Ms Joyce D’Souza.
This will make 20% to be added to 80% for PBL assessment)

Name of Student: ____________________ ID No: ________

Group: ____________________ Semester: ________
Name of Tutor: ____________________ Date: ________
Please rate the student’s portfolio using the following criteria and marks.
Criteria Definition Subscore obtained
*Concept Maps  Reflects understanding of relations between /30
 Format /10 /40
Required PBL  Self-directed learning and contribution to team /15
Assignments work (documentation of selected material
related to identified learning issues, can include
power point presentations)

 Student's readiness and extrapolations to other /15

problems (Mini-problems with related questions)

 Evidence (such as logbooks and/or reflection)

related to Hospital visits /5 /45

 Research summary related to at least one of the

PBL problems (Full text of original article also /5

 For every week, a summary of a research article

that the student rated as essential to read. /5

**Reflection on  Self-reflection**
learning  a) Goal setting /5 /5
 b) Learning
 c) Gaps in knowledge
Organization  Cover page
 Table of contents /5 /5
 Arranged in sections by academic week
Uniqueness  Learning resources and learning objects /5 /5
(material added beyond the required, including
websites which helps learning)
TOTAL 100 /100

* Students must have at least 80% of the concept maps for the assessment period to be graded for this category. If they have less
than 80%, a score of ‘0’ will be given automatically

** Students should have at least one entry per week

Reflection Form
Learning Basic Medical Sciences in the Clinical Environment

To be filled by the student, discussed with the PBL tutors and put in the Portfolio
with other weekly activities:

Student Name: ID:

Task title:




Student’s Reflection
1. What did I see?
2.What did I do?
3. What did I learn?
4. What are the gaps in my knowledge?
5.What is my plan to fill the gaps in my knowledge?
6. What did I like?
7. What are my suggestions for improvement?

Section Seven
GI Unit Evaluation Forms

 Student unit evaluation.

 Student evaluation of the manual.

Unit Evaluation
(To be filled in by each student at the end of each unit)
Name of Student: ____________________ ID No: ________
Year: 2016-2017 Unit: 6/GI PBL Group: ________
Thank you for taking the time to complete this evaluation form. Your feedback will help the
college to continuously improve the educational program. Please complete and return the form
to your group Tutor.
Totally agree  totally disagree
5 4 3 2 1
1. The objectives of the unit were clear

2. The unit booklet and study guide are well organized and helpful

3. The unit contents fitted in with unit objectives

4. The problems “PBL” stimulated useful group discussion

5. The problems “PBL” encouraged self-study

6. The review sessions stimulated active learning

7. The Skills lab training sessions were related to the unit contents

8. The Skills lab training sessions were useful

9. The resource sessions (lectures) were useful

10. The practical lab sessions were useful

11. The recommended resources / lectures / labs were useful.

12. The unit assignments were linked well to the unit contents

What did you like in this unit?

Provide suggestions for improvement

Students Evaluation of the Manual

S tuden t n ame Student I.D. No.

Dear students: we appreciate your input about this manual. This information is very
useful in maintaining a high quality of education in our College. We will use your input in
updating the Unit Manual for the next Academic Year. Please fill this form at the end of
the Unit and submit it to Prof Randa . (Year coordinator).

1. How would you rate the Unit Manual in helping students learning in the

 Not very helpful

 Helpful
 Very helpful

2. Which part(s) of the Unit Manual have you found most useful? (Check all
that apply)

 General weekly timetable

 Learning opportunities
 List & summary of the problems
 List of tutors in the unit
 Intermediate objectives
 Learning resources
 Principles of assessment
 Staff contacts

3. Which part(s) of the Unit Manual have you found least useful? (Check all that

 General weekly timetable

 Learning opportunities
 List & summary of the problems
 List of tutors in the unit
 Intermediate objectives
 Learning resources
 Principles of assessment
 Staff contacts

4. What modifications would you like to see addressed in this Unit Manual?

5. Please provide any additional comments you wish to make about the Unit

6. In your view was the Unit well received by the students? Explain

Section Eight

 Vision, Mission and Values.

 Medical Graduate Profile and Curriculum Outcome

Vision, Mission and Values
The University of Sharjah, College of Medicine will strive for national and international
prominence by differentiating itself through excellence, in the full spectrum of medical
education at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development

The mission of the College of Medicine is to provide the education of medical students
and medical professionals through the creation of a scholarly environment that fosters
excellence in the life long goals of education, research activity and compassionate
patient care.

1. Providing innovating educational opportunities for medical students, preparing
them to successfully pursue postgraduate training and continuous professional

2. Advancing scientific knowledge with important research discoveries.

3. Improving primary to quarternary health care for this growing region.

4. Emphasizing the college’s social responsibility in providing and promoting effective

health care for different sectors of the community.

The faculty and staff of the University of Sharjah, College of Medicine commit to the
cultural values as guides for our decisions and behaviours.

High Standards – in upholding the highest standards we will:

 Demonstrate ethical leadership by example
 Conduct ourselves with integrity, avoiding conflict of interest
 Hold our work to the highest academic standards

Respect for individuals – In valuing respect for individuals, we pledge to:

 Treat others with respect and dignity, honouring individual differences
 Promote open communication and list pro-actively

 Create a collegial environment based on loyalty to our co-workers

Advancing Knowledge – In expressing our passion for learning, we encourage:

 Exploration of new ideas in our teaching and research
 The courage to meet challenges and assume risk
 Diverse learning opportunities where creativity thrives
 Interdisciplinary teamwork

Personal Development and Leadership – Recognizing that exceptional quality begins

with people, we create:
 A culture of personal development and professional fulfillment
 A workplace where expectations are matched by our reward system
 An atmosphere where people value the balance between work and family
 A mentor-rich culture where faculty staff and students can enhance their
leadership skills

Commitment to Health – Supporting our fundamental belief in the doctor / patient

relationship, we are committed to:
 The highest quality medical care for our patients
 Training the next generation of physicians and healthcare professionals to be
capable and compassionate
 Promoting good health and well-being in response to the needs of our community
 Our community partners who help us achieve excellence in all that we do.

Curriculum Outcome – Competencies and Thematic Organization

I. Patient & Population Care IV. Interpersonal and Communication Skills

COMPETENCIES II. Knowledge V. Ethics & Professionalism
III. Evidence-Based Practice VI. Health Care Systems
and Lifelong Learning and Cost Effective Practice


I. Personal and Professional Development

II. Population, Society, health and illness

III. Foundations of Medicine

IV. Clinical Skills

Medical Graduate Profile and
Curriculum Outcome Competencies

The Medical Graduate Profile (MGP) describes the outcome competencies which the
graduate should have acquired by the end of the six-year medical program.

The undergraduate medical college curriculum outcome competencies are derived and
based on competencies identified by international and regional medical education
organizations*. They were adapted with sensitivity to the cultural context of medical
practice in the U.A.E.

The curriculum is developed, organized, and implemented as an outcome-based,

integrated, patient-centered and problem-based learning curriculum.

i.Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Competencies,
ii. Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Schools Objectives Project
iii. The Tomorrow’s Doctor Report, GMC, UK
iv. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Medical Colleges Deans’ Committee
Recommendations and Guidelines on Minimum Standards for Establishing and
Accrediting Medical Schools in the Arabian Gulf Countries (UAE, Saudi Arabia,
Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain).
v. Monash Faculty of Medicine curriculum
vi. Australian Curriculum Framework for Junior Doctors

Outcome Competencies of the MBBS Program and
Corresponding Curriculum Objectives
The competencies are structured around six domains.

A. Patient & Population Care

B. Knowledge
C. Evidence-Based Practice and Lifelong Learning
D. Interpersonal and Communication Skills
E. Ethics & Professionalism
F. Health Care Systems and Cost Effective Practice

A: Patient & Population Care:


C1. Communicate effectively with patients, families and groups.

C2. Gather essential and accurate information about their patients, for the purposes of
problem identification and characterisation.

C3. Make informed decisions about diagnostic and therapeutic interventions based on
patient information and preferences, up-to-date scientific evidence, and clinical

C4. Develop and carry out (patient) management plans, with the engagement of
patients as partners.

C5. Perform competently medical procedures considered essential for the

management of common health problems.

C6. Counsel and educate patients and their families.

C7. Use information technology to support patient care decisions and patient

C8. Provide and advocate for health care services aimed at preventing health
problems or maintaining health.

C9. Work with health care professionals, including those from other disciplines and
professions, to provide patient, family and community care.


O1. The ability to obtain an accurate holistic medical history that covers all essential
aspects of a patient and his/her problem, including issues related to age, gender
and socio-economic status.

O2. The ability to reason deductively in solving clinical problems.

O3. The ability to perform both a complete and a focused organ system specific
examination, including a mental status examination.

O4. The ability to perform routine technical procedures at a level suitable to medical

O5. The ability to construct appropriate management strategies (both diagnostic and
therapeutic) for patients with common conditions related to different age groups
and genders, both acute and chronic, including medical, psychiatric, and surgical
conditions, and those requiring short- and long-term rehabilitation.

O6. Formulate a treatment plan, demonstrating the ability to take action by balancing
the relative risks and benefits of outcomes and treatment options.

O7. The ability to recognise patients with immediately life threatening cardiac,
pulmonary, or neurological conditions regardless of etiology, and to institute
appropriate initial therapy applying Basic Life Support and Advanced Life Support

O8. The ability to recognise and outline an initial course of management for patients
with serious conditions requiring critical care.

O9. The ability to identify factors that place individuals at risk for disease or injury, to
select appropriate tests for detecting patients at risk for specific diseases or in the
early stage of disease, and to determine strategies for responding appropriately

O10.Interpret laboratory tests, demonstrating knowledge of the limitations of standard

laboratory measurements and integrate clinical and laboratory findings in the
diagnosis and management of a patient problem.

O11.Document and share patient-specific information, demonstrating the ability to

record in information systems specific findings about a patient and orders
directing the further care of the patient.

O12.The ability to define and describe a population, to include its demography, cultural
and socioeconomic constitution, circumstances of living, and health status, and to

understand the relevance of these factors to the health and health care of
individuals, families and administrators.

B: Knowledge:


C1. Acquire a core of basic and clinical supportive sciences which are appropriate to
the care of a patient and the community.

C2. Demonstrate a reasoning and analytic thinking approach to clinical situations and
applying medical knowledge in patient problem solving.


O1. Knowledge of the normal structure and function of the body (as an intact
organism) and of each of its major organ systems.

O2 Knowledge of the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms that are

important in maintaining the body’s homeostasis.

O3. Knowledge of the various causes (genetic, developmental, metabolic, toxic,

microbiologic, autoimmune, neoplastic, degenerative, and traumatic) of
illness/disease and the ways in which they operate on the body (pathogenesis).

O4. Knowledge of the altered structure and function (pathology and pathophysiology)
of the body and its major organ systems that are seen in various diseases and

O5. Knowledge of the most frequent clinical, laboratory, radiological, and pathologic
manifestations of common maladies.

O6. An understanding of the power of the scientific method in establishing the

causation of disease and efficacy of traditional and non-traditional therapies.

O7. An understanding of the principles of disease prevention and behaviour change

appropriate for specific populations

O8. Knowledge of the important non-biological determinants of (poor) health and of

the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the
development and/or continuation of maladies.

O9. Knowledge of the epidemiology of common diseases within a defined population,

and the systematic approaches useful in reducing the incidence and prevalence
of those diseases.

C: Evidence-Based Practice and Lifelong Learning


C1. Exhibit good “information habits”, making decisions based on evidence, when
such is available, rather than opinion.

C2. Locate, appraise, and assimilate evidence from scientific studies related to their
patients’ health problems.

C3 Apply knowledge of research designs and statistical methods to the appraisal of

clinical studies and other information on diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness.

C4. Demonstrate knowledge of the information resources and tools available to

support life-long learning.

C5. Understand information technology’s impact on basic clinical and biomedical



O1. Determine what data exist relative to a clinical question or formal hypothesis,
demonstrating knowledge of data sources (including medical records, and online
data) at one’s own institution by identifying how these might be used to address a
specific clinical question.

O2. Execute a plan for data collection and organize data for analysis, demonstrating the
ability to properly represent data from a study in a form that is useful and supports
computer-based analysis.

O3. Plan, analyse, interpret and report findings, demonstrating the ability to select the
appropriate computer software tool for analysis of data.

O4. Demonstrate knowledge of the information resources and tools available to support
life-long learning. Knowledge includes awareness of these resources, their
content, and the information needs that they can address. Relevant resources
include MEDLINE and other bibliographic databases, textbooks and reference
sources, diagnostic expert systems, and medical internet resources.

O5. Retrieve information, demonstrating the ability to refine search strategies to

improve relevance and completeness of retrieved items.

O6. Filter, evaluate, and reconcile information, demonstrating the ability to discriminate
between types of information sources in terms of their currency, format (for
example a review vs and original article), authority, relevance and availability.

D: Interpersonal and Communication Skills:


C1. Create and sustain effective, ethically sound, caring and respectful relationships
with patients and families.

C2. Work effectively with others as a member or leader of a health care team, or other
professional group.


O1. Use effective communication skills to elicit and provide information using values
and attitudes and effective verbal, nonverbal (explanatory, questioning) writing

O2. Use effective writing skills to transmit information, express concerns, help etc.

O3. Listen to and respect the view of patients and their supporters

O4. Listen to and respect the view of other members of the team involved in the
patient’s care

O5. Recognise and respect the varying needs of patients for information and

O6. Encourage patients to discuss the proposed treatment with their supporter

O7. Fully inform the patient and their supporter of progress during treatment

O8. Explain any complications of treatment as they occur and explain the possible

O9. Act immediately when patients have suffered harm and apologize when appropriate

O10. Work effectively as an individual, in inter-professional groups, and as a member of

a complex health care system, demonstrating knowledge of online resources for
legislation, political advocacy and local health care policy setting.

E: Ethics & Professionalism:


C1. Demonstrate respect, compassion, and integrity; a responsiveness to the needs

of patients and society that supercedes self-interest; accountability to patients,
society, and the profession; and a commitment to excellence and on-going
professional development.

C2. Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles pertaining to provision or

withholding of clinical care, confidentiality of patient information, informed
consent, and business practices.

C3. Demonstrate sensitivity and responsiveness to patients’ culture, age, gender, and


O1. Knowledge of the theories and principles that govern ethical decision making, and
of the major ethical dilemmas in medicine, particularly those that arise at the
beginning and end of life and those that arise from the rapid expansion of
knowledge of genetics.

O2. Compassionate treatment of patients, and respect for their privacy and dignity.

O3. Honesty and integrity in all interactions with patients’ families, colleagues, and
others with whom physicians must interact in their professional lives.

O4. An understanding of, and respect for, the roles of other health care professionals,
and of the need to collaborate with others in caring for individual patients and in
promoting the health of defined populations.

O5. A commitment to advocate at all times the interest of one’s patients over one’s
own interests.

O6. An understanding of the threats to medical professionalism posed by the conflicts

of interest inherent in various financial and organizational arrangements for the
practice of medicine.

O7. The capacity to recognise and accept limitations in one’s knowledge and clinical
skills, and a commitment to continuously improve one’s knowledge and ability.

O8. Respect patient (and physician) confidentiality, demonstrating knowledge of the
legal, ethical, and medical issues surrounding patient documentation, including
confidentiality and data security.

F: Health Care Systems and Cost-Effective Practice:

C1. Advocate for quality patient care and assist patients in dealing with healthcare
system complexities.

C2. Practice cost-effective health care and resource allocation that does not
compromise quality of care.

C3. Understand how their patient care and other professional practices affect the
health care organization and the larger society and how these elements of the
system affect their own practice.


O1. Formulate and make decisions for individuals and groups, demonstrating
knowledge of cost/benefit issues in health care.

O2. Knowledge about how local health care systems deliver patient care to different
kinds of patients.