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WORKSHOP PRACTICESERIES FROMSPECIALINTEREST Moon BooKs


1. Hardening, Tempering & 13. Workshop Drawing 25. The Backyard Foundry
Heat Treatment
Tubal Coin
2. Vertical Milling in the
Home Workshop
Arnold Throp
Tubal Coin
14. Making Small Workshop Tools
Stan Broy
15. Workholding in the Lathe
Tubol Coin
B. Terry Asp in
26. Home Workshop Hints & Tips
Edited by Vic Smeed
27. Spindles
Horprif Sandhu
•-II
(::')
TOOL AND CUTTER
SHARPENING
0
3. ScrewcuHing in the Lathe 16. Electric Motors 28. Simple Workshop Devices r-
Morfin Cleeve Jim Cox Tubal Coin l>
4. Foundrywork for the Amateur 17. Gears & Gear Cutting 29. CAD for Model Engineers :£
B. Terry Aspin Ivan low D.A.G.Brown
c
r."\
5. Milling Operations in the Lathe 18. Basic Benchwork 30. Workshop Materials I C::
Tubal Coin Alex Weiss
6. Measuring & Marking Metals
Ivan Low
Les Oldridge
19. Spring Design & Manufacture
Tubal Coin
31. Useful Workshop Tools
Stan Bray
==
'"
::a
7. The Art of Welding
W.A.Vouse
20. Metalwork & Machining
Hints & Tips
32. Unimat Ill Lathe Accessories
Bob looder
'""
:J:
l>
Harold Hall
8. Sheet Metal Work lon Bradley 33. Making Clocks ..,
::a
,..,
2l.Adhesives & Sealants
----
R.E.Wokeford Stan Bray
2
9. Soldering & Brazing
Tubal Coin
Dovid Lammas
22. Workshop Electrics
34. Lothework -
A Complete Course
.,.
(:i)
10. Sows & Sawing Alex Weiss Harold Hall
ian Bradley 23. Workshop Construction 35. Milling - A Complete Course
11. Electroplating Jim Forrest & Peter Jennings Harold Hall
J.Poyner 24. Electric Motors in the 36. Photo Etching
12. Drills, Taps & Dies Home Workshop Brion King ond Azien Watkin
Tubal Coin Jim Cox 37. Dividing
Harold Hall

38. Tool and Cutter Sharpening


Sharpening workshop tools is probably the most diverse of all workshop activities
and the one that is least understood by the majority of workshop owners. This is
not unreasonable in view of the wide range of equipment suggested for the task,
ranging from the complex, typically an industrial tool and cutter grinder, through
to the humble off hand grinder.
This book illustrates how most sharpening tasks can be carried out using an
off hand grinder and a few simply made accessories, whilst doing this to a
standard comparable to that achieved using much more sophisticated equipment.
::I:
A lack of understanding of the processes almost certainly results in the workshop )>

owner attempting tasks with far from perfect cutting tools that can diminish the ~
r-
satisfaction of a job well done. With the information in this book this situation 0
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can be avoided and working with blunt tooling should be a thing of the past. )>
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tSBN- 13: 978-185486- 241 - 9
621
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TOOL AND CUTTER


SHARPENING
Harold Hall

Special Interest Model Books

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Special Interest Model Books Ltd.


P.O.Box 327 CONTENTS
Poole
Dorset
BH15 2RG
England
Chapter 1 Sharpening - An Introduction 6

First published by Special Interest Model Books Ltd. 2006 Chapter 2 Drill Sharpening 14

Chapter 3 Grinding Rests 28


The right of Harold Hall to be identified as the Author of this work has been
asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Rights
Act of 1988. Chapter 4 Sharpening Lathe Tools 38

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by print, Chapter 5 Sharpening End Mills 52
photography, microfilm or any other means without written permission from the
publisher. Chapter 6
london Borough Other Milling Cutters 63
of Enfield
©Harold Hall 2006 Public Libraries Chapter 7 Small Workshop Tools 71

Chapter 8 Woodworking Tools 78


ISBN-13: 979-185486-241-9
Chapter 9 Making· a Grinding Rest 89
ISBN 1-85486-241 -3

Chapter 10 Making the· End.Mill Sharpening Accessory 100

www.specialinterestmodelbooks. co. uk Chapter 11 Making Simple Accessories for the Grinding Rest 111

Chapter 12 Making Drill Sharpening Accessories 116

Chapter 13 A Tool and Cutter Grinding Head 125

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Preface
Sharpening workshop tooling almost being made quickly and cheaply in the
certainly has for most workshop owners workshop itself. This book seeks to make
more mystic than any other workshop this possible and as a result ensures that
activity. This though need not be so and the cutters in the reader's workshop are
this book seeks to give a much clearer kept in good condition. Having sharp cutters
understanding of the subject. It is though available will without doubt ensure that
true that unlike the centre lathe, where that workshop activities are carried out with the
in the home workshop will very closely maximum amount of satisfaction.
emulate that in the professional workshop, Having largely completed this book I
facilities for sharpening will a lmost always came across a book on precision grinding.
be very different compared to th at in This starts the tool and cutter grinder
industry. chapters with the following comments.
Small tool and cutter grinders are "The subject of Cutter and Tool
available which go some way to limit the Grinding is most complex, due not only to
differences but if ready made will be rather the great variety of cutters and tools, but
expensive when considering their limited also to the various methods by which they
use. Designs for manufacture in the home can be ground. The ultimate success of
workshop, and available in kit form, will limit producing accurate and correctly ground
the expenditure but will, in most cases, be cutters depends mainly on the skill and
a major manufacturing task and take up initiative of the operator, although there are
more workshop time than other projects certain basic principles which must be
permit. On the other hand, making one as adhered to".
a satisfying project in its own right will often Whilst this book will undoubtedly add
justify the time taken. to the methods used I feel sure that the
Fortunately though , most tasks, simplicity of many of them will remove the
certainly the more common ones, are complexity that for good reason prevails in
possible to a reasonable standard using an the commercial workshop.
off hand grinder, assisted by various simple
attachments. Most of these capable of Harold Hall January 2006

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2 A simple grinding
Chapter 1 rest that will
increase the work
possible when
using an off hand
grinder. Details of
the design for this
Sharpening - an Introduction are given in
Chapter 9.

Ask most workshop owners, especially grinder, despite its severe limitations, is an
those relatively new to the situation, what essential piece of equipment for basic
piece of equipment is used for sharpening grinding. It is though, totally inadequate for
workshop tools and I anticipate most will the cutter sharpening often attempted free
refer to the "off hand grinder". Whilst many hand using it. The major problem is the very
will get by, to a greater, or more likely, a limited rest provided with these, Photo 1.
lesser extent, results will be limited both in Many workshop owners , and even
range and in quality. However, the off hand some in industry, will attempt to make do
with such a grinder using it solely for off
hand use. Typical items sharpened in this
way are screwdrivers, lathe tools and drills.
This is so inadequate that I am not going
to attempt any detailed explanation as to
this method. Having though said that the In industry, a lathe tool with a greater angle milling cutters. Where you are dealing with
off hand grinder, as supplied, should not may cut easier and allow faster speeds, but tools that have been made commercially,
be used for sharpening workshop tools, it the finer edge and higher speeds will result almost always the case with milling cutters,
can when aided by various accessories in more rapid tool wear, thereby needing it attempt to replicate the existing angles
rival that of the tool and cutter grinder for to be changed earlier in the batch. In this when sharpening. A deviation of a degree
many applications. situation it will be a case of a balancing act or so from the original will have little
Even with a tool and cutter grinder, between higher production speeds and consequence in the home workshop. With
sharpening workshop tooling will still be an longer times between tool changes. Such milling cutters therefore it is preferable to
operation fraught with complications, and considerations do not occur to the same set up with reference to a cutter that has
sometimes, using an off hand grinder with extent in the home workshop and as a result never been sharpened. More about the
a simple accessory will actually be easier. the cutter angles are not as critical. It should process later in the book.
Number one decision to be made will be be obvious that a cutter with a sharp edge It is probable that most workshops will
the angle at the cutting edge and like and not the best angle is superior to a blunt be equipped with just an off hand grinder.
numerous charts of machine speeds giving cutter but with a better angle. This though w il l suffice tor most
1 The limited rest on an average off hand differing advice. reference to cutter angle The most prominent tools requiring requirements providing additional
grinder. details will bring up a similar situation. sharpening will be drills, lathe tools and accessories are added for the purpose. The

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grinding rest in Photo 2 being typical. At grinder, will come a lready fitted with
the other end of the spectrum, except that grinding wheels, or as part of the kit in a
is for a fully equipped industrial tool and unit for workshop construction. No doubt
cutter grinder, is that shown in Photo 3. having been chosen by the supplier the
Between the two are a number of machines wheels will be adequate for most tasks
available in kit form for manufacture in the undertaken on it. There is though one
workshop itself. exception, most often the wheels supplied
The best known is the Quorn, (Photo will suit tooling grade steels such as high
4) having been available for a number of speed steel but will not be adequate for
years. This is a very capable machine and grinding tungsten carbide. For this a wheel
a very satisfying project to complete, often specifically for the task will be required and
made to a very high standard and entered fitted as and when such tooling is to be
at exhibitions throughout the world. Another 3 Vertex tool and cutter grinder. ground . These are frequently known as
very adaptable machine is the Stent (Photo green grit wheels and your supplier should
5) following a design similar to an industrial required sharpening tasks are the Worden be able to advise with more detail. An
tool and culler grinder, but on a smaller (Photo 6) and the Ken net (Photo 7). These alternative to the green grit wheels would
scale. This is a quite different project in appear to have distinct similarities in the be to fit a diamond wheel. These are mainly
terms of its manufacture and has one facility way that they function but are constructed
that is not provided by the others, that is, it quite differently. The suppliers of these five 5 Stent tool and cutter grinder. SK1 Grinding Wheel Shapes
is capable of surface grinding. grinders are given at the end of the chapter.
Two simpler mach ines, but both If, in addition to acquiring a tool and Another possibility would be a second hand
capab le of almost all the commonly cutter sharpening facility, you would like an industrial machine should you have room
interesting major project then making either for one.
a Quorn or a Stent would be ideal. If. on This book seeks to achieve adequate
the other hand you are looking for a means results with the minimum of equipment.
of sharpen ing tools without too much However, the Quorn and the Stent will cope
workshop involvement in their construction, with some tasks not easily carried out with
then the Worden or the Kennel would be the equipment described throughout this
worth considering . The Worden being book. Because of this, if the workshop were FORM 1 FORM3 FORM 5
particularly easy, both in terms of lime taken equipped with a Ouorn. a Stent, or a
and the lack of complexity of the commercially available machine, then
manufacturing tasks required. additional reading would be worthwhile so
The Worden and the Kennel will satisfy as to get maximum benefit from owning
all common requirements, but if tools such such a machine. In this respect, a book
as reamers, taps, etc., feature on your list (''The Quorn" ISBN No. 0 905 100 91 3)
of items to sharpen then the Ouorn or the detailing the construction and its use is
Stent would be the machines to choose. available, as are books primarily intended
However, should you not want to spend so for the industrial user.
FORM 6 FORM 11 FORM 12
much time making sharpening equipment,
or require a cheaper option, then some of Wheel material and types The shapes illustrated ate just a few of those
the simple designs throughout this book will Invariably, your grinder, be it a basic off listed in DIN ISO 525. They are though,
4 Quam tool and cutter grinder. almost certainly meet most of your needs. hand grinder, or a versatile tool and cutter those most suitable for the home workshop.

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intended for use on tungsten carbide 8 Adapted off hand


tooling but grades for high speed steel are grinder, fitted with
becoming available. wheels for tool and
Wheels come in a very wide range of cutter grinding.
shapes but most are for very specialised This is not
situations. SK1 shows six of the more intended for
common ones that may be found useful in normal off hand
the home workshop. Form 1 is obviously use and must be
the one that will be used on the off hand used with a
grinder with the others appropriate to a tool separate rest,
and cutter grinder. The fact that form 1 gives typically that in
way to the other shapes when fitted to a Photo 2.
tool and cutter grinder illustrates that these
have some advantages over the simple flat
disk. In view of these advantages, adapting
a bench grinder to take these wheel types, 6 Worden tool and cutter grinder.
as seen in Ph o t o 8 , would be very
worthwhile. You will though still need a Wheel markings considered necessary by the manufacturer. hardness of the wheel as a whole. It is
grinder fitted with the normal two wheels The method of marking grinding wheels is The following gives the meaning of the defined by a letter, with A being very soft
for more basic tasks. Details for adapting a standardised and can, if purchased from a characters that make up the marking, and through to Z that is very hard, the extremes
standard bench gri nder to take the reliable source, be counted upon to provide are listed in the order they appear. are though rare. As an indication H is
alternative wheels is given in Chapter 13. an accurate indication of t he wheel's Abrasive. This falls into two categories, considered soft, N medium and S Hard.
With regard to the wheel material this characteristics. The marking consists of a Aluminium Oxide (A) and Silicon Carbide Structure. Best thought of as the porosity
will normally conform to the long standing series of numbers and letters having well- (C). Some manufacturers have their own trade of the wheel as it defines the degree of open
types , typica lly an aluminium oxide defined meanings. Prefixes and or suffixes names for these and use prefixes (BA, PA, spaces between grains. Defined by one or
abrasive with a vitrified bond. may be added for additional data as etc.) to define small variations. A Green Silicon two digits, 0 being dense, through to 15
Carbide, recommended for sharpening being open . This characteristic is not
carbide tipped tools, is most often, though not always included in the marking.
always, marked with a G prefix (GC). Bond . The material that bonds the grains
Grain size. This is defined by a number together is defined by this character. There
consisting of one, two or three digits, the are five methods each using a single
smaller the number the larger the grain size. character. Individual manufactures may
For a general purpose off hand grinder, a t hough add add itional characters to
coarse wheel having a grain size of 36 distinguish between small differences in
(0.5mm average diameter) and a fine wheel bond method or material. The five materials
with a grain size of 60 (0.25mm average are Vitrified V, Resinoid B, Rubber R,
diameter) would suit most applications. Shellac E and Silicate S. Vitrified is by far
Grade. This is frequently defined as the the most common. Resinoid, Rubber and
hardness of the wheel, but should not be Shellac enable, amongst other uses, thin
confused with the hardness of the abrasive; wheels to be made for cut off machines.
7. Kennel tool and it is the strength by which the individual Silicate is for very special applications.
cutter grinder. grains are held together and refers to the Typical marking . In accordance with the

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the grinder is up to speed the result may this very few workshop owners would tackle
be serious injury to the user. the task.
Wheels intended for tool and cutter I believe reamers fall into this category
grinding will though have a bore much with taps and dies following close behind.
larger than the spindle onto which it is to Another factor is that reamers and taps are
be fitted. In this case the wheel is relatively lightly used compared to a lathe tool
permanently fitted with a metal adapter that or an end mill, and if used and stored with
has a bore having a close fit on the grinder's care will outlast the owner's requirements.
spindle, Photo 9. This enables different
wheel shapes to be interchanged without References
the need for balancing by dressing at each At the time of writing this book (2005) the
change. The blotters again must be fitted following are the suppliers of the tool and
and the 3 screws tightened progressively
cutter grinders shown in Photos 3 to 7.
in turn, also ensuring that they are not over
Vertex
tightened. Similarly, the single nut on the
spindle must not be over tightened as the Chronos Ltd. Unit 14, DukeminsterTrading
clamping pressure will be transferred via Estate, Church Street, Dunstable, Beds.
9 Tool and cutter grinder wheels with LU5 4HU Tel 01582 471900
the flanges, through to the wheel. '
adapters.
Quorn and Kennet
above would be BA 46 N 8 V it is used , with an adapter if requi red. A realistic approach Model Engineering Services, Pipworth
Running a wheel with excessive clearance This book seeks to take a realistic approach Farm, Pipworth Lane, Eckington, Sheffield,
Additional markings between bore and spindle is very dangerous. to the subject of sharpening workshop S21 4EY. Tel 01246 433218.
Speed . Exc ept for smal ler wheels all Do not do it! The adapter should be a close, tooling. That is to say some items are Stent
wheels when new are marked with the but not excessively tight, fit in the wheel and considered practical for sharpening in the
Blackgates Engineering. 207/209
maximum speed permissible, under no should not be wider than the wheel itself. home workshop, and others not. Those not
Wakefield Road, Drighlington, Bradford,
circumstances must this be exceeded. The The paper disks supplied with the wheel, will get only a passing comment, if any. The
West Yorkshire, BD11 1EB.
speed may be in RPM but may be quoted known as blotters, must be fitted between reason for taking this course is that 1believe
the reduced cost of modern cutting tools Worden
as the maximum surface speed, typically the wheel and the wheel flanges. The quality
makes sharpening them a non starter when Hemingway Kits , 126 Dunval Road,
metres per minute. of the paper that these are made from is
Bore. The markings also include the wheels considered important but in their absence the process becomes unacceptably difficult, Bridgenorth , Shropshire,WV16 4LZ.
bore diameter. disks made from a thick, but not over hard and probably also unreliable; because of Tei.01746 767739.
paper should suffice. Their diameter must
Fitting be greater than the flange diameter by a few
Fitting a grinding wheel may seem a simple millimetres to ensure that there is a paper
task. but it is a measure of the importance interleaf at all points round the flange.
given to this, that in industry only people Having assembled t he flanges.
who have received training specifically for blotters, wheel and clamping nut the nut
the task are permitted to carry it out. should only be tightened just sufficient to
It is common for wheels to have a bore reliably hold the whee l in use; over
larger than needed, requiring an adapter tightening may cause the wheel to fracture.
bush to be fitted. Do not use the wheel This may be immediate when there will only
without it closely fitting the spindle on which be a failed wheel, but if only apparent when

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Chapter 2 2 Reliance jig {left)


and Modem jig
(right).

Drill Sharpening

Of all the cutting tools, the twist drill is by The methods


far the most likely to require attention, not Available accessories for the task will divide
just in the metalworking workshop but also loosely into three categories. The simplest,
in other trades, builders, carpenters, DIY are those intended for coupling to a pistol
exponents to name but a few. Because of drill and having a very small grinding wheel,
th is th ere a re many relatively simple that in Photo 1 being an example. The twist enough for the less demanding trades but B. The drill with its immediate mounting
devices commerc ia lly a vai lable for drill is placed into the device being held in really is inadequate for the metalworking cannot be removed from the lower part
assisting with sharpening them, a situation a suitable adapter and then rotated by hand workshop involved in precision work. Many making it a little difficult to rotate the drill
that does not occur with any other cutting causing the drill to be sharpened . There are also have a green grit wheel for sharpening for sharpening the second edge.
tool where the user is left largely to his or a number of different units that basically masonry dril ls. Some t hat work in a Having said that, the modern unit is
her own devices, apart from, of course, work in this way, probably with more or less comparable way are self-contained with capable of good work with only a little care
purchasing a tool and cutter grinder. success. That in the photograph works well their own motor. once one gets used to its minor limitations.
The second category comprises those It does though have the advantage of the
intended for use in conjunction with an off angle being adjustable for special drill
hand grinder. I have said "those" but at the shapes, countersinks, etc.
time of writing this book , reference to Whilst the unit just described will also
around eight catalogues all show the same find itself in t he small commercia l
unit on offer. This is the one on the right of workshop, larger organisations will most
Photo 2. Actually, this is less expensive certainly have dedicated machines for the
than those I consider DIY items. task which fall into category three. That
The unit on the lett of the photograph shown in Photo 3 is an example, capable
is the Reliance drill sharpening jig that was of sharpening drills up to 13 mm diameter.
available for very many years but sadly no Large companies will no doubt have an
longer, as the modern version has some even more robust and versatile version of
minor weaknesses compared to its older this. Actually, I feel that the unit in the
1 Pistol drill with colleague. These are: photograph really sits between categories
DIY drill A. There is some unwanted fl exibility in the two and three and some home workshop
sharpening pivot arrangement that is not present in the owners may consider the expense of
device. older version. owning one justifiable.

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3 A high quality,

~130"
self contained, drill CHISEL
sharpening device. EDGE

SK1. Chisel edge angle


4 Jig for very small drills, this used on a
reasonable results, They are seen being flat stone rather than a grinding wheel.
used with the off-hand grinder in Photos 5
Sharpening drills free hand. As I believe that at above 18 mm a and 6 and show that there is a s ubtle
is almost parallel to the grinding wheel's
There are those who will claim that they larger jig would be difficult to justify, difference between the two. The modern
side whilst the Reliance rotates about a
can sharpen drills free hand and no doubt especially as this would have to be an unit in Photo 6 rotates about a spindle that spindle that is at an angle of about 45
some can make a very commendable industrial calibre item and have limited use, degrees to the wheel. Both units present
attempt. However, for the majority, the this would be a good situation to attempt the drill to the wheel at the same angle of
limited practice one gets makes it not worth manual grinding. Practice by holding the 59 degrees but the different axis used with
attempting , except maybe for large size drill against a stationary wheel, moving the the Reliance causes the clearance to be
drills outside the range of the available jig. drill such that it remains in contact with the created differently, more about that later.
There are two requ irements when wheel from the cutting edge back to the What the pros and cons of the two methods
sharpening a drill, getting it to cut freely and furthest point of the clearance. Repeat the are I cannot say other than to say that both
getting it to cut to size. With only a little process until you feel sufficiently confident CORRECT CLEARANCE INCREASED CLEARANCE produce workable results.
practice, getting a drill to cut freely should to switch on the grinder and take the first As I believe the majority of workshop
not present a major problem, getting it to skim. owners will posses the jig in Photo 6, or a
cut to size within reasonable limits will. For the very small sizes the jig shown close relative of it, I will largely limit my
There is no point in having a drill set in 0.1 in Photo 4 will enable smaller drills to be explanations to the method they use to
mm increments if typically the 6.1 mm drill sharpened, at this size most probably after produce the common dri ll point
drills at 6.3 mm diameter. a drill has been broken. The jig is used on configuration.
It is therefore in my estimation essential a flat stone rather than a rotating wheel. I Four factors make up the drill point
to have a drill sharpening jig if the workshop have used it on rare occasions with some CUT BY CHISEL EDGES geometry, the angle, the cutting lip length,
is involved in precise metalworking activity. success but have never checked just how ----CUT BY CUTTING EDGES clearance behind the cutting lip and the
There are of course limits to the range of drill accurately the drill drilled. Details for angle and length of the chisel point. The
sizes a single jig can accommodate. The making this jig are included in Chapter 12. SK2. Effect of clearance angle
internal angle of the common drill is 118
Reliance will work with drills from 3 mm to 13 The Jigs in Photo 2 are relatively easy variation on the chisel point
degrees and using a jig will easily ensure
mm whilst the other will work up to 18 mm. to use, after a few trial runs, and give angle and length that the angle is equal on both sides (59

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5 The Reliance jig 7 Two drills
in use. sharpened with the
wrong projection
from the drilling jig.
That on the left
having too little
projection the
clearance is too
great, whilst that on
the right has too little
clearance having
been sharpened with
too much projection.

using the type of jig suggested, where it is the face behind the cutting lip falls too
quite easy to get both the cutting edge rapidly it will result in the ch isel being
angle correct and both lengths equal, the skewed round. I think this will be better
degrees) so will not discuss the effect of clearance angle behind the cutting lip and chisel angle needs much more attention. understood if you observe an actual drill , a
unequal angles. Similarly, having got equal the effect this has on the chisel point. SK1 Sketch SK2 shows the end view of a drill large size preferably.
angles the lip lengths should also be the shows the end view of an accu rately with an increased chisel angle. The It can be seen by reference to Photo
same though this is not guaranteed unless sharpened drill. increased angle in the drawing shows the 6, showing a jig in position for sharpening
care is taken. What can easily vary is the It may come as a surprise that even effect is, to lengthen the chisel and shorten a drill, that the jig rotates about a bearing
the cutting edges. in the base of the unit. Sketch SK3 shows
Looking at the end of a twist drill it how this grinds a cylindrical surface onto
becomes obvious that the cutting lips are the end of the drill. Of greater significance
less than the radius of the hole being drilled. is that the radius of the cylinder will vary
Because of this the chisel has to remove with the amount that the drill is projecting
the centre of the hole with what can only from the jig as the sketch illustrates. For a
be termed a scraping action. This is the reduced projection the radius becomes less
case even with a perfectly sharpened drill. and the curvature greater, as a result the
Ensuring the chisel angle is correct is clearance behind the cutting edge
therefore of considerable importance, as a increases. This will have the effect of
longer chisel will considerably increase the increasing the chisel angle and its length.
pressure required to force the drill through I should add here that in the case of
the workpiece. Another important point to the Reliance, and other similar jigs, that the
consider is that if attempting to start the hole jig rotating about an angle to the wheel's
from a centre punch mark the longer chisel side that the ground face is conical rather
will find it more difficult to centralise itself than cylindrical. However, all my comments
on the mark. regarding chisel angle variation and the
What then causes the chisel angle to reasons for this are equally applicable.
6 The Modern jig in be incorrect and how can this be corrected. Photo 7 shows two drills sharpened
use. The cause is too much clearance angle. If with differing projections from the jig. The

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8 The effect of too Three things are important when AXIS ON WHICH JIG
much clearance positioning the drill in the jig. These are the ROTA~_E_~y
has resulted in too projection, the orientation of the cutting ~' ----~ - - - ' ~
great a chisel edge and rotating the drill 180 degrees after '
'
angle whilst with having completed the first edge.
too little clearance The earlier explanations have detailed
the chisel angle is the effect of the wrong projection from the
too small. See text jig but I found the instructions supplied with
regarding the my j ig were somewhat vague. The real
curved cutting important value is the distance from the jigs
edge on the left axis as SK3 attempts to illustrate. This
hand drill. though is difficult to measure and it is
normal to take a measurement off the end
of the channel in which the drill rests.
SHORT _DRILL EXTENSIO_N
one on the left has been sharpened with the wrong angle is that with too flat a point However, this is not a constant and varies
too little projection and the rear clearance then the cutting edges become concave with the diameter of the drill being ,--------~------ ---
' 1
is far too great. The other with more and if too pointed, convex, see SK4. The sharpened. Actually, the larger the drill the ' '- ---- - - ~---- - - --- :
projection the clearance is less. Photo 8 drill in the photograph should have been greater the required projection. '
'
shows how this has caused the chisel angle sharpened at greater than 118 degrees I can therefore, only suggest that
on the left to increase compared to that on (flatter) and is obviously a drill intended for initially you follow the instructions with the
the right. However, this photograph , set up thin materials. For this reason, the 118 jig and observe the results. If this gives a
with two old drills taken at random, has degree angle, or more or less for special chisel angle of approximately 130 degrees
served to show another feature of drill drills, is relatively important but not an then all is well, if more or less then adjust
sharpening. absolute requirement, a variation of a few the projection and re-sharpen. The angle
degrees will not be a problem. There is can be checked by comparing the drill being
The wrong angle therefore no need to check the angle, if the sharpened against one of similar size that
It can be seen that the drill on the right has cutting edge looks straight all is well. is still in the state supplied. Alternatively, a
straight cutting edges, as it should have, small piece of card marked at 130 degrees
whilst those on the left have a pronounced Using the jig can be placed alongside the drill's cutting
curve. T his is because , whilst it was It would be nice to give a detailed edge as a reference.
INCREASED DRILL EXTENSION
sharpened at the standard angle of 118 explanation of how to use the type of jig Next important requirement is the
WILL PRODUCE A FLATTER
degrees, this was the wrong angle for the seen in the photographs, especially as the orientation of the drill, that is, does the CLEARANCE ANGLE WHILST
type of drill that it is. Whilst drills purchased instructions supplied often leave a lot to be cutting edge have to be vertical, horizontal STILL MAINTAINING ITS POINT
for general use (by far the majority of the desired. However, jigs purchased from or some angle between. For this the cutting ANGLE, NORMALLY 118'
drills sold) are intended to have a point different sources are likely to have edge should be set so that both ends arrive
angle of 118 degrees some , for special differences and simi larly a lso the at the wheel at the same time, for the type
SKJ. Result of change in drill
reasons, are intended to have another instructions supplied. I am therefore giving of jig being considered this will be vertical. extension.
angle. Typical of this are drills specially the essential basics and would suggest that If the error is appreciable then one end of than actual, as the error would have to be
made for drilling thinner materials. These you arm yourself with a few old drills in the the cutting edge will arrive at the grinding large for it to become apparent. Of more
have a flatter point so that more of the drill larger sizes, say 8mm to 12mm and spend wheel before the other causing the cutting importance is that, whilst the cutting edge
is in contact with the workpiece before the an hour or so attempting to put the jig edge to be domed as illustrated in SK5. has been rotated in the jig, the chisel
point starts to break through. The effect of through its paces. However, this situation is more theoretical produced will still be produced in largely

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TOO FLAT TOO POINTED JIG MAIN BAR STOP BAR
CORRECT
SK4. Effect of drill point angle variation on the cutting edge.
FIRST EDGE STOP BAR POST

1.THE OUTER RECESS IN THE


the same position relative to the jig . to the drill to control the rotation. This is DRILL BAR PROVIDES CLEARANCE
Rotation of the drill will therefore result in a best understood by studying SK6, and WITH THE JIG MAIN BAR WHEN
change in the chisel angle. Orientation is Photo's 9 and 10. LARGER DRILLS ARE FITTED
Sharpen the first side with the drill bar
though not critical and a few degrees either 2. A 4mm WIDE INN ER RECESS
against the stop bar post, then having
way will not cause undue errors. WILL SUIT DRILL Smm DIAMETER
completed that edge rotate the drill once
Having sharpened the first side, it is AND ABOVE A SECOND PAIR OF
very important that the drill is rotated as more ensuring that the bar is against the
BARS WITH A NARROWER RECESS
close to 180 degrees as is possible. Only if post and sharpen the second edge. When
fastening the drill bar to the drill the two
WILL BE REQUIRED IF SMALLER
this is done will the two sides be the same. DRILLS ARE TO BE SHARPENED
The jig has a small finger that is set to locate halves of the bar should of course be
parallel. At smaller diameters just a visual
SECOND EDGE
into the flute on the first side and is then SK6. 180 degree rotation device.
used to replicate the setting on the second. check should suffice but at larger diameters
1 found this difficult work with so where the
check the gap at each end with a rule. of values. From this point it will only be remove very little or overheating of the drill
drill is long enough I made a short bar to fit Having sharpened your drill you can necessary to interpolate from these values may result. If the drill is badly worn take a
of course use it to drill its first hole . Do for drill sizes that fall in between. You will little of each side in turn until you make the
though before arriving at that stage check soon realise that the amount of projection final pass on each edge. The feed must not
the appearance of the drill against a new and the orientation of the drill are not that of course be further adjusted when making
drill of similar size, in particular, the chisel critical and some variation from the ideal the final pass over the second edge. Should
angle but also the clearance behind the will still give workable results. Getting close you be re-establishing a cutting edge on a
cutting edge. This is important for even if to 180 degree rotation between edges is broken drill then reshape the end by hand
these are wrong the drill will probably still though more important. before using the jig.
drill a reasonable hole. If the sharpened drill Having set the drill in the jig with the
shows major differences from a new drill required projection, the complete j ig is Four facet
adjust projection and grind once more. moved towards the grinding wheel until the I suspect the term "Four Facet" when
DOMED POINT. AS A CORRECT DRILL POINT With the first drill sharpened correctly drills edge almost touches the wheel. The applied to drills will be new to some readers,
RESULT OF NOT SETTING make a note of the dril l size and the slot in the jig's base permits this adjustment it is though, as the term implies, a drill
CUTTING EDGE CORRECTLY projection used. Do this with other drills, to be made, as can be seen in Photo 6. sharpened with four faces rather than the
IN THE JIG
remembering that larger drills require a The jig then provides a fine feed to set the normal two. This should not be confused
SKS. greater projection , until you have a range amount being ground off, do set this to with the drills available commercially which

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9 Parts to assist in material being drilled. This especially so 30 degrees being more appropriate. The
accurately rotating with materials that tend to draw the drill into other factor is how the secondary facet is
the drill by 180o it, some grades of brass typically. positioned in relation to the primary. This
for sharpening the Whilst relatively easy to visualise, in should be done so that primary facet is a
second edge. practice it is more difficult to create and constant width from the centre of the drill
attempting this free hand is certainly a non to the edge rather than triangular. For this
starter as accuracy is rnore critical than with to be achieved the drill is not rotated, to
the conventional drill form. Sharpening drills produce the second clearance, only the
to this form is best done on a full function angle to the wheel being increased . An
Tool and Cutter Grinder such as the Quorn, accessory for carrying out this method of
(Photo 4 Chapter 1) However, jigs have drill sharpening is detailed in Chapter 12
been developed which enable them to be that a lso gives more tech n ical data
sharpened using the s imp ler Worden regarding this method of drill sharpening.
are known as having a " Spl it Poin t as the end away from the cutting edge is grinder (Photo 6 Chapter 1) or similar.
Geometry" even though t here are only clearance anyway. There is though a The method most often put forward for Split point geometry
similarities both in terms of shape and surp rising effect of this method of sharpening drills in this way is to create the This is a form of drill th at is now
advantages, more about these later. It is sharpening and that is, the chisel edge is
point using four flats. Having ground the commercially quite com mon and has
an alternative method of sharpening drills replaced by a point, see SK7. Advantages
first secondary angle it is then essential that similarities with the four facet form, having
in which each cutting lip has two flat of a drill sharpened in this way is that the
the drill be rotated 180° and the second face both primary and secondary clearances.
surfaces, being primary and secondary pressure required when drilling is reduced
ground at exactly the same depth. The However, there are differences, one being
clearance a ngles, similar to the cutting and with care will start without the need for
primary angle is then ground in the same that the primary facet has a triangular rather
centre punching the hole position. On the
edges of an end mill. way, and again, both sides must be ground than a rectangular form. This can be seen
You may be tempted to say "so what" downside the drills can be drawn into the
equally. There is though more to it than that by comparing SK8 with SK7. Another
as not only must the two faces be ground difference is the secondary clearance has
at the same level this must also be chosen a much steeper angle of around 40". It is
so that the four facets meet centrally at a also much more difficult to produce the
point. It is therefore essential that both sides secondary clearance. In the case of the four
are ground equally but also that the amount facet method the drill can be just wiped
removed produces the required point. This across the flat face of a grinding wheel. This
necessitates a little being removed from is not so in the case of a split point drill , as
each side in turn until the required point is the secondary clearance must go only as
achieved. The process will therefore need far as the chisel edge so as to create a
some precise positioning to achieve the cutting edge on this as SK8 attempts to
desired result. illustrate. The corner of the grinding wheel
The angles for the two facets for each must therefore be used to produce this and
edge should be around 10 degrees for the it should be obvious that very accurate
primary clearance and 25 degrees for the positioning is necessary. Also, the wheel
secondary, though like most things in metal must be dressed to have a sharp corner
10 The parts in cutting activities these values are not making it necessary to use a fine grit wheel
photograph 9 in critical. I would though suggest that the especially if attempted to sharpen smaller
use on the secondary angle should be no less that 25 drills.
sharpening jig. degrees, values between 25 degrees and The primary cl earance can be

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PRIMARY
CLEARANCE
10'

THE PRIMARY CLEARANCE IS GROUND GENERALLY AS


FOR A STANDARD DRILL FORM BUT WITH A GREATER
EXTENSION FROM THE SHARPENING JIG SO AS TO
PRODUCE A CHISEL ANGLE OF 110' PRIOR TO
CREATING THE THIRD AND FOURTH FACETS

SK7. Four facet drill format. SK8. Split point drill form. SK9. Chisel edge thinning. 11 Split point drills.

produced using a conventional drill grinder manner. To overcome the problem fully it advantage in diverting from the standard is
but set to give a smaller chisel angle than Point thinning is practice to remove the helix at the cutting if you have a reoccurring task is for drilling
normal of around 110 degrees. There is still Point thinning, seen illustrated in SK9, edge by grinding a small flat as shown in thin materials where the drill can start to
yet another factor that must be observed is useful on larger drills as it reduces the SK10. break through before the hole has reached
when producing the secondary clearance. pressure required making it less of a strain size on the front. Sharpening the drill with a
It can be seen from SK8 that the primary on lightweight drilling machines. It can also Other materials flatter point will help to avoid this situation.
facet has a triangular form. However, the be of help with drilling difficult materials, Whilst other forms of drills are supplied, The modified drill will though have the
angle of this cannot be chosen at random even when using smaller drills. You will typi c ally slow spiral , and wi ll work problem of a curved cutting edge as
as it must rotate the chisel round to the need a wheel with a very thin edge to do marginally better than the standard for mentioned above. However, the curved
standard angle of about 130 degrees, and this even with drills of say 12 mm diameter, some materials, the difference is small and edge can be removed whilst still maintaining
yet there is more. The two secondary faces how practical it is to do this at sma ller the standard drills will suffice for the type the helix angle using a wheel with a narrow
must not pass one another else you will end diameters will depend on the equipment of work likely in the home workshop. edge, see Chapter 1 Photo 9. It will though,
up with a forked point, it is advisable to available for carrying out the thinning. One area where there just may be an not be a task to be carried out free hand.
avoid this by leaving just a small portion of Thinning should be carried out equally on
the original chisel untouched, say about 0.1 both flutes and central to the c h isel ,
mm to 0.2 mm wide. reducing the chisel to about 60 to 70% of
The result of all these requirements is its normal length.
that sharpening this form of drill is far from For strength, the core thickness of a
straight forward and the four facet method drill increases toward the drill shank,
that will cut almost as well will be the easier because of this a much shortened drill,
option. It is my understanding that the drill maybe having been broken, may also
require to have its point thinned.
FLAT GROUND ON CUTTING
flute arrangement is identical to the
EDGE TO REMOVE HEUX SK10. Drill
standard drill. Therefore, if you come across
any of these drills you can when blunt Drilling brass X. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT SOME modification
eventua ll y s harpe n them in the Having said that four facet drills will tend to OF THE CIRCULAR LAND REMAINS for drilling
conventional form should you not want to draw themselves into some grades of WH EN MAKING THIS DRILL POINT
brass, the effect is not totally eliminated by difficult
attempt the split point geometry. Photo 11 MODIFICATION.
shows split point drills in close up. the use of drills sharpened in the standard materials.

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2 A simple shop
CHAPTER 3 made rest.
(Detailed in
Chapter 9)

Grinding Rests

In the last chapter it was described how for woodworking tools. On the other hand,
twist dri lls could be sharpened using a only simple shop made accessories are
standard bench grinder, assisted by a necessary for the majority of sharpening
s impl e commercially availab le dril l tasks required in the home workshop.
sharpening jig, a lso benched mounted. Whilst having said that on ly simple
Unfortunately, especially if you are not into accessories are necessary, this assumes
making workshop equipment, there are no that the bench grinder is further equipped
comparable items for sharpening other with an improved grinding rest. Photo 1
metal working cutters, though a few do exist shows two commercially available rests that

are a marked improvement over the rest controlled. Also, positioning the cutter
supplied with a bench grinder. However, relative to the grinding wheel will be critical
better rests can easily be shop made and to prevent the wheel touching the teeth that
are essential for th e more complex are not being ground at each stage. The
sharpening requirem ents in the rest in the photograph are therefore only
metalworking workshop, end mills typically. suitable for woodworking tools.
The ability to control depth of cut is lacking Photo 2 shows a simple shop made
in the commercial rests and the ability to grinding rest that meets the requirements
set an angle to the side of the wheel. When as the following briefly explains. The table
sharpening the end teeth of an end mill , can be traversed towards and away (infeed)
removing only sufficient to re-establish a from the face of the wheel using the knob
1 Two sharp edge, and with all edges at the same on the left. The total movement of the
commercially level, will be the requirement. Depth of cut accessory being used is limited by the stop
available rests. will therefore need to be acc ura tely screw on the end of the fence, moving the

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~ I

3 An advanced table rather than just the fence as is the


grinding rest. case with the simpler rest. However, in the
case of the simper rest, coarse adjustment
for moving the rest to and from the grinding
wheel is linear, rather than on pivoted arms,
and this makes it easier to set, as moving
the rest does not affect its angle. An
enterprising reader may like to marry the
table of the rest in Photo 3 with base of
that in Photo 2.
The methods for using these two rests
have some similarities with the methods for
using the Worden (Photo 6) and the Kennel
(Photo 7) both in Chapter 1. For example,
I--
,-
'
'
......__
having a table for support and the need for
accessories to hold the cutter. The Worden >'r ~...:
and Kennel, being self-contained and
having larger tables, will no doubt be a little
easier to set up and use.
Before illustrating actual operations
some aspects of grind ing must be
D E F
understood. Two methods of applying the C AND F ARE THE CORRECT
cutter to the wheel are possible. APPROACH ANGLE TO USE
1. To plunge the cutter onto the wheel's
surface, and remove. SK1. Workpiece approach
2. To apply the cutter to the wheel moving angle.
it with a wiping action, either across the face
or down the side of the wheel. Another aspect of this form of grinding
table forward will therefore provide a greater making this rest are published in Chapter Method 1 has limited uses as it has is that grinding only takes place on the
depth of cut. The central knob is used to 9 together with the essential accessories the disadvantage th at it will transfer corner of the wheel. This is best understood
lock the table whilst grinding is taking place. in Chapters 10, 11 and 12. Most of the irregularities on the wheel to the culling by reference to SK1 . The reader may be of
The knob on the right feeds the fence examples of tool sharpening in the book edge being sharpened whilst method 2 will the opinion that grinding will take place as
left and right (cross feed) and can control are illustrated using this rest. smooth them out. This though is an illustrated by A and D, for this to work
the amount being ground away if the tool An alternative to this is the rest seen oversimplification, method 2 will only create satisfactorily the approach angle would
being sharpened is passing down the side in Photo 3, details of which are included in a flat surface if the wiping action is done in have to be set precisely parallel to the side
of the wheel. It can also precisely set the the Workshop Practice series book Number a straight line, totally free hand grinding, or face of the wheel. As this level of
position of an end mill being sharpened on 35, "Milling, a Complete course". This rest even with a wiping action, can not be precision cannot be guaranteed, an error
the face of the wheel so that the other has better facilities for positioning the item guaranteed to produce a straight edge. may result in the condition illustrated in B
cutting edges do not come into contact with being sharpened and is in that respect an Because of this, feed must be controlled, and E with more being ground away than
it. These comments should become much improvement over that in Photo 2. With this and in the case of the grinding rests is required. For that reason, the approach
clearer when actual operations are in mind it should be evident from the illustrated, a fence is used to guide the tool angle is deliberately set at an angle as is
explained later in the book. Details for photograph that the crossfeed moves the in a straight line. shown by C and F to avoid over grinding.

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4 A Chisel being to achieve the tool's required angle, Photo
sharpened. FEED 4 shows how both angles are achieved. I
GRINDING WHEEL have chosen to publish a photograph of a
DIRECTION chisel being sharpened as the large angle
requ ired illustrates the situation more
clearly. It can be seen from this that the
fence sets the angle at which the face be-
ing sharpened passes the side of the wheel,

-- -- whilst the angle that the chisel is set on the


base controls the angle ground. See also
SK2 that shows two faces of a lathe rough-
ing tool being ground.
HOLDER The two rests (Photo's 2 and 3) incor-
porate fine feed adjustments both to and
from the face of the wheel (infeed) and also
BASE~ the side of the wheel (crossfeed). In the
case of the set up for sharpening the chisel,
the crossfeed adjustment will initially be set
to ensure that only a very small amount is
ground away. If after a few passes the chisel
is inspected and found in need of more
being removed the fence can be moved
The angle should be as small as is practical
SK2. Sharpening a lathe over, say 0.02 mm, and additional passes
whilst still ensuring that conditions A, B, D roughing tool. made. This will be repeated until the re-
or E do not occur, one degree should be quired face results.
sufficient. This is not just a requirement in
the home workshop due to the inability to
Setting the angle
work more accurately; it is also standard As has already been said, a sharp cutter
practice in industry for the same reasons. with an imperfect angle will be far better
However, with some wheel shapes when than a blunt cutter with a better angle. Only
fitted to a tool and cutter grinder the angle one thing is absolutely essential and that
can be created on the wheel by dressing it is that there should an angle to provided
accordingly. Of course, the item may pass clearance in front of the cutting edge, if this
down the left side of the wheel or be fed is not provided a cutter cannot cut, see
left to righ t on the face of the wheel where SK3. However, even though there is some
this is beneficial. tolerance as to the angles ground it will be
It may be considered that the fence on good practice to make the settings to known
THIS CUTTER WILL NOT CUT DUE values, rather than casually to an angle that
the rest's table would be used to establish
the angle required on the sharpened tool,
TO A LACK OF SIDE CLEARAN CE looks about right. Yo u will then have
that is not so, its purpose is purely to set knowledge of actual angles ground on
the approach angle. The tool must be set 5 Cardboard gauges for seNing grinding which you can base other tasks in the
at an angle on the accessory's swivel base rest. SK3. Zero clearance. future. As an aid to setting the angles,

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7 Multi diamond
dresser in use
being held in a
holder and guided
by the rest
mounted fence.

TABLE
MARK GAUGE AT HEIGHT AT
WHICH GRINDING IS TO TAKE
PLACE

SK6. Angle to face of wheel.


MAKE GAUGES FOR TYPICALLY 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15,
20 AND 25 DEGREES

MATERIAL
GOOD QUALITY CARD
OR ALUMINIUM 1 - 2mm THICK

QUANTITY
1 OFF EACH ANGLE REQUIRED

SK4. Angle gauges.

gauges should be made as those shown the face produced. More important, the
in Photo 5 and SK4. angle will depend on the height above the
Using these to set the angle to the side table and because of this it must be set at
of the wheel is straight forward but as the the height at which grinding is to take place,
rest does not pass down the side of the see SK6. This aspect of sharpening will
wheel a small temporary table extension become more apparent when actual appli-
will be required as illustrated by SK5. cations are explained.
Working on the face of the wheel will
though result in the ground surface being Wheel dressing
6 Wheel dressers, left single diamond, concave though in most cases this is of lit- Wheels are dressed for two reasons. On
SK5. Angle to side of wheel. right multi diamond. tle consequence due to the narrowness of initial fitting, it is necessary to dress the

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wheel to ensure that it is running true, else that both be mounted on a very robust base. running with its hose suitably positioned
off hand grinding will be difficult to control. IMPORTANT SAFETY If this is not done the rest will be able to adjacent to the grinder. The hose should
A lso, in addition to vibrat ion of the REQUIREMENTS flex on its mounting relative to the off hand ideally be a large diameter one and must
workpiece, the grinder itself may also As with all workshop machinery, using grinder when in use. At best, this may result be firmly anchored or held by an assistant.
shake. Subsequently, after use, the wheel grinding equipment requires that safety be in inaccurate results, but much worse, be If the approach angle is correct, sparks will
will require dressing to re-establish its given due consideration . Whilst the the cause of a serious accident. only be seen coming from the corner of the
cutting efficiency. following has been written with the two wheel. Checking that this is the case will
Photo 6 shows two items for dressing featured rests in mind it will generally apply prove that the angle has been set correctly.
Some tips for using the rests
wheels, that on the left has a single large to all forms of cutter grinding equipment. Good lighting for carrying out sharpening
diamond brazed into its end. This is lightly Keep the table and the sliding surfaces of operations is essential.
• Do wear safety specs or a
passed over the wheel's surface to break the accessory as free of grinding dust as HAVE PATIENCE; setting up is time
facemask. possible resulting in easier hand feeding
away the worn abrasive particles and to re- consuming as there are many adjustments
• Due to the item being ground often and making for safer working.
veal a fresh surface. That on the right of the to be set before sharpening can take place.
being unsupported close to the wheel when Remember the accessory will pick up This will still be the case even if using a
photograph works in much the same way
using the accessories, take only very light particles from the workbench. dedicated tool and cutter grinder, such as
but has many smaller diamonds embedded
cuts. The depth of cut must be controlled Use a small soft brush, typically a 25mm the Quorn, maybe even more so due to their
in a soft metal head, as diamonds break
by the fine feeds and the fence rather than paintbrush, to remove grinding dust from complexity.
away fresh diamonds become available.
manually. the table and accessory's base. This will Because of the above, obtain more than
These dressers can be used free hand
and will give reasonable results if used in • Make multiple passes where more make a very noticeable improvement to the one of the most used end mills, blunt end mills
this way. It is though preferable to use them than can be taken safely at a single pass ease of feeding the accessory. can then be kept and sharpened as a batch.
guided to ensure a flat surface results. The has to be removed. In the same way as your cutting tools will When creating your own special set
photograph shows that the single diamond need sharpening, so will your grinding ups, that is other than those illustrated in
• Keep the overhang of the tool , from
has a collar on its stem that can be guided wheel, dressing this frequently will make a the book, endeavour to ensure that the
the accessory holding it to a minimum. very noticeable improvement.
by the fence on the rest's table. The collar fence is between the wheel and the
• In view of the overhang do ensure Dust from the dressing operation will be
is movable to cope with variations in the accessory. With this situation, if the
the accessory is held firmly down on the more destructive than that produced during accessory moves from the fence the cutter
distance between fence and wheel. An al-
rest's table. normal use. Therefore, if the grinder is on will move from the wheel and have less
ternative, and better approach, is to mount
either form of dresser in a holder and use • The rest can be used as a a separate base rather than bench ground from it than is required. It can then
this as illustrated in Photo 7, note the fence conventional off hand grinding rest in which mounted, move the grinder outside the be returned and reground. If the accessory
on the table that is being used to guide the case ensure that the front edge of the table workshop for the dressing operation. If not is between the fence and the wheel it will
holder is set left to right. The table infeed is no more than 1mm from the grinding possible, a vacuum cleaner should be set be easy for too much to be ground away.
controls how much is removed. The holder wheel and the item being ground supported
in Photo 7 is detailed in Chapter 11 . by the rest's table.
Another form of wheel dresser has a • When the grinder is running, DO
number of star shaped wheels that rotate NOT make adjustments to the rest, other
as they are applied to the wheel. This has than using the fine feeds.
the effect of breaking away blunt particles
• Other than the fine feeds, make sure
to reveal a new surface. However, whilst
that all other adjustments are firmly locked
these have the advantage of being cheaper
before starting the grinder.
it will be difficult to ensure that a flat surface
is being produced, they are also mainly • As the grinding rest is not directly
intended for larger wheels. mounted off the grinder itself, it is essential

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'I

I
CHAPTER 4 available in the average home workshop.
The radius forming tool seen in Photo 1 is
a typical example.
GRINDING WHEEL
Even with the increased use of
replaceable tip tooling there are still
requirements that cannot be met by using

Sharpening Lathe Tools this type of cutter. Typically, it is very difficult


to make and fit very small tips, say for a
very small boring tool. Special form tooling,
such as required for cutting an acme thread
or a worm gear are other instances of the
need to use traditional HSS tooling. In some
cases, tipped tools may be available for the
Lathe tools without doubt provide the most accessories will improve the end result task in hand but if having limited use, then
diverse range of sharpening requirements appreciably. Typica lly, the asse mbly, the expense of purchasing a holder and tip
in the home workshop, fortunately, mostly illustrated in SK1 , is all that is necessary may not be justifiable.
straight forw ard and quite tolerant of for sharpening the vast majority of lathe Another factor is that the material used
deviations from the ideal. It is also in many tools when used with a suitable grinding cannot be honed to a very fine edge that is
cases relatively easy to produce a working rest. Free hand sharpening s hould be necessary to enable very shallow cuts to
tool using free hand methods. That having reserved for that very special tool that is be taken when attempting to work to
bee n said , using on ly very simple difficult to produce by any other method extremely close tolerances. Photo 2 shows
(well it is under there somewhere) a round
nose tool being use to size a number of
hole gauges where the swart produced is
more like grinding particles, this would not
be possible with a standard tipped tool.
Incidental ly, the tool had become
magnetised hence the build up of swart.
Working with magnetised tools is not to be X. POSITION FOR SHARPENING SIDE
recommended but it illustrates nicely what AND TOP CLEARANCES AND RELIEF.
can be achieved with a finely honed lathe Y. POSITION FOR SHARPENING
tool. FRONT CLEARANCE AND RELIEF.
Because of these and other factors,
sharpening lathe tools will be a requirement ASSEMBLY COMPRISES SQUARE
1 A Radius toot is in the home workshop for many years to WORKPIECE HOLDER AND SWIVEL
one tool that will come. BASE
have to be As already said, lathe tooling is one
sharpened free area where free-hand sharpening can often
hand. The round produce a working tool. Whilst this is so,
diamond file will the accessories required are so simple and
though help to the end result so much improved that there SK1 . Square workpiece holder
finalise the shape. really is no justification for attempting it. assembly.

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II

2 A finely honed
SK2. Cutter angles.
HSS tool is
capable of taking
very shallow cuts
producing swart
like grinding dust.

1.
2.
3.
SIDE RAKE.
TOP RAKE.
SIDE CLEARANCE.
(JJ -J ?__
R
IU
1

4. FRONT CLEARANCE.
5.
6.
FRONT RELIEF.
SIDE RELIEF. 3_j
\ VIEW AA

NOTES
A. FOR CLARITY OF DRAWING, ANGLES ARE SHOWN GREATER
THAN IS NORMALLY REQUIRED.
8. THE ANGLES SHOWN ARE RELATIVE TO THE WORKPIECE
AND EACH OTHER AND NOT TO THE SHANK. IF THE TOOL IS
TO BE SET ROUND, AS FOR THE AMERICAN TOOL POST, THE
from the 1 to 2 degrees required. to make TOOL WILL APPEAR WITH SHANK AS AT ZZ.
Also, using some simple accessory to hold
C. TOP RAKE(2) IS MOSTLY USED FOR TOOLS WHICH FEED
and guide the tool is far safer than the totally it apparent. SK3 also shows a knife tool IN THE DIRECTION OF ARROW T AND SIDE RAKE(l) FOR
free hand method. but this one without side relief (6) TOOLS WHICH FEED IN THE DIRECTION OF ARROW S.
The cap head screw, far right of the
Knife tool fence, acts as a stop for the base ensuring
Photo 3 shows a kni fe tool being that grinding ceases at the same position
sharpened using a simple rest and an at each pass. However, adjusting the infeed
accessory for holding the tool. Three angles that moves the table towards and away
have to be set up to before starting to from the wheel face sets the actual position
sharpen this tool. that the base stops relative to the wheel.
1. The table is tilted, left to right, to establish The crossfeed movement of the fence sets
the side clearance (3) (see SK3 also SK2 the amount ground from the tool itself. To
for definitions), setting the angle as shown limit the heat generated the amount ground
SK3. Knife tool
in SK5 Chapter 3. at each stage should be kept low; say 0.02
2. The fence is set so that the tool passes the mm. Traverse the tool back and forth a few 1
side of the wheel grinding only on the corner
of the wheel. Again refer to Chapter 3 SK1c.
times until the amount of sparks produced
diminishes appreciably. Inspect the result J
3. The angle of the side relief (6) is set by and repeat as necessary with further cuts
the position of the tool holder on the swivel of 0.02 mm. 3. s· TO 1o·
4. s· To 1o·
~3
base . Th e fenc e ang le has been Using the design of rest seen in the
deliberately increased in the photograph, photograph it is inevitable that there will be VIEW AA 5. s· TO 10·

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3 Sharpening a 4 Sharpening a
knife tool using a roughing tool on
square holder on the more complex
the rest's table. rest.

\
l
'~

in that direction. Therefore, the table, with cutting an acme thread or a worm wheel.
some play at the end of the fence due to will though help to emphasise the method the fence, move together for setting depth These are best ground using a round tool
clearance in its slide, but w ith care in of working. of cut on the side of the wheel, rather than bit enabling them to be rotated to suit the
manufacture this should not create a Photo 4 shows a roughing tool being just the fence as is the case with the simpler helix angle of the worm or thread being cut.
problem. It is though, good practice to ease ground, this time using the more complex rest detai led extensively in th is book . When in use these tools are held in a holder
the end of the fence consistently in the same rest. This clearly shows that the table is Details of the advanced rest are given in specifically for the tool as seen in Photo 5 .
direction whilst making each adjustment and tilted to provide the side relief and that the the Workshop Practice series, Ref. 1. This is also ideal for holding the tool whilst
prior to locking it with the locking screw, seen holder is at an angle on the base to set the Roughing tools have a generous radius being ground as can be seen in Photo 6.
bottom left of the fence. T he design for this roughing tool side relief (negative in this between the side relief (6) and the front An essential feature of these tools ,
rest is given in Chapter 9. case) , see SK4. T he photograph also relief (5) . This is best produced freehand SKS. is the setting face ground on the side.
The above procedure will in general shows that there is no stop screw at the as described later for a round nose tool. This makes it possible to check that the tool
apply to virtually all lathe tools with only end of the fence, with the roughing tool when being used has been rotated in its
minor variations to the process, further shape this is not necessary. However, it Acme and wormwheel cutter ho lder to suit the helix angle of t he
detai led desc riptions are therefore clearly shows how this table can be moved Other cutters that will use essentially the workpiece being made. The angle, being
unnecessary, a few additional photographs left/right by the addition of the dovetail slide same processes are those required for dependent on both diameter and pitch, is

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way, the holder reposi tioned on the base, elsewhere (Typically Ref. 2) for details of
and the tool passed down the left side of cutter angles, tip widths, etc. and essential
the wheel. The angle of the tool on the base information regarding how these thread
will of course be quite critical for tools of forms are machined.
this type, though with a suitable protractor It still remains to create the top rake 4
not that difficult to set sufficiently accurate. (2). Having accurately ground the two side
Do remember that the angle of the fence faces to the internal angle required it should
has no bearing on the angle ground. be understood that including a top rake will
Photo 7, shows the front clearance (4) have the effect of altering the angle, actually
being ground by plunging it onto the side making the internal angle smaller. Working
1
:J 3. 5' to 1 o· of the wheel. The stop at the end of the
fence together with the rest's infeed is used
with a zero degree top rake would avoid
the error but this would reduce its cutting ALTERN AliVE
- 4. 5' to 1 o· to establish the width of the tip. As the width efficiently. Fortunately, only a few degrees FORM
5. 15' to 25' is important the infeed is advanced a little rake will significantly increase cutting
6. 15' to 25' at a time until the required width results. efficiency whilst having only limited effect 3. 5' TO 10'
VIEW AA .J\ Z. SIDE RAKE The Photograph shows that the rest
DIRECTION has been repositioned at the side of the
on the resultant angle. I would therefore
suggest a compromise angle of five \1 VIEW AA
4. 5' TO 10'
3 wheel and whilst this position has limited degrees for the top rake irrespective of the
3-V
R. RADIUS
ABOUT 2mm. use provisions for mounting the rest in this material being machined. SK6. Round nose tool.
way should be made for the occasional use. Theoretically, it would be possible to
SK4. Roughing tool. It should be obvious that the helix calculate the change in angle due to adding My only suggestion is that you should
as a result a variable. setting flat, the two sides and the end, must top rake but the change would be so small ensure that the angles set for the sides of
Having first ground the flat, grinding the all be made without moving the cutter in its as to be impossible to work to wit h the tool do not start on the low side.
left side will replicate the process above for holder, only the table angles being equipment available in the home workshop. Whilst not shown on SKS a few
the roughing tool (Photo 4) whilst for the changed. At this stage I should add that it
right side the table will be tilted the other will be necessary to refer to data published

'·--1\ ~~ - - ·- ~
LI--- 3
I 5 Tool for cutting
SK5. Worm/Acme thread tool. an Acme thread.
I
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that when studying them that values are
only quoted for angles 3, 4, 5 and 6. This is
because angles 1 and 2 depend on the
material being machined. That having been
said , for low volume production, where
machining rates and tool life are less
important, the angles are far from critical.
Most of the sketches quote angles of
5 to 10 degrees for the clearance and relief
angles, and in the home workshop, working
1 towards the lower value would be a good
:J course of action as this will give a more
---
3~
\VIEW

3. s· to 10'. 5. 5' to 10' .


3__'_]
3. s· to 1o·.
\VIEW AA

5. s· to 1o·.
robust cutting edge. As the swart being
produced has to slide over the side and top
rakes, it should be obvious that the steeper
the angle the easier will the material be cut.
However, this is an oversimplification. A
[ill I I
3. 2· TO 3"
4.
6.
s· ro r
z· To 3"
4. s· to 10'. 6. 5' to 10'. 4. 5' to 1o·. 6. s· to 1o·. steeper angle will obviously result in a finer, 3_/j VIEW AA
X. TH IS EDGE SHOULD BE VERY X. THIS EDGE SHOULD BE VERY but weaker, edge, and a compromise is
therefore necessary between ease of cut
SK9. Parting off tool.
SLIGHTLY CONVEX AND HONED TO SLIGHTLY CONVEX AND HONED TO
HAVE A VERY FINE EDGE ABOUT HAVE A VERY FINE EDGE ABOUT
2 mm WIDE. 2 mm WIDE. OL..,___---~_ __ __j

Z. CHAMFER ABOUT 1 mm Z. CHAMFER ABOUT 1 mm


Y. DIRECTION OF FEED. Y. DIRECTION OF FEED. u
SK7. Outside diameter finishing SK8. Face finishing tool. X. SHOWS HOW FRONT CLEARANCE IS GRADUALLY INCREASED
tool. TO ENABLE THE TOOL TO BE USED AT THE SMALLEST
degrees side rake could a lso be the front clearance (4) to be accurately POSSIBLE DIAMETER. OTHER ANGLES CONFORM GENERALLY TO
incorporated. In this case the tool would be maintained as the tool is rotated to produce THOSE FOR OUTSIDE DIAMETER TURNING.
fed in at an angle so that it cuts only on the the round end, Photo 8. 6 - 6
end and the one side. Again, refer to Ref.
I' ;:G I' SK1 0. Boring

LJJ- s '·· -·',B. ·~E:Q-s


I
2. Actually, the process of grinding the top The sketches tools.
rake and side rake (if any) would closely Some explanation is necessary regarding
follow that for the knife tool, Photo 3. the sketches, 1 to 6 already having been A. ··-·
briefly mentioned but with sketches 7 to 10
Round nose tools ( SK6)
Rather like the form tool in Photo 1, the
showing additional types of tools. SK2 is a
hypothetical tool that ill ustrates the six
D t=B= Q OJ 1 2
: -
external radius of the round nose tool is a angles and their names, some of which that 13\ 13\
shape that has to be largely achieved free will occur on each form of lathe tool. The
A. GENERAL PURPOSE BORING TOOL, ALSO FACES THE BOTTOM
hand. However, an extension table to the numbers, 1 Side rake, 2 Top rake, etc. are OF BLIND, OR SEMI BLIND HOLES.
side of the wheel, set to the appropriate used consistently on all the other sketches B. INSIDE DIAMETER FIN ISHING TOOL, CONFORMS CLOSELY TO
angle, enables the side clearance (3) and and throughout this chapter. It will be found REQUIREMENTS FOR THE OUTSIDE DIAMETER FINISHING TOOL.

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6 Sharpening an 8 Freehand
Acme tool in the sharpening of the
same holder as end radius of a
would be used to round nose tool
hold the tool on using a side table
the lathes top extension.
slide.

for plastic is correct, a negative side/top blank in the accessory used for sharpening,
rake (1/2) is often found advantageous with as this will give a larger item to hold and as
some plastic materials. a result be a safer operation.
The shapes shown in the sketches are
typical and there is much room for variation, Boring tools
the knif e tool bei ng s ha rpened in When dealing with outside diameter turning
photograph 3 compared to knife tool in SK3 a very small number of tools will satisfy
being a typical example. almost all OD turning requirements. In fact,
and staying power of the tool's edge. Free cutting mild steel 20 - 25 a basic knife tool will work with any diameter
The foll owing gives an indication of Aluminium 20- 25 Sharpening versus shaping and length whilst also being able to
suitable rake angles though there are many Copper 20 - 25 The explanations given so far are really machine end faces. This single tool could
grad es for a given metal that wil l Mild steel 10 - 15 intended for tools just having the cutting as a result satisfy the needs of say 99% of
theoretically have some bearing on the Cast iron 5 - 10 edges sharpened and in which case only a outside diameter work, albeit not ideally.
angle chosen. As I have already said Silver steel and similar 5 - 10 very small amount will require removing. This is far from the case in boring tools that
though, quite wide variations in angle will Stainless 5 - 10 In this case overheating of the tool bit must be available in various sizes to cope
still give a tool that is adequate for the home Brass, gun metal , etc. 0-2 shou ld not be a problem . However, with differing diameters and depth, possibly
workshop. A SHARP EDGE IS FAR MORE Plastics 0 - ( -10) frequently the tool will have initially had to with additional forms for through and blind
IMPORTANT THAN THE PRECISE ANGLE J ust in case you think that it may be a be shaped from a blank and in this case holes. Photo 9 shows some typical
CHOSEN. printing error, the minus 10 degrees quoted overheating is a distinct possibility. In the examples.
commercial set up, grinding will be done The subject of this book, being the
under a generous flow of coolant to avoid sharpening of workshop tooling, it is not
this. As this will be impracticable, grinding appropriate to go into great depth regarding
needs to be done a little at a time and the wide variety of boring tools used, if you
allowed to cool between stages. Under no need further details then a book relating to the
7 Sharpening the circumstances should the tool, be it a lathe use of the lathe would be a good starting point.
end of an Acme tool, drill , or an end mill is plunged into a However, despite the wide range of sizes
tool on the side of coolant, as this may cause the cutting edge required, the actual cutting edges conform very
a wheel. This is to crack. The most that can be done is to closely to those in SK2 but with one exception.
one case where place the tool on a block of steel to act as a With a tool intended for outside diameter
mounting the rest heat sink to speed up cooling. turning the curvature of the part being turned
on the side of a Even if done freehand it will be an further increase the clearance provided by the
wheel is beneficial. advantage in most cases to hold the tool front clearance (5). This is not the case with a

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9 Typical boring 10 Sharpening a
tools for use on boring tool using a
the lathe. square tool holder,
a left to right
mounted fence
and the simple
rest.

[] lJ
Lr==~~~ ~~
[Q o- 2 ~~
u
boring tool where the curvature of the hole
reduces the relief, see SK10.
Despite the more complex shape of the
[g 0 3 ~~ main portion of a boring tool , the Milling cutters
1 SHAPE SIDE Of SHANK sharpening operations can still easily be Whilst the above has emphasised lathe
2. SHAPE BELOW SHANK accomp li shed usi ng th e techni ques
3. RADIUS SHANK tooling, some tools for use on the milling
described above, as illustrated in Photo 10. machine, fly cutters, tools for boring heads,

[g ~
This shows the side clearance (3) being etc. will use similar sharpening techniques.
4. MAKE FRONT END CLEARANCE sharpened on the face of the wheel. The
4~
These though invariably have round shanks
-- result will be a concave face but at this and for these to be held the round
~ fJ= 5. MAKE TOP RAKE
diameter of wheel the effect is minimal. workpiece holder, SK1 Chapter 7, should
From the photograph it can be seen that be used. Photo 11 shows this on its swivel
5~ the fence is set left to right and the tool is base, being used whilst sharpening a
~
ground with a wiping action, as it is traverse
l1= 6. MAKE SECONDARY FRONT
along the fence. The amount ground away
boring tool for use on a milling machine.
Details for making the round workpiece
6~ CLEARANCE
is controlled by the infeed.
- -- - holder are given in Chapter 11 .
Initial shaping of a boring tool from a
~ ~ 7. MAKE FRONT CLEARANCE high speed steel blank is a time consuming References
\7\J= exercise and must be done with care, SK11 1. "Milling, a Complete Course" Workshop
v \
THE DIAGRAMS ARE DIAGRAMATIC shows a typical sequence. Again, this is best Practice Series, Number 35.
I I ONLY, CORNERS WILL NOT BE done with the tool blank held in the holder. If 2. "Screw Cutting in the Lathe". Workshop
I SHARP AS SHOWN. you have hardening and tempering Practice Series, Number 3. "Gears and
' /
equipment and experience you may like to Gear Cutting". Workshop practice series
THE SUGGESTED METHOD IS FOR GUIDANCE shape a tool from silver steel whilst still soft Number 17.
ONLY THERE IS MUCH FREEDOM TO VARY rather than a HSS blank. However, the
METHOD AND SHAPE TO SUIT.
lasting power of the eventual edge will not
be that of a HSS cutter that will last a lifetime 11 Sharpening a boring head boring tool
SK11. Shaping boring tools. if used and sharpened with care. using the round workpiece holder.

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1 Sharpening the
CHAPTER 5 end teeth of an
end mill using a
simple square
holder and
plunging the cutter
into the curved
Sharpening End Mills face of the grinding
wheel.

Considering the large amount of use an end


mill gets in the modern home workshop it
is probably the most neglected of all the
common cutting tools used. This situation ,
without doubt, due to the lack of equipment E
capable of carrying out the sharpening
tasks required. However, whilst sharpening 1
the side cutting edges requires quite
precise equipment, the end teeth can be
...
sharpened with only the minimum. c only a small number of shank diameters, the cutter inspected, if the result needs
Sketch SK1 shows that no matter how 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 millimetre for metric, more to be removed the infeed is adjusted
wide a step is being cut the end tooth only E and a similar range in the imperial sizes. a little, say 0.02 mm, and the four edges
cuts on its tip and at a width less than the Because of this the number of holders or ground again.
feed rate per tooth. Therefore, if the cutter collets to be made to enable the sharpening The left to right adjustment also needs
is only being used for surfacing, SK1 .1 , to take place is not that great. setting so that the full width of the tooth is
sharpen ing just the end teeth will ground but ensuring that the wheel does
appreciably improve the cutter' s The end teeth not contact the others. Setting the angle of
performance. If a cutter is reserved purely By far the simplest method of sharpening
for this operation then the small radius that ~w~ the end teeth is to use a square holder,
will be develop between the end and side bored to be a close fit on the cutter's shank
edges, on a blunt cutter, will be removed A ANGLE (DURATION) OF CUT and fitted with a grub screw, to hold the
by sharpening just the end teeth. C COMPONENT D DEPTH OF CUT cutter in place, SK2. The square can then
Even if the cutter is to be used for E END MILL FR FEED RATE be used to index the cutter for sharpening
cutting a step, SK1 .2 sharpening just the W WIDTH OF STEP the four edges in turn, as shown in Photo
NOTE. TH IS SHOWS THAT THE WIDTH BORE TO BE CENTRAL IN SQUARE
end teeth will improve the situation a little 1. In this situation, the fence is used to guide
CUT BY EACH TOOTH IS NO GREATER AND A CLOSE FIT ON THE END
but there is no real alternative but to the holder whilst the cutter is plunged into
THAN THE FEED RATE PER TOOTH. MILL SHANK. FIT GRUB SCREW FOR
sharpen the side also. the wheel's face, and using the stop screw
HOLDING END MILL
Fortunately, in the case of milling and infeed to control the amount ground
cutters, in the home workshop there are SK1. End mill tooth load. away. The four teeth are ground in turn and SK2. End mill holder.

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2 Grinding a cross modification to a basic bench grinder is
on the end of an suggested so that this can be reserved for
end mill to relieve all cutter sharpening.
the centre once If you chose to make the accessory for
sharpening of the sharpening the side teeth (Chapter 10) then
end teet/1 has this can also be used to hold the cutter END TEETH OF AN END MILL
resulted in the whilst sharpening the end teeth, the MUST BE CONCAVE.
centre impression process being essentially the same, but
SKETCH SHOWS ONLY TWO TEETH.
being eliminated. more details later in the chapter. ANGLE SHOULD BE 1 TO 2"
SHOWN EXAGERATED FOR CLARITY.
The side cutting edges
Sharpening the side cutting edges of an
SK3. End mill end tooth form.
end mil l is almost certainly the most
demanding sharpening task like ly to
surface in the average home workshop, as
complex, if not more, than sharpening say
reamers and taps. However, the need to
sharpen end mills will be an absolute
certainty whilst in the case of reamers and
taps most workshops will get by without the
need. It is therefore essential to provide a
facility for carrying out this task, That is,
the fence should be done such that the will be ground away and some form of unless you have your cutters sharpened
resulting edges are concave, SK3. This is relieving its centre will be required. Ideally professionally, or chose to get by with blunt X. END MILL CUTTING EDGE
essential so that the cutter only contacts a small grinding point in a high -speed cutters, eventually replacing them with new PARALLEL WITH BASE
the workpiece at the outer end of the teeth. grinder could be plunged in to re-establish ones before their time.
Setting the fence at about 1 to 2 degrees the indent. However, the facility for carrying If you equip yourself with a Quorn or a POSITION _[Q_R GRINDING
will suffice. The angle at the point on the out this task is unlikely to be available in Stent it is likely that you will also make an
wheel's face at which sharpening is to take the majority of workshops and some other accessory specifically to suit the particular
SK4. End teeth.
place should be set to 5 degrees, see method will have to be found. An easy machine, alternatively you may choose to
Chapter 3, SK6. After repeated sharpening, method is to set the cutter at 45 degrees in purchase a commercially available
the width of the primary clearance will the holder and use this to create a cross accessory to use. Whatever approach you
become too great, say 2 mm or more, and using the corner of the wheel as shown in take there is likely to be very little difference
the secondary clearance will require Photos 2 and 3. This method, though with the basic design of the unit.
attention. Do this, using the same method crude, is adequate as the cut1er cuts only This book primarily attempts to carry
but with the angle set to between 10 and on the tips of the end teeth. out the required sharpening applications
12 degrees, reducing the width of the A tidier method would be to use a with the minimum of equipment but for this
primary clearance to about 1 mm. This will saucer wheel with its thin edge to create task there really is no alternative but to
give scope for further sharpening before the the cross; it would though be impractical to make available an accessory comparable
secondary clearance wil l again need ke ep chang ing the wheels on the
grinding. workshops off hand grinder for these
Eventually the centre hole of the cutter specialist tasks. However, in Chapter 13, a 3 The result of the operation in Photo 2.

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4 The end mill 5 Sharpening the
accessory, the end teeth with a
most complex in wiping action
this book, but rather than being
essential for plunged into the
sharpening the wheel as in Photo
side teeth of an 1. The stop screw
end mill. seen on the fence
prevents the wheel
contacting the
three edges not
being ground.

to those used with the Quorn. Stent, or even located against the index arm, and lock the
a full function industrial tool and cutter spindle.
grin der. Wheth er you make t his, or Set the end mi ll accessory on the
purchase a commercial item, the task of swivel base to an angle of approximately 1
sharpening the cutter will be the same. to 2 degrees to ensure that the end teeth
Essentially, the process is to move the when ground will be slightly concave, see
end mill along the grinding wheel at the earlier SK3. Fit the fence to the table, with
same time rotating it so that the wheel the stop screw at the left hand end, and at
remains in contact with the edge being an angle of 1 to 2 degrees relative to the
sharpened . However, having n ow face of the wheel to ensure grinding takes
introduced this accessory, I will deal with place on the wheels right corner only. Set
using it first for the end teeth and then the the table at approximately 90 degrees to
side cutting edges. The explanations will the side of the wheel and about 5 degrees
largely be appropriate to other similar units relative to its face, doing this at the point
also. where grinding will take place. With the course adjustments are firmly locked and stop is reached, Photo 5, ensuring that the
swivel base against the fence and the stop, do a few dummy runs to get the feel of the swivel base is being held firmly against the
End teeth and the end mill very close to the face of operation before turning the grinder on. fence and the tabletop during the operation.
Fit the accessory, Photo 4, with the four the wheel, adjust the cross traverse such Now with the grinder running and the Remove assembly f rom the table and
tooth indexing collar ensuring that there is that when grinding, the wheel will not touch swivel base held firmly against the fence check to see if the whole length of the end
no end float and adjust the bearings so that the adjacent end teeth. Err on the side of and stop, very slowly advance the infeed tooth has been ground and the adjacent
the spindle rotates freely but without shake. caution, fine adjustment is carried out once until the first sparks appear. Move the end end tooth not touched. Make adjustments
Fit the end mill making sure that the grinding takes place. At this stage the mill to the right and using the infeed place to the cross traverse if necessary.
end teeth cutting edges are horizontal and adjustments are made with the grinder at on a very small cut, about 0,02 mm. Now It is perhaps a point in the book where
vertical, SK4 when the index collar is rest. Do not forget to make sure that all slowly feed the end mill to the left until the it is worth commenting on the major

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grinding of the secondary clearance. set as per S K4 the angle would need teeth and how th is will differ from the
Set the table at the required angle to the increasing, the amount though would be process used for an end mill. The following
left side of the grinding wheel. Fit the fence, difficult to determine and the resulting description is based on the method used
with stop screw, and set at an angle of about clearance would be uncertain. for end mills in square holders and plunged
1 degree with the side of the wheel. Place The assembly is held firmly against the into the wheel face. Using this method and
the end mill accessory as shown in Photo fence , stop screw and the surface of the sharpening first the shorter edge , then
7 making sure that there is clearance rest's table using the left hand and the rotating the cutter 180 degrees and grinding
between cutter and wheel. Make sure all spindle fed by the right hand, Photo 8. As the second, will result in the second edge
adjustments are tightened and that the both hands are well away from the grinding not being sharpened completely along its
cutter's edge is against cutter rest, and then wheel it is with normal care a safe length. However, if the longer edge is
start the grinder. Using the cross feed, feed operation. It is probably worth commenting ground first and then the cutter rotated to
the rest until the first sparks appear. at this point that for simplicity of taking the grind the other, the wheel would foul the
When I first attempted to carry out this photographs the hands are not shown in innermost part of the longer edge already
operation I started at the outer end of the most of the illustrations through out the ground.
end mill, sharpening towards the shank book. Manual intervention will of course be It would therefor seem necessary to
end, and found it almost impossible to feed needed for the sharpening operation to be grind one edge and then reset the assembly
the end mill satisfactorily. After a number completed. for grinding the other. Whilst theoretically
of attempts, I decided to start from the This is without doubt the most complex possible it would be difficult to get both
shank and work towards the outer end, the sharpening operation proposed in the book edges at the same level and one edge
difference w as immense. What was but creating a cutter, virtually the equal of would then do all or most of the work when
beginning to look an impossible task had a new one, is very satisfying and well worth plunging. My method for overcoming this
now become a task that could be carried the effort of making the accessory. It should is as follows.
out with ease. No doubt with this approach not be assumed that using a full function First, grind the short edge and then the
the wheel's rotation keeps the cutter against 8 Sharpening taking place. tool and cutter grinder will make the task longer edge at the same setting, as done
the rest and the operator needs only to any quicker or easier, in fact the versatility for an end mill, that is creating a concave
make the feed. to reduce the land to no more than 1mm. of these may make many operations even end with the fence set at 1 to 2 degrees.
Having successfully ground the first This operatio n is normally only applicable more demanding. Now increase this angle to around 3
edge remove the assembly from the rest, on larger size cutters, say 8mm and above. degrees set the fence over so as to grind
rotate the spindle anti clockwise, replace For me, having started the exercise Sharpening slot drills the inner portion of the longer edge. Do
the assembly and grind the second followed with what seemed insurmou ntable Having described the operations necessary before grinding, move the infeed out a little,
by the third and fourth edges. Make sure problems, the quality of the finished task for sharpening an end mill it would be easy then adjust the infeed little by little until that
the fence is fitted with the stop screw to was extreme ly satisfying. W h ilst not to fall into the trap of considering a slot drill part of the longer edge initially missed is
ensure that the assembly returns exactly appearing up to the standard of a new cutter just an end mill but with only two cutting ground. This will result in a small bend in
to the same position for each cutting edge. the difference was not that great. In terms edges, this is not the case. The most obvious the edge , S K6 , but this will be of no
After completing the four edges, inspect the of cutting ability the difference would be difference is due to the need for a slot drill consequence.
result and, if considered appropriate, repeat hard to tell. to be able to be plunged into the workpiece, If the primary clearance land becomes
the procedure taking another light cut to The settings for this operation are a task that an end mill cannot do due to it over wide the secondary clearance will also
each cutting edge, no more than 0 .02 mm, though more critical than most, typically, if not being able to cut completely to its centre. need grinding. However, being less critical,
probably less. the cutter is set as SK4, rather than SKS Examination of a slot drill will show that one the short edge can be ground, then the
If this results in a g round width of the angle to the side of the wheel will not cutting edge is longer than the other enabling fence moved and the longer edge ground
greater than 1.5 mm set the angle to 70 provide a clearance on the cutting edges It to drill a hole. Photo 9. at one operation.
degrees and grind the secondary clearance and the cutter will not cut. With the cutter Considering first, sharpening the end In the average home workshop slot

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9 A slot drill has one long cutting edge
that passes the centre. This enables it to
plunge into the workpiece for cutting
enclosed slots.
CHAPTER 6
END TEETH GROUND IN 3 STAGES
1 AND 2 AT THE SAME SETTING.
ANGLES SHOWN EXAGERATED FOR
Other Milling Cutters
CLARITY.

SK6. Slot drill end tooth form.


addit iona l c lea rance angle b ut a t 90 Dovetail cutters Ideally therefore. the end mill accessory
degrees to the other two. This though is
These can be sharpened much like end should be used with its 6 tooth index collar.
not a clearance facet but one to produce mills, though the side cutting edges not If though you have decided not to equip
the cutting edge at the innermost part of having a he lix makes sharpening them an yourself with this facility at this stage, a
each end tooth. easier operation. The standard for cutters simple hexagonal holder, similar in principle
The process for creating this will be
up to 25 mm (or 1in) outside diameter, those to the squa re holders for end mills, should
similar to that for grinding the secondary I consider most likely to surface in the home be made for the task and used as in Photo
facet but at a steeper angle, not c rucial but workshop, is for them to have 6 teeth . 1 to sharpen the end teeth. The bore should
say around 45 degrees. What is crucial is
that the fence position must be set so as to
drills will get less use than end mills and avoid the grinding wheel contacting the
therefore the need for sharpening will be outer end of the cutting edge as a result
less. If though a slot drill has b een removing the helix at that point.
sharpened a number of times the shorter The process for sharpening the cutting
e dg e will reduce in length but more edges will though be identical to that for an
importantly so will the longer. This will result end mill, but sharpening these will reduce
in the slot drill not cutting to the centre. the size of the slot produced. Whether this
Examination of a slot drill will show that is acceptable will depend on the use to
there is what appears at fi rst sig ht an which it is to be put.

1 Using a
hexagonal holder
for sharpening a
six tooth dovetail
cutter. As can be
seen, a higher
fence is required
for this set up.

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2 Sharpening the
side teeth of a
~ ., dovetail cutter
- - -- -----~ - -- using the end mill
accessory on the
swivel base. The
cutter not having a
helix, this
operation is
BORE TO BE CENTRAL IN HEXAGON relatively simple.
AND A CLOSE FIT ON THE CUTTER'S
SHANK.
SKIM CORNERS AFTER BORING TO
ENSURE THAT THEY ARE CONCENTRIC X. CUTTING TIPS PARALLEL
WITH THE BORE. WITH BASE

SK1 . Six tooth cutter holder. SK2. Position for grinding outer
edges.
be reasonably concentric with the sides of would suggest you endeavour to replicate
the holder, but more important, concentric those already on the cutter.
with the corners. This can be achieved with The absence of any helix on the side
ease by skimming the corners after cutting edges makes sharpening these an
machining the bore, doing this without easy task using the end mill accessory, it
removing the part from the chuck, see SK1 . is though less straightforward using the
A higher fence, depending on the size of simple hexagonal holder, though not
the hexagon, will be necessary for this set impossible. Because of this I will first lhe wheel then sharpen the first edge as Having ground the first edge, loosen
up. describe the process using the accessory. Illustrated in Photo 2. Remember to set the the spindle, rotate to the next tooth on the
Having six, rather than four teeth, it is Fit the six tooth indexing collar to the end fence so that grinding only takes place on index collar, lock spindle and grind the
probable that the grinding wheel will come mill accessory, ensuring that there is no end lhe corner of the wheel and setting the second edge, repeating for the remaining
close to the adjacent tooth but this can be float and adjust the bearings so that the amount removed using the cross feed. Also edges. After having been sharpened a
avoided by turning the cutter in the holder spindle rotates freely but without shake. Fit adjust the position of the stop screw using number of times the secondary clearance
a few degrees. An alternative would be to the dovetail cutter making sure that, when the infeed to prevent the cutter's shank will also need attention in the same way,
sharpen the cutter on the side of the wheel the index collar is located against the index being ground. However, I see from the but at a steeper angle.
using the wheel's curvature to provide the arm, the tips of the opposing end teeth are photograph that I have not heeded my Photo 3 also shows that the end mill
clearance. horizontal, SK2, then lock the spindle. This advice given in an earlier chapter that is to accessory can be used to sharpen the end
As with an end mill , grinding the can be set up on the surface plate using a arrange the fence between the accessory teeth with a wiping action rather than the
secondary clearance will also become surface gauge to check that the opposing and the wheel. I can assure you that the cruder plunge and remove illustrated in
necessary afte r the c utter has bee n tooth tips are at the same height. set up works well, with care, but one false Photo 1
sharpened a few times. Again the process Set the end mill accessory at 30 move and the cutting edge could have more I feel I should make a point here that is
will be the same. Both angles may though degrees on the swivel base and the rest's ground from it than is required. The fence relevant, not only to this task, but also to
differ from those given for an end mill and I table at the appropriate angle to the side of should be on the hidden side of swivel base. most other sharpening tasks. Do always

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3 Sharpening the 4 If the end miff
end teeth using accessory has not
the end mill been made, the
accessory. Being parts in this
done with a wiping photograph will
action it is enable the side
preferable to the teeth of a dovetail
cruder, plunge an(! cutter to be
remove method in sharpened, see
Photo 1. Photo 6.

remove the absolute minimum , the more


that you remove the sooner is will be
necessary to grind other faces, most often
the secondary clearance, but similarly, re-
establishing the indent in the end of an end
mill.
Returning now to using the simple
hexagonal holder. To accomplish the task
with this it will be necessary to make an
angled guide, as shown in SK3. The guide,
hexagonal holder and deeper fence are
seen in Photo 4. To make this, fix a fence
at 30 degrees to an angle plate and fix and
machine the guide as illustrated in Photo
5. X. ANGLE TO SUIT CUTTER
The process is simple, just place the
holder, both side and end, against the guide
BEING SHARPENED. NORMALLY
piece and, using a long Allen key to restrain 45• OR 60" FOR A DOVETAIL
the guide, feed the holder forward. Ensure CUTTER.
that it stays in contact with the guide and 5 The set-up for
the guide with the fence until the stop screw machining the
is reached, Photo 6. This may seem a SK3. Angled guide. angled guide.

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I'
never used myself, is to sharpen the outer The pivot on which the saw rotates is
edges in the same manner as described drilled off centre to provide adjustment
for the outer edges of a dovetail cutter (see enabling differing saw diameters to locate
Photo 2 or 6, no guide required though). II the leaf spring used for indexing the saw.
is probable that a few extra degrees The leaf spring is also used to set the
clearance will be required. This I feel will clearance angle ground onto the saw's
work adequately, though , of pure ly teeth, equal to angle Y shown on SKS. This
academic interest only, whilst the edge will can be reduced by moving the leaf spring
be straight the cut surface will be convex. forward and increased by moving it back.
due to the helix, see SK6 for an explanation. The fence must be set at an angle of 1
Apart from being small, and therefore to 2 degrees to the face of the wheel so
awkward to set up, sharpening of the ends that grinding only takes place on the
of each tooth should be possible using a wheel's left corner.
similar method to that used for the end teeth Details for making the parts used in this
of an end mill. The ends adjacent to the assembly are given in Chapter 11.
shank will though need particular care and
probably not be possible unless a grinder Fly cutters and boring tools
with a saucer wheel is available. Whilst essentially milling cutters, because of
6 Sharpening the side teeth, this time The shop made cutter, right of Photo their similarity with lathe tools they were
using the hexagonal holder and the 7 , can of course be sharpened with ease 7 Commercial and shop made T slot discussed in the final paragraph of Chapter 4.
angled guide. having no hel ix and needing only to be cutters, note the helix on the commercial
ground on its outer edges. item.
crude arrangement but in fact is works quite Incidentally, a T slot cutter is made
well. Actually, a small hole in the guide to oversize to allow for it to be sharpened a
take the end of the Allen key would be a number of times before the resulting slot
worthwhile addition. becomes too small for the T nut intended
to be used in it.
T slot cutters
As can be seen in Photo 7 the teeth of a T Slitting saws
slot cutter have a helix, similar to that on Sketch SKS shows the equipment required for
an end mill. Closer examination though sharpening a slitting saw and is seen being used
shows that this is positive and negative on in Photo 8. The saw is fed left to right by hand
alternate edges. The short length of an with the swivel base held firmly against the fence
edge will make setting up the end mill and the saw against the swivel base. The infeed
accessory to take account of the helix very is used to control depth of cut. With a large
difficult, compounded by the fact that it is tooth saw it is probable that no stop will be
negative on alternate edges. required. However, with an accurately dressed
Examination of a new cutter shows that wheel, saws with very small teeth can be ground
the edge is very slightly convex along its when a stop fitted to the fence will be necessary
length, proving that at the manufacturing to avoid the wheel touching the adjacent tooth
stage the helix was taken account of. In this case the cross feed would be used to 8 Sharpening a
My suggestion, that I should add I have accurately set the stop position. slitting saw.

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I

', ,
CHAPTER 7
SK4
c-
/ .
Small Workshop Tools

A
I
8
I I
c L.E~ER- .r ; .:;')
DIAMETER AT C8\
Grinding the simpler workshop tools may Screwdrivers
THIS SHOWS THAT WHILST THE CUTTER HAS BEEN GROUND
appear to be a task to be carried out free Screwdrivers are probably ground free
WITH A STRAIGHT EDGE, AT A AND C IT CUTS AT A LARGER hand, but, having equipped the workshop hand in most cases. However, if you have
DIAMETER. THE CUT FACE IS THEREFORE CONVEX. FOR EASE for sharpening the more complex items it tried this you will have found how difficult it
THE SKETCH SHOWS ONLY FOUR CUTTING EDGES. would be false economy not to include is to ensure the two sides are parallel. Using
accessories to grind the simpler items. In the round workpiece holder mounted on the
any case, some will be ground using the swivel base, SK1 , the task can be
GRINDING WHEEL same accessories needed for the more performed with precision, Photo 1. Having
FENCE STOP SCREW complex tasks. ground the first side, the holder is removed
~=-----'-J REQUI REO

SKS. Slitting saw sharpening.

ANGLE Y DETERM INES THE CLEARANCE


ANGLE OF THE GROUND TOOTH.
1 Sharpening a
screwdriver.

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with stop and infeed to limit the amount 2 Sharpening a
ground at each attempt, do not attempt to centre punch.
feed this totally manually.

Boring tools
The subject of boring tools for boring heads.
that that have round shanks, are another tool
that will make use of the round workpiece
holder above. This subject was discussed
in the final paragraph of Chapter 4.

© 0 Centre punches
These are another item that have
traditionally been sharpened free hand but
a more control led resul t can b e
accomplished, and with ease, using the end
mill sharpen ing accessory fitted with a
round workpiece holder. (Chapter 11 item
8 1) Having only lim ited use , and
concentricity not being crucial, this holder
is simpler than making a collet to suit. Its
outer diameter being made to suit one of
the end mill collets. However. if you prefer·
you can of course make a collet to hold the diameter of the indent must be greater than degrees to 60 degrees may be more
centre punch. the length of the drills chisel point, typically practical for the majority of tasks. The
In use, the rest's fence is fitted with a around 1mm for a 4mm drill and 2.5mm for punched mark is then enlarged with the
stop screw and set at an angle as required a 12mm drill . To produce suitable indents standard 90 degrees punch prior to drilling.
by the centre punch. With the accessory for the larger size drills, a relatively flat point In the case of an end mill accessory
held against the fence and its stop th e of 90 degrees would be about right. not being available the following method,
SK1. Round workpiece holder accessory's spindle is rotated whilst th e The centre punch mark is invariably though crude , works quite well . Push a
assembly. centre punch is being ground on the wheels positioned on a previously scribed line but circlip washer firmly onto the taper portion
face, Photo 2. The amou nt grou nd is In use the 90 degrees angle punch has two of the centre punch and with a vee block
from the base, turned over, repositioned controlled by the rest's infeed. Take note weaknesses. The rather flat point does not located against the fence and its stop screw
and the second side ground. how the ball joint of the rest permits the locate positively in the scribed line and place the punch into the Vee with the circlip
Having ground the s ides, the table to be rotated to the angle required for being f lat visibility is also lim ited . To against the blocks face and rotate the
workpiece holder is removed from the base, this operation. With a table that cannot be overcome this problem a centre punch with punch. Use the infeed to determine the
then turned on its side and the end of the rotated (Photo 3, Chapter 3) the fenc e a sharper point is first used, often called amount ground off. See SK2 and Photo 3.
driver ground until the correct tip thickness should be angled. spotting or prick punches. Punches with a If the punch is held in the vee block
results. For tasks such as this, where there The angle of the centre punch's point point as sharp as 30 degrees are often using the finger, the knurl will make rotation
is significant overhang from the holder, do will depend on its intended use. Most often proposed but will of course only be able to a little difficult. Adding a short length of
ensure the holder is firmly held down on this will be to produce an indent for starting create the smallest impression due to the round bar between the finger and the punch
the rest's table. Also, do this using the fence a drill. For this to work reliably the outer· weakness of the point. An angle of 45 overcomes this problem. Also, for added

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security, a second circlip can be positioned 4 The methods in
GRINDING WHEEL against the first. photographs 1 and
CIRCLIP Photo 4 show how well a screw driver 2 produce
and a centre punch can be ground using excellent results as
( VEE BLOCK these technique's, far better than could be can be seen in this
.\ f PACKING PI ECE achieved by free hand methods. photograph.

Scrapers
Photo 5 shows 3 commercially available
scrapers, though many workshop owners
make their own from old files. The flat
scraper, that in the centre, is the one most
likely to get used, whilst the others are 5. Below: Set of
normally used, in my workshop at least, for scrapers, the flat
de-burring holes, round and rectangular. A one in the middle,
more demanding task for these that crops being used to
up occasionally is to open up the bore of a produce flat
bearing surface very slightly to improve fit. surfaces, requires
The flat scrap er, be ing used a vel}' fine edge.
VIEW ON A predominantly to create flat surfaces to a a depth of say 0.001 mm if it has a cutting
high degrees of accuracy, are called upon edge with a radius of 0.002mm, it will just
SHOWN WITHOUT THE REST'S TABLE
to remove metal at minimal depths of cut. slide over. T he scraper's edge mu st
AND FENCE
Because of this the cutting edge must be therefore be near perfect!
SK2. Sharpening a centre very keen. It should be obvious that a cutter Sharpening these is a job for the fl at
punch. cannot be called upon to remove metal to stones. However, if the working end is in
particularly poor condition then this can be
initially very lightly ground to give a slightly
curved end. This is one task that can be
done f ree hand on the basic off hand
grinder. Next the end should be polished
on a fine flat stone using an action as
illustrated by SK3A . This needs to be
carried out on a fairly hard stone as the
narrow end will only cut a grove in it.
Because of this a Japanese water stone is
definitely out.
With the end now polished the two
s ides should be polished first using a
3 Sharpening a relatively course stone finishing on one of
centre punch say 1000 grit minimum, SK3B. For this a
using a vee block water stone would be ideal, do thoroughly
and a circlip. c lean the sc raper so as to avoid

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the Machine reamer has a 45 degrees requirement at which time purchasing a
bevel, see SK4. As the reamer only cuts new tap will no doubt be the way forward
on these edges these are the only parts of for most workshop owners.
a reamer that need sharpening. Even so, Not achieving a constant lead length
this needs to be carried out very accurately when sharpening a tap will result in oversize
and mounting the reamer between centres threads being produced so accuracy is vital.
is the only practical method. Again this point's to the need for a tool and
The radial clearance on the taper of a cutter grinder. If you look at a new taper
Hand reamer depends on its diameter and tap in a larger size you will see that the
being less at the larger diameters. As a clearance behind the cutting edge has a
guide, say 25 degrees at 3mm diameter curved surface indicating that it was not
and 5 degrees at 15mm and above. Whilst rotated about its centre whist being ground,
accuracy of the cutting edge is essential see SK5. This would seem right outside the
the clearance angle is not that crucial, for limits of what is practical for almost all home
intermediate diameters it will be sufficient workshops. Even so, it would be worthwhile
to interpolate from the above values. producing a flat clearance as would be
The reason for the clearance angle done with the outer cutting edges of an end
changing with diameter is that at smaller mill should it be essential to recondition an
diameters the trailing edge of the land will existing tap. The task would still need
foul in the hole being cut, in the same way carrying out between centres but worth
MOTION 1---->
as a boring tool for the lathe is more critical attempting if you have the machinery to do
\ at smaller bore diameters. If the land could it and a tap costing sufficient to warrant the

B be kept very small by the use of secondary


clearance, 5 degrees could be used at any
effort. I have no experience in sharpening
a tap with a flat clearance but see no reason
THE__cLEARANC£ ON THLI.A£. LEAD diameter. why it s hould not produce reasonably
The length of the taper lead on a Hand satisfactory results.
THE CLEARANCE IS GROUND ABOUT reamer should typically be 1- 1/2 times the Not having a tool and cutter grinder I
A DIFFERENT CENTRE TO THAT OF
reamer's diameter, but with a maximum am unable to take photographs of taps and
THE TAP ITSELF.
length of 20mm for larger sizes. However, reamers being sharpened, but then this
SK3. Flat scraper sharpening. SKS. replicating what already exists would be a book is aimed at using simper methods. I
good starting point. In th e case of a suspect that many that do own such
contaminating the water stone. You could are often on offer at exhibitions so it is not Machine reamer the clearance on the bevel machines do not get the maximum benefit
now put a finishing touch to the end of the that unlikely. However, being intended for should be in the order of 5 to 10 degrees. from having them and would urge owners
scraper on the water stone but do this away producing precision holes, much more so to acquire more detailed reading on their
from the centre of the stone so as not to than with a drill, sharpening them is only Taps use. There is a book on using the Quorn ,
damage the area most used . practical using a tool and cutter grinder. This Like reamers, the need to sharpen taps in also, books aimed at the industrial user that
will either be a Quorn , a Stent or a the home workshop will be an infrequent would be worth studying.
Reamers commercially available machine.
The need to sharpen these in the home Two types of reamers are commonly
workshop s hou ld be a rarity but might available, Hand and Machine. The Hand
surface if well used second hand reamers reamer has a gradual taper of 1 to 2
in the larger sizes are purchased. These degrees to enable it to start easily whilst

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CHAPTER 8 1 A wet stone
grinder, the large
wheel runs in a
bath of water and
runs at a much
lower speed.

Woodworking Tools

Unlike metalworking, where much of the tools whilst able to be sharpened in the
activity is mechanised, woodworking for the home workshop are best left to the
to recondition wider tools with the wheel smal ler wheel running at the usual 2950
occasional woodworker is very much a professional, for me handsaws fit into this
grade also more appropriate for the task. RPM, Photo 1 is an example . The grade
manual activity. For this reason keeping category. Having over a number of years
Even better for the task is a grinder of the large wheel is again chosen for
your woodworking tools perfectly sharp is attempted to sharpen handsaws myself, I
having a larg er wheel, both diameter the task and runs in bath of water
essential e lse the task will become eventually sent them to the local saw doctor.
and width, but geared to run at a much helping to keep the wheel clean and the
laborious. A major difference between The difference being so marked that I have
lower speed. These may also have a tool being ground cool.
woodworking tools and metalworking tools now decided that this is the best course of
is the angle at the cutting edge , action as it is not overly expensive; no doubt
metalworking, say 70 to 85 degrees whilst these days it is an automated process.
woodworking tools are typically 30 degrees. Should you have a mechanised planner
Even though t he edges of both are then this is also an item best left to a
sharpened to a perfect edge the much commercial operation, unless of course you
smaller angle enables woodworking tools have a Stent, or some other surface grinder.
to be razor sharp.
The tooling used for sharpening them Sharpening equipment
is also d ifferent as the cutting edge is Motorised
created manually on a flat stone, only an Where practical to sharpen woodworking
off hand grinder, or similar, being used tools in the home workshop the equipment
initially to create an edge prior to required is relatively inexpensive. Your
sharpening, typically when a plane blade normal off hand grinder will suffice for re
has become damaged. However, in this establishing new edges for sharpening if
situation, considerable care must be they become damaged. There are though
exercised as overheating of the cutting variations that are specifically intended for
edge can so easily result due to the limited using with woodworking tools and therefore
mass of metal at the edge to absorb the have advantages. The simplest variation is
heat generated. for one of the wheels to be wider than the 2 Diamond flat
Some frequently used woodworking norm at around 40 mm. This makes it easier stones.

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3 Honing guides 4 Two commercial
used mainly for grinding rests
chisels and plane suitable for
blades, see Photo 5. sharpening
woodworking
tools.

Flat stones More traditiona l flat stones a re


These come in a multitude of materials alumin ium oxide and Japanese water
and shapes. T he relatively coarse stones. Aluminium oxide stones are
alumin iu m oxide f lat st ones are only predominantly made at the coarser end of
appropriate for the initial repair of slightly the spectrum with water stones fine to very
damaged edges. A much finer stone is fine. These stones are much more prone
essential for achieving a razor sharp edge to wear with the water stones being suppliers that supply to the woodworker.
and 1 000 grit should be considered a particularly so. However, the water stones Chisels
m inimum. For even finer edges and are relatively easy to flatten as they use a Honing guides and rests Armed with your chisel and a mallet it is
polished surfaces flat stones are available softer bond material. Sharpen ing tools free hand is far f rom easy to fall into the trap of thinking that the
up to 10,000 grit, maybe more. There is a To flatten a flat stone place a sheet of impossible but hon ing guides , being chisel is a brute force instrument. This is
range of types available; including some wet and dry, say 60 to 100 grit on a flat inexpensive, are certainly worth far from the truth and much of the more
made from industrial diamonds and with surface and lap the stone on this until a flat considering as they will enable a consistent detailed work is done with no more than
some known as water stones that are surface results. result to be achieved, Photo 3 shows two using arm pressure. My comment above
stored in water between uses. Unless you These comments regarding flat stones typical examples. about keeping your tools sharp is therefore
are involved in a large amount of woodwork are very much abbreviated as there are As mentioned in Chapter 1, the tool very relevant here.
the actual choice is not that important, all many variations in material make up and rests fitted to off hand grinders are totally Most workshops will be equipped with
will give a reasonable result. modern production methods are reducing inadequate, even for woodworking tools, tools that have been used for many years.
In use, some flat stones will become the cost of diamond and sapphire stones and additional facilities need to be provided. However, if you purchase new items the first
concave and make accurate sharpening making them more affordable . It is a This can be a commercially available item; thing that becomes obvious is that they are
difficult. This effect will be almost zero in measure of the types of materials used and Photo 4 show's two, or a shop made item in need of sharpening, only the secondary
the case of both diamond, Photo 2, and their varying make up that the catalogues such as that detailed in Chapter 9. Actually, face having been ground. C reating the
sapphire stones, though their make up is of suppliers to the home workshop have a the commercial rests, whilst inadequate for primary angle is though only part of the task.
quite different. Both are thoug h lot of technical data regarding the various the metalworking workshop, are quite The first task is to flatten the back of
comparatively expensive. types. This is particularly so for those satisfactory for woodworking tools. the blade then bring it to a near mirror finish.

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5 Final sharpening 6 Using the Wet
of a chisel on a stone grinder with
water stone. Note one of the
the container of commercial rests
water in the to produce the
background for secondary angle
washing and on a chisel.
storing the water
stone.

you will find the stone dry and not ready for very closely that for sharpening a chisel
The professional cabinet maker will use a honing guide, set at 30°, polish the cutting use next time a tool needs sharpening. including polishing the rear of the blade.
metal lapping plate with lapping paste for bevel first with a 1000 grit stone and finally When the primary bevel land becomes There is though one possible exception.
the flattening process but whilst these are with a 6000 grit, Photo 5. A very fine burr too wide, say over 2 mm, the secondary Some cabinet makers recommend that the
used in the metalworking workshop they are will result on the cutting edge, remove this bevel, 25 degrees will require attention to cutting edge of the blade should be very
not that common. Because of that, a good by very lightly honing the rear of the blade reduce this width. Having a greater surface slightly curved so that it cuts only on about
compromise is to use wet and dry abrasive until the burr falls away. The result should area than the primary bevel it is impractical the centre 30 to 35 mm of the blade's width.
paper on a small piece of plate glass or be a razor sharp edge. If you do not have a to do this on the flat stone, as the task would This prevents the blade making noticeable
some other surface plate. Start with about stone as fine as 6000 grit, use the finest be very time consuming. This therefore is steps when planning wide boards. The
120 grit and working up to say 600 grit, aim that you have. However, if this is quite a job for the bench grinder, Photo 6 show curve is produced by very slightly rocking
to get an even grey finish over at least 50 coarse, then now is the time make a the task being undertaken on grinder with the blade to one side and the other when
mm of the blade at the working end. purchase, a double sided Japanese water a wet stone. Note how the chisel is held at polishing the primary bevel.
Wipe the blade clean so as to not stone, 1000/6000 grit would not be over 90° to the wheel in a holder that then slides If purchasing a new plane, or an older
contaminate your fine flat stones and polish expensive. along a grove in the rest creating a straight one that has not been properly set up, it
the rear, working up to the finest stone you The photograph shows that the water edge as a result. will be necessary to flatten the base of the
have, hopefully at least 6000 grit. Having stone is placed in a tin lid to protect the Having arrived at your razor sharp plane. Without carrying this out you cannot
done this the once there should not be a bench from the wet stone and that this is chisel, do use and store it with care. If not expect to produce accurate work, or take
need to do this again if the chisels are taken clamped to the bench to prevent it moving. provided with the chisel when purchased, very fine finishing cuts, if the base of the
care of. If you have chisels which are old, In the background is a container of water do make a cap of some form to protect the plane is either bowed or twisted. This is
or nev er hav in g been f lattened and in which the stone is washed periodically cutting edge whilst not in use. likely to be the case unless you purchase
polished, then it is never too late. during the sharpening operation and stored one of the top quality planes, such as a
With the rear polished the next stage after use. Ideally the container should have Plane blades Clifton or a Lie-Nielsen. These though will
is to sharpen the cutting edge. Using a an airtight lid to prevent evaporation, else The process for sharpening these follows be outside most people's budget. To flatten

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7 Lip and spur 8 Sharpening a lip
drills and flat bits. and spur drill on a
pistol drill sharpener
attachment.

Sharpening a flat
bit using the round
workpiece holder
to position the bit.
the base fasten a sheet of 60 grit wet and woodworking , often not that easy to
dry to a sheet of plate glass, or some other sharpen. There are though two types one of these sharpening aids you should
flat surface and work the base of the plane commonly available that are reasonably know that there are a few, that use similar
over this until it becomes uniformly grey in easy to grind. These are the Lip and Spur techniques, but are self contained with their
appearance. However, this appearance bits and the Flat bits, Photo 7. As hole sizes own drive motor. These also have facilities
may result if the base is bowed, do therefore in wood are rarely that critical, precision is for sharpening chisels, plane blades, etc.,
also check with a straight edge. Finally, not called for when sharpening these and though not to the standard required for
using the same set up, give the base a other types of drills. serious woodworking, more a DIY aid.
polish using a finer sheet of wet and dry, Many of the economy drill grinding Photo 9 Shows how a flat bit can be
say 600 grit or finer. accessories, such as those used with a ground whilst held in the round workpiece
It is also essential that the edge of the pistol drill, provide facilities for grinding holder, just turning the assembly over for
cap iron that clamps directly to the face of these types of drills. Photo 8 shows a Lip sharpening the second edge. The edge is
the blade is perfectly flat. Again, lapping and Spur drill being ground on such a jig. sharpened with a plunge and remove action,
this on a sheet of wet and dry will be the Flat bits can also be ground but in both but using the end stop on the fence to ensure
method to use. This action will ensure that cases the individual cutting edges are both edges are sharpened at the same level
shavings do not become trapped under it ground without any stop mechanism. It is avoids the guesswork inherent in the DIY
and prevent the plane working effectively. therefore totally in the hands of the operator set-up. Another point worth taking note of is
Whilst by no means should the cap iron to ensure both sides are sharpened equally. that the fence is set to create the required
have a razor sharp end a fine edge will also The central point is not ground. angle on the end of the bit and not the more
be beneficial in this respect. Most, if not all, of these sharpening aids usual 1 to 2 degrees where the item being
are equipped with a green grit wheel ground skirt's the corner of the wheel.
Drill bits enabling tungsten masonry drills to be The same set-up will be suitable for lip
There are many types of drills used for sharpened. If you do contemplate acquiring and spur drills.

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The same basic process will be used
ACTION RESULT for scrapers having curved edges but will
of course be somewhat more difficult to

l1 perlorm.

Other tools
Chisels, planes and scrapers are the most
A lJ
_8
likely to require sharpening and are by far
the most demanding in terms of keeping a
keen edge. Other items, some drill bits
typically, seem to go only working forever.
TI This though is probably due in part to limited
usage rather than staying power. Even so,
such tools will occasionally benefit from

_D
lJ attention.
There is though an advantage with
many woodworking tools, that is the tool is
not fully hard. Most will be aware that saws

TI can be sharpened with a triangular file,


though this is not so with the modern hard
point variety.
10 A set of scrapers with a commercial burnisher. The drill chuck fitted with a round
HSS tool bit makes is an alternative to the commercial burnisher on the left.
__l
lJ For other tools, applying a file to some
unimportant part of the cutter can easily test
F_ this. Hole cutting tools such as Auger Bits,
Scrapers a straight edge and at 90 degrees to the Forstner and Saw tooth Cutters will often
Sharpening woodworking scrapers is THE BURNISHER IS MOVED be found to be relatively soft. In this case
w ithout doubt quite unlike any other
sharpening operation and probably one that
faces. If the scraper only needs its edge
sharpening then this operation may be
bypassed sometimes. The photograph
ALONG THE EDGE OF THE
SCRAPER WH ILST APPLYING
1l improved performance can be achieved by
application of a fine file to the appropriate
will come as a surprise to the uninitiated.
Photo 10 shows a set of scrapers and both
commercial and makeshift burnishers.
shows on the left a burnisher that is used
to create the cutting edge. Also shown is a
drill chuck with shank and fitted with a piece
PRESSURE AS SHOWN.
RESULTS SHOWN EXAGGERATED
FOR CLARITY
ll G
cutting edges even if it does not fully match
the capability of a new cutter. Observe the
existing angles and try to replicate these
Considering a straight edge scraper used of round high-speed steel, this will be a when sharpening them using a suitably
for finishing large flat surfaces, a tabletop reasonable alternative for occasional use. SK1. Scraper sharpening. shaped fine file. Photo 11 shows a Forstner
typically. In use the scraper should take very First, lay the scraper on the bench edge saw tooth cutter being sharpened in this
thin shavings rather like a plane set very and move the burnisher along one edge way.
fine, for this to be possible the scraper must hook, SK1 F. For clarity the resulting shapes Whilst I have said that it is not worth
using pressure as shown by SK1 A. This
have a razor sharp edge. This is unlike a are shown exaggerated. In use a scraper the effort to sharpen a hand saw, large pitch
will result in a shape shown in SK1 B. Then,
scraper used for metalworking that has a sharpene d in this way w ill generate a jigsaw blades can be given a new lease of
with the scraper held in the bench vice the
cutting edge of virtually 90 degrees. surface ready for final finishing with a fine life using a suitable file whilst replicating
edge is again flattened as illustrated by
Assuming that the scraper edge is in em ery paper, say 400 grit . Having
SK1 C resulting in the shape shown in the existing cutting angles.
poor condition the two long edges should completed the first edge the other three Router bits are through hard and their
SK1 D . Finally the burnisher is angled,
be filed, or ground, and then honed to give edges can be sharpened similarly, SK1G. complex shapes would appear to make
SK1 E, so as to produce what is termed a

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11 Many
woodworking tools
are not fully hard
CHAPTER 9
andean be
sharpened using a
hand file.

Making A Grinding Rest

The remaining chapters provide the I am though including photographs of a few


designs for most of the accessories seen of the more complex manufacturing set ups.
being used in the book. Contrary to my
usual approach I am not including extensive A Simple Grinding Rest
manufacturing details as the processes are Whilst not having the capabilities of a tool and
mostly quite simple, but if you would like cutter grinder, this basic rest, together with the
help in this direction, many of the items appropriate accessories, will give perfectly
them a non starter for sharpeni ng . essential to keep cutters in good condition adequate results for virtually all sharpening
appear in the Workshop Practice series,
Fortunately, the inner face is flat and can or burn ing of the wood will result. requirements in the average home workshop.
Number 35, "Milling, A Complete Course".
easily be honed to improve the cutting edge Fortunately, the tungsten cutting edge will
using a diamond file as seen in Photo 12. not be effected by the heat that is why it
As routers run at a very high speed it is will keep working, even if poorly.

12 Sharpening a
router bit with a 1. The completed
small diamond file. rest.

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Photo 2 that they are all relatively simple.
For the lathe-only workshop this will be of
-, HARDWARE
particular value as it is well withi n the __,_...,
oo
~~-~:I~~~==~~ H1 M3 X 5 SOCKET GRUB SCREW
c,l L ___ _
capabilities of such a workshop.
_j - ---· ---- --- - -
2 OFF
It will though be necessary before you ' ' H2 M3 X 12 SOCKET CAP SCREW
commence work on the item to decide whether 0 10 OFF
the height of the rest as drawn will suit the grinder H3 25mm PLASTIC BALL
with which it is to be used. In my case it is being M6 THREAD 1 OFF
used with a 150 mm grinder having its spindle H4 M6 X 40 SOCKET CSK SCREW
170 mm above the mounting surface. If being 1 OFF
used at an appreciably different height, the H5 M6 STEEL FULL NUT & WASHER
Height adjuster (14) and the Vertical bar (15)
5 OFF
may need their lengths changing. H6 M6 X 20 SOCKET CAP SCREW
The dovetails 1 OFF
2 This photograph of the finished parts The dovetails can easily be produced with a
H7 M3 X 12 SOCKET CAP SCREW
shows that they are all easy items to tilting vice (or adjustable angle plate) and an
2 OFF
make. end mill, Photo 3 , and as the complete
H8 M6 X 20 SOCKET CSK SCREW
assembly is being made in the workshop, the 3 OFF
Common design feature angle is not crucial providing the vice is not
A common feature on many grinding rests is moved between machining the three parts.
the method o f adjusting the angle and In theory, the two sides of the Inner
distance to the wheel, invariably consisting dovetail (4) need to be parallel but as the
of a link, or links, pivoted at both the base Traverse Locking Screw (10 + 8) holds it
and the rest's table. Whilst this works well, in against only one of the Outer Dovetails (2).
use it is more demanding to set up than would precision is not that important.
first appear to be the case. Primarily, the lower
pivot adjusts the distance to the wheel and The ball seats
the upper pivot the angle. However, each will Both the Height Adjuster (14) and the H ead
have an effect on the setting of the other. Clamp (12) have countersinks in which the
25 mm plastic ball (H3) s its. The
Problem overcome countersink, being both large and not to a
The method adopted by this rest to overcome standard angle, will require to be machined
this situation is to make the method of setting on the lathe having the top slide set to the
the distance to the wheel linear rather than appropriate angle, Photo 4. This though will
angular. This should be obvious from Photo require the lathe to be able to swing 11 5
1. Compare th is with Photo 4 Chapter 8 that mm. If this is not possible then drill a hole ,
show two basic rests available commercially. s ay 12 mm diameter, and very generously
d eb urr and smooth its e dge. The ball can
Manufacture then be clamped between these though it
Whilst there a re quite a number of parts will be necessary to alter the length of the
that make up this rest, it can be seen from Clamp spacer (13) to suit. Grinding Rest Assembly

90 91

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r
1 m--~~ ffl [ "'7G>+l----78----~
: I: I 1

I ~~·-+
\I)_l 1081------~

I l.~ lsJ
MATERIAL
5 mm DIAM£TER STEEL 230M07 MATERIAL FABRICATE FROM TWO
5 mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07 PARTS AND PIN TOGETHER
:....: ,:: .: 5 mm BRASS

I
~

~~H ;\ [·M
HOLE SIZES
A 3.5mm 2 OH QUANTITY I OFF ©0 8 mm OIAMET£R STEEL 230M07 OR MACHINE AS ONE FROM
QUANTITY 1 orr
8 mm DIAMETER try
~
0
8 5.5mm
~24----'; 6 , rB---1
,-------,. . ., ____1 MATERIAL ©0 10. Traverse locking screw. 9. Crossfeed screw.
\JBl 25 X 8 STEEL 070M20

120 J
I
HOLE SIZES
A 6mm CB 1Omm 6.5 DEEP
QUANTITY 3 Orr
8 12mm
!LI 1 i ' ~ C MS
5. Feedscrew
I MATERIAL bearings.
HOLE SIZES 25 X 8 STEEL 070M20
A 3.5mm 2 Orr
B MS CB 5.5 1Omm DEEP QUANTITY I OFF ©0 MATERIAL
5 mm DIAM ETER STEEL 230M07 HOLE SIZES
HOLE B IN ONE PART ONLY 8 mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07 A 5 mm B M3
4. Inner dovetail.
MATERIAL
25 X 8 STEEL 070M20
FABRICATE FROM TWO PARTS AND
PIN TOG£THER OR MACHINE AS
MATERIAL©
2D mm DIAMETER
0
QUANTITY 2 orr ©0 ONE FROM 8 mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07

2. Outer dovetails. QUANTITY 1 OFF ©0 QUANTITY 3 orr


8. Knob.
3. lnfeed screw.

The table
Rather than marking out the holes required
in this, you may choose, as I did, to use the
NOT£ * INITIALLY 8mm FIN ISH mating parts as jigs for positioning the
TO 6mm ON ASSEMBLY. holes.
The M3 blind holes in the table being
HOLES A 5.5mm14mm DEEP only 4.5 mm deep will have to be tapped
8 MS 9mm DEEP using just a plug tap. Whilst th is is not
C M5 impossible it may be a problem as starting
with a plug tap is not easy, as a result, if
MTL. 16 SQ. STEEL 070M20
4 Boring a ball seating using a boring bar
QUANTITY 1 OFF ©0 and the top slide mounted at the
appropriate angle.
7. Fence carrier. 3 Machining one of the dovetail faces.

92 93

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1201--+-- - - -60'- -- - ---..; 6 CJ :I a:: r+i a::
.....
11 .......
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Q)

+'
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,_ 0
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tn

~ - - --- ---- - -~)- -~ ~~r::


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44 T 25- 1-
v>
a:: ;::: ~
w~~ ....... >< %
J:.:{ , , -r _.J lD (£) 1- < T""
90 5 l"·:r-:r'' ' ' ' l:-::(
t·:r ~ ~~ <(CO <U"l
:::ON
::::>
0

100
HOLE SIZE DRILL 5.5 mm DEEP TAP M3 4.5 mm DEEP
SLOT 6 mm WIDE

MATERIAL ©0 r
;---------,OZI-------------~
0
100 X 6 STEEL 070M20 QUANTITY 1 OFF r0l~*,___ _ _ __ ,9L- - - - --i VI~
© ...nJ
1. Table.
the first few threads are sub standard there
will not be much depth of good thread.
Unless you have a controlled feed tapping
in a hole to be tapped and clamp the bar at
both ends onto the table. This will then feed
the tap into the hole being taped and should
I i
-i ----- -- - ---- -- i--~ - _1 ~ ~
I lV 0
N
:::0
..c
nJ
(,)

'f
stand that will overcome this problem you give adequate results. To produce this very
~_jEJi~
0

may like to try the following. Take a length shallow thread you will need to drill the
I r-
0 .....
..... ~
_J
0
of steel, say 25 x 10 and around 100 mm u;;3: L...J LO
tapping hole as deep as can be done ......
1- T""
long, and tap an M3 through hole in the wE
without actually breaking through and will r::::'E
_Jv>
,_
>-
Vl <D :5<D ;:::
centre. With the tap in the hole and just need to set the drilling machine down feed ...... 1 -
a::
....... >< ::z:
projecting from the other side, locate this stop to do this reliably. First, test your setting r-.-------------.-~-~. ~ -'0 I- <
o-' <o ::::>
L_~-----------~-~~~ ~ :r: Vl :::o....- C1

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.. , L c:J
!o---- -----110
I
t
........: ......
~
~18=l
REF. rl_ ~~~------------------------;
-f: '._ --,
1 r.--1 - f
"'
HOLES M3 X 10 DEEP 2 OFF 1 !..-....-----=::()---------t-
115~
~ 6~ MATERIAL 25 X 8 STEEL 070M20 HOLE SIZE 6.0mm 2 orr SLOT 6mm WIDE MATERIAL 32 X 32 XS BRIGHT STEEL ANGLE
HOLE SIZES
A 6.0mm 2 OFF NOH QUANTITY I OFF ©0 16. Base angle.
B 3.6mm CB 5.6mm 3.5mm DEEP 2 OFF THE IBmm DIMENSION IS A
REFERENCE VALUE. CHECK SPACING
~ATERIAL OF ITEMS 12 ANO 14 AFTER MAKING Assembly considering is to use a countersunk screw for
25 X 6 STEEL 070M20 BALL SEATINGS ANO MAKE TO SUIT. On assembly check the spacing of items holding the fence to its carrier, very
QUANTITY 1 orr ©0 QUANTITY 1 OFF ©0 12 and 14 and make adjustment to the 18 occasionally the accessory overlaps the swivel
base and the cap head can become an
mm dimension on the Clamp Spacer (13)
12. Head clamp. 13. Clamp spacer. as required otherwise assembly is obstruction. In this case temporarily fitting a
straightforward. Leave the s lides and short grub screw in place of the locking screw
by making trial holes in a scrap piece of feedscrews dry, as any lubrication will only (19) may also be necessary. Similarly an
steel the same thickness as the table. If make removing grinding dust difficult. additional fixing hole in the fence can
your tap also has a pointed end you may Photo 5 gives a view of the underside
need to remove a little of this.
showing the working parts.
REST'S r!XING
Turning operations Possible modification
ANGLE
I have suggested on the drawings that the 1 have left the drawings to line up with the
feed screws should be made from two parts "Rest", as seen in Photos 1 and 5, also
that are pinned together. This will avoid others throughout the book, so as to avoid
turning long slender diameters needing the confusion , but wou ld suggest one
use of a travelling steady. However, should modification as worthwhile. To minimise the
you consider this preferable the n make effect of any clearance between the Fence
them completely from 8 mm diameter. Carrier (7) and the 6 mm slot in the table I
The knobs are straightforward as am suggesting that the carrier should be
drawn but you may wish to calibrate the made longer as follows DOUBLE
two used with the feed screws. M5 has a Make the carrier 45 mm long and with INSERT THICKNESS BASE
pitch of 0.8 mm so 40 divisions would give four M5 tapped holes at 10 mm centres,
WOODEN STRIPS PINNED AND GLUED
0.02 mm per division, a common value on TO ALL FOUR SIDES FOR ADDED STRENGTH
rather than the single tapped hole. This will AND TO RAISE THE BASEBOARDS FROM THE
metric equipment. Actually, 0.02 mm is still provide 15 mm fine adjustment and the WORK SURFACE TO PROVIDE CLEARANCE
about the maximum that should be ground fence can initially be positioned using the FOR THE HEADS OF THE THREADED INSERTS
from a tool at one pass. SUGGESTED BASE MATERIAL-
appropriate tapped hole from t he four MALAMINE FACED CHIP BOARD.
5 A view of the underside showing the available.
working parts. Another minor modification worth SK1. Rest mounting method.

96 97

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sometimes be helpful, see Photo 6 Chapter 6.
~911 :X: 0 Using the rest
<.:>
:::>
0
0:: © :: Specific tasks for using the rest have been

II
,_
:X:
Q) illustrated throughout the book but I would
....,\1"") '-
:::::E:::::E
=
c-..
Q) (.) like to reiterate the fo llowing in the cause
_u (.) (/)
:::::E
c: of safety. It is essential that only the fine
CL.
.......
....... =
,._
= Q)
C)
c: feeds should be adjusted whilst the grinder
. ,._
= _J
LL
.:.:. is running, course adjustments only being
.......
00
><E
E
.......
,_
Vl
c:o
T"" @YO t:::o....., --',._
,_ :::E
(.)
0 carried out with the machine STOPPED!

dl
Vl 0 ...J
"'<-
,..,-)u-) = .....
..... © ,_ ....... o)
Therefore, the angle should be set, then

~
U")
<(CD
>< 0 :::::E
0:: "" .......
....... the coarse feeds used to locate the rest
= .......

~ ~0
0 T""
V>
...... :::E relative to the wheel , doing this wh ilst
....., :s
....- -
<(
...
--~--=-=-
Vi
_J

:::!
>-
,_
i= ,_
>- stopped. The fine feeds can then be used
....... =
......
,_ :z: :SE >= to set the amount to be ground away and
_J <(
~E :z: 6 Whilst a number of fixing positions for
J> 0 <( :::>
to limit the movement in the other direction,
~~
<(
:X: :::E 0 :::>
C1
the rest should be provided on the base
typically to avoid the wheel touching parts board, this arrangement will give further
not requiring to be ground, the other c utting positions without the need for fitting
edges of an end mill typically. additional inserts.
Mounting heads of the inserts.
Both the grinder and the rest need to be As the rest depends solely on the cross
mounted on a robust base so as to avoid traverse for positioning left to right, extra
movement due to the forces necessary to mountings in the base giving alte rnative
hold the cutter in place whilst being ground. positions for the rest will be necessary for
A good mounting is two thicknesses of positioning the workpiece relative to the
mela mine face d chipboard screwed wheel. Even with a number of fixing positions
:;:. together around their edges and with the being provided on the mounting base it is
.0 grinder and rest fixed using screws into inevitable that other positions will be found
....... ......
...... ...... E threaded inserts, see SK1 . The heads on advantageous in some cases. Fastening the
00 Q)
(/) the threaded inserts will additionally hold rest to the base board using clamps, as
(/)
3: 3: co the two boards together. The sketch also would be used on the milling machine table,
.............
0:: 0::
<J <J
Q) suggests that the boards be edged to both will provide for mounting the rest in other
V> V> (.)
c: increase the strength and raise the board places without the need to add further fixing
CL. CL.
Q)
<( <(
u above the mounting bench to clear the inserts to the base board, see Photo 6 .
<J LL

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1 The complete

CHAPTER 10 end mill accessory


free standing.

Making the End Mill Sharpening


Accessory
edge teeth of end mills, a task that is
Simple accessories impossible free hand or by virtually any
By far the simplest method of sharpening other method. The design follows very
an end mill's end teeth is to use a square closely that of available commercial items.
holder. The square can then be used to However, the cost of one of these would
index the cutter for sharpening the four purchase some 40 to 50 end mills so it is
edges in turn as described in Chapter 5. unlikely that one would be economic in the
Chapter 6 also describes a similar method average home workshop.
using a hexagonal holder for cutters having The majority of the parts included in
6 end teeth. If you intend to limit the this fixture are simple and the following brief
sharpening of end mills to their end teeth comments regarding the more demanding
only then these methods will produce items should be sufficient.
acceptable results. I would though urge you
to consider eventually mak in g the Spindle
accessory in this chapter as you will find Turning the 24mm diameter parallel and
working with fully sharp cutters much more concentric with the seating for the collet are
satisfying. the essential requirements of this part. this being essential. A very small error can Collets
Mount a piece of 30mm diameter, though be eliminated by careful use of very Concentricity of the bore with the 18mm
The end mill sharpening 1OSmm long , in th e three jaw chuck fine emery paper. diameter and the taper is essential. To
accessory supporting the outer end with a steady, Fit and set the fixed steady at the achieve this, outer diameters and bore must
This, illustrated in AS6, and shown in Photo face, drill and tap M815mm deep. Remove, tailstock end on the 24 mm diameter, remove be made without removing the part from
1 , is by far t he most com plex of the firmly fi t a short hex head screw in the the centre, set the top slide to 5 degrees, the lathe. To avoid having a short stub of
accessories in this book, enabling both end tapped hole, grip this in the three jaw again make the bore, leave the top slide at this material left after making each collet you
teeth and side cu tting edges to be supporting the outer end with a steady. angle for making the collets. Drill 8mm to a could consider the following that will result
sharpened to near professional standards. Face and centre drill end, remove steady depth that just contacts the end of the screw. in no waste being made.
It can al so be used where a round and support with the tailstock centre. Turn Remove from chuck and screw from spindle Mount a long length of material in the
workpiece needs to be rotated, typically a the 24mm diameter with the flange at the and return spindle to chuck, now holding it chuck and support with a fixed steady,
centre punch. tailstock end. Check before reaching the on the 24mm diameter, suitable protected. doing this with just sufficient to make a
Its main task though is to sharpen the 24mm diameter that the result is parallel, Drill through 8.2 mm.

100 101

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~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @/,
single collet projecting beyond the steady.
.o·---..: After having made and parted off the first
collet move the steady sufficient for making
3:3: 3:3:3:.....,3: '-'-J • '
LLJ Lo...J 0:::
LU W..l W..l Ct:: ....._, \.,. ,'
et:::o:::
<......><......>
o:::o:::::o::ua:::: u
c......>UUV'l<..>Vl
......... the second collet and so on for collets three
V1 (/') (/') V1 V1 (/')
and four.
CLCLt:CLCLCL~CL ~
~;jo~~(j~~ f3
t-- t--""'d""t--t-- ~t--t--J-- Bearings
~~~~~~~~~ L.......r....;....---;-,->.t
Take a piece of 40mm diameter cast iron,
gg~gggggg
V>V> V')V")U')(/')(,.1")(,/) 38 mm long, and mount in the lathe chuck,
<"'IC>d 00 0
...--- ...---L.U c o - - <..O-c.o ,.... drill through, say 12 to 16mm, and bore
......, >-
~:J::::><><U"'J><><
<(
><><><>< co 24mm diameter 18mm deep, use the
3=:,......,~~ 1.("')~...q--....;t-....q-""Ct"
=:::::;: :::::;: :::::;::::::;::::::;::::::;:::::.::::.::::. 0 spindle as a gauge. Face end, turn 30mm
a::
..c:c ...-- ('..l,..,.....t- !J")f.Dr-.oocn z diameter by 13 mm long, this process
.:r:::r:::::t::I: :J:::::I:I::I::I::I:
t:: ensuring concentricity. Remove from the
C'O
c. chuck, reverse, refit, make second bearing
....:
C1l
repeating the above sequence, additionally
"- reduce the outer diameter to 36 mm
,....
,.... diameter.
...
-C1l
a.
C'O
.s::.
()
If you are using the reverse jaws in the three
jaw I would be hesitant to recommend parting
off due to their limited length of grip. In this case
remove from the lathe and saw in half, return
Q)
C1l 2 Boring the bearing supports.
en
...0
;>.
and face sawn ends to the 16mm length.
(/)
(/)
CD Front/rear bearing supports
0
0 Cut two pieces of steel, surface edges, drill
<( and tap smaller holes. Mark out position
C) for the 30mm hole, drill 6mm diameter.
c
c Place a short length of 6mm rod through
C1l the two holes to align them and mount on
a.
"- the faceplate . Carefully advance the
C'O
.s::. tai lstock centre into the 6mm hole to
en centralise it and firmly clamp parts in place.
Push a length of bar through the lathe
~ mandrel bore from the changewheel end
't:J to make the short length of rod available
c
w 3 Aligning the bearing supports prior to for removal. Balance faceplate assembly.
CD Bore to a diameter about 0.05mm
en machining their bases to ensure they are
<( both the same height. larger than the bearing outer diameter. Fit

102
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- - - =n ~30- J / 4.5 DIAMETER 62. Spindle.

---- JJ r-L~.___
1
__
l~
J ~
I~ 13~
----1
HOLE SIZES
36 A M5
~1 s-J MATERIAL
40mm DIAMETER CAST IRON
B M4 X 10 DEEP

MATERIAL IOmm DIAMETER


L - - -IOOf---------------H-- 3
QUANTITY 2 OFF (Q) 0 STEEL 230M07

65. Bearings. QUANTITY I OFF ct» C! l_ j. ">--.::_~.........:.....__.,__~


.:

68. Index arm support. r- ~~~~~~~~~ -~


1<--- -- 56;- - ----11
MATERIAL 30 mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07 © CJ
QUANTITY 1 OFF 80. Collet

-Jio ~
MATERIAL
40mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07

QUANTITY I OFr MS
©CJ
ADDITIONAL COLLARS MAY BE REQUIRED MATERIAL 0.5 SHEET STEEL ~<----so----t~
FOR USE WITH CUTTERS HAVING MORE
THAN FOUR CUTTING EDGES. QUANTITY I OFF © [] MATERIAL 22mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07
©CJ
61. 4-way indexing collar. 67. Index arm MAKE ONE TO SUIT EACH CUTTER TO BE HELD MAKING THE
WAIST DIAMETER TO CREATE A WALL THICKNESS OF 1mm.

MATERIAL 4mm DIAMETER MATERIAL 4mm DIAMETER


STEEL 230M07 STEEL 230M07
QUANTITY I OFF CQ>C] QUANTITY 1 OFr ©Cl
66. Front bearing stud. 76. Rear bearing stud.

104 105

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~~~;~~·· ';~DEEP 5"5!@) § M5~
----1 1
It
D

l A 48 LsJJ aL
HOLE A 4.5mm POSITION ON ASSEI.lBLY
~4~ t1:J
j ~ l
MATERIAL
16mm DIAI.lETER STEEL 2301.107

l4
l.lATERIAL 8mm DIAMETER STEEL 2301.107

orr ©0 QUANTITY 1 orr (Q) 0


I
c QUANTITIY 1
78. Collet draw bar. 79. Collet extractor bush.

]~~
HOLE SIZES
A B-

A M4 1 OFF,
~
~10 ~14~+-
45
6---J ~
2NI 4

B 14mm 1 OFF,

'7ll
~~~!T'
C M4 X 10 DEEP 3 OFF, 0 4.2mm 1 OFF

MATERIAL 50 X 12 STEE L 070M20 ©CI


LtfJJi J ,-: ~ ~jfj T©O
QUANTITY 1 OFF 64. Front bearing support.
TJ,o ~- HOLE SIZE
A 4mm 2mm DEEP, POSITION ON ASSEI.lBLY
~
15.:=-J \_A
MATERIAL 16mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07
SLOT A 5.2mm
QUANTITY 1 orr
l ,.,..,
MATERIAL O.Smm SHEET STEEL

QUANTITY 1 orr ©0
73. Tooth rest. 75. Tooth rest support clamp ring.

HOLE SIZES A Bmm, B M4 X 10 DEEP 3 OFF, MATERIAL


D 4.2mm 1 OFF 10mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07
HOLE SIZE A. 5.2mm
©Cl QUANTifY I OFF ©0
MATERIAL 50 X 12 STEEL 070 M20 MATERIAL 1Omm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07 (Q) 0 74. Tooth rest
QUANTITY 1 OFF 63. Rear bearing support. QUANTITY 1 OFF 72. Tooth rest support. screw.

106 107

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4 Machining the
bearing support
bases.

MATERIAL
16mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07

QUANTITY 1 Off <0: Cl


MATERIALS
77. Collet closing washer. 12mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07
Smm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07

~~ ~
2 -H-- ~ ~
12] QUANTITY 1 Of F

MATERIAL © Cl
12mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07

QUANTITY I OfF
71. Index arm support washer 69. Spindle locking lever.

-,

~ r
1
0

-~ I t
4=
N

- 0 ' - - --1--------l----J _l
~~~ES I: 27 ! 75 34 I j 5 The rear bearing
A 6.2mm support makes the
B 4.5mm C.BORE 7.5mm DIAMETER X 4.5mm DEEP 4 OFF 70. Base. Quantity 1 off. task of holding the
arm support easy
for machining the
MATERIAL 75mm X 6mm STEEL 070M20 © CJ flat.

108
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and adjust the saddle stop to ensure the them must be accurately set to the difference
boring tool does not contact the faceplate,
Photo 2. Fit bearings using two part resin
adhesive.
of Smm. With this done the bearings should
easily align, with a little help from the
clearance in the fixing holes. Machine the
CHAPTER 11
To ensure the spindle rotates and base of the bearing supports, Photo 4.
slides freely without shake it is essential
that both bearings be at the same height Remaining parts
and in line, the following ensures this is
achieved. Mount the two bearings on an
The remaining parts are all relatively simple
but one point is worthy of mention and
Making Simple Accessories for
angle plate using the spindle to align the
bearings. Do this with the angle plate
relates to machining the flat on the Index
Arm Support (68). Machining the flat is of the Grinding Rest
mounted in the vice as in Photo 3 as this is course easy but how is such a small item
much easier than performing the task with securely held. Photo 5 shows how the rear
the angle plate surface vertical. The fixings bearing support (63) makes the task of
The grinding rest on its own is no more than Square workpiece holder
in the two parts must be aligned correctly holding it easy.
an improved rest for the off hand grinder.
when mounting the parts on the angle plate, assembly (AS3)
However, with a few simple accessories,
else the bearings will not be in line when Assembly Photo 1. This comprises t he square
such as those in this chapter, it can rival a
mounted to the base (70). Note that the right This is a simple task but it may be advisable workpiece holder (32) and the swivel base
tool and cutter grinder for much of the
hand hole B in Part 63 is 15mm from the to both work the spindle back and forward. (31 ). Manufacture is straightforward and
sharpening work required in the average
edge whilst the left-hand hole in Part 64 is and rotating it, in its bearings with a little needs no explanation.
home workshop.
20mm. This means that the pitch between lapping paste applied so as to improve fit.

1 Square
Workpiece Holder
Assembly.

110 111

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AS4. Round
workpiece @ @)
holder assem- I
bly. + -- -t-
-•- _ _
-- ...
I I

~
@
0 0 I

-f o--r
-
:L...L
0
_.1__:;;::

:r;- I I -:J;
B~••J
tJ
z -H- -H- 3 SIDE ONE 41
HOLE SIZES
HARDWARE
QUANTITY 1 orr A 6.2mm 1 OFF
H1 M6 X 30 SOCKET B SIDE ONE (41)
32. Square workpiece holder. HARDWARE TAPPED THROUGH M4 4 OFF
CAP SCREW 1 OFF HI M4 X 25 SOCKET
H2 M4 X 16 SOCKET
CAP SCREW 3 OFT -!'= CAP SCREW 4 orr
SIDE TWO ( 42)
4.5mm COUNTERBORE 7.5mm
X 5mm DEEP BOTH SIDES 4 OFF

~- --~=·
- - - - e!'-:; MATERIAL
AS3. Square workpiece holder 25mm X 16mm STEEL 070M20
I
assembly.
I
on

~-- -- e!'-:; QUANTITY I OFF EACH {Q) 0

11
:8
41, 42. Sides 1 & 2.
t_-_--_-~_ j.:;
Main purpose of the holder is to hold square
section lathe tools but no doubt other uses
will surface. The base (31) is used for
L-·__,. holding screwdrivers, a wheel dresser and
round section lathe tools, etc.
setting the angle of the workpiece relative
The main factor that must be born in
to the feed direction and is also used with
many of the other accessories. HOLES l
--so--
35
-=-=l _:;.6 t mind during manufacture is that the groves
must be central else they will not align if one
A M6 6 orr AT IOmm PITCH
Round Workpiece Holder B M3 X 8mm DEEP 4 orr part is turned over relative to the other. It is
also made with dual width groves, 3 mm for
Assembly (AS4) MATERIAL SOmm X 6mm STEEL 070M20 items up to 6 mm diameter and 5 mm wide
Photo 2. This is also normally mounted on for up to 11 mm diameter. The 11 mm
the swivel base, similar to using the square QUANTITY I OFF ©Cl
workpiece holder, and is used typically for 31. Swivel base. 2 Round Workpiece Holder Assembly.

112 113

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L l_i
maximum is limited by the 15mmspacing
of the fixing screws but a bigger version
DIAMETER TO SUIT COLLET IN
WHICH IT IS TO BE USED. f- L :: -i
A~
could be made for larger diameters.

Slitting Saw Sharpening --------------- --.. .~- .. · ···."


:,_ ..) L A\ _l
Assembly (ASS)
·- ·-· I <0 II -B- - 31
~~j
Photo 3. Again uses the swivel base with
a few simple parts (5 1, 52 and 53} added.
No comments are necessary regarding
L 3s- L·I·8 L!
HOLE SIZES l-16
:r-
A TO SUIT DIAMETER or ITEM TO BE HELD
~-t=-,:J ~
making these items other than to say that
the leaf spring may require bending at "X" s M4 1 orr © .] HOLE A 3.2mm 1 orr ©0
to improve indexing on smaller tooth saws. MATERIAL 25mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07 31 MATERIAL 6mm SQ. STEEL 070M20
Round Workpiece Holder (81) QUANTITY I orr EACH DIAMETER REQU IRED NOTE X. LEAF SPRING (52) MAY REQUIRE QUANTITY 1 OFF
Photo 4. This is an alternative to using just a BENDING TO ACHIEVE ACCURATE INDEXING 53. Leaf spring clamp.
81. Round workpiece holder.
HARDWARE

r
collet with the end mill accessory. Its purpose
is for holding a round item where the time Hl M6 X 12 SOCKET CAP SCREW 1 OFF
taken to make a collet cannot be justified. A
typical application would be to hold a centre
[._I_____. H2 M3 X 12 SOCKET CAP SCREW 1 OFF

punch whilst the point is being reground. In ~30~ ASS. Slitting saw assembly.

rlL~r$·
many cases precise concentricity will not be MATERIAL SPRING STEEL
necessary it would though be good practice 0.2mm TO 0.4mm THICK
to bore the through hole "A", and turn the
diameter that enters the collet, without
QUANTITY 1 OFF ©0
removing the part from the chuck. 52. Leaf spring.

Side table JJ ~---75·--­


HOLE 5.2mm CSK FOR 1.15 CSK SCREW
This is fitted in place of the fence and is (o L,
used for occasional oH hand grinding on
the side of the wheel. See chapter 4 Photo ~7~ MATERIAL 75mm X 6mm STEEl 070M20
Side table.
8. HOLE 6.2mm OFF
Other possibilities DIAMETER TO SUIT
Whilst the accessories I have detailed will be SLITTING SAW BORE
sufficient for the vast majority of sharpening
tasks undertaken in the home workshop,
specific requirements may come up that will
MATERIAL STEEL 230M07
need something different. Providing you have
made yourself at home with the method of QUANTITY 1 OFF FOR
using the rest, with its fence, end stop, infeed EACH BORE SIZE (Q) 0
and cross feed then designing those extras
3 Slitting Saw Sharpening Assembly. should not present a problem. 51. Slitting saw pivot. 4 Round Workpiece Holder.

114 115

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CHAPTER12
Drill Sharpening Accessories

Very small drills freely. Having said that I would not like to
Very small drills say 2 mm and below are a guarantee that the hole sizes were spot on.
special case when it comes sharpening This will depend on the accuracy with which
them. This is because the common drill the diagonal vee slot is positioned and at
grinding jigs available are not suitable for these s izes on ly a very small error will
Above: 2 Using the small drill sharpening
these sizes though I see of no reason why produce a noticeable error in hole diameter.
jig on a diamond flat stone.
a scaled down version could not be made Sharpening is not done on the off hand
Right: 3 Machining the vee groove. The
in the workshop. However, the simple jig, grinder but on a flat stone as seen in Photo
part is held to the back plate by means of
Photo 1, and shown in the drawings will 2. As a starter, align the chisel with the
a screw into the jig's base.
sharpen these small sizes with ease. corner of the jig then, looking on the non-
Having made and used the jig I can confirm cutting end of the drill; rotate the drill a few
degrees clockwise. Position the drill with it projecting very little from the corner of the four facet drills and their advantages and
that the drills when sharpened cut very
jig, say 0.1 mm. With so little to rem ove the disadvantages. As was exp lained ,
task is both simple and quick. You may sharpening drills freehand with this form of
though need to experiment a little regarding cutting edge is all but impossible and some
the exact position of the drill in the jig to mechanical assistance is essential.
achieve the correct clearance behind the Whatever form this takes it is essential that
cutting edge Clockwise rotat ion will the drill be applied to the grinding wheel
increase the clearance. identically for both cutting edges and
similarly both secondary clearance angles.
Manufacture Designs have been published, in some
The only problem area is how to hold the parts cases using collets , others using drill
to get both the vee slot and the raised web chucks, that are then rotated 180degrees
1 The parts that correctly positioned. Using the tapped holes to enable both edges to be ground.
make up the in the two parts they can be held for machining However, any errors in the concentricity, or
small drill using the set-up shown in Photo 3. axial alignment of the assembly will cause
sharpening jig the second edge to be ground differently
seen in Photo 2. Four-facet drill format from the first. Because of this, considerable
Chapter 2 included a brief description of care in their manufacture will be necessary

116 117

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4 The four facet stop base (7), Photo 5, fasten the bar to
drill sharpening the drill shank, ensuring that the two halves
accessory. of the assembly are parallel. At this stage it
would be advisable to loosen the drill in the
vee support, then carefully holding the drill
in the vee and against the end stop, and at
the same time ensuring the positioning bar
is against the base, once more clamp the
drill in place.
You are now ready to start grinding the
first face. However, as with other grinding
operations, in particular the more critical
ones, carrying out a few dummy runs with
the wheel stopped and the drill just away
from the wheel would be advisable. When
Above: 5 The drill
positioning bar is
against the drill
end stop base.
Repeating this
position when
rotating the drill
narrow, using the curved edge of the wheel If using a standard off hand grinder, 180degrees will
would not be a problem in terms of the rather than the modified one in the next ensure that the
sharpened drill. However, as the height of chapter, temporarily removing the side angle is achieved
the drill above the rest's table will vary with cover may assist in getting the rest into with precision.
the drill's diameter (it resting in a vee position. Ideally the edge of the rest's table
support) then the angle would have to be should only be a few millimetres from the
set individually for each drill being wheel so as to limit the amount that the drill
sharpened. This would not be ideal if a is required to project from the jig.
number of drills are to be sharpened at the Set the table at 25 - 30degrees to the
same time. Using the side of the wheel wheel's side face and the fence at about
avoids this situation. 1degree so that grinding only takes place
With the rest at the side it can be either on the front edge of the wheel, a stop screw
tilted down towards the wheel or is not required.
alternatively, up. The later will though Place the drill in the vee support and ,
require the drill to project farther from the with the drill positioning bar (9) loosely fitted 6 Sharpening
vee mounting block so tilting it down is to the drill's shank, arrange the drill's cutting taking place. Note
preferable as the shorter projection will edges parallel with the jig's base and clamp that the rest has
more precisely position the drill. Also, in this in place. Next adjust the drill end stop (7+8) been mounted at
position the weight of the jig will assist in to contact the end of the drill. With the the side of the
keeping it against the fence. positioning bar against the edge of the end wheel.

120 121

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u...
u...
0

>-
1-
i=
:z
<
6 Ill
Q)
cu
.c
0 0..
N 0
::::::!: -
~ Ill
0 "0
CD CD -I
w
c::
Cl)
w
7 and 8 The four facet point. 1-
(/)
-
·~
U") c
confident that all is well, gradually feed the therefore necessary to take a very little off >< ....:
table towards the wheel and commence at a time moving from side to side until the 0
(/)
grinding, Photo 6. I find it easier to keep required result is achieved. The aim is to w """"
!___ _ _ _ _ __. - - - - VNi
the jig against the fence if I start with the repeat the process until the chise l is u... ....;
u...
drill in front of the wheel and moving it changed into a point with all four facets 0 ~ L..U
towards the centre of the wheel. Continue
increasing the feed until the first facet
meeting at the same spot. It is though
preferable to err on the side of taking too
c::
0..
E
L...-__ _ ___. =r
1.1") __J
0
:X:

almost reaches the cutting edge. At this little off leaving the shortest of a flat on the cu
stage, continue wiping the drill back and chisel, say 0.2 mm maximum, rather than (.)
forwards until very few sparks result at each grinding away too much.
pass. Photos 7 and 8 show the finished 0
N
Remove the drill from the jig and using result on a 10 mm drill and would suggest ::::::!:
0
the drill positioning bar to ensure the drill is ci.
-
that you use a drill of about this size when r-
0 0
rotated 180degrees, replace the drill for attempting to grind your first drill using the
a...
L..U -I
w I ll
sharpening the second facet, this time jig.
L..U
Cl w "0
without adjusting the table's feed. Again Do ensure that the table and the under
1-
(/) c::
Cl)
keep wiping the drill across the wheel until surface of the jig 's base are kept 0
sparks largely cease. The second facet is scrupulously clean as this will make it so ~ ><
now finished.

-
"0 r.'-1
much easier to move the jig on the rest's
Now set the angle of the table to the table. This is essential, as any extra friction
......
......
0
:I
en
'I'
•• •• 0
N
wheel to 1Odegrees and grind the third and in the movement will require more force to __J >-
<( 1-
fourth facets, repeating the above process. 11)
move the j ig and therefore a greater o;:: i=
w :z
However, the process is a little more likelihood of deflecting the jig on its 1- <
<( ::::::>
complex than that for the first two facets in mounting. Such a situation will make it less ::::::!: C1
that the amount removed is important and likely that an accurately sharpened drill will
not just that both sides are the same. It is result. As mentioned elsewhere in the book

122 123

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l ff-8 -f.B
l rr CHAPTER13
r~ f:::zj~
<£, \-E):
·--·· - ---{·-r·
e+
A "'
, , A
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,
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. I
.
.
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~
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"' ' I I I I I
2 I I
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SI7(S A. 5.7 9 ~12 ~
I I

12 ~12+12
I I

t~ Tool and Cutter Grinding Head


1-!AI~~IAI JO X 6 Slf fl 070Y20
OU~NIIt• I Or r
HOLE SIZES A M5 6 OFF B. 4.1 CSK 9 OIA 2 orr
3. Drill clamp. MATERIAL so x 6 sTEEL o70M2o QUANTITY 1 orr 6. Base.

i f::J)<)I A'~ /f IJ 9. Drill positioning bar


assembly
Having put to use the grinding rests seen
in the previous chapters I was very pleased
with the results achieved considering them
(125mm) off hand grinder that I converted
to take these.
Normal practice when using these
l-1~
HOLE SIZE A. M~
L -err~-~o-=2-;-~
8 OCCP 2
~ to be the equal of results with more
advanced equipment. However, using a
wheels, that have larger centre holes, is to
fit them with permanent adapters. Th is
MAIL~o AL 20 SO. STEEL 070M20 OUANIIIY I Off ~ _...
~-- I··"'
..._,...
~===tii~::::4C):1 :+~~~:==~
:}
ASS EM BLY
standard off hand grinder, I soon became enables wheels to be interchanged quickly
and with only minimal need of truing up. I
aware that having both cup and saucer
1. Drill support. wheels available would be beneficiaL This have included dimensioned part drawings
a soft paintbrush is the best way to keep is not surprising , as such wheels are though these will need to be checked for
I l
I I I standard practice for serious tool and cutter your own situation. The dimensions suit a
ir:r-~33 ~
the table and the base of the accessories
clean. Always remember that an accessory grinding. I therefore obtained a small 12mm spindle and a wheel hole size of
placed on the workbench will pick up ~24---+--23-
grinding particles so will require cleaning r---- - -- 7 0 · - --
each time it is brought to the rest. ON[ PART AS DRAWN- DRILl 3.5 CB 5.5 X S DEEP
ONE PART - HOlES TAPP£0 1.13
Even if you opt to stay with the more
common drill point configuration rather than 41.11.1 GROOVE SUITS DRILlS DOWN TO 5Mil DIAI.l(I[R IF
adopting the four -face t form as your REQUIRED MAK£ A SECOND ASSEMBLY WITH 211M GROVE
FOR SUAlLER DRILlS
standard, it would be worth making the jig
in this chapter and at least experiment with USE 1.13 CAP SCREWS
l ENGTHS TO SUIT DIAMETER Of DRILl BEING HELD
the format. As the jig is so simple to make,
with precision not being a requirement, MATERIAL 8 SQ. STEEL 0701.120
there is nothing to stop you giving it a try. QUANTITY ONE OF EACH PART PER ASSEMBLY.
1 Machining the
face of the added
bush powered by
its own motor, the
spindle would be
machined in a
similar manner.

124 125

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2 Setting up the said that the mounting will not be called
grinder on the upon to withstand heavy loads, do not be
lathe bed for complacent. Do give the spindle of the
machining the grinder a good tug to check adequacy of
spindle and added mounting prior to machining.
bush. When mounted, the spindle should run
parallel to the lathe's axis. Using a surface
gauge , with the two pins lowered and
against the lathe's bed, check the position
of the spindle at both ends as seen in Photo
2. It can be seen from this photograph that
toolmaker's clamps were used to hold the
grinder in place on the lathes flat bed. When
setting up for machining the second end,
allowance must be made for the different
spindle diameters at that stage, 1/2in and
12mm in my case, use feeler gauges at one
end to compensate for the difference .
Absolute precision is not required as an
3 Turning an end flange whilst mounted
32mm, maybe listed as 31.75mm. grinder is still on the lathe, fit the first bush error of as much as 0.2mm will only result
on a stub mandrel
On the grinder being adapted the steps using two-part resin adhesive, holding this in a very small taper over the length of the
in the spindle against which the wheel in place using the piece of tube and the machined spindle, aim to get both ends the at one pass. Note that the outer flange is
flanges butt was not well made and more spindle nut. Leave for a few hours. Remove same diameter next to the added bushes. opened up to 12.5mm at a later stage.
important, only 1mm high, so was improved the nut and tube and very lightly machine Make a 12mm Stub Mandrel using a
by the addition of the Spindle Bush (1). I the bush's face, Photo 1. Remove the Inner and outer flanges (2 and 3) piece of material at least 25mm diameter.
did not though consider this alone was grinder, turn round, refit and repe at The essential requirement for these is for Face and tap the end M8 then turn a 12mm
adequate and machined the bush's face, sequence on the second end making sure their bore, the face that contacts the wheel stub 7.5mm long. The 12mm diameter must
whilst in situ, using the grinder's own motor that both ends are the same diameter. and that which locates against the spindle be a close fit in the flange's holes. Do not
for power. The spindle was also 1/2" bush to be true and parallel and the 32mm remove the mandrel from the chuck until
diameter and I reduced this to 12mm to Mounting the grinder diameter concentric with the bore. all flanges have been machined.
ensure it ran true and both ends were the Mounting the grinder will depend both on Cut four pieces of 60mm diameter, Fit the first flange and machine to the
same size. I consider that adding the bush the type of lathe bed and the form the place in the three jaw and face one side of 32mm and 5mm dimensions, make also the
and machining its face to be essential but grinder base takes, as a result precise each. Then reverse, making sure that the 0.5mm deep recess, Photo 3. Repeat for the
reducing the spindle's diameter will depend details cannot be given. On the plus side, already machined face sits cleanly on the remaining flanges. Return the two outer flanges
on its initial accuracy. The following is the only very light cuts will be taken so the chuck jaws, and face the second sides to (3) to the chuck and open up bore to 12.5mm
suggested sequence to adopt. security of the mounting will not be severely 10 and 8mm thick, also bore each to a little as per the drawing, concentricity is not crucial,
tested. Because of this, whatever form the under 12mm. It is essential that the hole in as this is only the clearance for the 12 mm
Grinding machine spindle bed takes, adequately mounting the grinder all four flanges finish up the same size. To spindle. Drill, tap and counter bore as required.
Make both spindle bushes (1 ). Cut a piece should not present a problem. achieve this, continue opening up the fourth
of tube to length. Set up grinder on lathe If concerned regard in g possible flange to 12mm diameter and leave the The wheels
bed (see later comments) and machine the damage to the slide ways some thin card boring tool set at this diameter. Replace Whilst not readily available from most
first end to 12mm diameter. Whilst the packing will eliminate the possibility. Having each flange in turn and open up to 12mm suppliers to the home workshop, the wheels

126 127

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4 The two grinding
wheels and the
flanges for
adapting the large
hole in the wheels
onto a smaller
spindle diameter.

Cup wheel
flange
assembly
required are widely used in industry and be avoided! Photo 4 shows the two wheels,
will therefore be available from your local one already fitted with its flanges.
abrasives supplier. The following are those H1 EXISTING FLANGE
that I used though your supplier may offer Mounting the grinder and rest H2 M4 X 12 SOCKET
CAP SCREW
something different, albeit only slightly. Both grinder and rest need to be mounted
Taper cup wheel, Type 11, 125mm outer on the same rigid base as any flexibly will
diameter, 40mm outer depth with a stated cause problems with finish and accuracy, Ht EXISTING FLANGE
hole size of 31.75mm, grade WA60 KV1 maybe also safe working. See chapter 9 H3 M4 X 8 SOCKET
Saucer wheel , Type 12, 125mm outer SK1 for a suggested method. To obtain CAP SCREW
diameter, 13mm outer depth with a stated maximum benefit from the wheel forms
hole size of 31.75mm, grade WA60 KV1 fitted on this grinder it will be necessary in
Both stated a hole size of 31. 75mm but both some cases for the rest to be mounted at
measured 32mm
As an alternative to the taper cup (type 11)
a straight-sided cup could be considered,
the side of the grinder. The base will need
therefore to be wide enough to
accommodate this requirement and at both MATERIAL
©0 Saucer wheel flange assembly

25mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07


this would be a type 6, see SK1 Chapter 1. ends, Photo 5. Even with a standard bench
If you adapt a 150mm grinder there is no grinder with plain disk wheels this facility QUANTITY 2 OFF
need to increase the wheel diameters as can be useful for some applications. 1. Spindle bush.
both sizes will run at the same speed, If you obtain a 125mm grinder it is likely
around 2950rpm. that the rest may be a little on the high side, for cutter grinder spindles to be reversing. result the spindle has left and right hand
maybe also for a 150mm grinder. This can This caused discussion on the advisability threads to cope safely with this situation.
Mounting the wheels be overcome by using a suitable wooden of this when using a single central nut for
When mounting the flanges to the wheels, packer below the grinder as photograph 5 fixing the wheel as it may tend to come Guarding
and these assemblies to the spindle do not shows. loose when rotating in one direction. In this I have, chosen to retain the guards that
over tighten the fixings. These should be arrangement there will be no problem as in were part of the original grinder for use with
tightened just sufficient to provide reliable Direction of rotation effect we have two spindles their direction the saucer wheel, but to make an extended
rotation of the wheel. Over tightening must I have read articles that mention the need of rotation differing from end to end. As a guard for use with the cup, again refer to

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Photo 5. I would though suggest that, as
removal and fitting of the wheels is easy,
only the wheel being used should be fitted.
This leaves the second spindle without a
grinding wheel preventing the possibility of
accidental contact.
The guard arrangement will of course WIRE SOLDERED INTO STUD
depend on the design of those on the GUARD BACK PLATE
grinder as purchased and because there
is likely to be variations from make to make
it is impossible for me to go into precise SK1. Guard assembly.
detail. However, SK1 and Photos 7, 8 and
9 show my method of fitting the outer ring However, the different wheel shapes will
that permits the narrower and wider rings make some tasks easier to set up. Also,
HOLE M4 X 6 DEEP to be interchanged. This will enable each particularly with the saucer wheel, a few that
wheel to be fitted on either end, which may would be impossible with a plain wheel will
MATERIAL 60mm DIAMETER STEEL 230M07. prove beneficial in a few cases. become a straightforward operation.

QUANTITY 2 OFF (Q) 0 Using the set up


Typical of this is grinding the End Tooth
Gash, this is the grove between the
Actual sharpening operations will differ very secondary clearance and the adjacent
2. Inner flange. little between those using a standard bench cutting edge, see Photo 6. The gash is seen
grinder and the modified one in this chapter. being ground in Photo 7.

5 The rest and


grinder mounted
on a purpose
HOLE 5mm C/8 9mm 4.5mm DEEP
made base. For
MATERIAL safety, a wheel
should be mounted
60m m DIAMETER STEEL 230M07.
only at the end
3. Outer flange.
QUANTITY 2 OFF ©0 being used.

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removal but that is beyond my level of 8 Set up for
knowledge. Even if this is the case I would grinding the cutting
expect it only to be of real benefit at high edges of an end
metal removal rates. mill.
The instructions already given in the
book should also be adequate when using
the grinding head in this chapter. I am
though including Photo's 8 and 9 that show
the grinding head being put through its
paces.

A final comment
6 View of the end of an end mill showing
Having come to the end of the book I
the end tooth gash.
am reminded that I included in the preface
It may be thought that this is to create a comme nt that stated "The ultimate
the cutting edge towards the centre of the success of producing accurate a nd
end mill , this is not so as the cutter only correctly ground cutters depends mainly on
cuts at the outer end of the teeth , see the skill and initiative of the operator". I do
Chapter 5, paragraph 2 and SK1. The hope this book has been he lpfu l in
purpose of the gash is to make it easier to achieving the skill and initiative required for 9 Set up for
grind the secondary clearance. It may also what many would consider to be the most grinding the end
have some beneficial effects with swarf complex area of workshop practice. teeth. Note this is
being done with a
wiping action
rather than the
simpler plunge
and remove option
that produces a
less well
controlled edge as
it replicates errors
in the wheel's
face.

7 Grinding the end


tooth gash using a
saucer wheel. This
would not be
possible with the
disk wheels on a
standard off hand
grinder.

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