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Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha

GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN


(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt of Karnataka)
KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru. 570016
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING
Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305,

Basic Electrical engineering - 17ELE15


1st Semester, 2017

Prepared by
Mrs. Shruthi B,Dhanalaxmi H R,Mr.
Jagadisha N R & Chaithrashee S R
Assistant Professors

Dept. of EEE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING
Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha (
GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN
(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Karnataka)
KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru- 570 016, Karnataka
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING
Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305

VISION
To be recognized as a premier department producing globally competitive technical professionals with value
based education in the field of electrical engineering committed to social and ethical values.

MISSION
 To provide students with excellent academic ambience for solving problems in electrical engineering.
 To provide training programs which bridges the gap between academia and industry.
 To provide an environment to carry out research activities in Electrical engineering field which serves
the requirements of industry & society.
 To help in building capabilities for excellent energy management and to explore nonconventional energy
sources.

PEO’S - PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

PEO1: To provide students with the knowledge of basic sciences and social science in general and
electrical engineering in particular so as to impart the necessary skills to analyze and synthesis
electrical circuits, algorithms and complex apparatus.

PEO2: To prepare and inspire the students to become future researchers or scientists with innovative
ideas for sustainable development.

PEO3: To develop students into good human beings useful for the society through their core
expertise with good human values and professional ethics.

PEO4: To train the students for the lifelong learning processes in the core area by providing the state
of the art technology.
Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha
GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN
(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Karnataka)
KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru- 570 016, Karnataka
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING
Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305

SYLLABUS

Module 1
D C circuits: Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws, analysis of series, parallel and series- parallel circuits
excited by independent voltage sources. Power and Energy. Illustrative examples. 5 Hours
Electromagnetism:
Review of field around a conductor and coil, magnetic flux and flux density, magnetomotive force and
magnetic field intensity, reluctance and permeability, definition of magnetic circuit and basic analogy
between electric and magnetic circuits. (These topics are not to be considered for setting the examination
questions).
Electromagnetic induction: Definition of Electromagnetic Induction, Faradays Laws, Fleming’s right hand
rule, Lenz’s Law, Statically and dynamically induced emf. Self-inductance, mutual inductance and
coefficient of coupling. Energy stored in magnetic field. Illustrative examples. Force on current carrying
conductor placed in a magnetic field, Fleming’s left hand rule. 5 Hours

Module 2
DC Machines: Working principle of DC machine as a generator and a motor. Types and constructional
features. Types of armature windings, Emf equation of generator, relation between induced emf and terminal
voltage with a mention of brush contact drop and drop due to armature reaction. Illustrative
examples, neglecting armature reaction. Operation of DC motor, back emf, torque equation. Types of DC
motors, characteristics and applications. Significance of back emf. Necessity of a starter for DC motor.
Illustrative examples on back emf and torque. 7 Hours
Measuring Instruments: Construction and Principle of operation of dynamometer type wattmeterand single
phase induction type energy meter. 3 Hours

Module 3
Single-phase AC circuits: Generation of sinusoidal voltage, frequency of generated voltage, definition and
numerical values of average value, root mean square value, form factor and peak factor of sinusoidally
varying quantities, phasor representation of alternating quantities. Analysis, with phasor diagrams, of R, L,
C, R-L, R-C and R-L-C circuits and, parallel and series- parallel circuits. Real power, reactive power,
apparent power and power factor. Illustrative examples. 7 Hours
Domestic wiring:
Service mains, meter board and distribution board. Brief discussion on concealed conduit wiring. Two-way
and three-way control. Elementary discussion on Circuit protective devices: fuse and Miniature Circuit
Breaker (MCB’s). Electric shock, precautions against shock, Objectives of Earthing, types of earthing; pipe
and plate earthing, Residual current circuit breaker (RCCB). 3 Hours

Module 4
Three Phase Circuits: Necessity and advantages of three phase systems, generation of three phase power.
Definition of Phase sequence, balanced supply and balanced load. Relationship between line and phase
values of balanced star and delta connections. Power in balanced three-phase circuits, measurement of power
by two-wattmeter method. Determination power factor \using wattmeter readings. Illustrative examples.
6 Hours
Three PhaseSynchronous Generators: Principle of operation, Types and constructional features,
Advantages of rotating field type alternator, Synchronous speed, Frequency of generated voltage, Emf
equation. Concept of winding factor (excluding the derivation of distribution and pitch factors). Illustrative
examples on calculation of distribution factor, pitch factor and emf equation. 4 Hours

Module 5
Single Phase Transformers:
Necessity of transformer, Principle of operation and construction of singlephase transformers (core and shell
types). Emf equation, losses, variation losses with respect to load, efficiency, Condition for maximum
efficiency, Voltage regulation and its significance (Open Circuit and Short circuit tests, equivalent circuit
and phasor diagrams are excluded). Illustrative problems on emf equation and efficiency only. 6 Hours
Three Phase Induction Motors: Principle of operation, Concept and production of rotating magnetic field,
Synchronous speed, rotor speed, Slip, Frequency of the rotor induced emf, Types and Constructional
features. Slip and its significance. Applications of squirrel - cage and slip - ring motors. Necessity of a
starter, starting of motor using stars-delta starter. Illustrative examples on slip calculations. 4 Hours

COURSE OUTCOME

CO1: Able to Recall and analyze DC circuits and Electromagnetic principle.

CO2: Able to learn the construction, working principle, classification of DC Motors, DC Generator and
Measuring instruments.

CO3: Able to understand and analyze single phase AC circuits and able to study different types of
domestic wiring, safety equipments available such as fuse, circuit breaker, earthling.

CO4: Able to study the 3 Phase AC circuits, Measurement of 3 phase power and Able learn construction and
working principle of Synchronous generator.
.

CO5: Able to gain knowledge about working principle, classification of single phase transformer and three
phase induction motor
Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

MODULE 1
D. C. CIRCUITS

Basic Definitions:

1. Independent voltage source: The source whose voltage is constant and not depended on any
other parameter of the circuit is known as independent voltage source.

2. Electric Curre nt: The rate of flow of electric charge per unit time across a point in a conductor
is known as electric current.

I = dq/dt = q/t

Where I = average current flowing, q = total charge transferred, t = time required for charge
transfer.

3. Ampere: A current of 1 Ampere is defined as 1 coulomb of charge flowing through a given


point in 1 second.
1 ampere current = flow of electrons per second

4. Resistance and Resistivity: The property of a material to oppose or resist the flow of current
through it is called resistance. Unit of resistance is ohm ( Ω )
Resistance is directly proportional to length of conductor and inversely proportional to area of
cross section.
R = ρ l/A
Where ρ = resistivity constant.

5. Electric Potential: It is defined as work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to that
point. Unit if potential is volt.

6. Potential difference: The amount of work that has to be done to bring the positive charge from
lower potential to higher potential point is known as potentia l difference between two points.
Measured in volt (V).

7. Volt: It is defined as potential difference across a resistance of one ohm through which a current
of one ampere is flowing.

8. E M F (Electro motive force) (E): EMF of a source is defined as the voltage available across its
terminals.

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Ohm’s Law

Definition: The current flowing through the electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential
difference across the circuit and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit provided the
temperature remains the same.

IαV

I=V/ R

Limitations of Ohm’s Law:

It doesn’t holds good for non- linear devices such as semiconductors and zener diodes
Not applicable for non- metallic conductors such as silicon carbide
Not applicable for arc lamps and where the temperature rise rapid in some metals.

Series Circuits: The circuit in which the resistances are connected end to end, so that there is only one
path for the flow of current is called as series circuit.

Characteristics of Series Circuits:

The same current flows through all the resistances.


According to ohm’s law, there will be voltage drop across each resistance.
The sum of all voltage drops is equal to the applied voltage.
Equivalent resistance is the largest of all individual resistance.

Below figure is an example of series circuit where R1, R2, R3 are three resistances connected in series.
Voltage V is applied across the end terminals. Current I flow through all three resistors. V1, V2, V3 be
the voltage drops across R1, R2, R3 respectively.

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V= + +

V = I*R1+I*R2+I*R3 = I ( + + )

V/I = + +

Hence according to ohm’s law, V/I is equal to total resistance of the circuit. Therefore R = R1+R2+R3

Parallel Circuits: In parallel circuits, number of resistors is connected in such a way that one end of
each of them is joined to a common point, and the other end of each of them is joined to another
common point.

Characteristics of Parallel Circuits:

Potential difference across all the resistances in parallel remains the same.
Current is divided into as many paths as the number of resistances.
Reciprocal of equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of reciprocal of
individual resistances.
The equivalent resistance is the smallest of all the resistances.

Consider the below parallel circuit. R1, R2, R3 are three resistors connected in parallel. Voltage source
V connected across end terminals. Let I be the current drawn. Voltage across each resistor remains the
same. Current I get divided across each resistor and depends on the resistor value.

According to ohms law,

V= * , V= * ,V= *

Current across each resistor can be given as

= V/ , = V/ , = V/

I= + + = V/ +V/ +V/

I = V [1/ + 1/ +1/ ]

Overall circuit equation according to ohms law

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V=I

I= V/

Where 1/ = 1/ +1/ +1/

Difference between series and parallel circuits:

Sl no Series circuit Parallel circuit


1. Current through each resistor is same voltage across each resistor is same
2. Voltage across each resistor is different Current through each resistor is different
3. Sum of voltages across all resistors is Sum of currents through all the resistors is the
supply voltage supply current
V= + + I= + +

4. equivalent resistance is Equivalent resistance is


= + + 1/ = 1/ +1/ +1/
5. Equivalent resistance is larger than each Equivalent resistance is smaller than the smallest of
of resistance in series all resistances in parallel

Kirchhoff’s Laws

Kirchhoff’s First Law (Current Law): In any network of wires carrying currents, the algebraic sum of
all currents meeting at a point is zero or the sum of incoming currents towards any point is equal to the
sum of outgoing currents away from that point.

Consider the below circuit.

We consider the current flowing towards the junction O as positive where as currents away from
junction O as negative. Therefore current and are positive and current and are negative.

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Therefore according to KCL,

+ + =0

+ = +

Kirchhoff’s Second Law (Voltage Law): In any closed circuit or mesh, the algebraic sum of all the
e.m.f in the circuit is equal to the algebraic sum of the product of currents and resistances.

Sign conventions to be followed while applying KVL

rise in potential should be taken as positive


fall in potential is taken as negative
Voltage drop should be considered as negative when current flows from higher to lower
potential.
Voltage drop should be considered as positive when current flows from lower to higher potential.

Consider the below circuit with two loops. FABEF and BCDEB.

Applying KVL to first loop,

-( + + =0
( + =

Applying KVL to second loop,

+( + + =0

+( + =

Steps to be followe d while applying KVL and KCL to get network equations

1. Draw the circuit diagram from given information and mark all the values of sources with
appropriate polarities and all the resistances.

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2. Mark all branch currents with some assumed directions using KCL at various nodes and junction
points
3. Mark all polarities of voltage drops and rises as per direction of the assumed branch currents
flowing through various branch resistances.
4. Apply KVL to different closed loops in the network to obtain equations
5. Solve the simultaneous equations for unknown currents. From these currents, unknown voltages,
powers and resistances can be calculated.

Powe r and Energy

Electrical work W: Transfer of charge is an electric current. electrical work is done when there is
transfer of charge. Unit of electric work done is joule. One joule of work is done when is movement of 1
coulomb of charge through a potential difference of 1 volt.

W=V*Q Joules, but I=Q/t

W= VI t Joules

Electrical power P: The rate at which electric work is done is called as electric power.

P=electric work/time = W/t = VIt/t

P = VI Joules/sec i.e,watts

Thus power consumed in an electric circuit is 1 watt if potential difference if 1 volt is applied across the
circuit causes 1 ampere current to flow.

Electrical energy E: It is the total amount of electrical work done in an electric circuit.

Electrical energy = power * time

E= VI t joules i.e, watts-sec

Energy consumed by an electric circuit is said to be 1 joule or watt-sec when it utilizes power of 1 watt
for 1 second. Usually measured as kilo watt hour (kWh) since watt-sec is a very small quantity.

ELECTRO MAGNETISM

1. Magnetic induction: The phenomenon due to which a magnet can induce magnetism in a piece
of magnetic material placed near to it without any physical contact is known as magnetic
induction.
2. Laws of magnetis m:

Coulomb’s first law states that like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.

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Coulomb’s second law states that force exerted by one pole on other pole is

Directly proportional to the product of their pole strengths.


Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Inversely proportional to absolute permeability of the surrounding medium.

Fα /

Where are the pole strength of the poles, d is distance between them.

F=k /

Where k is called as permeability i.e, nature of the surrounding.

3. Magnetic Field: The space around the magnet is called magnetic field and is represented by
magnetic lines of force.

Magnetic lines of force: below figure shows the magnetic lines of force. Direction o f each line
of force from north pole to south pole outside the magnet but from s-pole to n-pole inside the
magnet. Lines are dense near poles where filed is stronger.

4. Magnetic Flux (ϕ ): Total number of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field is called as
magnetic flux. Unit of flux is weber where 1 weber = magnetic lines of force.

5. Flux Density (B): It can be defined as the flux per unit area through a plane that is right angles
to the flux.

Flux density B = ϕ / A wb/ or tesla

Path followed by the magnetic flux is called magnetic circuit.

6. Magneto Motive Force ( M.M.F): It is defined as magnetic force that creates the magnetic flux
in a magnetic material. Unit is ampere turns ( AT).

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7.
M.M.F = N*I

Where N = number of turns in the coil, I = current through the coil.

Also M.M.F = flux * reluctance

NI=ϕ*S

8. Reluctance (S): It is the property of a magnetic material by virtue of which it opposes the
creation of magnetic flux in it. Unit is ampere-turn per weber (AT/Wb). It is directly proportional
to length of magnetic material and inversely proportional to cross section area.

S α l/A = 1/µ. l/A = l/ A

Where permeability of free space and is relative permeability of magnetic material.

9. Permeability: It is defined as ability of the material to conduct magnetic flux through it.

two types of permeability are absolute permeability (µ) and relative permeability( ).

Absolute permeability is defined as the flux density induced in the magnetic material per unit
magnetizing force.

µ = B/H H/m where H = magnetizing force

relative permeability is is a permeability of free space or air and is usually taken as unity.

For any other magnetic material, relative permeability is the ratio of flux density induced in magnetic
material of particular shape and size to the flux density induced in free space or air

= B/

10. Leakage Flux: consider the below figure. When a magnetizing winding is concentrated over a
short length of the ring, the entire flux set up due to current passing through it does not reach the
magnetic circuit. Some lines are present in and around the coil itself and does not perfor m any
useful work. This is called leakage flux.

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When a useful flux passes through the air gap, flux lines tends to bulge outwards at the ends of
air gap and the density of flux is reduced in air gap. This phenomenon is called as fringing.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

When an electric current passes through the conductor, magnetic field is setup which surrounds or
links up with the conductor. In converse, electricity can be created by magnetism by changing the
magnetic flux linking with the conductor. This process is known as Electro Magnetic Induction.

e.m.f produced is called as induced e.m.f and resulting current is called induced current.

Consider the below diagram where coil wound with number of turns connected to galvanometer.

When magnet is moved towards the coil, galvanometer pointer deflects as there is change in
flux linkage and emf is induced in the coil. In converse when magnet kept constant the coil is
moved towards the magnet, emf is induced in the coil.
When magnet is moved away from the coil, galvanometer pointer deflects but in opposite
direction which indicates that emf is induced in opposite direction.
Hence direction of induced emf depends on direction of magnetic flux and upon the direction
in which the flux moves relative to the conductor.
Greater the speed of movement of magnet or coil, greater the amount of induced emf.

Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction

First law: whenever there is flux linking a coil or circuit changes, an emf is induced in it.

Second law: the magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux
linkages

The magnitude of flux linkages is determined by the number of times the circuit is linked by the
flux. If there are N turns of a coil, then each flux line will link this circuit N times

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Flux linkages = flux * number of turns

Consider a coil that has N turns and the flux through it changes from an initial value of to final
value in t seconds

Thus, initial flux linkages= N , final flux linkages = N

Rate of change of flux =N -N /t

As per faraday’s second law, emf is given by

eαN -N /t volts

=kN -N /t volts, where k =1

= N( - /t volts

Expressing the above equation in differential form,

e = N dϕ / dt volts

minus sign is added with above equation to indicate the fact that induced emf setup current in such a
direction that the magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause producing it.

e = - N dϕ / dt volts

Direction of induced emf and current can be found by two laws.

Fle ming’s right hand rule: stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger such that all are right
angled to each other. Thumb shows the direction of motion of coil, forefinger shows the direction of
magnetic field and middle finger shows the direction of the induced emf.

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Lenz’s law: The direction of induced emf and hence current is such that it opposes the cause
producing it.

Consider the below diagram. Let N pole approach the coil. Flux linkage in coil changes and emf is
induced in the coil. So as per lenz law, current induced in the coil will oppose the cause producing it.
The cause which is producing the current is the motion of the magnet. Therefore, induced current
should flow in such a direction that it should develop the polarities such that it opposes the motion of
magnet. This happens when left face becomes the N pole.

Types of induced emf:

Change in flux can be brought by two different methods.

1. Dynamically induced emf


2. Statically induced emf

Dynamically induced emf:

When the magnetic field is stationary and the conductor is in motion, the emf induced is called
dynamically induced emf.

Consider a conductor of length l meters moving right angles to a uniform magnetic field of B Wb/
with velocity of v meters/sec. let the conductor move through a small distance dx in dt seconds.
Therefore the area swept = l * dx

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Flux cut = flux density * area swept

= B * l * dx

As per faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, the emf ‘e’ induced in the conductor is given by

e = flux cut / time

= B l dx / dt

Or

e = B l v volts

Where, v = dx / dt

This equation gives the induced emf when the plane of motion is exactly perpendicular to the plane of
flux. This is the maximum possible emf as plane of motion is at right angles to plane of the flux.

But if conductor is moved with velocity v but at certain angle ϴ measured with respect to direction of
the field, then component of velocity which is v sin ϴ is perpendicular to direction of flux and hence
responsible for the induced emf. The other component v cos ϴ is parallel to the plane of the flux and hence
will not contribute dynamically induced emf

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e = B l v sin ϴ volts

Statically induced e mf:

The emf induced in the coil due to change in flux lines without any physical movement of coil or
magnet is known as statically induced emf . It can be of two types.

1. self induced emf


2. mutually induced emf

Self induced emf:

Consider the coil having N turns and carrying current I. current magnitude can be varied with the help of
resistance connected in series with the battery and coil. The flux produced in the coil is linked with the
coil itself. Total flux linkage of the coil will be N ϕ Wb-turns. If current I is changed by varying the
resistance in series, flux produced changes, due to which flux linkage changes. And hence there is a
induced emf in the coil without any physical movement of coil or magnet.

Magnitude of self induced e mf:

From faraday’s law of EMI, self induced emf can be expressed as

e = -N dϕ / dt

the flux can be expressed as

ϕ = ( flux / ampere ) * ampere =(ϕ /I)* I

as long as permeability is constant, rate of flux to current remains constant

therefore rate of change of flux = ϕ/I * rate of change of current

dϕ / dt = ϕ/I * dI/dt

e = -(N ϕ/I) * dI/dt

here Nϕ / I is called coefficient of self inductance and denoted by L.

therefore L = N ϕ / I

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it is defined as flux linkages per ampere current in it. Unit is henry.

A circuit possess a self inductance of 1 henry when a current of 1 A through it produces flux linkages of
1 Wb-turn in it

e = -L dI/dt volts

Expression for co-efficient of self inductance ( L ):

L = Nϕ / I

Φ = MMF/reluctance = NI/S

L=N N I/IS

L= / S henries

Now S = l/µa

L= / (l/ µa)

L= µa / l

L= /l henries

Where l = length of magnetic circuit, a = area of cross section of magnetic circuit

Mutually induces emf:

If the flux produced by one coil is getting linked with another coil and due to change in this flux
produced by first coil, there is induced emf in the second coil is called mutually induced emf.

Consider two coils which are placed adjacent to each other as shown in figure

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Coil A has N1 turns, coil B has N2 turns. Coil A has variable resistance R and battery E volts in series.
Coil B is connected with the galvanometer to sense the induced emf.

current flows through the coil A producing flux . Part of this flux will link with coil B. this is a
mutual flux . Now if current through coil A is changed, there will change in flux and due to
which emf is induced in coil B which is detected by galvanometer.

Magnitude of mutually induced emf:

Let = number of turns in coil A

= number of turns in coil B

= flux produced in coil A

= flux linking with coil B

= current flowing through coil A

According to faradays law, =- d / dt

Now / )*

Rate of change of = / * rate of change of

d / dt = / * d / dt

=- / * d / dt

=- / )* d / dt

/ is called as coefficient of mutual inductance denoted by M

= -M d / dt volts

Expression of mutual inductance ( M )

M= /

is part of flux . Let be the fraction of which is linked with coil B

M= /

Flux can be expressed as = MMF/ reluctance

= /S

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M= /S)( / )

M= /S

If all flux link with coil B, then =1

M= /S

Now s = l/ µa

Then M = /( l/ µa) = µa / l

M= a/l

Co-efficient of coupling:

Consider two magnetically coupled coil A and B with turns respectively

We know that M= / and M= /

Multiplying above two equations M*M = / )*( / )

= / )*( / )

But / = self inductance of coil 1 =

/ = self inductance of coil 2 =

M= =k

Where K = = co-efficient of coupling

If entire flux produced by one coil links with the other then K = =1

Therefore K = M / expression for co-efficient of coupling.

Force on current carrying conductor in a magnetic field:

Consider the straight conductor carrying current placed in magnetic field as in the below figure. Flux
pattern is as shown in the figure. Current carrying conductor also produces its own magnetic field
around it. Assuming the current direction away from the observer which can be determined by the right
hand thumb rule.

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So now there are two different magnetic fields that is due to permanent magnet and current carrying
conductor. These two flux interact with each other. This interaction will be in such a way that on one
side of the conductor the two lines help each other, while on the other side two lines try to cancel each
other. Due to this there will accumulation of flux on one side and weakening of flux on the other side..
According to the properties of flux lines, these flux lines will try to shorten themselves. While doing so
flux lines which are gathered will exert force on the conductor. So the conductor experience the
mechanical force from high flux area towards low flux lines area. This is the basic principle on which d
c electric motors work and hence are called motoring action.

Fle ming’s left hand rule

The direction of force experienced by the conductor placed in magnetic field can be determined by a
rule called Fleming’s left hand rule.

The rule states that outstretch the three fingers of the left hand namely forefinger, thumb and middle
finger such that all are right angle to each other. Fore finger gives the magnetic field, middle finger
shows the direction of current and the thumb finger shows the direction of force experienced by the
conductor.

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Energy stored in the magnetic field:

consider a solenoid, in which current can be controlled with the help of resistance R. when the switch is
closed, current flows through the coil and try to build up the value from zero to I. mean time flux linkage
associated with the coil will change due to which there will be self induced emf in the coil whose value
is given by

e = -L dI/dt

hence at every instant coil will try to oppose the increase in the current. To overcome this opposition
supply has to provide the energy to the circuit. This is nothing but the energy required to establish the
current.

Once current achieves maximum value I then change in current stops. Hence there cannot be any
induced emf and no energy will be drawn from the supply. So no energy is required to maintain the
established flux.

When current is reduced to zero, current through the coil starts decreasing and the flux also decreases.
So emf induced in the coil. But as per lenz law it will try to oppose the cause producing it which is
decrease in current. So this induced emf now will try to maintain current to its original value. Hence
induced emf acts as a source and supplies energy to the source. This is nothing but same energy stored in

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the magnetic field which gets recovered while field collapses. Hence energy stored while increase in the
current is returned back to the supply when current decreases.

Expression for energy stored in the magnetic field:

Let induced emf in the coil be

e = -L dI/dt

This opposes a supply voltage. So supply voltage V supplies energy to overcome this, which is stored in
magnetic field

Therefore V = - e = - (-L dI/dt) = L dI/dt

Power supplied = V * I = L( dI/dt) * I

Energy supplied in time dt is,

E = power * time = L( dI/dt) * I* dt

= L di * I joules

This is energy supplied for the change in current of dI but actual change from zero to I is got by
integrating above equation

E= =L

=L = L [ - 0]

E=½ L joules

Energy stored pe r unit volume

Above expression can be expressed in different form as

E=½ L joules

Now L = Nϕ/I

E = ½ Nϕ/I * joules = ½ NϕI joules

Now NI = Hl ampere-turns

Φ=B a

E = ½ BaHl

But a*l = area * length = volume of magnetic circuit

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Energy stored per unit volume is = ½ BH

B= µH

=½µ joules/

E/unit volume = ½ joules/

Where µ =

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Module 2
DC machines
Constructional features of a dc machine:

Dc machine like we all know is a device that deals in the conversion of electrical energy to mechanical
energy and this is essentially brought about by two major parts required for the construction of dc motor,
namely

1) Stator – The static part that houses the field windings and receives the supply
2) Rotor – The rotating part that brings about the mechanical rotations.

Other than that there are several subsidiary parts namely the yoke, poles, field winding, armature
winding, commutator, brushes of Dc machine

Yoke of the Dc machine: The magnetic frame or the yoke of dc motor made up of cast iron or steel and
forms an integral part of the stator or the static part of the motor. Its main function is to form a protective
covering over the inner sophisticated parts of the motor and provide support to the armature. It also
supports the field system by housing the magnetic poles and field winding of the dc motor.

Poles of the Dc machine: The magnetic poles of DC motor are structures fitted onto the inner wall of
the yoke with screws. The construction of magnetic poles basically comprises of two parts namely, the
pole core and the pole shoe stacked together under hydraulic pressure and then attached to the yoke.
These two structures are assigned for different purposes, the pole core is of small cross sectional area
and its function is to just hold the pole shoe over the yoke, whereas the pole shoe having a relatively
larger cross-sectional area spreads the flux produced over the air gap between the stator and rotor to
reduce the loss due to reluctance. The pole shoe also carries slots for the field windings that produce the
field flux.

Field winding: The field winding of dc motor are made with field coils (copper wire) wound over the
slots of the pole shoes in such a manner that when field current flows through it, then adjacent poles
have opposite polarity are produced. The field winding basically form an electromagnet, that produces
field flux within which the rotor armature of the dc motor rotates, and results in the effective flux
cutting.

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Armature winding: The armature winding of dc motor is attached to the rotor, or the rotating part of
the machine, and as a result is subjected to altering magnetic field in the path of its rotation which
directly results in magnetic losses. For this reason the rotor is made of armature core, that’s made with
several low-hysteresis silicon steel laminations, to reduce the magnetic losses like hysteresis and eddy
current loss respectively. These laminated steel sheets are stacked together to form the cylindrical
structure of the armature core.

The armature core are provided with slots made of the same material as the core to which the armature
winding made with several turns of copper wire distributed uniformly over the entire periphery of the
core. The slot openings a shut with fibrous wedges to prevent the conductor from plying out due to the
high centrifugal force produced during the rotation of the armature, in presence of supply current and
field.

Lap winding: In this case the number of parallel paths between conductors A is equal to the number of
poles P.

Wave winding: Here in this case, the number of parallel paths between conductors A is always equal to
2 irrespective of the number of poles. Hence the machine designs are made accordingly.

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Commutator: The commutator of dc motor is a cylindrical structure made up of copper segments


stacked together, but insulated from each other by mica. Its main function as far as the dc motor is
concerned is to commute or relay the supply current from the mains to the armature winding housed
over a rotating structure through the brushes of dc motor.

Brushes of Dc machine : The brushes of dc motor are made with carbon or graphite structures, making
sliding contact over the rotating commutator. The brushes are used to relay the current from external
circuit to the rotating commutator form where it flows into the armature winding. So, the commutator
and brush unit of the dc motor is concerned with transmitting the power from the static electrical circuit
to the mechanically rotating region or the rotor.

Working principle of DC generator:

There are two types of generators, one is ac generator and other is dc generator. Whatever may be the
types of generators, it always converts mechanical power to electrical power. An ac generator produces
alternating power. A DC generator produces direct power. Both of these generators produce electrical
power, based on same fundamental principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. According
to these law, when an conductor moves in a magnetic field it cuts magnetic lines force, due to which an

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emf is induced in the conductor. The magnitude of this induced emf depends upon the rate of change of
flux (magnetic line force) linkage with the conductor. This emf will cause an current to flow if the
conductor circuit is closed.

Hence the most basic tow essential parts of a generator are a) a magnetic field and b) conductors which
move inside that magnetic field.

a single loop of conductor of rectangular shape is placed between two opposite poles of magnet. Let's us
consider, the rectangular loop of conductor is ABCD which rotates inside the magnetic field about its
own axis ab. When the loop rotates from its vertical position to its horizontal position, it cuts the flux
lines of the field. As during this movement two sides, i.e. AB and CD of the loop cut the flux lines there
will be an emf induced in these both of the sides (AB & BC) of the loop. As the loop is closed there will
be a current circulating through the loop. The direction of the current can be determined by Fleming’s
right hand Rule. This rule says that is you stretch thumb, index finger and middle finger of your right
hand perpendicular to each other, then thumbs indicates the direction of motion of the conductor, index
finger indicates the direction of magnetic field i.e. N - pole to S - pole, and middle finger indicates the
direction of flow of current through the conductor.

Now if we apply this right hand rule, we will see at this horizontal position of the loop, current will flow
from point A to B and on the other side of the loop current will flow from point C to D.

Now if we allow the loop to move further, it will come again to its vertical position, but now upper side
of the loop will be CD and lower side will be AB (just opposite of the previous vertical position). At this
position the tangential motion of the sides of the loop is parallel to the flux lines of the field. Hence there
will be no question of flux cutting and consequently there will be no current in the loop.

If the loop rotates further, it comes to again in horizontal position. But now, said AB side of the loop
comes in front of N pole and CD comes in front of S pole, i.e. just opposite to the previous horizontal
position as shown in the figure beside.

Here the tangential motion of the side of the loop is perpendicular to the flux lines, hence rate of flux
cutting is maximum here and according to Fleming's right hand rule, at this position current flows from
B to A and on other side from D to C.

Now if the loop is continued to rotate about its axis, every time the side AB comes in front of S pole, the
current flows from A to B and when it comes in front of N pole, the current flows from B to A.
Similarly, every time the side CD comes in front of S pole the current flows from C to D and when it
comes in front of N pole the current flows from D to C.

If we observe this phenomena in different way, it can be concluded, that each side of the loop comes in
front of N pole, the current will flow through that side in same direction i.e. downward to the reference
plane and similarly each side of the loop comes in front of S pole, current through it flows in same

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direction i.e. upwards from reference plane. From this, we will come to the topic of principle of dc
generator.

Now the loop is opened and connect it with a split ring as shown in the figure below. Split ring are made
out of a conducting cylinder which cuts into two halves or segments insulated from each other. The
external load terminals are connected with two carbon brushes which are rest on these split s lip ring
segments.

It is seen that in the first half of the revolution current flows always along ABLMCD i.e. brush no 1 in
contact with segment a. In the next half revolution, in the figure the direction of the induced current in
the coil is reversed. But at the same time the position of the segments a and b are also reversed which
results that brush no 1 comes in touch with that segment b. Hence, the current in the load resistance
again flows from L to M. The wave from of the current through the load circuit is as shown in the figure.
This current is unidirectional. This is basic working principle of DC generator, explained by single loop
generator model.

The position of the brushes of DC generator is so arranged that the change over of the segments a and b
from one brush to other takes place when the plane of rotating coil is at right angle to the plane of the
lines of force. It is so become in that position, the induced emf in the coil is zero.

Types of generators:

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Generally DC generators are classified according to the ways of excitation of their fields. There are three
methods of excitation.

i. Field coils excited by permanent magnets – Permanent magnet DC generators


ii. Field coils excited by some external source – Separately excited DC generators
iii. Field coils excited by the generator itself – Self excited DC generators

Permanent magnet DC generators:

When the flux in the magnetic circuit is established by the help of permanent magnets then it is known
as Permanent magnet dc generator. It consists of an armature and one or several permanent magnets
situated around the armature. This type of dc generators generates very low power. So, they are rarely
found in industrial applications. They are normally used in small applications like dynamos in motor
cycles.

Separately excited DC motor:

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by some external dc source such as battery .
A circuit diagram of separately excited DC generator is shown in figure.

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

Voltage drop in the armature = Ia × Ra (R/sub>a is the armature resistance)

Let, Ia = IL = I (say)

Then, voltage across the load, V = IRa Power generated,

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Pg = Eg×I Power delivered to the external load,

PL = V×I.

Self excited DC generators:

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by the current supplied by themselves. In
these type of machines field coils are internally connected with the armature. Due to residual magnetism
some flux is always present in the poles. When the armature is rotated some emf is induced. Hence some
induced current is produced. This small current flows through the field coil as well as the load and
thereby strengthening the pole flux. As the pole flux strengthened, it will produce more armature emf,
which cause further increase of current through the field. This increased field current further raises
armature emf and this cumulative phenomenon continues until the excitation reaches to the rated value.
According to the position of the field coils the Self-excited DC generators may be classified as…

A. Series wound generators : In these type of generators, the field windings are connected in series
with armature conductors as shown in figure below. So, whole current flows through the field
coils as well as the load. As series field winding carries full load current it is designed with
relatively few turns of thick wire. The electrical resistance of series field winding is therefore
very low (nearly 0.5Ω ).

Let, Rsc = Series winding resistance

Isc = Current flowing through the series field

Ra = Armature resistance

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

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Then, Ia = Isc = IL=I (say) Voltage across the load,

V = Eg -I(Ia×Ra ) Power generated,

Pg = Eg×I Power delivered to the load,

PL = V×I

B. Shunt wound generators: In these type of DC generators the field windings are connected in
parallel with armature conductors as shown in figure below. In shunt wound generators the
voltage in the field winding is same as the voltage across the terminal.

Let, Rsh = Shunt winding resistance

Ish = Current flowing through the shunt field

Ra = Armature resistance

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

Here armature current Ia is dividing in two parts, one is shunt field current Ish and another is load
current IL. So, Ia=Ish + IL The effective power across the load will be maximum when I L will be
maximum. So, it is required to keep shunt field current as small as possible. For this purpose the
resistance of the shunt field winding generally kept high (100 Ω) and large no of turns are used for
the desired emf.

Shunt field current, I sh = V/Rsh

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Voltage across the load, V = E g-Ia Ra

Power generated, Pg= Eg×Ia

Power delivered to the load, PL = V×IL

C. Compound wound generators : In series wound generators, the output voltage is directly
proportional with load current. In shunt wound generators, output voltage is inversely
proportional with load current. A combination of these two types of generators can overcome the
disadvantages of both. This combination of windings is called compound wound DC generator.
Compound wound generators have both series field winding and shunt field winding. One
winding is placed in series with the armature and the other is placed in parallel with the ar mature.
This type of DC generators may be of two types- short shunt compound wound generator and
long shunt compound wound generator.

The generators in which only shunt field winding is in parallel with the armature winding as shown in
figure.

Series field current, Isc = IL

Shunt field current, I sh = (V+Isc Rsc)/Rsh

Armature current, Ia = Ish + IL

Voltage across the load, V = E g - Ia Ra - Isc Rsc

Power generated, Pg = Eg×Ia

Power delivered to the load, PL=V×IL

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The generators in which shunt field winding is in parallel with both series field and armature winding as
shown in figure.

Shunt field current, I sh =V/Rsh

Armature current, Ia= series field current, Isc= IL+Ish

Voltage across the load, V=E g-Ia Ra-Isc Rsc=Eg-Ia (Ra+Rsc) [∴Ia=Ics]

Power generated, Pg= Eg×Ia

Power delivered to the load, PL=V×IL

In a compound wound generator, the shunt field is stronger than the series field. When the series field
assists the shunt field, generator is said to be commutatively compound wound. On the other hand if
series field opposes the shunt field, the generator is said to be differentially compound wound.

Emf equation for DC generator:

Let
Φ = flux/pole in weber

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Z = total number of armature conductors


= No of slots x No of conductors/slot
P = No of generator poles
A = No of parallel paths in armature
N = armature rotation in revolutions per minute (r.p.m)
E = e.m.f induced in any parallel path in armature
Generated e.m.f Eg = e.m.f generated in any one of the parallel paths i.e E.
Average e.m.f generated /conductor = dΦ/dt volt (n=1)
Now, flux cut/conductor in one revolution dΦ = ΦP Wb
No of revolutions/second = N/60
Time for one revolution, dt = 60/N second
Hence, according to Faraday's Laws of Electro magnetic Induction,

E.M.F generated/conductor is

For a simplex wave-wound generator


No.of parallel paths = 2
No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/2
E.M.F. generated/path is

For a simplex lap-wound generator


No.of parallel paths = P
No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/P
E.M.F.generated/path

In general generated e.m.f

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where A = 2 - for simplex wave-winding = P - for simplex lap-winding

Working principle of DC motor:

It mainly depends upon Fleming Left Hand rule. In a basic dc motor, an armature is placed in between
magnetic poles. If the armature winding is supplied by an external dc source, current starts flowing
through the armature conductors. As the conductors are carrying current inside a magnetic field, they
will experience a force which tends to rotate the armature. Suppose armature conductors under N poles
of the field magnet, are carrying current downwards (crosses) and those under S poles are carrying
current upwards (dots). By applying Fleming’s Left hand Rule, the direction of force F, experienced by
the conductor under N poles and the force experienced by the conductors under S poles can be
determined. It is found that at any instant the forces experienced by the conductors are in such a
direction that they tend to rotate the armature. Again, due this rotation the conductors under N – poles
come under S – pole and the conductors under S – poles come under N – pole. While the conductors go
form N – poles to S – pole and S – poles to N – pole, the direction of current through them, is reversed
by means of commutator. Due to this reversal of current, all the conductors come under N - poles carry
current in downward direction and all the conductors come under S – poles carry current in upward
direction as shown in the figure. Hence, every conductor comes under N – pole experiences force in
same direction and same is true for the conductors come under S – poles. This phenomenon helps to
develop continuous and unidirectional torque.

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Back emf and significance of back emf:

When the armature of a d.c. motor rotates under the influence of the driving torque, the armature
conductors move through the magnetic field and hence e.m.f. is induced in them as in a generator. The
induced e.m.f. acts in opposite direction to the applied voltage V (Lenz’s law) and in known as back
emf.

The back e.m.f. Eb(= PΦZN/60 A) is always less than the applied voltage V, although this difference is
small when the motor is running under normal conditions.

A shunt wound motor shown in Figure. When d.c. voltage V is applied across the motor terminals, the
field magnets are excited and armature conductors are supplied with current. Therefore, driving torque
acts on the armature which begins to rotate. As the armature rotates, back e.m.f. Eb is induced which
opposes applied voltage v
The applied voltage V has to force current through the armature against the back e.m.f. Eb. The electric
work done in overcoming and causing the current to flow against Eb is converted into mechanical
energy developed in the armature. It follows, therefore, that energy conversion in a d.c. motor is
only possible due to the production of back e.m.f. Eb.

Net voltage across armature circuit = V - Eb

If Ra is the armature circuit resistance, then, Ia = (V - Eb)/Ra

Since V and Ra are usually fixed, the value of Eb will determine the current drawn by the motor. If the
speed of the motor is high, then back e.m.f. Eb (= PφZN/60 A) is large and hence the motor will draw
less armature current and viceversa.

Significance:

The presence of back e.m.f. makes the d.c. motor a self-regulating machine i.e., it makes the motor to
draw as much armature current as is just sufficient to develop the torque required by the load.

Armature current, Ia = (V - Eb)/Ra

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When the motor is running on no load, small torque is required to overcome the friction and
windage losses. Therefore, the armature current Ia is small and the back e.m.f. is nearly equal to
the applied voltage.

If the motor is suddenly loaded, the first effect is to cause the armature to slow down. Therefore,
the speed at which the armature conductors move through the field is reduced and hence the back
e.m.f. Eb falls. The decreased back e.m.f. allows a larger current to flow through the armature
and larger current means increased driving torque. Thus, the driving torque increases as the
motor slows down. The motor will stop slowing down when the armature current is just
sufficient to produce the increased torque required by the load.

If the load on the motor is decreased, the driving torque is momentarily in excess of the
requirement so that armature is accelerated. As the armature speed increases, the back e.m.f. Eb
also increases and causes the armature current Ia to decrease. The motor will stop accelerating
when the armature current is just sufficient to produce the reduced torque required by the load.

It follows, therefore, that back e.m.f. in a d.c. motor regulates the flow of armature current i.e., it
automatically changes the armature current to meet the load requirement.

Torque equation for DC motor:

The dc motor as we all know is a rotational machine, and torque of dc motor is a very important
parameter in this concern, and it’s of utmost importance to understand the torque equation of dc motor
for establishing its running characteristics.

To establish the torque equation, let us first consider the basic circuit diagram of a dc motor, and its
voltage equation.

Referring to the diagram beside, we can see, that if E is the supply voltage, Eb is the back emf produced
and Ia, Ra are the armature current and armature resistance respectively then the voltage equation is
given by,

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But keeping in mind that our purpose is to derive the torque equation of dc motor we multiply both sides
of equation (2) by Ia.

Now Ia2 .Ra is the power loss due to heating of the armature coil, and the true effective mechanical power
that is required to produce the desired torque of dc machine is given by,

The mechanical power Pm is related to the electromagnetic torque Tg as,

Where ω is speed in rad/sec.

Now equating equation (4) & (5) we get,

Now for simplifying the torque equation of dc motor we substitute.

Where, P is no of poles,

φ is flux per pole,

Z is no. of conductors,

A is no. of parallel paths,

and N is the speed of the D.C. motor.

Above equation gives the emf equation

Substituting equation (6) and (7) in equation (4), we get:

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The torque we so obtain, is known as the electromagnetic torque of dc motor, and subtracting the
mechanical and rotational losses from it we get the mechanical torque.

Therefore, Tm = Tg - mechanical losses.

This is the torque equation of dc motor. It can be further simplified as:

Which is constant for a particular machine and therefore the torque of dc motor varies with only flux φ
and armature current Ia.

Types and characteristics of DC motor:

The direct current motor or the DC motor has a lot of application in today’s field of engineering and
technology. Starting from an electric shaver to parts of automobiles, in all small or medium sized
motoring applications DC motors come handy. And because of its wide range of application different
functional types of dc motor are available in the market for specific requirements.

The types of DC motor can be listed as follows

Permanent Magnet DC Motor


Separately Excited DC Motor
Self Excited DC Motor
Shunt Wound DC Motor
Series Wound DC Motor
Compound Wound DC Motor
Cumulative compound DC motor
Short shunt DC Motor
Long shunt DC Motor
Differential Compound DC Motor
Short Shunt DC Motor
Long Shunt DC Motor

Separately excited DC motor:

As the name suggests, in case of a separately excited DC motor the supply is given separately to the
field and armature windings. The main distinguishing fact in these types of dc motor is that, the
armature current does not flow through the field windings, as the field winding is energized from a
separate external source of dc current as shown in the figure. From the torque equation of dc motor we

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know Tg = K a φ Ia So the torque in this case can be varied by varying field flux φ, independent of the
armature current Ia.

Permanent magnet Dc motor:

The permanent magnet DC motor consists of an armature winding as in case of an usual motor, but does
not necessarily contain the field windings. The construction of these types of DC motor are such that,
radially magnetized permanent magnets are mounted on the inner periphery of the stator core to produce
the field flux. The rotor on the other hand has a conventional dc armature with commutator segments
and brushes. The diagrammatic representation of a permanent magnet dc motor is given below.

The torque equation of dc motor suggests Tg = Ka φ Ia. Here φ is always constant, as permanent magnets
of required flux density are chosen at the time of construction a nd can’t be changed there after

For a permanent magnet dc motor Tg = Ka1 Ia

Where K a1 = K a.φ which is another constant. In this case the torque of DC Motor can only be changed
by controlling armature supply.

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Shunt wound DC motor:

In case of a shunt wound dc motor or more specifically shunt wound self excited dc motor, the field
windings are exposed to the entire terminal voltage as they are connected in parallel to the armature
winding as shown in the figure below.

To understand the characteristic of these types of DC motor, lets consider the basic voltage equation
given by,

[Where E, Eb , Ia, Ra are the supply voltage, back emf, armature current and armature resistance
respectively]

[since back emf increases with flux φ and angular speed ωω]

Now substituting Eb from equation (2) to equation (1) we get,

The torque equation of a dc motor resembles,

This is similar to the equation of a straight line, and we can graphically representing the torque speed
characteristic of a shunt wound self excited dc motor as

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The shunt wound dc motor is a constant speed motor, as the speed does not vary here with the variation
of mechanical load on the output.

Series wound DC motor:

In case of a series wound self excited dc motor or simply series wound dc motor, the entire armature
current flows through the field winding as its connected in series to the armature winding. The series
wound self excited dc motor is diagrammatically represented below for clear understanding.

Now to determine the torque speed characteristic of these types of DC motor, lets get to the torque speed
equation.

From the circuit diagram we can see that the voltage equation gets modified to

Where as back emf remains Eb = kaφω

Neglecting saturation we get,

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[ since field current = armature current]

From equation 5 and 6

From this equation we obtain the torque speed characteristic as

In a series wound dc motor, the speed varies with load. And operation wise this is its main difference
from a shunt wound dc motor.

Compound wound DC motor:

The compound excitation characteristic in a dc motor can be obtained by combining the operational
characteristic of both the shunt and series excited dc motor. The compound wound self excited dc motor
or simply compound wound dc motor essentially contains the field winding connected both in series and
in parallel to the armature winding as shown in the figure below The excitation of compound wound dc
motor can be of two types depending on the nature of compounding.

Cumulative compound DC motor:

When the shunt field flux assists the main field flux, produced by the main field connected in series to
the armature winding then its called cumulative compound dc motor.

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Differential compound DC motor:

In case of a differentially compounded self excited dc motor i.e. differential compound dc motor, the
arrangement of shunt and series winding is such that the field flux produced by the shunt field winding
diminishes the effect of flux by the main series field winding.

The net flux produced in this case is lesser than the original flux and hence does not find much of a
practical application.

Short shunt DC motor:

If the shunt field winding is only parallel to the armature winding and not the series field winding then
its known as short shunt dc motor or more specifically short shunt type compound wound dc motor.

Long shunt DC motor:

The shunt field winding is parallel to both the armature winding and the series field winding then it’s
known as long shunt type compounded wound dc motor or simply long shunt dc motor.

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Applications of DC motor:

Shunt motors:

1. Blowers and fans


2. Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps
3. Lathes
4. Machine tools
5. For driving constant speed line shafting

Series motors:

1. Traction purposes: electric locomotives, trolley cars


2. Hoists and cranes
3. Conveyers

Cumulative compound motors:

1. Elevators
2. Conveyors
3. Punches
4. Shears
5. Heavy machine tools
6. Heavy planers
7. High torque loads of intermittent nature

Necessity of starte r for Dc motor:

The starting of DC motor is somewhat different from the starting of all other types of electrical motors.
This difference is credited to the fact that a dc motor unlike other types of motor has a very high starting
current that has the potential of damaging the internal circuit of the armature winding of dc motor if not

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restricted to some limited value. This limitation to the starting current of dc motor is brought about by
means of the starter. Thus the distinguishing fact about the starting methods of dc motor is that it is
facilitated by means of a starter. Or rather a device containing a variable resistance connected in series to
the armature winding so as to limit the starting current of dc motor to a desired optimum value taking
into consideration the safety aspect of the motor.

Now the immediate question in why the DC motor has such high starting current ?

To give an explanation to the above mentioned question let us take into consideration the basic
operational voltage equation of the dc motor given by,

Where E is the supply voltage, Ia is the armature current, Ra is the armature resistance. And the back emf
is given by Eb.

Now the back emf, in case of a dc motor, is very similar to the generated emf of a dc generator as it’s
produced by the rotational motion of the current carrying armature conductor in presence of the field.
This back emf of dc motor is given by

and has a major role to play in case of the starting of dc motor.

From this equation we can see that E b is directly proportional to the speed N of the motor. Now since at
starting N = 0, Eb is also zero, and under this circumstance the voltage equation is modified to

For all practical practices to obtain optimum operation of the motor the armature res istance is kept very
small usually of the order of 0.5 Ω and the bare minimum supply voltage being 220 volts. Even under
these circumstance the starting current, Ia is as high as 220/0.5 amp = 440 amp.

Such high starting current of dc motor creates two major problems.

1) Firstly, current of the order of 400 A has the potential of damaging the internal circuit of the armature
winding of dc motor at the very onset.

2) Secondly, since the torque equation of dc motor is given by

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Very high electromagnetic starting torque of DC motor is produced by virtue of the high starting current,
which has the potential of producing huge centrifugal force capable of flying off the rotor winding from
the slots.

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MODULE 2(b)

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

The measurement of a given quantity is the result of comparison between quantity to be measured and a
definite standard. The instruments used for such measurement are called measuring instruments.

The instruments which are used to measure power are called power meters or wattmeters.

The instruments which is used to measure electrical energy is called energy meter.

Classification of Measuring Instruments :

Electrical measuring instruments are mainly classified as

a) Indicating instruments : They make use of a dial and pointer for showing or indicating
magnitude of unknown quantity. Ex : Ammeter, Voltmeter

b) Recording Instruments : They give a continuous record of the quantity being measured over a
specific period.
Ex : Various types of recorders

In such recording instruments, the readings are recorded by drawing graph. The pointer of such
instruments are provided with a marker, which moves on graph paper as per reading. ( X- Y
plotter)

c) Integrating Instruments : They measure the total quantity of electricity delivered over period of
time.
Ex: Houseohold energy meter registers no. of revolutions made by disc to give total energy
delivered with help of counting mechanism

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Dynamometer Type Wattmeter:

Figure shows the construction of a dynamometer type wattmeter.


It consists of a fixed coil. It is divided into two halves F 1 and F2 positioned parallel to each other.
The distance between them can be adjusted to provide uniform magnetic field required for
operation. These coils are air cored to avoid hysteresis losses.
The moving coil is wound on a non- metallic former which is pivoted centrally between fixed
coils. It is made highly resistive by connecting high resistance in series with it.
A pointer is connected to moving system made up of aluminium.
The fixed coil is called current coil as it is connected in series with load to carry the current I1
which is main current.
The moving coil is connected across supply, carrying current I 2 proportional to voltage hence it
is called pressure or voltage coil.
The controlling torque is provided by springs. The damping is provided by air friction damping.
The eddy current damping is not used as it may distort the operating magnetic field.
Working :
When current passes through fixed and moving coils, both coils produce the magnetic fields.
The field produced by fixed coil is proportional to load current while that produced by moving
coil is proportional to the voltage.

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The deflecting torque is produced due to interaction of these two fields, the deflection is
proportional to power supplied to load. Thus the wattmeter indicates power consumption of load.
It can be used for ac and dc
D. C Working :
For the air cored fixed coils the flux density B is proportional to current through coils. i.e B α I 1 .
While current through pressure coil is proportional to voltage i.e I2 α V.
The deflecting torque is due to interaction of two fluxes hence proportional to BI2 .
Td α BI2 α I1 V α Power

A.C Working :
In a.c circuit the value of instantaneous torque is proportional to product of instantaneous voltage
(V) and current ( i).
Let Ø is power factor angle of load.
Then v = Vm sinwt
I = Im sin (wt – Ø )
Due to inertia of moving system, the deflection is proportional to average value of torque
produced.
Td α Average of ( vi) α Average [ Vm sin wt * Im sin (wt – Ø) ]
Td α [ VI cosØ ] α Power
In a.c operation V and I are rms values of voltage and current respectively.
Due to spring control, these instruments have uniform scale and θ α power.

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Single Phase energy Meter :

Induction type instruments are most commonly used as energy meter. These are commonly used
for domestic and industrial applications. They record energy in kilo- watt-hours. (KWh)
Figure shows the construction of a single phase induction type energy meter.
It consists of two electromagnets whose core is made up of silicon steel laminations. The coil of
one of the electromagnets called current coil is excited by load current which produces flux. This
is called a series magnet. The coil has few turns of heavy gauge wire.
The coil of another electromagnet is connected across supply and it carries current proportional
to supply voltage. This is called pressure coil and has large number of turns of fine wire. This is
called shunt magnet.
The flux produced by shunt magnet is brought in exact quadrature with supply voltage with the
help of copper shading bands placed over central limb, whose position is adjustable.
The moving system consists of light aluminium disc mounted on a light alloy shaft. This disc is
positioned in between jewel bearings.
The braking system consists of a permanent magnet placed near the aluminium disc for braking
mechanism. This magnet is used to control the speed of disc.

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The registering mechanism records continuously a number which is proportional to revolutions


made by aluminium disc.
Working :
The current coil produces alternating flux Ø 1 which is proportional and in phase with current
through current coil.
The pressure coil carries current and produces the flux Ø 2 which is proportional to supply
voltage V and lags behind it by 90˚ which is achieved by copper s hading bands.
Major portion of flux Ø 2 crosses the narrow gap between central and side limbs of shunt magnet
and only small amount passes through disc which is useful flux.
Both the fluxes Ø 1 and Ø 2 induce e.m.f’s in disc which produce eddy currents in disc.
The interaction between these fluxes and eddy currents produce necessary driving torque and
disc rotates.
The speed of disc is controlled by C shaped magnet called braking magnet. When the peripheral
portion of disc rotates in air gap, eddy currents are induced in disc which oppose the cause
producing them. i.e relative motion of disc with respect to magnet.
Hence braking torque Tb is generated. This is proportional to speed N of disc. By adjusting
position of magnet, desired speed of disc is obtaine d. Spindle is connected to recording
mechanism through gears which record the energy supplied.

Mathematical Analysis:

Let V = Supply voltage


I2 = Current through pressure coil proportional to V
Ø2 = Flux produced by I2
I1 = Current through current coil i.e load
Ø1 = Flux produced by I1

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The phasor diagram is shown in figure.

E1 = Induced emf in disc due to Ø 1


E2 = Induced emf in disc due to Ø 2
Ish = Eddy current due to E1
Ise = eddy current due to E2

Induced emf lags respective flux producing it by 90˚. The eddy currents are in phase with
induced emf producing them. Interaction between Ø 1 and Ish produces torque T1 and interaction
between Ø 2 and Ise produces torque T2 . T2 is in opposite direction to T1 . Hence net deflecting
torque is

Td α T2 – T1
α Ø2 Ise cos ( Ø2 ^ Ise ) – Ø1 Ish Cos ( Ø1 ^ Ish )

Now Ø 2 ^ Ise = Ø
Ø1 ^ Ish = 180 – Ø

Therefore Td α Ø 2 Ise cos Ø – Ø1 Ish cos (180 – Ø )


Td α Ø 2 Ise cos Ø + Ø1 Ish cos Ø

But Ø 2 α I2 α V

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Ise α E1 α I1
Ø1 α I1
Ish α E2 α I2 α V
Therefore Td α V I1 CosØ K 1 + V I1 cos Ø 2 K2
Td α V I1 Cos Ø i.e power consumed by load
Now braking torque is proportional to speed N with which disc rotates.
Therefore Td α N
For constant speed , Tb = Td
N α V I1 cos Ø
Multiplying both sides by t
N t α V I1 t Cos Ø α Pt α Energy
Number of revolutions in time t α Energy supplied
The power is energy supplied in time t while N*t are the number of revolutions in time t.
Thus by counting no. of revolutions electrical energy consumed can be measured. Without any
current through current coil disc has a tendancy to rotate due to supply voltage exciting its
pressure coil. This is called creeping. It is because of over friction compensation.

To eliminate creeping two holes are drilled in disc 180˚ opposite to each other. When this holes
comes under shunt magnet pole, it gets acted upon by a torque opposite to its rotation. This
restricts its rotation on no load condition. To have the flux produced by pressure coil lagging the
voltage V exactly by 90˚ the copper shading ring is provided on central limb. This ensures
accurate measurement at all power factors of load. The permanent magnet (Braking magnet)
surrounding the peripheral portion of disc is used to control speed of rotation of disc. The speed
of disc can be adjusted by means of changing the effective radius of braking magnet. This
ensures accurate measurement.

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SINGLE PHASE AC CIRCUITS


Definition of Alternating Quantity :
An alternating quantity changes continuously in magnitude and alternates in direction
at regular intervals of time. Important terms associated with an alternating quantity
are defined below.

1. Amplitude It is the maximum value attained by an alternating quantity. Also called


as maximum or peak value
2. Time Period (T)
It is the Time Taken in seconds to complete one cycle of an alternating quantity.
3. Instantaneous Value
It is the value of the quantity at any instant
4. Frequency (f) It is the number of cycles that occur in one second. The unit for
frequency is Hz or cycles/sec. The relationship between frequency and time period
can be derived as follows.
Time taken to complete f cycles = 1 second
Time taken to complete 1 cycle = 1/f second
T = 1/f
Advantages of AC system over DC system
1. AC voltages can be efficiently stepped up/down using transformer
2. AC motors are cheaper and simpler in construction than DC motors
3. Switchgear for AC system is simpler than DC system

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Generation of sinusoidal AC voltage :


Consider a rectangular coil of N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field as shown in
the figure. The coil is rotating in the anticlockwise direction at an uniform angular
velocity of ω rad/sec.

When the coil is in the vertical position, the flux linking the coil is zero because the
plane of the coil is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. Hence at this
position, the emf induced in the coil is zero. When the coil moves by some angle in
the anticlockwise direction, there is a rate of change of flux linking the coil and hence
an emf is induced in the coil. When the coil reaches the horizontal position, the flux
linking the coil is maximum, and hence the emf induced is also maximum. When the
coil further moves in the anticlockwise direction, the emf induced in the coil reduces.
Next when the coil comes to the vertical position, the emf induced becomes zero.
After that the same cycle repeats and the emf is induced in the opposite direction.
When the coil completes one complete revolution, one cycle of AC voltage is
generated.
The generation of sinusoidal AC voltage can also be explained using mathematical
equations. Consider a rectangular coil of N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field in
the position shown in the figure. The maximum flux linking the coil is in the
downward direction as shown in the figure. This flux can be divided into two

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components, one component acting along the plane of the coil Φmaxsinωt and another
component acting perpendicular to the plane of the coil Φmaxcosωt.

Angular Frequency (ω)


Angular frequency is defined as the number of radians covered in one
second(ie the angle covered by the rotating coil). The unit of angular frequency is
rad/sec.

Average Value
The arithmetic average of all the values of an alternating quantity over one
cycle is called its average value.

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For Symmetrical waveforms, the average value calculated over one cycle becomes
equal to zero because the positive area cancels the negative area. Hence for
symmetrical waveforms, the average value is calculated for half cycle.

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Phasor Representation:
An alternating quantity can be represented using
(i) Waveform
(ii) Equations
(iii) Phasor A sinusoidal alternating quantity can be represented by a rotating line
called a Phasor.
A phasor is a line of definite length rotating in anticlockwise direction at a constant
angular velocity The waveform and equation representation of an alternating current
is as shown. This sinusoidal quantity can also be represented using phasors.

Draw a line OP of length equal to Im. This line OP rotates in the anticlockwise
direction with a uniform angular velocity ω rad/sec and follows the circular trajectory
shown in figure. At any instant, the projection of OP on the y-axis is given by
OM=OPsinθ = Imsinωt. Hence the line OP is the phasor representation of the
sinusoidal current.

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Phase is defined as the fractional part of time period or cycle through which the
quantity has advanced from the selected zero position of reference
Phase of +Em is π/2 rad or T/4 sec
Phase of -Em is 3π/2 rad or 3T/4 sec

Phase Difference :

When two alternating quantities of the same frequency have different zero points,
they are said to have a phase difference. The angle between the zero points is the
angle of phase difference.
In Phase
Two waveforms are said to be in phase, when the phase difference between them is
zero. That is the zero points of both the waveforms are same. The waveform, phasor

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and equation representation of two sinusoidal quantities which are in phase is as


shown. The figure shows that the voltage and current are in phase.

Lagging
In the figure shown, the zero point of the current waveform is after the zero point of
the voltage waveform. Hence the current is lagging behind the voltage. The waveform,
phasor and equation representation is as shown.

Leading
In the figure shown, the zero point of the current waveform is before the zero point of
the voltage waveform. Hence the current is leading the voltage. The waveform,
phasor and equation representation is as shown.

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The instantaneous power consists of two terms. The first term is called as the constant
power term and the second term is called as the fluctuating power term.
Average powe r
From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over one cycle as
follows.

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AC circuit with a pure inductance

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From equation (1) and (2) we observe that in a pure inductive circuit, the current lags
behind the voltage by 90⁰. Hence the voltage and current waveforms and phasors can
be drawn as below.

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Instantaneous power
The instantaneous power in the above circuit can be derived as follows

Average power From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over
one cycle as follows

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As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and
negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the inductor
and when the power in negative, the power flows from the inductor to the source. The
positive power is equal to the negative power and hence the average power in the
circuit is equal to zero. The power just flows between the source and the inductor, but
the inductor does not consume any power.
Phasor algebra for a pure inductive circuit

AC circuit with a pure capacitance

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The current flowing in the circuit is i. The voltage across the capacitor is given as VC
which is the same as v. We can find the current through the capacitor as follows

From equation (1) and (2) we observe that in a pure capacitive circuit, the current
leads the voltage by 90⁰. Hence the voltage and current waveforms and phasors can
be drawn as below.

Capacitive reactance
The capacitive reactance XC is given as

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The average power in a pure capacitive circuit is zero. Or in other words, the power
consumed by a pure capacitance is zero. The voltage, current and power waveforms
of a purely capacitive circuit is as shown in the figure.

As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and
negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the
capacitor and when the power in negative, the power flows from the capacitor to the
source. The positive power is equal to the negative power and hence the average

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power in the circuit is equal to zero. The power just flows between the source and the
capacitor, but the capacitor does not consume any power.
Phasor algebra in a pure capacitive circuit.

R-L Series circuit

Consider an AC circuit with a resistance R and an inductance L connected in series as


shown in the figure. The alternating voltage v is given by

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The current I is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I and
the voltage VL leads the current by 90⁰. The resultant voltage V can be drawn as
shown in the figure. From the phasor diagram we observe that the voltage leads the
current by an angle Φ or in other words the current lags behind the voltage by an
angle Φ.
The waveform and equations for an RL series circuit can be drawn as below.

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The instantaneous power consists of two terms. The first term is called as the constant
power term and the second term is called as the fluctuating power term.
Average power
From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over one cycle as
follows

The voltage, current and power waveforms of a RL series circuit is as shown in the
figure.

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As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and
negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the load and
when the power in negative, the power flows from the load to the source. The positive
power is not equal to the negative power and hence the average power in the circuit is
not equal to zero.
From the phasor diagram,

Hence the power in an RL series circuit is consumed only in the resistance. The
inductance does not consume any power.

Power Factor The power factor in an AC circuit is defined as the cosine of the angle
between voltage and current ie cosΦ
The power in an AC circuit is equal to the product of voltage, current and power
factor.
Impedance Triangle
We can derive a triangle called the impedance triangle from the phasor diagram of an
RL series circuit as shown

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Power
In an AC circuit, the various powers can be classified as
1. Real or Active power
2. Reactive power
3. Apparent power
Real or active power in an AC circuit is the power that does useful work in the cicuit.
Reactive power flows in an AC circuit but does not do any useful work. Apparent
power is the total power in an AC circuit.

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From the phasor diagram of an RL series circuit, the current can be divided into two
components. One component along the voltage IcosΦ, that is called as the active
component of current and another component perpendicular to the voltage IsinΦ that
is called as the reactive component of current.
Real Power
The power due to the active component of current is called as the active power or real
power.
It is denoted by P. P = V x ICosΦ = I2 R
Real power is the power that does useful power. It is the power that is consumed by
the resistance. The unit for real power in Watt(W).
Reactive Power
The power due to the reactive component of current is called as the reactive power. It
is denoted by Q. Q = V x ISinΦ = I2 XL Reactive power does not do any useful work.
It is the circulating power in the L and C components. The unit for reactive power is
Volt Amperes Reactive (VAR).
Apparent Power
The apparent power is the total power in the circuit.
It is denoted by S.
S = V x I = I2 Z

The power triangle is right angled triangle with P and Q as two sides and S as the
hypotenuse.
The angle between the base and hypotenuse is Φ.

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The power triangle enables us to calculate the following things

R-C Series circuit

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The current I is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I and
the voltage VC lags behind the current by 90⁰. The resultant voltage V can be drawn
as shown in the figure. From the phasor diagram we observe that the voltage lags
behind the current by an angle Φ or in other words the current leads the voltage by an
angle Φ.
The waveform and equations for an RC series circuit can be drawn as below.

From the phasor diagram, the expressions for the resultant voltage V and the angle Φ
can be derived as follows.

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Hence the power in an RC series circuit is consumed only in the resistance. The
capacitance does not consume any power.

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Impedance Triangle We can derive a triangle called the impedance triangle from the
phasor diagram of an RC series circuit as shown

R-L-C Series circuit

Consider an AC circuit with a resistance R, an inductance L and a capacitance C


connected in series as shown in the figure. The alternating voltage v is given by

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With the above information, the phasor diagram can be drawn as shown. The current I
is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I, the voltage VL
leads the current by 90⁰ and the voltage VC lags behind the current by 90⁰. There are
two cases that can occur VL>VC and VL<Vc depending on the values of XL and XC.
And hence there are two possible phasor diagrams. The phasor VL-VC or VC-VL is
drawn and then the resultant voltage V is drawn.

From the phasor diagram we observe that when VL>VC , the voltage leads the current
by an angle Φ or in other words the current lags behind the voltage by an angle Φ.
When VL <VC ,the voltage lags behind the current by an angle Φ or in other words
the current leads the voltage by an angle Φ.
From the phasor diagram, the expressions for the resultant voltage V and the angle Φ
can be derived as follows.

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Domestic wiring
Introduction:
Wiring done in domestic premises for providing electrical power for lighting, fans and
domestic appliances is called domestic wiring.
The primary objective of the wiring system is to distribute electrical energy to the
various points at which it is required, duly considering the following
1. Electrical safety
2. Mechanical immunity
3. Permanence
4. Appearance
5. Cost

Service mains:
The supplier’s distribution system brings power to the consumer through overhead
lines or by means of underground cables to a spot outside the consumer’s premises
The line bringing the electric power from supplier’s low voltage distributor up to the
energy meter installed at the consumer’s premises is called service connection or
service mains.
Service connection may be achieved by means of underground cables or by means of
overhead conductors or cables. We shall take up the overhead services connection
with PVC or weather proof cables.
Bare conductors are run from the supplier’s pole to shackle insulators fitted to
brackets fixed on a cross arm embedded into the wall of a two storied building at an
appropriate height.
There after service connections are taken from the bare conductors by means of PVC
or weather proof cables run on wooden battens or through a GI pipe.

Meter board and distribution board:


Once the supplier’s service is brought to consumer premises, it has to be connected to
consumer’s internal wiring. Energy consumed has to be charged by supply authority.
Hence service main has to be connected to be connected to input terminals of energy
meter to measure the amount of power consumed. There after connected to the cut-out.

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Cut-out contains a fuse wire so that if in case the consumer draws more current than
the rated current, the fuse wire blows out and there will be no damage to the meter. It
also serves the purpose of enabling the supply authority to disconnect the supply if
consumer fails to pay the bill. Hence cut out and meter board is the supply authority’s
property and is sealed. The lead from the output terminal of the energy meter is
connected to main switch. Energy meter is placed before the main switch so as to
provide the accessibility to the consumer in case he wish to switch off the supply
when required. Hence it is not sealed.
Types of wiring:
1. Cleat wiring
2. Wood casing and capping wiring
3. Lead-covered wiring
4. Cab tyre sheathed or tough rubber sheathed wiring system
5. Conduit system

Conduit wiring:
Metallic tubes called conduits are used to run the wires in this type of wiring. This
method gives complete mechanical protection to wires and best suitable for the
workshops and public buildings. Depending on whether the conduits are run on the
walls or run inside the walls, conduit wiring can be divided into two types
1. surface conduit wiring
2. concealed conduit wiring

Surface conduit wiring:


Conduits are run on the walls with the help of pipe hooks or saddles.
Concealed conduit wiring:
Here conduits are buried under the walls at the time of the plastering of the walls. It is
also called as recessed conduit wiring. Usually this type is opted for residential and
public buildings where appearance is important factor.

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Conduits are made of mild steel which is annealed so that is can be bent without
breaking. Standard length of conduit is 4 mtrs. The conduits are threaded at both ends
with one coupler attached. Based on outer diameter, various sizes of conduits from
12mm to 63 mm are available. It is coated with black enamel. Conduits are always
terminated at outlets into a box which is called as outlet which may be round, square
or octagonal to provide connections for lights, fans heaters etc.
Advantages:
1. The beauty of the premises is maintained due to conduit wiring.
2. It is durable
3. Long life
4. Protects from mechanical shocks, moisture and fire hazards
5. Proper earthing of conduits makes this method electrical shock proof
6. Less maintenance

Disadvantages:
1. Repairs are very difficult
2. Method is expensive
3. Erection requires highly skilled labour
4. Keeping conduit at earth potential is must. Improper earthing leads to electric
shocks
5. If manufacturing of conduits is not proper then sharp edges of the metal
conduits can cause damage of the insulation of the wires.

Two way control of lamp:


For a lamp, one live and one neutral is necessary. To control the supply to the lamp,
switch is introduced in the live wire and neutral is directly connected to the lamp.
Two way control of lamp is also called as staircase wiring. It consists of two way
switches. A two way switch operates always in one of the two possible positions. The
circuit is as below.
Operation of the switch and light is explained in detail in the table given below.

Three way control of lamp:


This is also known as staircase wiring. it consists of two way switches A and B and a
intermediate switch. The circuit used to have three ways control of lamp is shown in
below figure.

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Detailed explanation of various positions of lamp is as shown in table below.

Fuse:
A fuse is a safety device, a weak link connected in series with the circuit, which melts
whenever the current in the circuit exceeds the value of the fuse provided, either due
to overload or short circuit, thus opening the circuit and protecting other materials in
the circuit.
During normal conditions, conductor carry current and magnitude depends on the load.
As long as there is no overload or fault, there is no overheating of the conductor.
However when there is excessive overload or a fault occurs, conductor carry very
large current much more than the rated current. This cause overheating of the
conductor and there will be damage of appliances and devices. Insulation could also
get destroyed. Hence to protect the entire installation from damage due to sudden
short circuit or fault, fuse is necessary as a safety mechanism.

Rating:
Fuses are rated as follows
1. Rated carrying current: it is the maximum current which a fuse can carry
without any undue heating and melting. It depends upon the permissible
temperature rise of the contacts of the fuse holder, fuse and upon the
deterioration of the fuse due to oxidation.
2. Fusing current: this is the minimum current at which a fuse element shall melt.
Fusing current depends on

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a. Material of the fuse


b. Its length
c. Its diameter
d. Cross section of the fusing element
e. Type of enclosure
3. Fusing factor: this is defined as the ratio between the minimum fusing current
and the rated carrying current. Its value is always more than one.

Requirement of fuse:
1. There should be no risk of flash-over to other conductors.
2. Should not be any risk of splashing of molten metal.
3. Persons handling the fuses should not run the risk of electric shock.
4. Fuse base should be incombustible and moisture proof and should be a good
insulator too.
5. Should not get over heated when the full load current flows through it
continuously.
6. The current rating of the fuse should not exceed the rating of the smallest
cable protected, provided that the fuse having a rating less than 3 amperes
need not be used except in radio and acoustic circuits.

Classification of fuses:
Fuse can be classified as low voltage fuses and high voltage fuses
a. Low voltage fuses: in order to limit the damages caused by fault currents of
high value, the arc should be prevented from re-striking after passing through
the zero value of the AC cycle. This is done by means of semi-enclosed or
enclosed fuse where the element is shrouded, so that the gases produced on
melting of the fuse are cooled, moreover, shrouding also prevents the
scattering of molten metal.
i) Semi enclosed Rewirable fuses: it has one or more strands of fuse wire
stretched between terminal blocks and are mounted on porcelain
handle. Fuse of this type are made upto about 500 amperes rated
current
ii) Enclosed fuse: these are surrounded by asbestos tube or by
incombustible powder. The latter are called cartridge fuses.

HRC fuses: modern cartridge fuses have a high rupturing capacity, are non-
deteriorating, have a consistent fusing current, so that they can be graded to
operate in correct sequence. Fusing factor for such type of fuses may lie
between 1.4 to 2.below diagram shows the cartridge fuse. These are
effectively used in series with circuit breaker.

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b. High voltage fuses: these are enclosed in strong casing as the fuse may melt
with explosive violence. Element may be immersed in oil or carbon
tetrachloride so as to extinguish the arc.

Advantages of fuse:
1. Simplest and cheapest form of protecting device.
2. Requires no maintenance
3. Operation is automatic while the circuit breaker needs a tripping circuit to
operate for its operation
4. Minimum operating time can be made much smaller than that of the circuit
breaker
5. Inverse time-current characteristic enables it to use for the overload protection
6. Fuse can interrupt heavy currents without noise, smoke, gas and flame
7. It can produce a current limiting effect under short circuit conditions.

Disadvantages of fuse:
1. Require replacement or rewiring after its operation
2. Replacement or rewiring takes a lot of time
3. Not possible to provide secondary protection to fuses
4. Current-time characteristics cannot be always correlated with that of the
protected equipment
5. Discrimination between fuses in series cannot be obtained unless there is
much difference in relative sizes of the fuse

Miniature circuit breaker (MCB):


Nowadays we use more commonly miniature circuit breaker or MCB in low voltage
electrical network instead of fuse. The MCB has some advantages compared to fuse.
It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the
network means in over load condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not
sense but miniature circuit breaker does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more
sensitive to over current than fuse. Another advantage is, as the switch operating knob
comes at its off position during tripping, the faulty zone of the electrical circuit can
easily be identified. But in case of fuse, fuse wire should be checked by opening fuse
grip or cutout from fuse base, for confirming the blow of fuse wire. Quick restoration
of supply cannot be possible in case of fuse as because fuses have to be rewirable or
replaced for restoring the supply. But in the case of MCB, quick restoration is
possible by just switching on operation. Handling MCB is more electrically safe than
fuse. Because of to many advantages of MCB over fuse units, in modern low voltage

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electrical network, miniature circuit breaker is mo stly used instead of backdated fuse
unit.
Only one disadvantage of MCB over fuse is that this system is more costlier than fuse
unit system.

Working:
There are two arrangement of operation of miniature circuit breaker. One due to
thermal effect of over current and other due to electromagnetic effect of over current.
The thermal operation of miniature circuit breaker is achieved with a bimetallic strip
whenever continuous over current flows through MCB, the bimetallic strip is heated
and deflects by bending. This deflection of bimetallic strip releases mechanical latch.
As this mechanical latch is attached with operating mechanism, it causes to open the
miniature circuit breaker contacts. But during short circuit condition, sudden rising of
current, causes electromechanical displacement of plunger associated with tripping
coil or solenoid of MCB. The plunger strikes the trip lever causing immediate release
of latch mechanism consequently open the circuit breaker contacts. This was a simple
explanation of miniature circuit breaker working principle.
Miniature Circuit Breaker Construction
Miniature circuit breaker construction is very simple, robust and maintenance free.
Generally a MCB is not repaired or maintained, it just replaced by new one when
required. A miniature circuit breaker has normally three main constructional parts.
These are:
Frame of Miniature Circuit Breaker
The frame of miniature circuit breaker is a molded case. This is a rigid, strong,
insulated housing in which the other components are mounted.
Ope rating Mechanism of Miniature Circuit Breaker
The operating mechanism of miniature circuit breaker provides the means of manual
opening and closing operation of miniature circuit breaker. It has three-positions
"ON," "OFF," and "TRIPPED". The external switching latch can be in the
"TRIPPED" position, if the MCB is tripped due to over-current. When manually
switch off the MCB, the switching latch will be in "OFF" position. In close condition
of MCB, the switch is positioned at "ON". By observing the positions of the switching
latch one can determine the condition of MCB whether it is closed, tripped or
manually switched off.
Trip Unit of Miniature Circuit Breaker

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The trip unit is the main part, responsible for proper working of miniature circuit
breaker. Two main types of trip mechanism are provided in MCB. A bimetal provides
protection against over load current and an electromagnet provides protection against
short-circuit current.
Ope ration of Miniature Circuit Breaker
There are three mechanisms provided in a single miniature circuit breaker to make it
switched off. If we carefully observe the picture beside, we will find there are mainly
one bi - metallic strip, one trip coil and one hand operated on - off lever. Electric
current carrying path of a miniature circuit breaker shown in the picture is like follows.
First left hand side power terminal - then bimetallic strip - then current coil or trip coil
- then moving contact - then fixed contact and - lastly right had side power terminal.
All are arranged in series. If circuit is overloaded for long time, the bi - metallic strip
becomes over heated and deformed. This deformation of bi metallic strip causes,
displacement of latch point. The moving contact of the MCB is so arranged by means
of spring pressure, with this latch point, that a little displacement of latch causes,
release of spring and makes the moving contact to move for opening the MCB. The
current coil or trip coil is placed such a manner,that during short circuit fault the mmf
of that coil causes its plunger to hit the same latch point and make the latch to be
displaced. Hence the MCB will open in same manner. Again when operating lever of
the miniature circuit breaker is operated by hand, that means when we make the MCB
at off position manually, the same latch point is displaced as a result moving contact
separated from fixed contact in same manner. So, whatever may be the operating
mechanism, that means, may be due to deformation of bi - metallic strip, due to
increased mmf of trip coil or may due to manual operation, actually the same latch
point is displaced and same deformed spring is released, which ultimately responsible
for movement of the moving contact. When the the moving contact separated from
fixed contact, there may be a high chance of arc. This arc then goes up through the arc
runner and enters into arc splitters and is finally quenched. When we switch on an
MCB, we actually reset the displaced operating latch to its previous on position and
make the MCB ready for another switch off or trip operation.
Electric shock and precautions against the shock:
A sudden agitation of the nervous system of a body, due to the passage of an electric
current is called electric shock. An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human
or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current
flow through the muscles or nerves. The minimum detectable current in humans is
found to be about 1mA. If the current sufficiently high, it may cause tissue damage or
heart fibrillation leading to death.
Causes:
By accidentally touching faulty appliances or frayed or extension leads.
Due to lightening strike
By coming into contact with high enough voltage source, resulting in the passage of a
high enough value of current through the muscles or nerves.
Precautions to be taken to prevent electric shocks:
1. People should not work on explosive live conductors if at all possible. If not
possible then insulated gloves and tools should be used.
2. Wearing insulated footwear and standing on wooden platforms or mats can
reduce the risk of shock when both hands make contact with surface or objects
at different voltages or currents.

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3. All metal parts of appliances which must be at zero potential, must be properly
earthed, as otherwise these metal parts could come in contact with live wires
thus acquiring high potentials.
4. Touching a live wire or a switch with a wet skin should be avoided since more
current flows during wet condition.
5. Install ground fault circuit interrupts in wall outlets located in the bathroom,
kitchens, basements and garages.
6. Cover all electrical sockets with plastic safety caps.
7. Replace all worn cords and wirings.
8. Never use an electrical appliance like a radio or an iron near water.

Earthing:
The earth’s potential is taken as zero for all practical purposes, and therefore, any
electrical machine, appliance or component, when connected to earth, attains zero
potential, and is said to be earthed, and the voltage of this appliance will fall to zero if
its voltage is higher or will increase to zero of its voltage is lower than the earth
potential.
The neutral wire of an AC supply system and the middle wire of the three wire DC
distribution system are always earthed to maintain line voltage always constant. The
bodies of electrical machinery or appliance are earthed so that in the event of any
leakage, the leakage current immediately flows to earth, the circuit fuses blow off and
the machinery or appliance is disconnected from the supply.

Necessity of earthing:
1. To protect the human being from disability or death from shock in case the
human body comes into contact with the frame of any electrical machinery,
appliance or component which is electrically charged due to leakage current or
fault.
2. To maintain the line voltage constant.
3. To protect tall buildings and structure from atmospheric lightening strikes.
4. To protect all machines, fed from overhead lines, from atmospheric lightening.
5. To serve as the return conductor for telephone, telegraph and traction work.

Types of earthing:
Any pipe, plate or wire embedded in the earth is called earth electrode and any current
passing through it gets directly earthed. For effective and e fficient earthing, the
resistance offered by the earth electrode and by the soil in which the electrode is
embedded, should be very low, offering minimum opposition to the passage of current
through it, in order that the fuses in a faulty circuit blow off immediately.
1. Plate earthing

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2. Pipe earthing
3. Earthing through water mains
4. Horizontal strip earthing
5. Rod earthing

Plate earthing:
Figure shows the pipe earthing method. The earth connection is provided with the
help of a copper plate of 60 cm * 60 cm * 3.18 mm or galvanized iron plate of 60cm *
60cm * 6.3mm or caste iron of same size embedded 3mtrs inside the ground. The
plate is kept with its face vertical. Copper plates or found to be the most effective
earth electrodes and are least affected by moisture. However they are very costly and
hence GI plates are preferred for normal work.
The plate is so arranged that it is embedded in alternate layers of coke or coal and salt
for minimum thickness of about 15cm. the earth wire is drawn through a GI pipe and
is perfectly bolted to the earth plate. The nuts and bolts must be made of copper for
copper plates and of galvanized iron for GI plate.
The earth lead used must be GI wire or GI strip of sufficient cross sectional area to
carry the fault current safely. The earth wire is drawn through GI pipe of 19mm
diameter at about 60cm below the ground.
The GI pipe is fitted with a funnel on the top. To achieve effective earthing, salt water
is poured periodically through the funnel.

The earthing efficiency increases with the increase of the plate area and depth of
embedding. The only disadvantage is that discontinuity of earth wire with the plate
below the earth cannot be observed physically and hence is misleading and is likely to
result in heavy loss in the event of a fault. If the resistivity of the soil is high, then it
will be necessary to embed the plate vertically at a greater depth into the ground.
Pipe earthing:

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A GI pipe of 38mm diameter and 2 mtrs length is vertically embedded into the ground
to serve as earth electrode, the depth depending on the soil condition. According to
the Indian standard, the pipe should go down to the depth of 4.75m.
The pipe must be placed upright in wet ground. The pit area around the GI pipe is
filled with salt and coal mixture for improving the soil condition and efficiency of the
earthing system.
In summer, the soil becomes dry, in which case salt water is poured through the
funnel connected to the main GI pipe through a 19mm dia. Pipe to keep the soil wet
The leading wire from the body of apparatus to earthing pit should be made of GI
wire or strip of sufficient cross sectional area to carry the fault current safely. The
earth wire from the 19mm dia GI pipe, should be carried in a conduit of GI pipe of dia
12.7mm at a depth of about 60cm below the ground.

The earth wires are connected to the GI pipe above the ground level and can be
physically inspected from time to time and continuity checks can be easily performed.
This is an important advantage of pipe earthing over plate earthing. The contact
surface of the GI pipe with soil is greater as compared to the plate because of its
circular section and hence can handle heavier leakage current for the same electrode
size.
Disadvantage of pipe earthing is that the embedded pipe length has to be increased
sufficiently in case the soil specific resistivity is of a high order, resulting in increased
cost of material and excavation work. In ordinary soil condition, the range of earth
resistance should be 2-5 ohms.

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Residual current circuit breaker (RCCB):

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MODULE 4
THREE PHASE AC CIRCUITS
A three phase supply is a set of three alternating quantities displaced from each other by an angle
of 120⁰. A three phase voltage is shown in the figure. It consists of three phases- phase A, phase
B and phase C. Phase A waveform starts at 0⁰. Phase B waveform stars at 120⁰ and phase C
waveform at 240º.

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The phase A voltage is taken as the reference and is drawn along the x-axis. The phase B voltage
lags behind the phase A voltage by 120⁰. The phase C voltage lags behind the phase A voltage
by 240⁰ and phase B voltage by 120⁰.

Generation of Three Phase Voltage :

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Phase Sequence :

The order in which the voltages in the three phases reach their maximum value

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Balanced Load :

A load is said to be balanced if the impedances in all three phases are equal in magnitude and
phase. A three phase load can be connected in two ways - Either in Delta connection or in Star
connection as shown in the figure.

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Balanced Star Connected Load :

A balanced star connected load is shown in the figure. A phase voltage is defined as voltage
across any phase of the three phase load. The phase voltages shown in figure are EA, EB and
EC. A line voltage is defined as the voltage between any two lines. The line voltages shown in
the figure are EAB, EBC and ECA. The line currents are IA, IB and IC. For a star connected
load, the phase currents are same as the line currents.

The phasor diagram shows the three phase voltages and the line voltage EAB drawn from EA
and –EB phasors. The phasor for current IA is also shown. It is assumed that the load is
inductive.

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MODULE 4 (b)

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

The machines generating a.c emf are called alternators. The alternators work at a specific
constant speed called synchronous speed and hence called synchronous generators.

Construction of Alternators :

In alternator the stationary winding is called stator while the rotating winding is called
rotor. Most of the alternators have stator as armature and rotor as field.

Stator:

The stator is a stationary armature. This consists of core and the slots to hold the armature
winding similar to the three phase induction motor. The stator core uses a laminated
construction. It is built up of special steel stampings insulated from each other with varnish or
paper. The laminated construction is basically to keep down eddy current losses. Generally
choice of material is steel to keep down hysteresis losses. The entire core is fabricated in a frame
made of steel plates. The core has slots on its periphery for housing the armature conductors.
Frame does not carry any flux and serves as the support to core. Ventilation is maintained with
the help of holes casted in frame.

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Rotor:

There are two types of rotors used in alternators.

1. Salient pole or Projected Pole type


2. Smooth Cylindrical or Non salient type

Salient type Rotor :

This is also called projected pole type as all the poles are projected out from the surface of rotor.
The poles are built up of thick steel laminations. The poles are bolted to rotor as shown in
figure.The pole face has been given a specific shape as discussed earlier in case of d.c
generators. The field winding is provided on pole shoe. These rotors have large diameters and
small axial lengths. As mechanical strength of salient pole type is less, this is preferred for low
speed alternators ranging from 125 to 500rpm. The prime movers used to drive such rotor are
generally water turbines and I.C engines.

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Smooth Cylindrical Type Rotor :

This is also called non salient type or non- projected pole type rotor. The rotor consists of smooth
solid steel cylinder having number of slots to accommodate the field coil. The slots are covered
at top with the help of steel or manganese wedges.The unslotted portion of cylinder itself act as
the poles. The poles are not projecting out and the surface of rotor is smooth which maintains
uniform air gap between stator and rotor.

These rotors have small diameters and large axial lengths. This is to keep peripheral speed within
limits.The main advantage of this type is that these are mechanically very strong and thus
preferred for high speed alternators ranging between 1500 to 3000rpm. Such high speed
alternators are called turbo alternators.

The prime movers used to drive such type of rotors are generally steam turbines, electric motors.

Working Principle of Alte rnators :

The alternators work on the principle of “electromagnetic induction”. When there is a relative
motion between conductors and flux, emf gets induced in the conductors.In an alternator the
conductors are stationary and field is rotating but for the sake of understanding, we have
considered the relative motion of conductors with respect to flux produced by field winding.

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Consider a relative motion of a single conductor under the magnetic field produced by two
stationary poles. The magnetic axis of two poles produced by field is vertical shown in the
figure.

Let conductor starts rotating from position 1. At this instant the entire velocity component is
parallel to flux lines. Hence there is no cutting of flux lines by conductor. Hence induced emf in
conductor is also zero. As the conductor moves from position 1 towards position 2, the part of
velocity component becomes perpendicular to flux lines and an emf which is proportional to the
amount of flux cut by conductor is induced. The magnitude of such an induced emf increases as
the conductor moves from position 1 towards 2. At position 2, the entire velocity component is
perpendicular to flux lines. Hence there exists maximum cutting of flux lines and at this instant
the induced emf in conductor is at its maximum.

As the position of conductor changes from 2 towards 3, the velocity component perpendicular to
flux starts decreasing and hence induced emf magnitude also starts decreasing. At position 3,
again the entire velocity component is parallel to flux lines and hence at this instant induced emf
in conductor is zero. As the conductor moves from position 3 towards 4, the velocity component
perpendicular to flux lines again starts increasing. But the direction of velocity component now
is opposite to direction of velocity component existing during the movement of conductor from
position 1 to 2. Hence an induced emf in conductor increases but in opposite direction. At
position 4, it achieves maxima in opposite direction, as the entire velocity component becomes
perpendicular to flux lines. Again from position 4 to 1, induced emf decreases and finally at
position 1, again becomes zero. This cycle continues as conductor rotates at a certain speed.

So the plot of magnitude of induced emf against time gives an alternating emf as shown in figure
above. Thus for 2 pole alternator one mechanical revolution corresponds to one electrical cycle.
i.e 360˚ electrical of an induced emf.

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Mechanical and Electrical Angle:

Consider 4 pole alternator i.e the field winding is designed to produce 4 poles. Due to
4 poles the magnetic axis exists diagonally shown dotted in the figure.

Position 1: The velocity component is parallel to flux lines

Position 2 : There is gathering of flux lines and entire velocity component is perpendicular to
flux lines

So at position 1 induced emf is zero and at position 2 induced emf is maximum. Similarly as
conductor rotates the induced emf will be maximum at positions 4,6 and 8 and will be zero at
positions 3,5 and 7. So during one complete revolution of conductor, induced emf will
experience four times maxima and 4 times zero. This is because of distribution of flux lines due
to existence of four poles.

Thus the number of cycles of induced emf depends on the number of poles of a n alternator. So
for a 4 pole alternator,

360˚ mechanical = 720˚ electrical

= 360˚ * (P/2)

1˚ mechanical = (P/2)˚ electrical

Where P = Number of poles

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Frequency of Induced Emf :

Let P = No. of poles

N = Speed of rotor in rpm ( Revolutions per minute )

F = Frequency of Induced emf

One mechanical revolution of rotor = P / 2 cycles of emf electrically

Thus there are P / 2 electriacal cycles per revolution

For 1 second = N / 60 revolutions

Electrical cycles/ sec = frequency = f

f = No. of electrical cycles per revolution * No. of revolutions per second

= (P/ 2 )* ( N/ 60)

f = (PN / 120) Hz

Synchronous Speed ( N s ) :

With a fixed number of Poles the speed at which an alternator rotates to keep the frequency of
generated emf constant at required value is called synchronous speed of alternator.

Ns = 120f / P

The frequency of an alternating emf is standard equal to 50Hz. The alternators are driven at
different speeds for different number of poles.

Armature Winding :

The three phase alternators carry three sets of windings arranged in slots in such a way that, there
exists a phase difference of 120˚ between the induced emf ’s.

Winding Te rminology :

1. Conductor : The part of wire which is under the influence of magnetic field and
responsible for induced emf is called active length of conductor. They are placed in
armature slots.
2. Turn : A conductor in one slot when connected to a conductor in another slot forms a
turn. So two conductors constitute a turn.

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3. Coil: The number of turns are grouped together to form a coil. It is of two types.
A coil consisting of one turn is called single turn coil. A coil consisting of many turns
is called multiturn coil.

4. Coil Side : Part of the coil in each slot is called coil side of coil.
5. Pole pitch : It is the center to center distance between the two adjacent poles. 1 pole is
responsible for 180˚ electrical of induced emf and is nothing but one half cycle. So
180˚ electrical is called one pole pitch. The slots under one pole are measured to
specify the pole pitch.
Number of Slots / pole = n
Pole pitch = 180˚ electrical
= Slots per pole
=n
6. Slot angle ( β ) : The phase difference contributed by one slot in degree electrical is
called slot angle ( β ). As ‘n’ slots present per pole are responsible for 180˚ electrical
emf.
β= 1 slot angle = 180˚ / n

If we consider an induced emf in conductor which are placed in slots which are
adjacent to each other, then there will exist a phase difference of β˚ in between them.

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Types of Armature winding :

1. Single layer winding : if a slot consists of only one coil side, winding is said to be
single layer.
2. Double Layer Winding : If there are two coil sides per slot, o ne at the bottom and
one at the top the winding is said to be double layer winding.

3. Full pitch winding : If a coil side in one slot is connected to a coil side in another
slot which is one pole pitch distance away from first slot, the winding is said to be
full pitch winding and coil is called full pitch coil.
4. Short pitch winding : if a coil side in one slot is not connected to a coil side in
another slot which is one pole pitch away from first coil, it is called short pitch
winding. The coils are called short pitched or fractional pitch coil.
5. Coil Span : It is the distance on the periphery of armature between two coil sides
of a coil. It is expressed as no. of slots on degree electrical.

Concentrated and distributed winding :

In three phase alternators there are three different sets of windings, each for a
phase. So there are three phase windings available under each pole. So if there are
‘n’ slots per pole and ‘m’ slots are dedicated for one phase winding then, m gives
no. of slots/pole/phase.

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In concentrated winding all conductors or coils belonging to a phase are placed in


one slot under every pole.

Ex : If there are 18 slots in 2 pole alternator then we have,

n = 18/2 = 9
m = 9/3 = 3
In practice an attempt is always made to use all the ‘m’ slots per pole per phase
available for distribution of winding.

E.M.F Equation of an alternator :

Let Ø = Flux per pole


P = Number of poles
N s = synchronous Speed in rpm
f = frequency of induced emf in Hz
Z = Total number of conductors
Zph = Conductors per phase

Zph = Z / 3 as number of phases = 3

Consider a single conductor placed in a slot. The average value of e.m.f induced
in conductor = dØ/ dt

For one revolution of conductor,

Eavg per conductor = Flux cut in one revolution / Time taken for one revolution

Total flux cut in one revolution = Ø * P

Time taken for one revolution = 60/ N s sec

Eavg per conductor = (ØP) / ( 60/ N s ) = ØPN s /60

f = Ns P /120
PNs /60 = 2f

Eavg per conductor = 2fØ Volts

Since two conductors form one turn.

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Therefore e.m.f per turn = 2* [ e.m.f per conductor]


= 2[ 2fØ ]
= 4fØ volts
Let Tph be total number of turns per phase connected in series. Assuming
concentrated winding, we can say that all the turns per phase are placed in single
slot. Hence net emf per phase will be algebraic sum of emf’s per turn.

Average Eph = Tph * [ average e.m.f per turn ]


= Tph [ 4f Ø]
= Tph * 4fØ
Kf = form factor = Rms Value/ average Value = 1.11

Rms value of Eph = Kf * Average value


= 1.11 * [ 4fTph Ø ]
Eph = 4.44fØ Tph volts
Where Tph = Zph / 2

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Module 5

Single Phase Transformers:

A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without

changing frequency. This is a very basic definition of transforme r.

Necessity of transformer:

Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Hence electrical
power is generated in low voltage level. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to
the receiving end. But if the voltage level of a power is increased, the current of the power is reduced
which causes reduction in ohmic or I2 R losses in the system, reduction in cross sectional area of the
conductor i.e. reduction in capital cost of the system and it also improves the voltage regulation of the
system. Because of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power
transmission. This is done by step up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As
this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to
the desired level at the receiving end with the help of step down transformer. These are the uses of
electrical powe r transformer in the electrical power system.

Types of Transformer:

Transformers can be categorized in different ways, depending upon their purpose, use,
construction etc. The types of transformer are as follows,

1. Step Up Transforme r & Step Down Transformer - Generally used for stepping up and down
the voltage level of power in transmission and distribution power network.
2. Three Phase Transforme r & Single Phase Transforme r - Former is generally used in three
phase power system as it is cost effective than later but when size matters, it is preferable to use
bank of three single phase transformer as it is easier to transport three single phase unit separately
than one single three phase unit.
3. Electrical Powe r Transforme r, Distribution Transformer & Instrume nt Transformer -
Transformer is generally used in transmission network which is normally known as power

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transformer, distribution transformer is used in distribution network and this is lower rating
transformer and current transformer & potential transformer, we use for relay and protection
purpose in electrical power system and in different instruments in industries are called instrument
transformer.
4. Two Winding Transformer & Auto Transformer - Former is generally used where ratio
between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It is cost effective to use later where the
ratio between high voltage and low voltage is less than 2.
5. Outdoor Transformer & Indoor Transforme r - Transformers that are designed for installing at
outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers designed for installing at indoor are indoor
transformers.
Core type transforme rs :
In this type of transformer, a large part of the core is surrounded by the windings. Figure shows the
simplified representation of the core type transformer where the primary and secondary windings have
been shown wound on the opposite limbs. However in actual practice of the primary and of the
secondary windings are situated side by side on each limb so as to reduce leakage flux
The general form of the coils may be circular or oval rectangular. A rectangular core is used with
cylindrical coils for small transformers. However in the case of large size core type transformers,
round or circular cylindrical coils are wound over a cruciform core section (as shown in fig 2) offering
considerable mechanical strength. These coils are wound in helical layers. Each layer being insulated
from the other by using paper cloth or cooling ducts.

Shell type transforme rs:


In this type the windings occupy a smaller portion of the core as shown in figure. The primary and
secondary windings are shown located on the central limb.
The coils are form- wound in this case too. They are multi layer disc type and is insulated from the
other by using paper. The entire winding comprises stacked discs with insulation spaces between the
coils. A commonly used shell type transformer has a simple rectangular form as shown in figure

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Working Principle of Transforme r:


The working principle of transformer is very simple. It depends upon Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction. Actually, mutual induction between two or more winding is responsible for transformation
action in an electrical transformer.

Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction


According to these Faraday's laws,
"Rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a
conductor or coil".

Basic Theory of Transforme r

Say you have one winding which is supplied by an alternating electrical source. The alternating current
through the winding produces a continually changing flux or alternating flux that surrounds the winding.
If any other winding is brought nearer to the previous one, obviously some portion of this flux will link
with the second. As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there must be a
change in flux linkage in the second winding or coil. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction, there must be an EMF induced in the second. If the circuit of the later winding is closed, there
must be an current flowing through it. This is the simplest form of electrical power transformer and this
is the most basic of working principle of transformer For better understanding, we are trying to repeat

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the above explanation in a more brief way here. Whenever we apply alternating current to an electric
coil, there will be an alternating flux surrounding that coil. Now if we bring another coil near the first
one, there will be an alternating flux linkage with that second coil. As the flux is alternating, there will
be obviously a rate of change in flux linkage with respect to time in the second coil. Naturally emf will
be induced in it as per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. This is the most basic concept of the
theory of transformer.
The winding which takes electrical power from the source, is generally known as primary winding of
transformer. Here in our above example it is first winding.

the winding which gives the desired output voltage due to mutual induction in the transformer, is
commonly known as secondary winding of transformer. Here in our example it is second winding.

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The above mentioned form of transformer is theoretically possible but not practically, because in open
air very tiny portion of the flux of the first winding will link with second; so the current that flows
through the closed circuit of later, will be so small in amount that it will be difficult to measure.
The rate of change of flux linkage depends upon the amount of linked flux with the second winding. So,
it is desired to be linked to almost all flux of primary winding to the secondary winding. This is
effectively and efficiently done by placing one low reluctance path common to both of the winding. This
low reluctance path is core of transformer, through which maximum number of flux produced by the
primary is passed through and linked with the secondary winding. This is the most basic theory of
transformer.

Main Constructional Parts of Transformer


The three main parts of a transformer are,

1. Primary Winding of transforme r - which produces magnetic flux when it is connected to


electrical source.
2. Magnetic Core of transforme r - the magnetic flux produced by the primary winding, that will
pass through this low reluctance path linked with secondary winding and create a closed magnetic
circuit.
3. Secondary Winding of transformer - the flux, produced by primary winding, passes through the
core, will link with the secondary winding. This winding also wounds on the same core and gives
the desired output of the transformer.

EMF Equation of transformer:

It can be established in a very easy way. Actually in electrical power transformer, one alternating
electrical source is applied to the primary winding and due to this, magnetizing current flowing through
the primary winding which produces alternating flux in the core of transformer. This flux links with both
primary and secondary windings. As this flux is alternating in nature, there must be a rate of change of
flux. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction if any coil or conductor links with any
changing flux, there must be an induced emf in it. As the current source to primary is sinusoidal, the flux
induced by it will be also sinusoidal. Hence, the function of flux may be considered as a sine function.
Mathematically, derivative of that function will give a function for rate of change of flux linkage with

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respect to time. This later function will be a cosine function since d(sinθ)/dt = cosθ. So, if we derive the
expression for rms value of this cosine wave and multiply it with number of turns of the winding, we
will easily get the expression for rms value of induced emf of that winding. In this way, we can easily
derive the emf equation of transformer.

Let's say, T is number of turns in a winding,


Φm is the maximum flux in the core in Wb.

As per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction,


Where φ is the instantaneous alternating flux and represented as,

As the maximum value of cos2πft is 1, the maximum value of induced emf e is,

To obtain the rms value of induced counter emf, divide this maximum value of e by √2.

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This is EMF equation of transformer.


If E1 & E2 are primary and secondary emfs and T1 & T2 are primary and secondary turns then, voltage
ratio or turns ratio of transformer is,

Transformation Ratio of Transforme r


This constant is called transformation ratio of Transformer , if T2 >T1 , K > 1, then the transformer is step
up transformer. If T2 < T1 , K < 1, then the transformer is step down transformer.

Voltage Ratio of Transformer


This above stated ratio is also known as voltage ratio of transformer if it is expressed as ratio of the
primary and secondary voltages of transformer.

Turns Ratio of Transformer


As the voltage in primary and secondary of transformer is directly proportional to the number of
turns in the respective winding, the transformation ratio of transformer is sometime expressed in ratio of
turns and referred as turns ratio of transformer .

Voltage Regulation :

The voltage regulation is the percentage of voltage difference between no load and full load voltages of
a transformer with respect to its full load voltage.

Explanation of Voltage Regulation of Transformer


Say an electrical power transformer is open circuited, means load is not connected with secondary
terminals. In this situation, the secondary terminal voltage of the transformer will be its secondary

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induced emf E2 . Whenever full load is connected to the secondary terminals of the transformer, rated
current I2 flows through the secondary circuit and voltage drop comes into picture. At this situation,
primary winding will also draw equivalent full load current from source. The voltage drop in the
secondary is I2 Z2 where Z2 is the secondary impedance of transformer. Now if at this loading condition,
any one measures the voltage between secondary terminals, he or she will get voltage V2 across load
terminals which is obviously less than no load secondary voltage E2 and this is because of I2 Z2 voltage
drop in the transformer.

Expression of Voltage Regulation of Transformer


Expression of Voltage Regulation of Transformer, represented in percentage, is

Voltage Regulation of Transformer for Lagging Power Factor


Now we will derive the expression of voltage regulation in detail. Say lagging power factor of
the load is cosθ2 , that means angle between secondary current and voltage is θ2

Here, from the above diagram,

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Angle between OC & OD may be very small, so it can be neglected and OD is considered nearly equal
to OC i.e.

Voltage regulation of transforme r at lagging power factor,

Voltage Regulation of Transformer for Leading Power Factor


Let's derive the expression of voltage regulation with leading current, say leading power factor of the
load is cosθ2 , that means angle between secondary current and voltage is θ2 .

Here, from the above diagram,

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Angle between OC & OD may be very small, so it can be neglected and OD is considered nearly equal
to OC i.e.

Voltage regulation of transformer at leading power factor,

Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer
As the electrical transformer is a static device, mechanical loss in transformer normally does not
come into picture. We generally consider only electrical losses in transformer. Loss in any machine is
broadly defined as difference between input power and output power. When input power is supplied to
the primary of transformer, some portion of that power is used to compensate core losses in transformer
i.e. Hysteresis loss in transformer and Eddy current loss in transformer core and some portion of the
input power is lost as I2 R loss and dissipated as heat in the primary and secondary windings, because
these windings have some internal resistance in them. The first one is called core loss or iron loss in
transformer and the later is known as ohmic loss or copper loss in transformer. Another loss occurs in
transformer, known as Stray Loss, due to Stray fluxes link with the mechanical structure and winding
conductors.

Coppe r Loss in Transforme r:


Copper loss is I2 R loss, in primary side it is I1 2 R1 and in secondary side it is I2 2 R2 loss, where I1 & I2 are
primary & secondary current of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of primary & secondary
winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer, copper loss in
transformer vary with load.

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Core Losses in Transforme r:


Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, both depend upon magnetic properties of the materials used to
construct the core of transformer and its design. So these losses in transformer are fixed and do not
depend upon the load current. So core losses in transformer which is alternatively known as iron loss in
transformer can be considered as constant for all range of load.

Hysteresis loss in transformer is denoted as,

Eddy current loss in transformer is denoted as,

Where, K h = Hysteresis constant.


Ke = Eddy current constant.
Kf = form constant.
Copper loss can simply be denoted as,
IL2 R2 ′ + Stray loss

Where, IL = I2 = load of transformer, and R2 ′ is the resistance of transformer referred to secondary.


Now we will discuss Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss in little bit more details for better
understanding the topic of losses in transformer

Hysteresis Loss in Transforme r:


Hysteresis loss in transformer can be explained in different ways. We will discuss two of them, one is
physical explanation and the other is mathematical explanation.

Physical Explanation of Hysteresis Loss:


The magnetic core of transformer is made of ′Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel′. Steel is very
good ferromagnetic material. This kind of materials are very sensitive to be magnetized. That means,
whenever magnetic flux would pass through, it will behave like magnet. Ferromagnetic substances have
numbers of domains in their structure. Domains are very small regions in the material structure, where
all the dipoles are paralleled to same direction. In other words, the domains are like small permanent
magnets situated randomly in the structure of substance. These domains are arranged inside the material

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structure in such a random manner, that net resultant magnetic field of the said material is zero.
Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is applied to that substance, these randomly directed domains
get arranged themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing this external mmf,
maximum numbers of domains again come to random positions, but some of them still remain in their
changed position. Because of these unchanged domains, the substance becomes slightly magnetized
permanently. This magnetism is called " Spontaneous Magnetism". To neutralize this magnetism, some
opposite mmf is required to be applied. The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer
core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal, there will be extra work done. For this
reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of
transformer.

Mathematical Explanation of Hysteresis Loss in Transforme r

Determination of Hysteresis Loss

Consider a ring of ferromagnetic specimen of circumference L meter, cross - sectional area a m2 and N
turns of insulated wire as shown in the picture beside,
Let us consider, the current flowing through the coil is I amp,
Magnetizing force,

Let, the flux density at this instant is B,


Therefore, total flux through the ring, Φ = BXa Wb
As the current flowing through the solenoid is alternating, the flux produced in the iron ring is also
alternating in nature, so the emf (e′) induced will be expressed as,

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According to Lenz’s law this induced emf will oppose the flow of current, therefore, in order to maintain
the current I in the coil, the source must supply an equal and opposite emf. Hence applied emf ,

Energy consumed in short time dt, during which the flux density has changed,

Thus, total work done or energy consumed during one complete cycle of magnetism,

Now aL is the volume of the ring and H.dB is the area of elementary strip of B - H curve shown in the
figure above,

Therefore, Energy consumed per cycle = volume of the ring X area of hysteresis loop.
In the case of transformer, this ring can be considered as magnetic core of transformer. Hence, the work

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done is nothing but the electrical energy loss in transformer core and this is known as hysteresis loss in
transformer.

Eddy Current Loss:


In transformer, we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current produces
alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with secondary winding, there will be
induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through the load connected with it. Some of the
alternating fluxes of transformer; may also link with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body
of transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of transformer, there would be a locally
induced emf. Due to these emfs, there would be currents which will circulate locally at that parts of the
transformer. These circulating current will not contribute in output of the transformer and dissipated as
heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of transformer. This was a broad and simple
explanation of eddy current loss.

Efficiency of Transformer:
Transformer efficiency may be defined as the ratio between Output and Input.

Efficiency = Output/Input

On specified Power factor and load, the Transformer efficiency can be found by dividing its output on
Input (Similar to other Electrical Machines i.e. motors, generators etc). But the values of both input and
Output should be same in unites (i.e. in Watts, kilowatts, megawatts etc)

But note that a transformer has very high efficiency because the losses occur in transformer is very low.
Since the Input and Output almost equal, therefore measurement of input and output is not possible
practically. The best way to find the transformer efficiency is that, first determine the losses in
transformer and then calculate the transformer efficiency with the help of these losses.

Efficiency = η= Output / Input

Efficiency = η= Output / (Output + Losses) …….… (As Input = Output +Losses)

Efficiency = η= Output / (Output +Cupper Losses + Iron Losses)

You may also find the Efficiency by the following formula

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Efficiency = η= Output / Input

Efficiency = η = (Input – Losses) / Input …….… (As Output = Input – Losses)

Taking LCM

Efficiency = η = 1 – (Losses /Input)

As we know that the rating of Transform is expressed in kVA not in kW. But the efficiency doesn’t
depend on VA i.e. it would be expressed in Power Watts (kW) not in kVA. Although, the Losses are
directly proportional to VA (Volt-Amperes), thus, efficiency depends on Power factor on every kind of
VA load. And the efficiency would be maximum on unity (1) Power factor.

Condition for Maximum Efficiency of Transforme r

We know that,

Copper Loss = WC = I1 2 . R1 or I2 2 R2

Iron Loss=Wi = Hysteresis Loss + Eddy Current Loss

WI = WH + WE

Suppose to Primary Side…

Primary Input = P1 = V1 I1 Cosθ1

Efficiency = η = Output / Input

Efficiency = η = (Input – Losses) / input ….. (As Output = Input – Losses)

Efficiency = η = (Input – Copper losses – Iron Losses)/Input

Efficiency = η = (P1 – WC – WI) / P1

Efficiency = η = (V1 I1 Cosθ1 – I1 2 . R1 – WI)/ V1 I1 Cosθ1

Taking LCM

Efficiency = η = 1- (I1 2 . R1 /V1 I1 Cosθ1 ) –(WI/ V1 I1 Cosθ1 )

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Or

Efficiency = η = 1- (I1 . R1 /V1 Cosθ1 ) – (WI/ V1 I1 Cosθ1 )

Differentiate both sides with respect to I1

Dη/ dI1 = 0 – ( R1 /V1 Cosθ1 ) + (WI/V1 I1 2 Cosθ1 )

Dη/ dI1 = – ( R1 /V1 Cosθ1 ) + (WI/V1 I1 2 Cosθ1 )

For Maximum Efficiency, the value of (Dη/ dI1 ) should be Minimum i.e.

Dη/ dI1 = 0

The above Equation can be written as

R1 / (V1 Cosθ1 ) = (WI/V1 I1 2 Cosθ1 )

Or

WI = I1 2 . R1 or I22 R2

Iron Loss = Copper Loss

The value of Output current (I2 ) on which Maximum efficiency can be gained

I2 = √ (WI/ R2 )

The value of Output current (I2 ) is the actor who equals the value of Copper Loss and Iron Loss (i.e.
Copper Loss = Iron Loss)

Doing so, the maximum efficiency can be gained. Therefore, with proper designing, maximum
efficiency can be attained at any desired load i.e. Copper loss and Iron Loss can be equaled.

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MODULE 5(b)

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

An electric motor which operates on a.c supply is called a.c motor. The a.c motors are classified as
single and three phase induction motors, synchronous motors and some special purpose motors.

Out of all these types, three phase induction motors are widely used.

The important advantages of three phase induction motors over other types are self starting property, no
need of starting device, higher power factor, good speed regulation and robust construction.

Construction :

The induction motor consists of two main parts namely.

1. The part i.e three phase windings which is stationary called stator.
2. The part which rotates and is connected to the mechanical load through shaft called rotor.

Stator :

The stator has a laminated type of construction made up of stampings which are 0.4 to 0.5mm thick.

The stampings are slotted on its periphery to carry the stator winding. The stampings are insulated from
each other. Such a construction essentially keeps iron losses to a minimum value.

The number of stampings are stamped together to build stator core. The built up core is then fitted in a
casted or fabricated steel frame. The choice of material for stampings is generally

Silicon steel, which minimizes hysteresis loss. The slots on periphery of stator core carries a three phase
winding, connected either in star or delta. This three phase winding is called stator winding. It is wound
for definite number of poles. The radial ducts are provided for cooling purpose.

Rotor :

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The rotor is placed inside stator. The air gap between stator and rotor is 0.4mm to 4mm. The two types
of rotor constructions which are used for induction motor are.

1. Squirrel Cage rotor


2. Slip ring or phase wound rotor

Squirrel Cage Rotor :

The rotor is cylindrical and slotted on its periphery. The rotor consists of uninsulated copper or
aluminium bars called rotor conductors. The bars are placed in slots. These bars are permanently shorted
at each end with the help of conducting copper ring called end ring. The bars are usually brazed to end
rings to provide good mechanical strength.

The entire structure looks like a cage, forming a closed electrical circuit. So the rotor is called squirrel
cage rotor. As the bars are permanently shorted to each other through end ring, the entire rotor resistance
is very small. Hence this rotor is also called short circuited rotor.

As rotor itself is short circuited no external resistance can have any effect on rotor resistance. Hence no
external resistance can be introduced in rotor circuit. So slip ring and brush assembly is not required for
this rotor. Hence the construction of this rotor is very simple.

Fan blades are generally provided at ends of rotor core. This circulates the air through machine while
operation, providing necessary cooling.

Slip Ring Rotor or Phase wound Rotor :

In this type of construction, rotor winding is exactly similar to stator. The rotor carries a three phase star
or delta connected, distributed winding wound for same number of poles as that of stator.The rotor
construction is laminated and slotted. The slots contain rotor winding. The three ends of three phase
winding, available after connecting the winding in star or delta are permanently connected to slip rings.

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With the help of slip rings, external resistance can be added in series with each phase of rotor
winding.This way the value of rotor resistance per phase can be controlled. This helps us to control
some of the important characteristics of motor like starting torque, speed etc.

Working Principle:

Induction motor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When a three phase supply is
given to the three phase stator winding, a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude is produced. The
speed of this rotating magnetic field is synchronous speed (N s).

Ns = 120f / P

This rotating field produces an effect of rotating poles around rotor. Let direction of rotation of this
rotating magnetic field is clockwise as shown in fig (a). Now at this instant rotor is stationary and stator
flux rmf is rotating. So its obvious that there exists a relative motion between rmf and conductors of
rotor.

Whenever conductor cuts flux, emf gets induced in it. So emf gets induced in rotor conductors called
rotor induced emf. This is electromagnetic induction. As rotor forms closed circuit, induced emf
circulates current through rotor called rotor current, as shown in fig (b). let direction of this current is
going into paper denoted by a cross.

Any current carrying conductor produces its own fluc. So rotor produces its flux called rotor flux. For
assumed direction of rotor current, the direction of rotor flux is clockwise as shown in fig ( c).

Both the fluxes interact with each as shown in fig (d) below.

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On left of rotor conductor, two fuxes are in same direction hence add up to get high flux area. On
right side, two fluxes cancel each other to produce low flux area. As flux lines act as stretches
rubber band, high flux area exerts a push on rotor conductor towards low flux density area. So
rotor conductor experiences a force from left to right in this case, as shown in fig ( d) due to
interaction of two fluxes. As all the rotor conductors experience a force, the overall rotor
experiences a torque and starts rotating. So interaction of two fluxes is very essential for a
motoring action.

Concept of Rotating Magnetic Field :

The stator of a three phase induction motor carries a three phase star or delta connected winding,
to which three phase a.c supply is given.
The three phase currents flow simultaneously through windings and are displaced by 120° from
each other. If the phase sequence is RYB, the three phase currents produce the three fluxes Ø R ,
Ø Y and Ø B which are displaced by 120° from each other.
Let the magnitude of each flux is Ø m. The figure below shows the phasor diagram with Ø R as
reference. The directions shown are assumed positive directions of three fluxes. The flux in
opposite direction to the directions shown is treated as negative.

The equations of three fluxes are

Ø R = Øm sin Ө
Ø Y = Øm sin ( Ө - 120°)
Ø B = Øm sin ( Ө - 240° )

The total flux Ø T is vector sum of Ø R , ØY and Ø B for various values of Ө.

Case 1: Ө = 0°

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ØR = 0
Ø Y = Øm sin ( 0- 120) = -0.866 Ø m
Ø B = Øm sin ( 0- 240) = 0.866Ø m

The phasor diagram is as shown in figure below. The negative Ø Y is indicated in opposite
direction to assumed positive direction of Ø Y.

BD is drawn perpendicular from B on Ø T which bisects Ø T .

OD = DA = Ø T / 2

In ∆OBD,

∟BOD = 30°

Cos 30 = OD / OB = ( Ø T /2 ) / 0.866Ø m

ØT = 1.5Øm

Thus Ø T = 1.5Øm in magnitude and its position is vertically upwards at Ө = 0.

Case 2 : When Ө = 60°

ØR = 0.866 Ø m

ØY = -0.866 Ø m

ØB = 0

Thus Ø R is positive and Ø Y is negative hence phasor diagram is as shown in figure.

From ∆OBD, Cos 30 = OD / OB = (Ø T /2) / 0.866 Ø m

ØT = 1.5Øm

Though magnitude of Ø T is same, it is rotated through 60° in space in clockwise direction.

Similarly if phasor diagram is drawn for various values of Ө , it can be seen that magnitude of Ø T is
always 1.5Ø m but it rotates in space. Such a magnetic field is called rotatinf magnetic field. Thus though
supply is stationary windings are stationary the resultant flux produced is rotating in space with constant
magnitude and speed.

This shows that when a three phase stationary windings are excited by balanced three phase a.c supply
then the resulting field produced is rotating magnetic field. Though nothing is physically rotating the
field produced is rotating in space having constant amplitude.

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Direction of rotation of Rotor :

According to lenz law, the direction of induced current in rotor is so as to oppose the cause producing it.
The cause of rotor current is induced emf which is induced because of relative motion present between
the rotating magnetic field and rotor conductors.

Hence to oppose the relative motion i.r to reduce the relative speed, the rotor experiences a torque in
same direction as that of r.m.f and tries to catch up the speed of rotating magnetic field.

Ns = speed of rotating magnetic field in rpm

N = Speed of rotor i.e motor in rpm

Ns – N = Relative speed between the two, rotating magnetic field and rotor.

Thus rotor always rotates in same direction as that of r.m f.

Significance of Slip in an Induction Motor ( or) Why does the induction motor can not run at
synchronous Speed :

When rotor starts rotating, it tries to catch the speed of rotating magnetic field. If it catches the speed
of rotating magnetic field, the relative mtion between rotor and rotating magnetic field will vanish. ( N s
– N = 0)

In fact the relative motion is main cause for induced emf in rotor. So induced emf will vanish and hence
there cannot be rotor current and rotor flux which is essential to produce the torque on rotor.

Eventually motor will stop. But immediately there will exist a relative motion between rotor and
rotating magnetic field and it will start. But due to inertia of rotor, this does not happen in practice and
rotor continuous to rotate with a speed slightly less than synchronous speed of rotating magnetic field in
steady state.

The induction motor never rotates at synchronous speed. The speed at which it rotates is hence called
subsynchronous speed and motor sometimes called asynchronous motor.

N < Ns

So it can be said that rotor slips behind the rotating magnetic field produced by stator. The difference
between the two is called slip speed of motor.

Ns – N = Slip speed of motor in rpm

This speed decided the magnitude of induced emf and rotor current which in turn decides torque
produced.

Slip of Induction Motor :

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The slip speed ( N s – N ) is generally expressed as the percentage of synchronous speed.

Slip of induction motor is defined as the difference between synchronous speed ( N s ) and actual speed
of rotor ( N) expressed as a fraction of synchronous speed ( N s ). This is also called absolute slip or
fractional slip and is denoted as ‘S’.

Thus S = (N s - N) / N s

The percentage slip is expressed as

% S = [ (N s – N ) / N s ] * 100

In terms of slip, the actual speed of motor ( N) can be expressed as

N = Ns ( 1- s)

At start motor is at rest and hence its speed N is zero. Therefore S=1 at start

This is maximum value of slip ‘s’ possible for induction motor which occurs at start. While s =0 gives
us N = N s which is not possible for an induction motor. So slip of induction motor cannot be zero under
any circumstances. Practically motor operates in slip range of 0.01 to 0.05. The slip corresponding to
full load speed of motor is called full load slip.

Effect of slip on Rotor Frequency :

In case of induction motor, the speed of rotating magnetic field is

Ns = 120f / P

At start when N = 0, s = 1 and atationary rotor has maximum relative motion with respect to rmf. Hence
maximum emf gets induced in rotor at start.

The frequency of this induced emf at start is same as that of supply frequency. As motor actually rotates
with speed N, the relative speed of rotor with respect to rmf decreases and becomes equal to slip speed
of N s – N.

The induced emf in rotor depends on rate of cutting flux i.e relative speed N s – N. Hence in running
condition magnitude of induced emf decreases so as its frequency. The rotor is wound for same number
of poles as that of stator i.e P. If fr is the frequency of rotor induced emf and rotor currents in running
condition at slip speed ( N s – N) then there exists a fixed relation between ( N s – N ), fr and P similar to
Ns.

Therefore for rotor in running condition,

( Ns – N ) = 120fr / P

Rotor poles = stator poles = P

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Now,

(Ns – N) / N s = (120fr / P) / ( 120f/ P)

But s = ( N s – N ) / N s

S = fr / f

fr = sf

Thus frequency of rotor induced emf in running condition ( fr ) is slip times the supply frequency ( f). As
slip of induction motor is in range of 0.01 to 0.05, rotor frequency is very small in the running condition.

Advantages of Induction Motor :

1. Cost is low compared to other types of motors


2. Maintenance is less as robust and rugged
3. Simple in construction
4. Efficiency is high
5. Power factor is better
6. Starting torque can be controlled in slip ring type

Limitations of Induction Motor :

1. The speed control is difficult


2. The starting torque is low and cannot be adjusted in squirrel cage type.
3. The various parameters like speed, power factor, efficiency etc. vary as load condition
changes.

Applications :

1. Squirrel cage type of motors having moderate starting torque and constant speed
characteristics preferred for driving fans, blowers, drilling machines, water pumps, blowers.
2. Slip ring induction motors can have high starting torque as high as maximum torque. Hence
they are preferred for lifts, hoists, elevators, cranes.

Necessity of Starter in Induction Motor :

In a three phase induction motor magnitude of induced emf in rotor circuit depends on slip of induction
motor. At start the value of slip is at its maximum equal to unity. The rotor current at start is given by,

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Where E2 = Rotor induced emf per phase at start

The magnitude of induced emf at start is maximum as slip speed i.e relative speed between rotor and
rotating magnetic field is maximum. Hence at start large emf gets induced in rotor. As rotor conductors
are short circuited in most of motors, this emf circulates very high current through rotor at start. Hence
as rotor current is high at start, consequently stator draws a very high current of order of 5 to 8 times full
load current at start.

Due to such high current at start there is possibility of damage of motor winding and other appliances
connected to same line may be subjected to voltage spikes which may affect their working.

To avoid such effects it is necessary to limit current drawn by motor at start. Hence starter is necessary
for an induction motor.

In the running condition, the relative speed of rotor with respect to rotating magnetic field becomes slip
speed which is very small. Hence magnitude of induced emf in rotor also reduces by slip times the
magnitude of induced emf at standstill condition.

Hence in running condition, the rotor current is not very high. Starters not only limit the starting current
but also provide protection to induction motor against over loading and low voltage conditions.

Star – Delta Starte r:

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This is the cheapest starter of all. It uses TPDT [ Tripple pole double throw switch] which connects the
stator winding in star at start and then in delta while normal running. Hence this starter is suitable only
for those motors designed to run with the delta connected stator winding.

The arrangements is as shown in the figure.

Initially when the switch is in START position, the stator winding gets connected in star. Hence phase
voltage gets reduced by factor 1 / √3.

Vph = Vl / √3

Due to this starting current also gets reduced by factor 1/√3. When motor attains 50 to 60% of normal
speed, switch is thrown in RUN position. Hence winding gets connected in delta.

Vph = Vl = Rated voltage

Each phase of winding gets rated voltage. The operation of switch can be automatic by using re lays
which ensures that motor will not start with switch in RUN position. As this is cheap and maintenance
free is frequently used. The limitations of this starter are that it is suitable for normal delta connected
motors and factor by which voltage changes is 1/ √3 and cannot be changed.

Comparison of Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor :

Wound or Slip Ring Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor


1. Rotor consists of a three phase Rotor consists of bars which are
winding similar to stator shorted at ends with the help of slip
winding rings
2. Construction is complicated Construction is very simple
3. Resistance can be added As permanently shorted external
externally resistance cannot be added
4. The construction is delicate and The construction is robust and
due to brushes, frequent maintenance free.
maintenance is necessary
5. High starting torque can be Moderate starting torque which cannot
obtained be controlled
6. Rotor copper losses are high Rotor copper losses are less hence have
hence efficiency is less higher efficiency
7. Rotor resistance starter can be Rotor resistance starter cannot be used
used
8. The rotors are very costly Due to simple construction, the rotors
are cheap.

9. Rotor must be wound for same Rotor automatically adjusts itself for
number of poles as that of stator same number of poles as that of stator
10. Speed control by rotor Speed control by rotor resistance is not
resistance is possible possible

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Question bank
MODULE 1 :

1. Find the values of currents in all the branches of the network shown in figure.

2. A current of 20A flows through 2 ammeters A & B in series. The potential difference
across A is 0.2 V & across B is 0.3 V .Find how the same current will divide between A
& B when they are in parallel.
3. Coils A & B in a magnetic circuits have 600 & 500 turns respectively. A current 8 A in
coil A produces a flux of 0.04 wb. If coefficient of coupling is 0.2, calculate (a) Self
inductance of coil A with B open circuited (b) Flux linking with the coil B (c) The
average emf induced in coil B when the flux with it changes from 0 to full value in 0.02
sec. (d) Mutual inductance.
4. A circuit consists of two parallel resistors having resistances of 20Ω and 30Ω
respectively, connected in series with a 15Ω resistor. If the current through 30Ω resistor
is 1.2A, find
a) Currents in 20Ω and 15Ω resistors
b) The voltage across the whole circuit
c) Voltage across 15Ω and 20Ω resistor
d) Total power consumed in the circuit
5. Obtain the relation between self inductances, mutual inductance and coefficient of
coupling.
6. A coil consists of 600turns and a current of 10A in the coil gives rise to a magnetic flux
of 1mwb. Calculate a) Self inductance
b) Induced emf c) Energy stored when the current is reversed in
0.01sec.
7. State and explain faradays laws of electromagnetic induction.
8. An air cored solenoid has a length of 50cm and a diameter of 2cm. Calculate its
inductances if it has 1000turns and also find the energy stored in it, if the current rises
from zero to 5A.
9. If the total power dissipated in the circuit shown is 18W, find the value of ‘R’ and its
current.

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10. State the following : a) Flemings right hand rule b) Flemings left hand rule
11. A closed iron ring of mean diameter 12cm is made from round iron bar of diameter 2cm.
It has a uniform winding of 1000turns. Calculate the current required to produce a flux
density of 1.5wb/ m2 given that relative permeability is 1250. Hence calculate the self
inductance.
12. What is the potential difference between the point x and y in the network shown.

13. Derive an expression for dynamically induced emf.


14. Show that the equivalent resistance of two resistors connected in parallel in the ratio of
the product of these two resistances divided by the sum of those two resistance values.
15. Two coils having 1000turns and 1600 respectively are placed close to each other such
that 60% of the flux produced by one coil. If a current of 10A , flowing in the first coil,
produces a flux of 0.5mwb. Find the inductance of the second coil.
16. State and explain kirchoffs laws.
17. Obtain an equation for the energy stored in a magnetic field.
18. Two storage batteries A and B are connected to supply a load of 0.3Ω. The open circuit
emf of battery A is 11.7V and that of B is 12.3V. The internal resistances are 0.06Ω and
0.05Ω respectively. Determine the current supplied to the load.
19. For the circuit shown in figure. Find the current supplied by each battery and power
dissipated in 1Ω resistor.

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20. A coil of resistance 150Ω is placed in a magnetic field of 0.1mwb. The coil has 500turns
and a galvanometer of 450Ω is connected in series with it. The coil is moved in 0.1sec
from the given field to another field of 0.3mwb. Find the average ind uced emf and the
average current through the coil.

MODULE 2:

21. Derive the expression for armature torque developed in a dc motor.


22. Explain with a neat diagram, the constructional features and operation of an induction
type single phase energy meter.
23. A 30KW, 300V DC shunt generator has armature and field resistances of 0.05Ω and
100Ω respectively. Calculate the total power developed by the armature when it delivers
full output power.
24. Derive the emf equation for a dc generator.
25. With a neat diagram explain the construction and working of dynamometer type
wattmeter.
26. A 200V lap wound dc shunt motor has 800 conductors on its armature. The resistance of
the armature winding is 0.5Ω and that of field winding is 200Ω. The motor takes a
current of 21A, the flux per pole is 30mwb. Find the speed and torque developed in the
motor.
27. Explain the characteristics of dc series motor with a neat diagram.
28. Explain the significance of back emf in dc motor.
29. A 4 pole dc shunt motor takes 22.5A from a 250V supply, Ra = 0.5Ω and Rsh = 125Ω. The
armature is wave wound with 300 conductors. If the flux per pole is 0.02wb. Calculate
a) Speed b) Torque developed c) Power developed
30. With a neat diagram explain the constructional and working of dynamometer type
wattmeter.
31. A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots, each having 24 conductors.
The flux per pole is 0.01wb. At what speed must the armature rotate to give an induced
emf of 220V? What will be the voltage developed if the winding is lap and the armature
rotates at the same speed.
32. Explain with a diagram, the constructional features of various parts of a dc generator.
33. A 250V shunt motor on no load, runs at 1000rpm and takes 5A. The armature and shunt
field resistances are respectively 0.2Ω and 250Ω. Calculate the speed of the motor when
loaded and taking a current of 50A, if the armature reaction weakens the field by 3%.
34. Mention the classification of d.c generators.
35. A series motor runs at 600rpm when taking 110A from a 250V supply. The resistance of
the armature circuit is 0.12Ω and that of series winding is 0.03Ω. The useful flux per pole
for 120A is 0.024wb and that for 50A is 0.0155wb. Calculate the speed when the current
has fallen to 50A.

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36. A 100KW belt driven shunt generator running at 300rpm on 220V bus-bars, continues to
run as a motor when the belt breaks, then taking 10KW. What will be its speed? Given
Ra= 0.025Ω, Rsh = 60Ω, Brush contact drop = 1V per brush and armature reaction
drop=0.
37. A dc series motor is running with a speed of 1000rpm, while taking a current of 22A
from the supply. If the load is changed such that the current drawn by the motor is
increased to 55A, calculate the speed of the motor on new load. The armature and series
winding resistances are 0.3Ω and 0.4Ω respectively. Assume supply voltage as 250V.
38. A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots each having 24 conductors.
The flux per pole is 0.01 wb. At what speed the armature rotate to give an induced emf of
220 volts. What will be the voltage of the winding in lap and armature rotates at the same
speed.
39. A 4 pole 3 phase 50 hz induction motor runs at a speed of 1470 rpm. Find the frequency
of the induced emf in rotor under this condition
40. Sketch the various characteristics of DC shunt motor and mention its applications.

MODULE 3:

41. Obtain expression for current trough pure inductor if the voltage across it is V=Vm sinwt
42. A voltage V=100sin 314t is applied to a circuit consisting of a 25 Ω resistor and an
18mF capacitor in series . Determine a) peak value of the current. b) power factor c) total
power consumed by the circuit.
43. Write a short notes on a) Necessity of earthing b) Precautions to be taken to prevent
electric sock
44. Voltage of 200Vis applied to a series circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor and the
capacitor. The respective across these components are 170V, 150V and 100 Ω and the
current is 4A.Find a) Power factorb) resistance c)Impedence d) Inductive reactance &
capacitive reactance.
45. Explain the necessity and operation of earth leakage circuit breaker.
46. Two impedences Z1=6-j8 Ω and Z2= 16+j12 Ω are connected in parallel. If the total
current of combination is 20+j10A. find a) Voltage across combination b) current in two
branches
47. What is meant by power factor in ac circuit and explain its significance.
48. Draw and explain the wiring diagram for 3 way control of lamp.
49. A series circuit with resistance of 10 Ω , inductance of 0.2h and capacitance of 40 µF is
supplied with a 100V supply at 50 Hz.Find the current , power and power factor of the
circuit.
50. State form factor of an alternating quantity derive the expression for it.
51. Show that the average power consumed in a pure capacitance is 0. draw the neat
waveform for voltage , current , power.
52. With a neat diagram explain Pipe earthing.

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53. Show that the power consumed in an R-C series circuit is VicosΦ. Draw the waveform
for voltage, current and power.
54. What are the advantages of 3 phase systems over single phase system.
55. A 3 phase 400 V motor takes an input of 40kW at 0.45pflag.Find the reading of each of
the 2 single phase wattmeters connected to measure the input.
56. Obtain the relationship between line and phase current in a balanced 3 phase delta
connected system.
57. A balanced 3 phase star connected load draws power from 440V supply. The two
wattmeters connected indicate W1=5kw and W2= 1.2KW. Calculate power , power
factor and current in the circuit.
58. With a neat diagram explain Plate earthing.
59. Describe the factors affecting the choice of a wiring system.
60. A series RLC circuit having R=100 Ω , L=0.15H, C=25 µF draws a current of 1.96A
from 60 Hz supply. Determine the supply voltage using ohm’s law and kirchoff’s
law.

MODULE 4 :

61. Obtain the relationship between line and phase voltages and currents in a three phase

Balanced star connected system.

62. A 3-Φ delta connected balanced load consumes a power of 60KW taking a lagging
current of 200A at a line voltage of 400V, 50 Hz. Find the parameters of each phase.
63. A 12 pole, 500 rpm star connected alternator has 48slots with 15conductors per slot. The
flux per pole is 0.02Wb. The winding factor is 0.97 and pitch factor is 0.98. Calculate the
phase emf and line emf.
64. Define phase sequence and list out the advantages of three phase system as compared to
single phase system.
65. A 4 pole, 1500rpm, star connected alternatot as 9 slots per pole and 8 conductors per
slot. Determine the flux per pole to give a terminal voltage of 3300V take winding factor
and pitch factor as unity.
66. The input power to a three phase induction motor running on 400V,50Hz supply was
measured by two wattmeter method and readings were 3000w and 1000W. Calculate a)
Total power input b) power factor c) Line current
67. With the usual notation derive the expression for emf equation of an alternator.
68. A balanced star connected load of (8+j6)Ω/ phase is connected to three phase, 230 V
supply. Find the line current, power factor, power reactive volt ampere and total volt
ampere.
69. Show that the power in a balanced three phase circuit can be measured by two
wattmeters. Draw the circuit and vector diagram.
70. Explain the generation of three phase ac voltage.
71. A three phase, 50Hz, 16 pole generator with star connected winding has 144slots with
conductor/ slot is 10. The flux per pole is 24.8mWb is sinusoidally distributed. The coils
are full pitched. Find a) speed b) Line emf

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72. what are the advantages of rotating field synchronous generator.


73. List the differences between salient and non-salient type rotors.
74. A 3-phase, 6 pole star connected ac generator revolves at 1000rpm. The stator has 90
slots and 8 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 0.05wb. Calculate the generated line
voltage by the machine if the winding factor is 0.96.
75. Enumerate te advantages of having stationary armature and rotating field system in large
capacity synchronous generators.
76. Explain the terms pitch factor, distribution factor as applied to alternator.
77. Define voltage regulation of a synchronous generator.
78. A 6 pole three phase 50Hz alternator has 12 slots per pole and 4 conductors per slot. A
flux of 25mWb is sinusoidally distributed along the air gap. Determine the line emf if the
alternator is star connected.
79. A balances three phase star connected load of 150KW takes a leading current of 100A
with a line voltage of 1100V, 50Hz. Find the circuit constants of the load per phase.
80. Three identical coils each having an impedance of (10+ j10)Ω are connected in delta
across a 400 V, three phase supply. Find the line current and the readings on the two
wattmeters used to measure the total power.

Module 5

81. Derive emf equation of a transformer


82. In a 25KV 2000/200V single phase transformer, the iron and full load copper losses are
350 W and 400W respectively. Calculate the efficiency at unity power factor on full load
and half full load.
83. An 8 pole alternator runs at 750 rpm and supplies power to a 6pole induction motor
which runs at 970 rpm. What is the slip of induction motor.
84. A 600 KVA transformer has an efficiency of 92% at full load, unity power factor and
half full load, 0.9 pf. Determine its efficiency at 75% of full load, 0.9 pf.
85. An 8 pole alternator runs at 750 rpm and supplies power to a 4 pole IM. The frequency
of rotor current is 1.5 Hz. Determine the speed of motor.
86. Derive the condition for which the efficiency of transformer is maximum.
87. Explain the construction and working principle of a transformer with a neat sketch
88. Explain the concept of rotating magnetic field in a 3 phase IM
89. The frequency of emf in the stator of a 4 pole IM is 50 Hz and in the rotor is 1.5 Hz.
What is the slip and at what speed is the motor running.
90. What is slip in an IM. Explain why slip is never zero in an IM.
91. A single phase transformer has 400 turns primary and 1000 turns secondary. The net
cross section area of the core is 60 cm2 .The primary winding is connected to a 500V 50
Hz supply. Find
a. Peak value of flux density
b. Emf induced in secondary winding

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92. The maximum efficiency at full load and unity pf of a single p hase 25 KVA
500/1000V,50 Hz Transformer is 98%. Determine its efficiency at
a. 75% load, 0.9 pf
b. 50% load, 0.8 pf
93. Define the transformation ratio and regulation of transformer.
94. Explain how torque is produced in a 3 phase induction motor.
95. A 4 pole 3 phase 50 Hz IM runs at a speed of 1470 rpm. Find the frequency of induced
emf in the rotor under this condition.
96. Explain the working principle of 3 phase IM
97. Why does an IM need a starter.
98. What are the losses in a transformer? On what factors do they depend? How are they
minimized?
99. Discuss the magnetizing and de-magnetizing effect in a transformer.
100.With the help of neat figures, explain the construction of squirrel cage and slip ring IM.

Dept. of EEE, GSSSIETW, Mysuru Page 7


Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha
GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN
(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt of Karnataka)
KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru. 570016
Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305,

Vision of the Institute:

"To become a recognized world class Women Educational Institution, by imparting professional
education to the students, creating technical opportunities through academic excellence and
technical achievements, with ethical values".

Mission of the Institute:


 To support value based education with state of art infrastructure.

 To empower women with the additional skill for professional future carrier

 To enrich students with research blends in order to fulfill the International challenges

 To create multidisciplinary center of excellence

 To achieve Accreditation standards towards intentional education recognition.

 To establish more Post Graduate & Research course.

 To increase Doctorates numbers towards the Research quality of academics