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Milieu Therapy is a form of group" at the end of the day, where

psychotherapy that involves the use of kids first tell what they appreciate
therapeutic communities. Patients join from that day, and what their high
a group of around 30, for between 9 point and low point are.
and 18 months. During their stay, Metaphorically, this teaches kids that
patients are encouraged to take every day has its ups and downs, yet
responsibility for themselves and the there is always something that can be
others within the unit. Milieu therapy is appreciated. They could do a self-
thought to be of value in treating evaluation and get feedback (not
personality disorders and behavioural criticism) from the other kids. This is a
problems. Henderson Hospital, in very powerful group and can give kids
London, uses this type of an opportunity to see how others view
psychotherapy. them in a non-threatening forum.

In Children One of Milieu therapy's primary goals


Milieu therapy can also be used in is to teach kids "how" to "fit in" socially
children. It has been in existence since and emotionally in their world without
the late 1800s when moral treatment changing "who" they are. They learn
and therapeutic communities[3] were new skills that help them to better
key issues in the treatment of understand themselves and their
psychiatric problems. It has been used relationships. The milieu is not a static
as a viable treatment modality for kids environment, but is flexible and
for over fifty years in residential and incorporates the use of common
inpatient settings and more recently in structures familiar to all children, such
the partial hospitalization and day as daily routines, predictable rules and
treatment settings. August Aichorn, activities
Bruno Bettelheim, Fritz Redl and David
Wineman were among the early
pioneers in using Milieu Therapy to
treat "impulse-ridden and ego- Art therapy is a form of expressive
impaired" kids in residential and school therapy that uses art materials, such
settings as early as the 1920s. Their as paints, chalk and markers. Art
work collectively has taught us that therapy combines traditional
Milieu Therapy can be a powerful psychotherapeutic theories and
therapeutic tool when individual techniques with an understanding of
dynamics and the social system can be the psychological aspects of the
combined in a planned and meaningful creative process, especially the
way to manage and change behavior affective properties of the different art
and relationships. materials.
As a mental health profession, art
Milieu Therapy is a planned treatment therapy is employed in many clinical
environment in which everyday events settings with diverse populations. Art
and interactions are therapeutically therapy can be found in non-clinical
designed for the purpose of enhancing settings as well as in art studios and in
social skills and building confidence. workshops that focus on creativity
Academics are woven into the daily development. Closely related in
routine using an integrative and practice to marriage and family
interactive approach that incorporates therapists and mental health
learning styles and areas of interest. counseling, art therapists throughout
the US are licensed as either MFTs,
The milieu, or "life space," provides a LPCs, or LPCCs and hold either
safe environment that is rich with registration or board certification as an
social opportunities and immediate art therapist (see section on Art
feedback from caring staff. The milieu Therapy Standards of Practice). Art
is not static but it is flexible and therapists work with children,
features normalizing and adolescents, and adults and provide
developmental perspectives that use services to individuals, couples,
common structures intended to be families, groups, and communities.
familiar to all children, such as daily Using their skills in evaluation and
routines, consistent rules and psychotherapy, art therapists choose
activities. The therapy is planned in materials and interventions
such a way that it is constantly appropriate to their clients’ needs and
supporting, guiding and reinforcing the design sessions to achieve therapeutic
child's ability to learn life tools, such as goals and objectives. They use the
problem solving and coping skills, creative process to help their clients
while at the same time offering a safe increase insight and judgment, cope
place for these skills to be practiced better with stress, work through
and integrated into the child's traumatic experiences, increase
repertoire of strategies. The milieu cognitive abilities, have better
takes into consideration the relationships with family and friends,
perspective of the child as well as the and to just be able to enjoy the life-
perspective of the milieu at large. A affirming pleasures of the creative
simple example of this is a "wrap-up experience. Many art therapists draw
on images from resources such as expressive purposes, art therapy
ARAS (Archive for Research in generally utilizes drawing, painting,
Archetypal Symbolism) to incorporate sculpture, photography, and other
historical art and symbols into their forms of visual art expression. For that
work with patients. Depending on the reason art therapists are trained to
state, province, or country, the term recognize the nonverbal symbols and
art therapist may be reserved for metaphors that are communicated
those that are professionals trained in within the creative process, symbols
both art and therapy and hold a and metaphors which might be difficult
master's degree in art therapy or a to express in words or in other
related field such as counseling or modalities. By helping their clients to
marriage and family therapy with an discover what underlying thoughts and
emphasis in art therapy. Other feelings are being communicated in
professionals, such as mental health the artwork and what it means to
counselors, social workers, them, it is hoped that clients will not
psychologists, and play therapists only gain insight and judgment, but
apply art therapy methods to perhaps develop a better
treatment. Many art therapists in the understanding of themselves and the
US are licensed in one of the following way they relate to the people around
fields: creative arts therapy, art them. According to Malchiodi[1] "Art
therapy, professional counseling, making is seen as an opportunity to
mental health counseling, or marriage express oneself imaginatively,
and family therapy. authentically, and spontaneously, an
Art therapists have generated many experience that, over time, can lead to
specific definitions of art therapy, but personal fulfillment, emotional
most of them fall into one of two reparation, and transformation. The
general categories. The first involves a creative process can be a "health-
belief in the inherent healing power of enhancing and growth-producing
the creative process of art making. experience."
This view embraces the idea that the What Does a Typical Art Therapy
process of making art is therapeutic; Session Look Like?
this process is sometimes referred to Marachi (2006) provides an example of
as art as therapy. Art making is seen what an art therapy session involves
as an opportunity to express one's self and how it is different from an art
imaginatively, authentically, and class. "In most art therapy sessions,
spontaneously, an experience that, the focus is on your inner experience—
over time, can lead to personal your feelings, perceptions, and
fulfillment, emotional reparation, and imagination. While art therapy may
recovery[1]. involve learning skills or art
The second definition of art therapy is techniques, the emphasis is generally
based on the idea that art is a means first on developing and expressing
of symbolic communication. This images that come from inside the
approach, often referred to as art person, rather than those he or she
psychotherapy, emphasizes the sees in the outside world. And while
products—drawings, paintings, and some traditional art classes may ask
other art expressions—as helpful in you to paint or draw from your
communicating issues, emotions, and imagination, in art therapy, your inner
conflicts. The art image becomes world of images, feelings, thoughts,
significant in enhancing verbal and ideas are always of primary
exchange between the person and the importance to the experience.
therapist and in achieving insight; Therapy comes from the Greek word
resolving conflicts; solving problems; therapeia, which means 'to be
and formulating new perceptions that attentive to.' This meaning
in turn lead to positive changes, underscores the art therapy process in
growth, and healing. In reality, art as two ways. In most cases, a skilled
therapy and art psychotherapy are professional attends to the individual
used together in varying degrees. In who is making the art. This person’s
other words, art therapists feel that guidance is key to the therapeutic
both the idea that art making can be a process. This supportive relationship is
healing process and that art products necessary to guide the art-making
communicate information relevant to experience and to help the individual
therapy are important. find meaning through it along the way.
The other important aspect is the
attendance of the individual to his or
her own personal process of making
art and to giving the art product
Purpose of Art Therapy
personal meaning—i.e., finding a story,
The purpose of art therapy is much the
description, or meaning for the art.
same as in any other
Very few therapies depend as much on
psychotherapeutic modality: to
the active participation of the
improve or maintain mental health and
individual (p. 24)." In art therapy, the
emotional well-being. But whereas
art therapist facilitates the person's
some of the other expressive therapies
exploration of both materials and
utilize the performing arts for
narratives about art products created cards (Malchiodi 1998). The person is
during a session. then asked to draw the mandala from
Art-Based Assessments the card they choose with an oil pastel
Art therapists and other professionals of the color of their choice (Malchiodi
use art-based assessments to evaluate 1998). The artist is then asked to
emotional, cognitive, and explain if there were any meanings,
developmental conditions. There are experiences, or related information
also many psychological assessments related to the mandala they drew
that utilize artmaking to analyze (Malchiodi 1998). This test is based on
various types of mental functioning the beliefs of Joan Kellogg, who sees a
(Betts, 2005). Art therapists and other recurring correlation between the
professionals are educated to images, pattern and shapes in the
administer and interpret these mandalas that people draw and the
assessments, most of which rely on personalities of the artists (Malchiodi
simple directives and a standardized 1998). This test assesses and gives
array of art materials (Malchiodi 1998, clues to a person's psychological
2003; Betts, 2005). The first drawing progressions and their current
assessment for psychological purposes psychological condition (Malchiodi
was created in 1906 by German 1998). The mandala originates in
psychiatrist Fritz Mohr (Malchiodi Buddhism; its connections with
1998). In 1926, researcher Florence spirituality help us to see links with
Goodenough created a drawing test to transpersonal art.
measure the intelligence in children House–Tree–Person (HTP)
called the Draw–A–Man Test (Malchiodi In this assessment, the patient is
1998). The key to interpreting the asked to draw three separate images;
Draw-A-Man Test was that the more a house, a tree, and a person
details a child incorporated into the (Malchiodi 1998). After the patient has
drawing, the MORE intelligent they finished the drawings, the therapist
were (Malchiodi, 1998). Goodenough asks questions like, "How old is the
and other researchers realized the test person in your drawing? What is he or
had just as much to do with she doing? What is the house made of?
personality as it did intelligence What is the weather in this picture?"
(Malchiodi, 1998). Several other (Malchiodi 1998). This assessment can
psychiatric art assessments were be done achromatically (one color,
created in the 1940s, and have been such as lead pencil) or chromatically
used ever since (Malchiodi 1998). (with various colored markers or
Notwithstanding, many art therapists pencils). This is a projective
eschew diagnostic testing and indeed assessment and the house, the tree,
some writers (Hogan 1997) question and person in the drawing represent
the validity of therapists making different aspects of the artist and the
interpretative assumptions. Below are way the artist feels about him or
some examples of art therapy herself (Malchiodi 1998).
assessments: Road Drawing
The Diagnostic Drawing Series In this drawing assessment and
(DDS) therapeutic intervention, the patient is
The Diagnostic Drawing Series is an art asked to draw a road. This is a
therapy assessment that is correlated projective assessment used to create a
with the diagnosis of major psychiatric graphic representation of the person's
disorders (Mills, 2003). The DDS is a "road of life." The road drawing has the
three drawing series that is used by potential to elicit spontaneous imagery
mental health professionals around the that represents the client's origins, the
world (Diagnostic Drawing Series history of his or her process,
website, 2009). In the first part, experiences to date, and intent for the
subjects are asked to draw any picture future - even from a single drawing
using colored chalk pastels on an 18 x (Hanes, 1995, 1997, 2008). The road's
24 inch piece of paper. Then they are reparative features or its need for
asked to draw a tree in the second "periodic upgrade" can serve as a
part. In the last part of the art metaphor for the client's capacity for
interview, subjects are asked to show change and restoration (Hanes, 1995,
how they are feeling using lines, 1997, 2008).
shapes, and colors. Research Music therapy is both an allied health
regarding the pictures is generally profession and a field of scientific
based on the presence and absence of research which studies correlations
many elements, such as use of color, between the process of clinical therapy
blending, and placement of the images and biomusicology, musical acoustics,
on the paper (Cohen, Hammer, & music theory, psychoacoustics and
Singer, 1988)... comparative musicology. It is an
The Mandala Assessment interpersonal process in which a
Research Instrument (MARI) trained music therapist uses music and
In this assessment, a person is asked all of its facets—physical, emotional,
to select a card from a deck with mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual
different mandalas; designs enclosed —to help clients to improve or
in a geometric shape, and then must maintain their health. Music therapists
choose a color from a set of colored primarily help clients improve their
observable level of functioning and neuroscience model of music
self-reported quality of life in various perception and production, and the
domains (e.g., cognitive functioning, influence of music on functional
motor skills, emotional and affective changes in nonmusical brain and
development, behavior and social behavior functions."[7] In other words,
skills) by using music experiences NMT studies how the brain is without
(e.g., singing, songwriting, listening to music, how the brain is with music,
and discussing music, moving to measures the differences, and uses
music) to achieve measurable these differences to cause changes in
treatment goals and objectives. the brain through music that will
Referrals to music therapy services eventually effect the client non-
may be made by a treating physician musically. As internationally known
or an interdisciplinary team consisting professor and researcher Dr. Thaut
of clinicians such as physicians, said, "The brain that engages in music
psychologists, physical therapists, and is changed by engaging in music."[8]
occupational therapists.
Music therapists are found in nearly
every area of the helping professions.
Some commonly found practices
include developmental work
(communication, motor skills, etc.)
with individuals with special needs,
songwriting and listening in
reminiscence/orientation work with the
elderly, processing and relaxation
work, and rhythmic entrainment for
physical rehabilitation in stroke
victims.
The Turco-Persian psychologist and
music theorist al-Farabi (872–950),
known as "Alpharabius" in Europe,
dealt with music therapy in his treatise
Meanings of the Intellect, where he
discussed the therapeutic effects of
music on the soul.[1] Robert Burton
wrote in the 17th century in his classic
work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that
music and dance were critical in
treating mental illness, especially
melancholia.[2][3][4]
It is considered one of the expressive
therapies.
Forms
There are a few different philosophies
of thought regarding the foundations
of music therapy. One is based on
education and two are based on music
therapy itself, both of which will only
be briefly covered here. In addition,
there are philosophies based on
psychology, and one based on
neuroscience.
Different approaches from education
are Orff-Schulwerk (Orff), Dalcroze
Eurhythmics, and Kodaly. The two
philosophies that developed directly
out of music therapy are Nordoff-
Robbins and the Bonny Method of
Guided Imagery and Music.[5]
Music therapists work many times with
individuals who have behavioral-
emotional disorders. To meet the
needs of this population, music
therapists have taken current
psychological theories and used them
as a basis for different types of music
therapy. Different models include
behavioral therapy, cognitive
behavioral therapy, and
psychodynamic therapy.[6]
The therapy model based on
neuroscience is called "neurological
music therapy" (NMT). A definition of
NMT is "NMT is based on a