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(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt of Karnataka)

KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru. 570016

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING

Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305,

1st Semester, 2017

Prepared by

Mrs. Shruthi B,Dhanalaxmi H R,Mr.

Jagadisha N R & Chaithrashee S R

Assistant Professors

Dept. of EEE

ENGINEERING

Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha (

GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN

(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Karnataka)

KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru- 570 016, Karnataka

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING

Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305

VISION

To be recognized as a premier department producing globally competitive technical professionals with value

based education in the field of electrical engineering committed to social and ethical values.

MISSION

To provide students with excellent academic ambience for solving problems in electrical engineering.

To provide training programs which bridges the gap between academia and industry.

To provide an environment to carry out research activities in Electrical engineering field which serves

the requirements of industry & society.

To help in building capabilities for excellent energy management and to explore nonconventional energy

sources.

PEO1: To provide students with the knowledge of basic sciences and social science in general and

electrical engineering in particular so as to impart the necessary skills to analyze and synthesis

electrical circuits, algorithms and complex apparatus.

PEO2: To prepare and inspire the students to become future researchers or scientists with innovative

ideas for sustainable development.

PEO3: To develop students into good human beings useful for the society through their core

expertise with good human values and professional ethics.

PEO4: To train the students for the lifelong learning processes in the core area by providing the state

of the art technology.

Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha

GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN

(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Karnataka)

KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru- 570 016, Karnataka

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONI ENGINEERING

Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305

SYLLABUS

Module 1

D C circuits: Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws, analysis of series, parallel and series- parallel circuits

excited by independent voltage sources. Power and Energy. Illustrative examples. 5 Hours

Electromagnetism:

Review of field around a conductor and coil, magnetic flux and flux density, magnetomotive force and

magnetic field intensity, reluctance and permeability, definition of magnetic circuit and basic analogy

between electric and magnetic circuits. (These topics are not to be considered for setting the examination

questions).

Electromagnetic induction: Definition of Electromagnetic Induction, Faradays Laws, Fleming’s right hand

rule, Lenz’s Law, Statically and dynamically induced emf. Self-inductance, mutual inductance and

coefficient of coupling. Energy stored in magnetic field. Illustrative examples. Force on current carrying

conductor placed in a magnetic field, Fleming’s left hand rule. 5 Hours

Module 2

DC Machines: Working principle of DC machine as a generator and a motor. Types and constructional

features. Types of armature windings, Emf equation of generator, relation between induced emf and terminal

voltage with a mention of brush contact drop and drop due to armature reaction. Illustrative

examples, neglecting armature reaction. Operation of DC motor, back emf, torque equation. Types of DC

motors, characteristics and applications. Significance of back emf. Necessity of a starter for DC motor.

Illustrative examples on back emf and torque. 7 Hours

Measuring Instruments: Construction and Principle of operation of dynamometer type wattmeterand single

phase induction type energy meter. 3 Hours

Module 3

Single-phase AC circuits: Generation of sinusoidal voltage, frequency of generated voltage, definition and

numerical values of average value, root mean square value, form factor and peak factor of sinusoidally

varying quantities, phasor representation of alternating quantities. Analysis, with phasor diagrams, of R, L,

C, R-L, R-C and R-L-C circuits and, parallel and series- parallel circuits. Real power, reactive power,

apparent power and power factor. Illustrative examples. 7 Hours

Domestic wiring:

Service mains, meter board and distribution board. Brief discussion on concealed conduit wiring. Two-way

and three-way control. Elementary discussion on Circuit protective devices: fuse and Miniature Circuit

Breaker (MCB’s). Electric shock, precautions against shock, Objectives of Earthing, types of earthing; pipe

and plate earthing, Residual current circuit breaker (RCCB). 3 Hours

Module 4

Three Phase Circuits: Necessity and advantages of three phase systems, generation of three phase power.

Definition of Phase sequence, balanced supply and balanced load. Relationship between line and phase

values of balanced star and delta connections. Power in balanced three-phase circuits, measurement of power

by two-wattmeter method. Determination power factor \using wattmeter readings. Illustrative examples.

6 Hours

Three PhaseSynchronous Generators: Principle of operation, Types and constructional features,

Advantages of rotating field type alternator, Synchronous speed, Frequency of generated voltage, Emf

equation. Concept of winding factor (excluding the derivation of distribution and pitch factors). Illustrative

examples on calculation of distribution factor, pitch factor and emf equation. 4 Hours

Module 5

Single Phase Transformers:

Necessity of transformer, Principle of operation and construction of singlephase transformers (core and shell

types). Emf equation, losses, variation losses with respect to load, efficiency, Condition for maximum

efficiency, Voltage regulation and its significance (Open Circuit and Short circuit tests, equivalent circuit

and phasor diagrams are excluded). Illustrative problems on emf equation and efficiency only. 6 Hours

Three Phase Induction Motors: Principle of operation, Concept and production of rotating magnetic field,

Synchronous speed, rotor speed, Slip, Frequency of the rotor induced emf, Types and Constructional

features. Slip and its significance. Applications of squirrel - cage and slip - ring motors. Necessity of a

starter, starting of motor using stars-delta starter. Illustrative examples on slip calculations. 4 Hours

COURSE OUTCOME

CO2: Able to learn the construction, working principle, classification of DC Motors, DC Generator and

Measuring instruments.

CO3: Able to understand and analyze single phase AC circuits and able to study different types of

domestic wiring, safety equipments available such as fuse, circuit breaker, earthling.

CO4: Able to study the 3 Phase AC circuits, Measurement of 3 phase power and Able learn construction and

working principle of Synchronous generator.

.

CO5: Able to gain knowledge about working principle, classification of single phase transformer and three

phase induction motor

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

MODULE 1

D. C. CIRCUITS

Basic Definitions:

1. Independent voltage source: The source whose voltage is constant and not depended on any

other parameter of the circuit is known as independent voltage source.

2. Electric Curre nt: The rate of flow of electric charge per unit time across a point in a conductor

is known as electric current.

I = dq/dt = q/t

Where I = average current flowing, q = total charge transferred, t = time required for charge

transfer.

point in 1 second.

1 ampere current = flow of electrons per second

4. Resistance and Resistivity: The property of a material to oppose or resist the flow of current

through it is called resistance. Unit of resistance is ohm ( Ω )

Resistance is directly proportional to length of conductor and inversely proportional to area of

cross section.

R = ρ l/A

Where ρ = resistivity constant.

5. Electric Potential: It is defined as work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to that

point. Unit if potential is volt.

6. Potential difference: The amount of work that has to be done to bring the positive charge from

lower potential to higher potential point is known as potentia l difference between two points.

Measured in volt (V).

7. Volt: It is defined as potential difference across a resistance of one ohm through which a current

of one ampere is flowing.

8. E M F (Electro motive force) (E): EMF of a source is defined as the voltage available across its

terminals.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Ohm’s Law

Definition: The current flowing through the electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential

difference across the circuit and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit provided the

temperature remains the same.

IαV

I=V/ R

It doesn’t holds good for non- linear devices such as semiconductors and zener diodes

Not applicable for non- metallic conductors such as silicon carbide

Not applicable for arc lamps and where the temperature rise rapid in some metals.

Series Circuits: The circuit in which the resistances are connected end to end, so that there is only one

path for the flow of current is called as series circuit.

According to ohm’s law, there will be voltage drop across each resistance.

The sum of all voltage drops is equal to the applied voltage.

Equivalent resistance is the largest of all individual resistance.

Below figure is an example of series circuit where R1, R2, R3 are three resistances connected in series.

Voltage V is applied across the end terminals. Current I flow through all three resistors. V1, V2, V3 be

the voltage drops across R1, R2, R3 respectively.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

V= + +

V = I*R1+I*R2+I*R3 = I ( + + )

V/I = + +

Hence according to ohm’s law, V/I is equal to total resistance of the circuit. Therefore R = R1+R2+R3

Parallel Circuits: In parallel circuits, number of resistors is connected in such a way that one end of

each of them is joined to a common point, and the other end of each of them is joined to another

common point.

Potential difference across all the resistances in parallel remains the same.

Current is divided into as many paths as the number of resistances.

Reciprocal of equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of reciprocal of

individual resistances.

The equivalent resistance is the smallest of all the resistances.

Consider the below parallel circuit. R1, R2, R3 are three resistors connected in parallel. Voltage source

V connected across end terminals. Let I be the current drawn. Voltage across each resistor remains the

same. Current I get divided across each resistor and depends on the resistor value.

V= * , V= * ,V= *

= V/ , = V/ , = V/

I= + + = V/ +V/ +V/

I = V [1/ + 1/ +1/ ]

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

V=I

I= V/

1. Current through each resistor is same voltage across each resistor is same

2. Voltage across each resistor is different Current through each resistor is different

3. Sum of voltages across all resistors is Sum of currents through all the resistors is the

supply voltage supply current

V= + + I= + +

= + + 1/ = 1/ +1/ +1/

5. Equivalent resistance is larger than each Equivalent resistance is smaller than the smallest of

of resistance in series all resistances in parallel

Kirchhoff’s Laws

Kirchhoff’s First Law (Current Law): In any network of wires carrying currents, the algebraic sum of

all currents meeting at a point is zero or the sum of incoming currents towards any point is equal to the

sum of outgoing currents away from that point.

We consider the current flowing towards the junction O as positive where as currents away from

junction O as negative. Therefore current and are positive and current and are negative.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

+ + =0

+ = +

Kirchhoff’s Second Law (Voltage Law): In any closed circuit or mesh, the algebraic sum of all the

e.m.f in the circuit is equal to the algebraic sum of the product of currents and resistances.

fall in potential is taken as negative

Voltage drop should be considered as negative when current flows from higher to lower

potential.

Voltage drop should be considered as positive when current flows from lower to higher potential.

Consider the below circuit with two loops. FABEF and BCDEB.

-( + + =0

( + =

+( + + =0

+( + =

Steps to be followe d while applying KVL and KCL to get network equations

1. Draw the circuit diagram from given information and mark all the values of sources with

appropriate polarities and all the resistances.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

2. Mark all branch currents with some assumed directions using KCL at various nodes and junction

points

3. Mark all polarities of voltage drops and rises as per direction of the assumed branch currents

flowing through various branch resistances.

4. Apply KVL to different closed loops in the network to obtain equations

5. Solve the simultaneous equations for unknown currents. From these currents, unknown voltages,

powers and resistances can be calculated.

Electrical work W: Transfer of charge is an electric current. electrical work is done when there is

transfer of charge. Unit of electric work done is joule. One joule of work is done when is movement of 1

coulomb of charge through a potential difference of 1 volt.

W= VI t Joules

Electrical power P: The rate at which electric work is done is called as electric power.

P = VI Joules/sec i.e,watts

Thus power consumed in an electric circuit is 1 watt if potential difference if 1 volt is applied across the

circuit causes 1 ampere current to flow.

Electrical energy E: It is the total amount of electrical work done in an electric circuit.

Energy consumed by an electric circuit is said to be 1 joule or watt-sec when it utilizes power of 1 watt

for 1 second. Usually measured as kilo watt hour (kWh) since watt-sec is a very small quantity.

ELECTRO MAGNETISM

1. Magnetic induction: The phenomenon due to which a magnet can induce magnetism in a piece

of magnetic material placed near to it without any physical contact is known as magnetic

induction.

2. Laws of magnetis m:

Coulomb’s first law states that like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Coulomb’s second law states that force exerted by one pole on other pole is

Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Inversely proportional to absolute permeability of the surrounding medium.

Fα /

Where are the pole strength of the poles, d is distance between them.

F=k /

3. Magnetic Field: The space around the magnet is called magnetic field and is represented by

magnetic lines of force.

Magnetic lines of force: below figure shows the magnetic lines of force. Direction o f each line

of force from north pole to south pole outside the magnet but from s-pole to n-pole inside the

magnet. Lines are dense near poles where filed is stronger.

4. Magnetic Flux (ϕ ): Total number of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field is called as

magnetic flux. Unit of flux is weber where 1 weber = magnetic lines of force.

5. Flux Density (B): It can be defined as the flux per unit area through a plane that is right angles

to the flux.

6. Magneto Motive Force ( M.M.F): It is defined as magnetic force that creates the magnetic flux

in a magnetic material. Unit is ampere turns ( AT).

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

7.

M.M.F = N*I

NI=ϕ*S

8. Reluctance (S): It is the property of a magnetic material by virtue of which it opposes the

creation of magnetic flux in it. Unit is ampere-turn per weber (AT/Wb). It is directly proportional

to length of magnetic material and inversely proportional to cross section area.

9. Permeability: It is defined as ability of the material to conduct magnetic flux through it.

two types of permeability are absolute permeability (µ) and relative permeability( ).

Absolute permeability is defined as the flux density induced in the magnetic material per unit

magnetizing force.

relative permeability is is a permeability of free space or air and is usually taken as unity.

For any other magnetic material, relative permeability is the ratio of flux density induced in magnetic

material of particular shape and size to the flux density induced in free space or air

= B/

10. Leakage Flux: consider the below figure. When a magnetizing winding is concentrated over a

short length of the ring, the entire flux set up due to current passing through it does not reach the

magnetic circuit. Some lines are present in and around the coil itself and does not perfor m any

useful work. This is called leakage flux.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

When a useful flux passes through the air gap, flux lines tends to bulge outwards at the ends of

air gap and the density of flux is reduced in air gap. This phenomenon is called as fringing.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

When an electric current passes through the conductor, magnetic field is setup which surrounds or

links up with the conductor. In converse, electricity can be created by magnetism by changing the

magnetic flux linking with the conductor. This process is known as Electro Magnetic Induction.

e.m.f produced is called as induced e.m.f and resulting current is called induced current.

Consider the below diagram where coil wound with number of turns connected to galvanometer.

When magnet is moved towards the coil, galvanometer pointer deflects as there is change in

flux linkage and emf is induced in the coil. In converse when magnet kept constant the coil is

moved towards the magnet, emf is induced in the coil.

When magnet is moved away from the coil, galvanometer pointer deflects but in opposite

direction which indicates that emf is induced in opposite direction.

Hence direction of induced emf depends on direction of magnetic flux and upon the direction

in which the flux moves relative to the conductor.

Greater the speed of movement of magnet or coil, greater the amount of induced emf.

First law: whenever there is flux linking a coil or circuit changes, an emf is induced in it.

Second law: the magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux

linkages

The magnitude of flux linkages is determined by the number of times the circuit is linked by the

flux. If there are N turns of a coil, then each flux line will link this circuit N times

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Consider a coil that has N turns and the flux through it changes from an initial value of to final

value in t seconds

eαN -N /t volts

= N( - /t volts

e = N dϕ / dt volts

minus sign is added with above equation to indicate the fact that induced emf setup current in such a

direction that the magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause producing it.

e = - N dϕ / dt volts

Fle ming’s right hand rule: stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger such that all are right

angled to each other. Thumb shows the direction of motion of coil, forefinger shows the direction of

magnetic field and middle finger shows the direction of the induced emf.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Lenz’s law: The direction of induced emf and hence current is such that it opposes the cause

producing it.

Consider the below diagram. Let N pole approach the coil. Flux linkage in coil changes and emf is

induced in the coil. So as per lenz law, current induced in the coil will oppose the cause producing it.

The cause which is producing the current is the motion of the magnet. Therefore, induced current

should flow in such a direction that it should develop the polarities such that it opposes the motion of

magnet. This happens when left face becomes the N pole.

2. Statically induced emf

When the magnetic field is stationary and the conductor is in motion, the emf induced is called

dynamically induced emf.

Consider a conductor of length l meters moving right angles to a uniform magnetic field of B Wb/

with velocity of v meters/sec. let the conductor move through a small distance dx in dt seconds.

Therefore the area swept = l * dx

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

= B * l * dx

As per faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, the emf ‘e’ induced in the conductor is given by

= B l dx / dt

Or

e = B l v volts

Where, v = dx / dt

This equation gives the induced emf when the plane of motion is exactly perpendicular to the plane of

flux. This is the maximum possible emf as plane of motion is at right angles to plane of the flux.

But if conductor is moved with velocity v but at certain angle ϴ measured with respect to direction of

the field, then component of velocity which is v sin ϴ is perpendicular to direction of flux and hence

responsible for the induced emf. The other component v cos ϴ is parallel to the plane of the flux and hence

will not contribute dynamically induced emf

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

e = B l v sin ϴ volts

The emf induced in the coil due to change in flux lines without any physical movement of coil or

magnet is known as statically induced emf . It can be of two types.

2. mutually induced emf

Consider the coil having N turns and carrying current I. current magnitude can be varied with the help of

resistance connected in series with the battery and coil. The flux produced in the coil is linked with the

coil itself. Total flux linkage of the coil will be N ϕ Wb-turns. If current I is changed by varying the

resistance in series, flux produced changes, due to which flux linkage changes. And hence there is a

induced emf in the coil without any physical movement of coil or magnet.

e = -N dϕ / dt

dϕ / dt = ϕ/I * dI/dt

therefore L = N ϕ / I

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

A circuit possess a self inductance of 1 henry when a current of 1 A through it produces flux linkages of

1 Wb-turn in it

e = -L dI/dt volts

L = Nϕ / I

Φ = MMF/reluctance = NI/S

L=N N I/IS

L= / S henries

Now S = l/µa

L= / (l/ µa)

L= µa / l

L= /l henries

If the flux produced by one coil is getting linked with another coil and due to change in this flux

produced by first coil, there is induced emf in the second coil is called mutually induced emf.

Consider two coils which are placed adjacent to each other as shown in figure

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Coil A has N1 turns, coil B has N2 turns. Coil A has variable resistance R and battery E volts in series.

Coil B is connected with the galvanometer to sense the induced emf.

current flows through the coil A producing flux . Part of this flux will link with coil B. this is a

mutual flux . Now if current through coil A is changed, there will change in flux and due to

which emf is induced in coil B which is detected by galvanometer.

Now / )*

d / dt = / * d / dt

=- / * d / dt

=- / )* d / dt

= -M d / dt volts

M= /

M= /

= /S

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

M= /S)( / )

M= /S

M= /S

Now s = l/ µa

Then M = /( l/ µa) = µa / l

M= a/l

Co-efficient of coupling:

= / )*( / )

M= =k

If entire flux produced by one coil links with the other then K = =1

Consider the straight conductor carrying current placed in magnetic field as in the below figure. Flux

pattern is as shown in the figure. Current carrying conductor also produces its own magnetic field

around it. Assuming the current direction away from the observer which can be determined by the right

hand thumb rule.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

So now there are two different magnetic fields that is due to permanent magnet and current carrying

conductor. These two flux interact with each other. This interaction will be in such a way that on one

side of the conductor the two lines help each other, while on the other side two lines try to cancel each

other. Due to this there will accumulation of flux on one side and weakening of flux on the other side..

According to the properties of flux lines, these flux lines will try to shorten themselves. While doing so

flux lines which are gathered will exert force on the conductor. So the conductor experience the

mechanical force from high flux area towards low flux lines area. This is the basic principle on which d

c electric motors work and hence are called motoring action.

The direction of force experienced by the conductor placed in magnetic field can be determined by a

rule called Fleming’s left hand rule.

The rule states that outstretch the three fingers of the left hand namely forefinger, thumb and middle

finger such that all are right angle to each other. Fore finger gives the magnetic field, middle finger

shows the direction of current and the thumb finger shows the direction of force experienced by the

conductor.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

consider a solenoid, in which current can be controlled with the help of resistance R. when the switch is

closed, current flows through the coil and try to build up the value from zero to I. mean time flux linkage

associated with the coil will change due to which there will be self induced emf in the coil whose value

is given by

e = -L dI/dt

hence at every instant coil will try to oppose the increase in the current. To overcome this opposition

supply has to provide the energy to the circuit. This is nothing but the energy required to establish the

current.

Once current achieves maximum value I then change in current stops. Hence there cannot be any

induced emf and no energy will be drawn from the supply. So no energy is required to maintain the

established flux.

When current is reduced to zero, current through the coil starts decreasing and the flux also decreases.

So emf induced in the coil. But as per lenz law it will try to oppose the cause producing it which is

decrease in current. So this induced emf now will try to maintain current to its original value. Hence

induced emf acts as a source and supplies energy to the source. This is nothing but same energy stored in

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

the magnetic field which gets recovered while field collapses. Hence energy stored while increase in the

current is returned back to the supply when current decreases.

e = -L dI/dt

This opposes a supply voltage. So supply voltage V supplies energy to overcome this, which is stored in

magnetic field

= L di * I joules

This is energy supplied for the change in current of dI but actual change from zero to I is got by

integrating above equation

E= =L

=L = L [ - 0]

E=½ L joules

E=½ L joules

Now L = Nϕ/I

Now NI = Hl ampere-turns

Φ=B a

E = ½ BaHl

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

B= µH

=½µ joules/

Where µ =

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Module 2

DC machines

Constructional features of a dc machine:

Dc machine like we all know is a device that deals in the conversion of electrical energy to mechanical

energy and this is essentially brought about by two major parts required for the construction of dc motor,

namely

1) Stator – The static part that houses the field windings and receives the supply

2) Rotor – The rotating part that brings about the mechanical rotations.

Other than that there are several subsidiary parts namely the yoke, poles, field winding, armature

winding, commutator, brushes of Dc machine

Yoke of the Dc machine: The magnetic frame or the yoke of dc motor made up of cast iron or steel and

forms an integral part of the stator or the static part of the motor. Its main function is to form a protective

covering over the inner sophisticated parts of the motor and provide support to the armature. It also

supports the field system by housing the magnetic poles and field winding of the dc motor.

Poles of the Dc machine: The magnetic poles of DC motor are structures fitted onto the inner wall of

the yoke with screws. The construction of magnetic poles basically comprises of two parts namely, the

pole core and the pole shoe stacked together under hydraulic pressure and then attached to the yoke.

These two structures are assigned for different purposes, the pole core is of small cross sectional area

and its function is to just hold the pole shoe over the yoke, whereas the pole shoe having a relatively

larger cross-sectional area spreads the flux produced over the air gap between the stator and rotor to

reduce the loss due to reluctance. The pole shoe also carries slots for the field windings that produce the

field flux.

Field winding: The field winding of dc motor are made with field coils (copper wire) wound over the

slots of the pole shoes in such a manner that when field current flows through it, then adjacent poles

have opposite polarity are produced. The field winding basically form an electromagnet, that produces

field flux within which the rotor armature of the dc motor rotates, and results in the effective flux

cutting.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

Armature winding: The armature winding of dc motor is attached to the rotor, or the rotating part of

the machine, and as a result is subjected to altering magnetic field in the path of its rotation which

directly results in magnetic losses. For this reason the rotor is made of armature core, that’s made with

several low-hysteresis silicon steel laminations, to reduce the magnetic losses like hysteresis and eddy

current loss respectively. These laminated steel sheets are stacked together to form the cylindrical

structure of the armature core.

The armature core are provided with slots made of the same material as the core to which the armature

winding made with several turns of copper wire distributed uniformly over the entire periphery of the

core. The slot openings a shut with fibrous wedges to prevent the conductor from plying out due to the

high centrifugal force produced during the rotation of the armature, in presence of supply current and

field.

Lap winding: In this case the number of parallel paths between conductors A is equal to the number of

poles P.

Wave winding: Here in this case, the number of parallel paths between conductors A is always equal to

2 irrespective of the number of poles. Hence the machine designs are made accordingly.

Basic Electrical Engineering-15ELE15/25

stacked together, but insulated from each other by mica. Its main function as far as the dc motor is

concerned is to commute or relay the supply current from the mains to the armature winding housed

over a rotating structure through the brushes of dc motor.

Brushes of Dc machine : The brushes of dc motor are made with carbon or graphite structures, making

sliding contact over the rotating commutator. The brushes are used to relay the current from external

circuit to the rotating commutator form where it flows into the armature winding. So, the commutator

and brush unit of the dc motor is concerned with transmitting the power from the static electrical circuit

to the mechanically rotating region or the rotor.

There are two types of generators, one is ac generator and other is dc generator. Whatever may be the

types of generators, it always converts mechanical power to electrical power. An ac generator produces

alternating power. A DC generator produces direct power. Both of these generators produce electrical

power, based on same fundamental principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. According

to these law, when an conductor moves in a magnetic field it cuts magnetic lines force, due to which an

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emf is induced in the conductor. The magnitude of this induced emf depends upon the rate of change of

flux (magnetic line force) linkage with the conductor. This emf will cause an current to flow if the

conductor circuit is closed.

Hence the most basic tow essential parts of a generator are a) a magnetic field and b) conductors which

move inside that magnetic field.

a single loop of conductor of rectangular shape is placed between two opposite poles of magnet. Let's us

consider, the rectangular loop of conductor is ABCD which rotates inside the magnetic field about its

own axis ab. When the loop rotates from its vertical position to its horizontal position, it cuts the flux

lines of the field. As during this movement two sides, i.e. AB and CD of the loop cut the flux lines there

will be an emf induced in these both of the sides (AB & BC) of the loop. As the loop is closed there will

be a current circulating through the loop. The direction of the current can be determined by Fleming’s

right hand Rule. This rule says that is you stretch thumb, index finger and middle finger of your right

hand perpendicular to each other, then thumbs indicates the direction of motion of the conductor, index

finger indicates the direction of magnetic field i.e. N - pole to S - pole, and middle finger indicates the

direction of flow of current through the conductor.

Now if we apply this right hand rule, we will see at this horizontal position of the loop, current will flow

from point A to B and on the other side of the loop current will flow from point C to D.

Now if we allow the loop to move further, it will come again to its vertical position, but now upper side

of the loop will be CD and lower side will be AB (just opposite of the previous vertical position). At this

position the tangential motion of the sides of the loop is parallel to the flux lines of the field. Hence there

will be no question of flux cutting and consequently there will be no current in the loop.

If the loop rotates further, it comes to again in horizontal position. But now, said AB side of the loop

comes in front of N pole and CD comes in front of S pole, i.e. just opposite to the previous horizontal

position as shown in the figure beside.

Here the tangential motion of the side of the loop is perpendicular to the flux lines, hence rate of flux

cutting is maximum here and according to Fleming's right hand rule, at this position current flows from

B to A and on other side from D to C.

Now if the loop is continued to rotate about its axis, every time the side AB comes in front of S pole, the

current flows from A to B and when it comes in front of N pole, the current flows from B to A.

Similarly, every time the side CD comes in front of S pole the current flows from C to D and when it

comes in front of N pole the current flows from D to C.

If we observe this phenomena in different way, it can be concluded, that each side of the loop comes in

front of N pole, the current will flow through that side in same direction i.e. downward to the reference

plane and similarly each side of the loop comes in front of S pole, current through it flows in same

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direction i.e. upwards from reference plane. From this, we will come to the topic of principle of dc

generator.

Now the loop is opened and connect it with a split ring as shown in the figure below. Split ring are made

out of a conducting cylinder which cuts into two halves or segments insulated from each other. The

external load terminals are connected with two carbon brushes which are rest on these split s lip ring

segments.

It is seen that in the first half of the revolution current flows always along ABLMCD i.e. brush no 1 in

contact with segment a. In the next half revolution, in the figure the direction of the induced current in

the coil is reversed. But at the same time the position of the segments a and b are also reversed which

results that brush no 1 comes in touch with that segment b. Hence, the current in the load resistance

again flows from L to M. The wave from of the current through the load circuit is as shown in the figure.

This current is unidirectional. This is basic working principle of DC generator, explained by single loop

generator model.

The position of the brushes of DC generator is so arranged that the change over of the segments a and b

from one brush to other takes place when the plane of rotating coil is at right angle to the plane of the

lines of force. It is so become in that position, the induced emf in the coil is zero.

Types of generators:

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Generally DC generators are classified according to the ways of excitation of their fields. There are three

methods of excitation.

ii. Field coils excited by some external source – Separately excited DC generators

iii. Field coils excited by the generator itself – Self excited DC generators

When the flux in the magnetic circuit is established by the help of permanent magnets then it is known

as Permanent magnet dc generator. It consists of an armature and one or several permanent magnets

situated around the armature. This type of dc generators generates very low power. So, they are rarely

found in industrial applications. They are normally used in small applications like dynamos in motor

cycles.

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by some external dc source such as battery .

A circuit diagram of separately excited DC generator is shown in figure.

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

Let, Ia = IL = I (say)

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PL = V×I.

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by the current supplied by themselves. In

these type of machines field coils are internally connected with the armature. Due to residual magnetism

some flux is always present in the poles. When the armature is rotated some emf is induced. Hence some

induced current is produced. This small current flows through the field coil as well as the load and

thereby strengthening the pole flux. As the pole flux strengthened, it will produce more armature emf,

which cause further increase of current through the field. This increased field current further raises

armature emf and this cumulative phenomenon continues until the excitation reaches to the rated value.

According to the position of the field coils the Self-excited DC generators may be classified as…

A. Series wound generators : In these type of generators, the field windings are connected in series

with armature conductors as shown in figure below. So, whole current flows through the field

coils as well as the load. As series field winding carries full load current it is designed with

relatively few turns of thick wire. The electrical resistance of series field winding is therefore

very low (nearly 0.5Ω ).

Ra = Armature resistance

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

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PL = V×I

B. Shunt wound generators: In these type of DC generators the field windings are connected in

parallel with armature conductors as shown in figure below. In shunt wound generators the

voltage in the field winding is same as the voltage across the terminal.

Ra = Armature resistance

Ia = Armature current

IL = Load current

V = Terminal voltage

Eg = Generated emf

Here armature current Ia is dividing in two parts, one is shunt field current Ish and another is load

current IL. So, Ia=Ish + IL The effective power across the load will be maximum when I L will be

maximum. So, it is required to keep shunt field current as small as possible. For this purpose the

resistance of the shunt field winding generally kept high (100 Ω) and large no of turns are used for

the desired emf.

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C. Compound wound generators : In series wound generators, the output voltage is directly

proportional with load current. In shunt wound generators, output voltage is inversely

proportional with load current. A combination of these two types of generators can overcome the

disadvantages of both. This combination of windings is called compound wound DC generator.

Compound wound generators have both series field winding and shunt field winding. One

winding is placed in series with the armature and the other is placed in parallel with the ar mature.

This type of DC generators may be of two types- short shunt compound wound generator and

long shunt compound wound generator.

The generators in which only shunt field winding is in parallel with the armature winding as shown in

figure.

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The generators in which shunt field winding is in parallel with both series field and armature winding as

shown in figure.

Voltage across the load, V=E g-Ia Ra-Isc Rsc=Eg-Ia (Ra+Rsc) [∴Ia=Ics]

In a compound wound generator, the shunt field is stronger than the series field. When the series field

assists the shunt field, generator is said to be commutatively compound wound. On the other hand if

series field opposes the shunt field, the generator is said to be differentially compound wound.

Let

Φ = flux/pole in weber

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= No of slots x No of conductors/slot

P = No of generator poles

A = No of parallel paths in armature

N = armature rotation in revolutions per minute (r.p.m)

E = e.m.f induced in any parallel path in armature

Generated e.m.f Eg = e.m.f generated in any one of the parallel paths i.e E.

Average e.m.f generated /conductor = dΦ/dt volt (n=1)

Now, flux cut/conductor in one revolution dΦ = ΦP Wb

No of revolutions/second = N/60

Time for one revolution, dt = 60/N second

Hence, according to Faraday's Laws of Electro magnetic Induction,

E.M.F generated/conductor is

No.of parallel paths = 2

No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/2

E.M.F. generated/path is

No.of parallel paths = P

No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/P

E.M.F.generated/path

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It mainly depends upon Fleming Left Hand rule. In a basic dc motor, an armature is placed in between

magnetic poles. If the armature winding is supplied by an external dc source, current starts flowing

through the armature conductors. As the conductors are carrying current inside a magnetic field, they

will experience a force which tends to rotate the armature. Suppose armature conductors under N poles

of the field magnet, are carrying current downwards (crosses) and those under S poles are carrying

current upwards (dots). By applying Fleming’s Left hand Rule, the direction of force F, experienced by

the conductor under N poles and the force experienced by the conductors under S poles can be

determined. It is found that at any instant the forces experienced by the conductors are in such a

direction that they tend to rotate the armature. Again, due this rotation the conductors under N – poles

come under S – pole and the conductors under S – poles come under N – pole. While the conductors go

form N – poles to S – pole and S – poles to N – pole, the direction of current through them, is reversed

by means of commutator. Due to this reversal of current, all the conductors come under N - poles carry

current in downward direction and all the conductors come under S – poles carry current in upward

direction as shown in the figure. Hence, every conductor comes under N – pole experiences force in

same direction and same is true for the conductors come under S – poles. This phenomenon helps to

develop continuous and unidirectional torque.

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When the armature of a d.c. motor rotates under the influence of the driving torque, the armature

conductors move through the magnetic field and hence e.m.f. is induced in them as in a generator. The

induced e.m.f. acts in opposite direction to the applied voltage V (Lenz’s law) and in known as back

emf.

The back e.m.f. Eb(= PΦZN/60 A) is always less than the applied voltage V, although this difference is

small when the motor is running under normal conditions.

A shunt wound motor shown in Figure. When d.c. voltage V is applied across the motor terminals, the

field magnets are excited and armature conductors are supplied with current. Therefore, driving torque

acts on the armature which begins to rotate. As the armature rotates, back e.m.f. Eb is induced which

opposes applied voltage v

The applied voltage V has to force current through the armature against the back e.m.f. Eb. The electric

work done in overcoming and causing the current to flow against Eb is converted into mechanical

energy developed in the armature. It follows, therefore, that energy conversion in a d.c. motor is

only possible due to the production of back e.m.f. Eb.

Since V and Ra are usually fixed, the value of Eb will determine the current drawn by the motor. If the

speed of the motor is high, then back e.m.f. Eb (= PφZN/60 A) is large and hence the motor will draw

less armature current and viceversa.

Significance:

The presence of back e.m.f. makes the d.c. motor a self-regulating machine i.e., it makes the motor to

draw as much armature current as is just sufficient to develop the torque required by the load.

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When the motor is running on no load, small torque is required to overcome the friction and

windage losses. Therefore, the armature current Ia is small and the back e.m.f. is nearly equal to

the applied voltage.

If the motor is suddenly loaded, the first effect is to cause the armature to slow down. Therefore,

the speed at which the armature conductors move through the field is reduced and hence the back

e.m.f. Eb falls. The decreased back e.m.f. allows a larger current to flow through the armature

and larger current means increased driving torque. Thus, the driving torque increases as the

motor slows down. The motor will stop slowing down when the armature current is just

sufficient to produce the increased torque required by the load.

If the load on the motor is decreased, the driving torque is momentarily in excess of the

requirement so that armature is accelerated. As the armature speed increases, the back e.m.f. Eb

also increases and causes the armature current Ia to decrease. The motor will stop accelerating

when the armature current is just sufficient to produce the reduced torque required by the load.

It follows, therefore, that back e.m.f. in a d.c. motor regulates the flow of armature current i.e., it

automatically changes the armature current to meet the load requirement.

The dc motor as we all know is a rotational machine, and torque of dc motor is a very important

parameter in this concern, and it’s of utmost importance to understand the torque equation of dc motor

for establishing its running characteristics.

To establish the torque equation, let us first consider the basic circuit diagram of a dc motor, and its

voltage equation.

Referring to the diagram beside, we can see, that if E is the supply voltage, Eb is the back emf produced

and Ia, Ra are the armature current and armature resistance respectively then the voltage equation is

given by,

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But keeping in mind that our purpose is to derive the torque equation of dc motor we multiply both sides

of equation (2) by Ia.

Now Ia2 .Ra is the power loss due to heating of the armature coil, and the true effective mechanical power

that is required to produce the desired torque of dc machine is given by,

Where, P is no of poles,

Z is no. of conductors,

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The torque we so obtain, is known as the electromagnetic torque of dc motor, and subtracting the

mechanical and rotational losses from it we get the mechanical torque.

Which is constant for a particular machine and therefore the torque of dc motor varies with only flux φ

and armature current Ia.

The direct current motor or the DC motor has a lot of application in today’s field of engineering and

technology. Starting from an electric shaver to parts of automobiles, in all small or medium sized

motoring applications DC motors come handy. And because of its wide range of application different

functional types of dc motor are available in the market for specific requirements.

Separately Excited DC Motor

Self Excited DC Motor

Shunt Wound DC Motor

Series Wound DC Motor

Compound Wound DC Motor

Cumulative compound DC motor

Short shunt DC Motor

Long shunt DC Motor

Differential Compound DC Motor

Short Shunt DC Motor

Long Shunt DC Motor

As the name suggests, in case of a separately excited DC motor the supply is given separately to the

field and armature windings. The main distinguishing fact in these types of dc motor is that, the

armature current does not flow through the field windings, as the field winding is energized from a

separate external source of dc current as shown in the figure. From the torque equation of dc motor we

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know Tg = K a φ Ia So the torque in this case can be varied by varying field flux φ, independent of the

armature current Ia.

The permanent magnet DC motor consists of an armature winding as in case of an usual motor, but does

not necessarily contain the field windings. The construction of these types of DC motor are such that,

radially magnetized permanent magnets are mounted on the inner periphery of the stator core to produce

the field flux. The rotor on the other hand has a conventional dc armature with commutator segments

and brushes. The diagrammatic representation of a permanent magnet dc motor is given below.

The torque equation of dc motor suggests Tg = Ka φ Ia. Here φ is always constant, as permanent magnets

of required flux density are chosen at the time of construction a nd can’t be changed there after

Where K a1 = K a.φ which is another constant. In this case the torque of DC Motor can only be changed

by controlling armature supply.

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In case of a shunt wound dc motor or more specifically shunt wound self excited dc motor, the field

windings are exposed to the entire terminal voltage as they are connected in parallel to the armature

winding as shown in the figure below.

To understand the characteristic of these types of DC motor, lets consider the basic voltage equation

given by,

[Where E, Eb , Ia, Ra are the supply voltage, back emf, armature current and armature resistance

respectively]

[since back emf increases with flux φ and angular speed ωω]

This is similar to the equation of a straight line, and we can graphically representing the torque speed

characteristic of a shunt wound self excited dc motor as

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The shunt wound dc motor is a constant speed motor, as the speed does not vary here with the variation

of mechanical load on the output.

In case of a series wound self excited dc motor or simply series wound dc motor, the entire armature

current flows through the field winding as its connected in series to the armature winding. The series

wound self excited dc motor is diagrammatically represented below for clear understanding.

Now to determine the torque speed characteristic of these types of DC motor, lets get to the torque speed

equation.

From the circuit diagram we can see that the voltage equation gets modified to

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In a series wound dc motor, the speed varies with load. And operation wise this is its main difference

from a shunt wound dc motor.

The compound excitation characteristic in a dc motor can be obtained by combining the operational

characteristic of both the shunt and series excited dc motor. The compound wound self excited dc motor

or simply compound wound dc motor essentially contains the field winding connected both in series and

in parallel to the armature winding as shown in the figure below The excitation of compound wound dc

motor can be of two types depending on the nature of compounding.

When the shunt field flux assists the main field flux, produced by the main field connected in series to

the armature winding then its called cumulative compound dc motor.

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In case of a differentially compounded self excited dc motor i.e. differential compound dc motor, the

arrangement of shunt and series winding is such that the field flux produced by the shunt field winding

diminishes the effect of flux by the main series field winding.

The net flux produced in this case is lesser than the original flux and hence does not find much of a

practical application.

If the shunt field winding is only parallel to the armature winding and not the series field winding then

its known as short shunt dc motor or more specifically short shunt type compound wound dc motor.

The shunt field winding is parallel to both the armature winding and the series field winding then it’s

known as long shunt type compounded wound dc motor or simply long shunt dc motor.

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Applications of DC motor:

Shunt motors:

2. Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps

3. Lathes

4. Machine tools

5. For driving constant speed line shafting

Series motors:

2. Hoists and cranes

3. Conveyers

1. Elevators

2. Conveyors

3. Punches

4. Shears

5. Heavy machine tools

6. Heavy planers

7. High torque loads of intermittent nature

The starting of DC motor is somewhat different from the starting of all other types of electrical motors.

This difference is credited to the fact that a dc motor unlike other types of motor has a very high starting

current that has the potential of damaging the internal circuit of the armature winding of dc motor if not

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restricted to some limited value. This limitation to the starting current of dc motor is brought about by

means of the starter. Thus the distinguishing fact about the starting methods of dc motor is that it is

facilitated by means of a starter. Or rather a device containing a variable resistance connected in series to

the armature winding so as to limit the starting current of dc motor to a desired optimum value taking

into consideration the safety aspect of the motor.

Now the immediate question in why the DC motor has such high starting current ?

To give an explanation to the above mentioned question let us take into consideration the basic

operational voltage equation of the dc motor given by,

Where E is the supply voltage, Ia is the armature current, Ra is the armature resistance. And the back emf

is given by Eb.

Now the back emf, in case of a dc motor, is very similar to the generated emf of a dc generator as it’s

produced by the rotational motion of the current carrying armature conductor in presence of the field.

This back emf of dc motor is given by

From this equation we can see that E b is directly proportional to the speed N of the motor. Now since at

starting N = 0, Eb is also zero, and under this circumstance the voltage equation is modified to

For all practical practices to obtain optimum operation of the motor the armature res istance is kept very

small usually of the order of 0.5 Ω and the bare minimum supply voltage being 220 volts. Even under

these circumstance the starting current, Ia is as high as 220/0.5 amp = 440 amp.

1) Firstly, current of the order of 400 A has the potential of damaging the internal circuit of the armature

winding of dc motor at the very onset.

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Very high electromagnetic starting torque of DC motor is produced by virtue of the high starting current,

which has the potential of producing huge centrifugal force capable of flying off the rotor winding from

the slots.

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MODULE 2(b)

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

The measurement of a given quantity is the result of comparison between quantity to be measured and a

definite standard. The instruments used for such measurement are called measuring instruments.

The instruments which are used to measure power are called power meters or wattmeters.

The instruments which is used to measure electrical energy is called energy meter.

a) Indicating instruments : They make use of a dial and pointer for showing or indicating

magnitude of unknown quantity. Ex : Ammeter, Voltmeter

b) Recording Instruments : They give a continuous record of the quantity being measured over a

specific period.

Ex : Various types of recorders

In such recording instruments, the readings are recorded by drawing graph. The pointer of such

instruments are provided with a marker, which moves on graph paper as per reading. ( X- Y

plotter)

c) Integrating Instruments : They measure the total quantity of electricity delivered over period of

time.

Ex: Houseohold energy meter registers no. of revolutions made by disc to give total energy

delivered with help of counting mechanism

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It consists of a fixed coil. It is divided into two halves F 1 and F2 positioned parallel to each other.

The distance between them can be adjusted to provide uniform magnetic field required for

operation. These coils are air cored to avoid hysteresis losses.

The moving coil is wound on a non- metallic former which is pivoted centrally between fixed

coils. It is made highly resistive by connecting high resistance in series with it.

A pointer is connected to moving system made up of aluminium.

The fixed coil is called current coil as it is connected in series with load to carry the current I1

which is main current.

The moving coil is connected across supply, carrying current I 2 proportional to voltage hence it

is called pressure or voltage coil.

The controlling torque is provided by springs. The damping is provided by air friction damping.

The eddy current damping is not used as it may distort the operating magnetic field.

Working :

When current passes through fixed and moving coils, both coils produce the magnetic fields.

The field produced by fixed coil is proportional to load current while that produced by moving

coil is proportional to the voltage.

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The deflecting torque is produced due to interaction of these two fields, the deflection is

proportional to power supplied to load. Thus the wattmeter indicates power consumption of load.

It can be used for ac and dc

D. C Working :

For the air cored fixed coils the flux density B is proportional to current through coils. i.e B α I 1 .

While current through pressure coil is proportional to voltage i.e I2 α V.

The deflecting torque is due to interaction of two fluxes hence proportional to BI2 .

Td α BI2 α I1 V α Power

A.C Working :

In a.c circuit the value of instantaneous torque is proportional to product of instantaneous voltage

(V) and current ( i).

Let Ø is power factor angle of load.

Then v = Vm sinwt

I = Im sin (wt – Ø )

Due to inertia of moving system, the deflection is proportional to average value of torque

produced.

Td α Average of ( vi) α Average [ Vm sin wt * Im sin (wt – Ø) ]

Td α [ VI cosØ ] α Power

In a.c operation V and I are rms values of voltage and current respectively.

Due to spring control, these instruments have uniform scale and θ α power.

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Induction type instruments are most commonly used as energy meter. These are commonly used

for domestic and industrial applications. They record energy in kilo- watt-hours. (KWh)

Figure shows the construction of a single phase induction type energy meter.

It consists of two electromagnets whose core is made up of silicon steel laminations. The coil of

one of the electromagnets called current coil is excited by load current which produces flux. This

is called a series magnet. The coil has few turns of heavy gauge wire.

The coil of another electromagnet is connected across supply and it carries current proportional

to supply voltage. This is called pressure coil and has large number of turns of fine wire. This is

called shunt magnet.

The flux produced by shunt magnet is brought in exact quadrature with supply voltage with the

help of copper shading bands placed over central limb, whose position is adjustable.

The moving system consists of light aluminium disc mounted on a light alloy shaft. This disc is

positioned in between jewel bearings.

The braking system consists of a permanent magnet placed near the aluminium disc for braking

mechanism. This magnet is used to control the speed of disc.

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made by aluminium disc.

Working :

The current coil produces alternating flux Ø 1 which is proportional and in phase with current

through current coil.

The pressure coil carries current and produces the flux Ø 2 which is proportional to supply

voltage V and lags behind it by 90˚ which is achieved by copper s hading bands.

Major portion of flux Ø 2 crosses the narrow gap between central and side limbs of shunt magnet

and only small amount passes through disc which is useful flux.

Both the fluxes Ø 1 and Ø 2 induce e.m.f’s in disc which produce eddy currents in disc.

The interaction between these fluxes and eddy currents produce necessary driving torque and

disc rotates.

The speed of disc is controlled by C shaped magnet called braking magnet. When the peripheral

portion of disc rotates in air gap, eddy currents are induced in disc which oppose the cause

producing them. i.e relative motion of disc with respect to magnet.

Hence braking torque Tb is generated. This is proportional to speed N of disc. By adjusting

position of magnet, desired speed of disc is obtaine d. Spindle is connected to recording

mechanism through gears which record the energy supplied.

Mathematical Analysis:

I2 = Current through pressure coil proportional to V

Ø2 = Flux produced by I2

I1 = Current through current coil i.e load

Ø1 = Flux produced by I1

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E2 = Induced emf in disc due to Ø 2

Ish = Eddy current due to E1

Ise = eddy current due to E2

Induced emf lags respective flux producing it by 90˚. The eddy currents are in phase with

induced emf producing them. Interaction between Ø 1 and Ish produces torque T1 and interaction

between Ø 2 and Ise produces torque T2 . T2 is in opposite direction to T1 . Hence net deflecting

torque is

Td α T2 – T1

α Ø2 Ise cos ( Ø2 ^ Ise ) – Ø1 Ish Cos ( Ø1 ^ Ish )

Now Ø 2 ^ Ise = Ø

Ø1 ^ Ish = 180 – Ø

Td α Ø 2 Ise cos Ø + Ø1 Ish cos Ø

But Ø 2 α I2 α V

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Ise α E1 α I1

Ø1 α I1

Ish α E2 α I2 α V

Therefore Td α V I1 CosØ K 1 + V I1 cos Ø 2 K2

Td α V I1 Cos Ø i.e power consumed by load

Now braking torque is proportional to speed N with which disc rotates.

Therefore Td α N

For constant speed , Tb = Td

N α V I1 cos Ø

Multiplying both sides by t

N t α V I1 t Cos Ø α Pt α Energy

Number of revolutions in time t α Energy supplied

The power is energy supplied in time t while N*t are the number of revolutions in time t.

Thus by counting no. of revolutions electrical energy consumed can be measured. Without any

current through current coil disc has a tendancy to rotate due to supply voltage exciting its

pressure coil. This is called creeping. It is because of over friction compensation.

To eliminate creeping two holes are drilled in disc 180˚ opposite to each other. When this holes

comes under shunt magnet pole, it gets acted upon by a torque opposite to its rotation. This

restricts its rotation on no load condition. To have the flux produced by pressure coil lagging the

voltage V exactly by 90˚ the copper shading ring is provided on central limb. This ensures

accurate measurement at all power factors of load. The permanent magnet (Braking magnet)

surrounding the peripheral portion of disc is used to control speed of rotation of disc. The speed

of disc can be adjusted by means of changing the effective radius of braking magnet. This

ensures accurate measurement.

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Definition of Alternating Quantity :

An alternating quantity changes continuously in magnitude and alternates in direction

at regular intervals of time. Important terms associated with an alternating quantity

are defined below.

as maximum or peak value

2. Time Period (T)

It is the Time Taken in seconds to complete one cycle of an alternating quantity.

3. Instantaneous Value

It is the value of the quantity at any instant

4. Frequency (f) It is the number of cycles that occur in one second. The unit for

frequency is Hz or cycles/sec. The relationship between frequency and time period

can be derived as follows.

Time taken to complete f cycles = 1 second

Time taken to complete 1 cycle = 1/f second

T = 1/f

Advantages of AC system over DC system

1. AC voltages can be efficiently stepped up/down using transformer

2. AC motors are cheaper and simpler in construction than DC motors

3. Switchgear for AC system is simpler than DC system

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Consider a rectangular coil of N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field as shown in

the figure. The coil is rotating in the anticlockwise direction at an uniform angular

velocity of ω rad/sec.

When the coil is in the vertical position, the flux linking the coil is zero because the

plane of the coil is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. Hence at this

position, the emf induced in the coil is zero. When the coil moves by some angle in

the anticlockwise direction, there is a rate of change of flux linking the coil and hence

an emf is induced in the coil. When the coil reaches the horizontal position, the flux

linking the coil is maximum, and hence the emf induced is also maximum. When the

coil further moves in the anticlockwise direction, the emf induced in the coil reduces.

Next when the coil comes to the vertical position, the emf induced becomes zero.

After that the same cycle repeats and the emf is induced in the opposite direction.

When the coil completes one complete revolution, one cycle of AC voltage is

generated.

The generation of sinusoidal AC voltage can also be explained using mathematical

equations. Consider a rectangular coil of N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field in

the position shown in the figure. The maximum flux linking the coil is in the

downward direction as shown in the figure. This flux can be divided into two

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components, one component acting along the plane of the coil Φmaxsinωt and another

component acting perpendicular to the plane of the coil Φmaxcosωt.

Angular frequency is defined as the number of radians covered in one

second(ie the angle covered by the rotating coil). The unit of angular frequency is

rad/sec.

Average Value

The arithmetic average of all the values of an alternating quantity over one

cycle is called its average value.

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For Symmetrical waveforms, the average value calculated over one cycle becomes

equal to zero because the positive area cancels the negative area. Hence for

symmetrical waveforms, the average value is calculated for half cycle.

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Phasor Representation:

An alternating quantity can be represented using

(i) Waveform

(ii) Equations

(iii) Phasor A sinusoidal alternating quantity can be represented by a rotating line

called a Phasor.

A phasor is a line of definite length rotating in anticlockwise direction at a constant

angular velocity The waveform and equation representation of an alternating current

is as shown. This sinusoidal quantity can also be represented using phasors.

Draw a line OP of length equal to Im. This line OP rotates in the anticlockwise

direction with a uniform angular velocity ω rad/sec and follows the circular trajectory

shown in figure. At any instant, the projection of OP on the y-axis is given by

OM=OPsinθ = Imsinωt. Hence the line OP is the phasor representation of the

sinusoidal current.

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Phase is defined as the fractional part of time period or cycle through which the

quantity has advanced from the selected zero position of reference

Phase of +Em is π/2 rad or T/4 sec

Phase of -Em is 3π/2 rad or 3T/4 sec

Phase Difference :

When two alternating quantities of the same frequency have different zero points,

they are said to have a phase difference. The angle between the zero points is the

angle of phase difference.

In Phase

Two waveforms are said to be in phase, when the phase difference between them is

zero. That is the zero points of both the waveforms are same. The waveform, phasor

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shown. The figure shows that the voltage and current are in phase.

Lagging

In the figure shown, the zero point of the current waveform is after the zero point of

the voltage waveform. Hence the current is lagging behind the voltage. The waveform,

phasor and equation representation is as shown.

Leading

In the figure shown, the zero point of the current waveform is before the zero point of

the voltage waveform. Hence the current is leading the voltage. The waveform,

phasor and equation representation is as shown.

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The instantaneous power consists of two terms. The first term is called as the constant

power term and the second term is called as the fluctuating power term.

Average powe r

From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over one cycle as

follows.

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From equation (1) and (2) we observe that in a pure inductive circuit, the current lags

behind the voltage by 90⁰. Hence the voltage and current waveforms and phasors can

be drawn as below.

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Instantaneous power

The instantaneous power in the above circuit can be derived as follows

Average power From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over

one cycle as follows

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As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and

negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the inductor

and when the power in negative, the power flows from the inductor to the source. The

positive power is equal to the negative power and hence the average power in the

circuit is equal to zero. The power just flows between the source and the inductor, but

the inductor does not consume any power.

Phasor algebra for a pure inductive circuit

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The current flowing in the circuit is i. The voltage across the capacitor is given as VC

which is the same as v. We can find the current through the capacitor as follows

From equation (1) and (2) we observe that in a pure capacitive circuit, the current

leads the voltage by 90⁰. Hence the voltage and current waveforms and phasors can

be drawn as below.

Capacitive reactance

The capacitive reactance XC is given as

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The average power in a pure capacitive circuit is zero. Or in other words, the power

consumed by a pure capacitance is zero. The voltage, current and power waveforms

of a purely capacitive circuit is as shown in the figure.

As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and

negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the

capacitor and when the power in negative, the power flows from the capacitor to the

source. The positive power is equal to the negative power and hence the average

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power in the circuit is equal to zero. The power just flows between the source and the

capacitor, but the capacitor does not consume any power.

Phasor algebra in a pure capacitive circuit.

shown in the figure. The alternating voltage v is given by

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The current I is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I and

the voltage VL leads the current by 90⁰. The resultant voltage V can be drawn as

shown in the figure. From the phasor diagram we observe that the voltage leads the

current by an angle Φ or in other words the current lags behind the voltage by an

angle Φ.

The waveform and equations for an RL series circuit can be drawn as below.

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The instantaneous power consists of two terms. The first term is called as the constant

power term and the second term is called as the fluctuating power term.

Average power

From the instantaneous power we can find the average power over one cycle as

follows

The voltage, current and power waveforms of a RL series circuit is as shown in the

figure.

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As seen from the power waveform, the instantaneous power is alternately positive and

negative. When the power is positive, the power flows from the source to the load and

when the power in negative, the power flows from the load to the source. The positive

power is not equal to the negative power and hence the average power in the circuit is

not equal to zero.

From the phasor diagram,

Hence the power in an RL series circuit is consumed only in the resistance. The

inductance does not consume any power.

Power Factor The power factor in an AC circuit is defined as the cosine of the angle

between voltage and current ie cosΦ

The power in an AC circuit is equal to the product of voltage, current and power

factor.

Impedance Triangle

We can derive a triangle called the impedance triangle from the phasor diagram of an

RL series circuit as shown

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Power

In an AC circuit, the various powers can be classified as

1. Real or Active power

2. Reactive power

3. Apparent power

Real or active power in an AC circuit is the power that does useful work in the cicuit.

Reactive power flows in an AC circuit but does not do any useful work. Apparent

power is the total power in an AC circuit.

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From the phasor diagram of an RL series circuit, the current can be divided into two

components. One component along the voltage IcosΦ, that is called as the active

component of current and another component perpendicular to the voltage IsinΦ that

is called as the reactive component of current.

Real Power

The power due to the active component of current is called as the active power or real

power.

It is denoted by P. P = V x ICosΦ = I2 R

Real power is the power that does useful power. It is the power that is consumed by

the resistance. The unit for real power in Watt(W).

Reactive Power

The power due to the reactive component of current is called as the reactive power. It

is denoted by Q. Q = V x ISinΦ = I2 XL Reactive power does not do any useful work.

It is the circulating power in the L and C components. The unit for reactive power is

Volt Amperes Reactive (VAR).

Apparent Power

The apparent power is the total power in the circuit.

It is denoted by S.

S = V x I = I2 Z

The power triangle is right angled triangle with P and Q as two sides and S as the

hypotenuse.

The angle between the base and hypotenuse is Φ.

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The current I is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I and

the voltage VC lags behind the current by 90⁰. The resultant voltage V can be drawn

as shown in the figure. From the phasor diagram we observe that the voltage lags

behind the current by an angle Φ or in other words the current leads the voltage by an

angle Φ.

The waveform and equations for an RC series circuit can be drawn as below.

From the phasor diagram, the expressions for the resultant voltage V and the angle Φ

can be derived as follows.

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Hence the power in an RC series circuit is consumed only in the resistance. The

capacitance does not consume any power.

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Impedance Triangle We can derive a triangle called the impedance triangle from the

phasor diagram of an RC series circuit as shown

connected in series as shown in the figure. The alternating voltage v is given by

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With the above information, the phasor diagram can be drawn as shown. The current I

is taken as the reference phasor. The voltage VR is in phase with I, the voltage VL

leads the current by 90⁰ and the voltage VC lags behind the current by 90⁰. There are

two cases that can occur VL>VC and VL<Vc depending on the values of XL and XC.

And hence there are two possible phasor diagrams. The phasor VL-VC or VC-VL is

drawn and then the resultant voltage V is drawn.

From the phasor diagram we observe that when VL>VC , the voltage leads the current

by an angle Φ or in other words the current lags behind the voltage by an angle Φ.

When VL <VC ,the voltage lags behind the current by an angle Φ or in other words

the current leads the voltage by an angle Φ.

From the phasor diagram, the expressions for the resultant voltage V and the angle Φ

can be derived as follows.

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Domestic wiring

Introduction:

Wiring done in domestic premises for providing electrical power for lighting, fans and

domestic appliances is called domestic wiring.

The primary objective of the wiring system is to distribute electrical energy to the

various points at which it is required, duly considering the following

1. Electrical safety

2. Mechanical immunity

3. Permanence

4. Appearance

5. Cost

Service mains:

The supplier’s distribution system brings power to the consumer through overhead

lines or by means of underground cables to a spot outside the consumer’s premises

The line bringing the electric power from supplier’s low voltage distributor up to the

energy meter installed at the consumer’s premises is called service connection or

service mains.

Service connection may be achieved by means of underground cables or by means of

overhead conductors or cables. We shall take up the overhead services connection

with PVC or weather proof cables.

Bare conductors are run from the supplier’s pole to shackle insulators fitted to

brackets fixed on a cross arm embedded into the wall of a two storied building at an

appropriate height.

There after service connections are taken from the bare conductors by means of PVC

or weather proof cables run on wooden battens or through a GI pipe.

Once the supplier’s service is brought to consumer premises, it has to be connected to

consumer’s internal wiring. Energy consumed has to be charged by supply authority.

Hence service main has to be connected to be connected to input terminals of energy

meter to measure the amount of power consumed. There after connected to the cut-out.

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Cut-out contains a fuse wire so that if in case the consumer draws more current than

the rated current, the fuse wire blows out and there will be no damage to the meter. It

also serves the purpose of enabling the supply authority to disconnect the supply if

consumer fails to pay the bill. Hence cut out and meter board is the supply authority’s

property and is sealed. The lead from the output terminal of the energy meter is

connected to main switch. Energy meter is placed before the main switch so as to

provide the accessibility to the consumer in case he wish to switch off the supply

when required. Hence it is not sealed.

Types of wiring:

1. Cleat wiring

2. Wood casing and capping wiring

3. Lead-covered wiring

4. Cab tyre sheathed or tough rubber sheathed wiring system

5. Conduit system

Conduit wiring:

Metallic tubes called conduits are used to run the wires in this type of wiring. This

method gives complete mechanical protection to wires and best suitable for the

workshops and public buildings. Depending on whether the conduits are run on the

walls or run inside the walls, conduit wiring can be divided into two types

1. surface conduit wiring

2. concealed conduit wiring

Conduits are run on the walls with the help of pipe hooks or saddles.

Concealed conduit wiring:

Here conduits are buried under the walls at the time of the plastering of the walls. It is

also called as recessed conduit wiring. Usually this type is opted for residential and

public buildings where appearance is important factor.

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Conduits are made of mild steel which is annealed so that is can be bent without

breaking. Standard length of conduit is 4 mtrs. The conduits are threaded at both ends

with one coupler attached. Based on outer diameter, various sizes of conduits from

12mm to 63 mm are available. It is coated with black enamel. Conduits are always

terminated at outlets into a box which is called as outlet which may be round, square

or octagonal to provide connections for lights, fans heaters etc.

Advantages:

1. The beauty of the premises is maintained due to conduit wiring.

2. It is durable

3. Long life

4. Protects from mechanical shocks, moisture and fire hazards

5. Proper earthing of conduits makes this method electrical shock proof

6. Less maintenance

Disadvantages:

1. Repairs are very difficult

2. Method is expensive

3. Erection requires highly skilled labour

4. Keeping conduit at earth potential is must. Improper earthing leads to electric

shocks

5. If manufacturing of conduits is not proper then sharp edges of the metal

conduits can cause damage of the insulation of the wires.

For a lamp, one live and one neutral is necessary. To control the supply to the lamp,

switch is introduced in the live wire and neutral is directly connected to the lamp.

Two way control of lamp is also called as staircase wiring. It consists of two way

switches. A two way switch operates always in one of the two possible positions. The

circuit is as below.

Operation of the switch and light is explained in detail in the table given below.

This is also known as staircase wiring. it consists of two way switches A and B and a

intermediate switch. The circuit used to have three ways control of lamp is shown in

below figure.

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Fuse:

A fuse is a safety device, a weak link connected in series with the circuit, which melts

whenever the current in the circuit exceeds the value of the fuse provided, either due

to overload or short circuit, thus opening the circuit and protecting other materials in

the circuit.

During normal conditions, conductor carry current and magnitude depends on the load.

As long as there is no overload or fault, there is no overheating of the conductor.

However when there is excessive overload or a fault occurs, conductor carry very

large current much more than the rated current. This cause overheating of the

conductor and there will be damage of appliances and devices. Insulation could also

get destroyed. Hence to protect the entire installation from damage due to sudden

short circuit or fault, fuse is necessary as a safety mechanism.

Rating:

Fuses are rated as follows

1. Rated carrying current: it is the maximum current which a fuse can carry

without any undue heating and melting. It depends upon the permissible

temperature rise of the contacts of the fuse holder, fuse and upon the

deterioration of the fuse due to oxidation.

2. Fusing current: this is the minimum current at which a fuse element shall melt.

Fusing current depends on

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b. Its length

c. Its diameter

d. Cross section of the fusing element

e. Type of enclosure

3. Fusing factor: this is defined as the ratio between the minimum fusing current

and the rated carrying current. Its value is always more than one.

Requirement of fuse:

1. There should be no risk of flash-over to other conductors.

2. Should not be any risk of splashing of molten metal.

3. Persons handling the fuses should not run the risk of electric shock.

4. Fuse base should be incombustible and moisture proof and should be a good

insulator too.

5. Should not get over heated when the full load current flows through it

continuously.

6. The current rating of the fuse should not exceed the rating of the smallest

cable protected, provided that the fuse having a rating less than 3 amperes

need not be used except in radio and acoustic circuits.

Classification of fuses:

Fuse can be classified as low voltage fuses and high voltage fuses

a. Low voltage fuses: in order to limit the damages caused by fault currents of

high value, the arc should be prevented from re-striking after passing through

the zero value of the AC cycle. This is done by means of semi-enclosed or

enclosed fuse where the element is shrouded, so that the gases produced on

melting of the fuse are cooled, moreover, shrouding also prevents the

scattering of molten metal.

i) Semi enclosed Rewirable fuses: it has one or more strands of fuse wire

stretched between terminal blocks and are mounted on porcelain

handle. Fuse of this type are made upto about 500 amperes rated

current

ii) Enclosed fuse: these are surrounded by asbestos tube or by

incombustible powder. The latter are called cartridge fuses.

HRC fuses: modern cartridge fuses have a high rupturing capacity, are non-

deteriorating, have a consistent fusing current, so that they can be graded to

operate in correct sequence. Fusing factor for such type of fuses may lie

between 1.4 to 2.below diagram shows the cartridge fuse. These are

effectively used in series with circuit breaker.

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b. High voltage fuses: these are enclosed in strong casing as the fuse may melt

with explosive violence. Element may be immersed in oil or carbon

tetrachloride so as to extinguish the arc.

Advantages of fuse:

1. Simplest and cheapest form of protecting device.

2. Requires no maintenance

3. Operation is automatic while the circuit breaker needs a tripping circuit to

operate for its operation

4. Minimum operating time can be made much smaller than that of the circuit

breaker

5. Inverse time-current characteristic enables it to use for the overload protection

6. Fuse can interrupt heavy currents without noise, smoke, gas and flame

7. It can produce a current limiting effect under short circuit conditions.

Disadvantages of fuse:

1. Require replacement or rewiring after its operation

2. Replacement or rewiring takes a lot of time

3. Not possible to provide secondary protection to fuses

4. Current-time characteristics cannot be always correlated with that of the

protected equipment

5. Discrimination between fuses in series cannot be obtained unless there is

much difference in relative sizes of the fuse

Nowadays we use more commonly miniature circuit breaker or MCB in low voltage

electrical network instead of fuse. The MCB has some advantages compared to fuse.

It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the

network means in over load condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not

sense but miniature circuit breaker does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more

sensitive to over current than fuse. Another advantage is, as the switch operating knob

comes at its off position during tripping, the faulty zone of the electrical circuit can

easily be identified. But in case of fuse, fuse wire should be checked by opening fuse

grip or cutout from fuse base, for confirming the blow of fuse wire. Quick restoration

of supply cannot be possible in case of fuse as because fuses have to be rewirable or

replaced for restoring the supply. But in the case of MCB, quick restoration is

possible by just switching on operation. Handling MCB is more electrically safe than

fuse. Because of to many advantages of MCB over fuse units, in modern low voltage

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electrical network, miniature circuit breaker is mo stly used instead of backdated fuse

unit.

Only one disadvantage of MCB over fuse is that this system is more costlier than fuse

unit system.

Working:

There are two arrangement of operation of miniature circuit breaker. One due to

thermal effect of over current and other due to electromagnetic effect of over current.

The thermal operation of miniature circuit breaker is achieved with a bimetallic strip

whenever continuous over current flows through MCB, the bimetallic strip is heated

and deflects by bending. This deflection of bimetallic strip releases mechanical latch.

As this mechanical latch is attached with operating mechanism, it causes to open the

miniature circuit breaker contacts. But during short circuit condition, sudden rising of

current, causes electromechanical displacement of plunger associated with tripping

coil or solenoid of MCB. The plunger strikes the trip lever causing immediate release

of latch mechanism consequently open the circuit breaker contacts. This was a simple

explanation of miniature circuit breaker working principle.

Miniature Circuit Breaker Construction

Miniature circuit breaker construction is very simple, robust and maintenance free.

Generally a MCB is not repaired or maintained, it just replaced by new one when

required. A miniature circuit breaker has normally three main constructional parts.

These are:

Frame of Miniature Circuit Breaker

The frame of miniature circuit breaker is a molded case. This is a rigid, strong,

insulated housing in which the other components are mounted.

Ope rating Mechanism of Miniature Circuit Breaker

The operating mechanism of miniature circuit breaker provides the means of manual

opening and closing operation of miniature circuit breaker. It has three-positions

"ON," "OFF," and "TRIPPED". The external switching latch can be in the

"TRIPPED" position, if the MCB is tripped due to over-current. When manually

switch off the MCB, the switching latch will be in "OFF" position. In close condition

of MCB, the switch is positioned at "ON". By observing the positions of the switching

latch one can determine the condition of MCB whether it is closed, tripped or

manually switched off.

Trip Unit of Miniature Circuit Breaker

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The trip unit is the main part, responsible for proper working of miniature circuit

breaker. Two main types of trip mechanism are provided in MCB. A bimetal provides

protection against over load current and an electromagnet provides protection against

short-circuit current.

Ope ration of Miniature Circuit Breaker

There are three mechanisms provided in a single miniature circuit breaker to make it

switched off. If we carefully observe the picture beside, we will find there are mainly

one bi - metallic strip, one trip coil and one hand operated on - off lever. Electric

current carrying path of a miniature circuit breaker shown in the picture is like follows.

First left hand side power terminal - then bimetallic strip - then current coil or trip coil

- then moving contact - then fixed contact and - lastly right had side power terminal.

All are arranged in series. If circuit is overloaded for long time, the bi - metallic strip

becomes over heated and deformed. This deformation of bi metallic strip causes,

displacement of latch point. The moving contact of the MCB is so arranged by means

of spring pressure, with this latch point, that a little displacement of latch causes,

release of spring and makes the moving contact to move for opening the MCB. The

current coil or trip coil is placed such a manner,that during short circuit fault the mmf

of that coil causes its plunger to hit the same latch point and make the latch to be

displaced. Hence the MCB will open in same manner. Again when operating lever of

the miniature circuit breaker is operated by hand, that means when we make the MCB

at off position manually, the same latch point is displaced as a result moving contact

separated from fixed contact in same manner. So, whatever may be the operating

mechanism, that means, may be due to deformation of bi - metallic strip, due to

increased mmf of trip coil or may due to manual operation, actually the same latch

point is displaced and same deformed spring is released, which ultimately responsible

for movement of the moving contact. When the the moving contact separated from

fixed contact, there may be a high chance of arc. This arc then goes up through the arc

runner and enters into arc splitters and is finally quenched. When we switch on an

MCB, we actually reset the displaced operating latch to its previous on position and

make the MCB ready for another switch off or trip operation.

Electric shock and precautions against the shock:

A sudden agitation of the nervous system of a body, due to the passage of an electric

current is called electric shock. An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human

or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current

flow through the muscles or nerves. The minimum detectable current in humans is

found to be about 1mA. If the current sufficiently high, it may cause tissue damage or

heart fibrillation leading to death.

Causes:

By accidentally touching faulty appliances or frayed or extension leads.

Due to lightening strike

By coming into contact with high enough voltage source, resulting in the passage of a

high enough value of current through the muscles or nerves.

Precautions to be taken to prevent electric shocks:

1. People should not work on explosive live conductors if at all possible. If not

possible then insulated gloves and tools should be used.

2. Wearing insulated footwear and standing on wooden platforms or mats can

reduce the risk of shock when both hands make contact with surface or objects

at different voltages or currents.

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3. All metal parts of appliances which must be at zero potential, must be properly

earthed, as otherwise these metal parts could come in contact with live wires

thus acquiring high potentials.

4. Touching a live wire or a switch with a wet skin should be avoided since more

current flows during wet condition.

5. Install ground fault circuit interrupts in wall outlets located in the bathroom,

kitchens, basements and garages.

6. Cover all electrical sockets with plastic safety caps.

7. Replace all worn cords and wirings.

8. Never use an electrical appliance like a radio or an iron near water.

Earthing:

The earth’s potential is taken as zero for all practical purposes, and therefore, any

electrical machine, appliance or component, when connected to earth, attains zero

potential, and is said to be earthed, and the voltage of this appliance will fall to zero if

its voltage is higher or will increase to zero of its voltage is lower than the earth

potential.

The neutral wire of an AC supply system and the middle wire of the three wire DC

distribution system are always earthed to maintain line voltage always constant. The

bodies of electrical machinery or appliance are earthed so that in the event of any

leakage, the leakage current immediately flows to earth, the circuit fuses blow off and

the machinery or appliance is disconnected from the supply.

Necessity of earthing:

1. To protect the human being from disability or death from shock in case the

human body comes into contact with the frame of any electrical machinery,

appliance or component which is electrically charged due to leakage current or

fault.

2. To maintain the line voltage constant.

3. To protect tall buildings and structure from atmospheric lightening strikes.

4. To protect all machines, fed from overhead lines, from atmospheric lightening.

5. To serve as the return conductor for telephone, telegraph and traction work.

Types of earthing:

Any pipe, plate or wire embedded in the earth is called earth electrode and any current

passing through it gets directly earthed. For effective and e fficient earthing, the

resistance offered by the earth electrode and by the soil in which the electrode is

embedded, should be very low, offering minimum opposition to the passage of current

through it, in order that the fuses in a faulty circuit blow off immediately.

1. Plate earthing

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2. Pipe earthing

3. Earthing through water mains

4. Horizontal strip earthing

5. Rod earthing

Plate earthing:

Figure shows the pipe earthing method. The earth connection is provided with the

help of a copper plate of 60 cm * 60 cm * 3.18 mm or galvanized iron plate of 60cm *

60cm * 6.3mm or caste iron of same size embedded 3mtrs inside the ground. The

plate is kept with its face vertical. Copper plates or found to be the most effective

earth electrodes and are least affected by moisture. However they are very costly and

hence GI plates are preferred for normal work.

The plate is so arranged that it is embedded in alternate layers of coke or coal and salt

for minimum thickness of about 15cm. the earth wire is drawn through a GI pipe and

is perfectly bolted to the earth plate. The nuts and bolts must be made of copper for

copper plates and of galvanized iron for GI plate.

The earth lead used must be GI wire or GI strip of sufficient cross sectional area to

carry the fault current safely. The earth wire is drawn through GI pipe of 19mm

diameter at about 60cm below the ground.

The GI pipe is fitted with a funnel on the top. To achieve effective earthing, salt water

is poured periodically through the funnel.

The earthing efficiency increases with the increase of the plate area and depth of

embedding. The only disadvantage is that discontinuity of earth wire with the plate

below the earth cannot be observed physically and hence is misleading and is likely to

result in heavy loss in the event of a fault. If the resistivity of the soil is high, then it

will be necessary to embed the plate vertically at a greater depth into the ground.

Pipe earthing:

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A GI pipe of 38mm diameter and 2 mtrs length is vertically embedded into the ground

to serve as earth electrode, the depth depending on the soil condition. According to

the Indian standard, the pipe should go down to the depth of 4.75m.

The pipe must be placed upright in wet ground. The pit area around the GI pipe is

filled with salt and coal mixture for improving the soil condition and efficiency of the

earthing system.

In summer, the soil becomes dry, in which case salt water is poured through the

funnel connected to the main GI pipe through a 19mm dia. Pipe to keep the soil wet

The leading wire from the body of apparatus to earthing pit should be made of GI

wire or strip of sufficient cross sectional area to carry the fault current safely. The

earth wire from the 19mm dia GI pipe, should be carried in a conduit of GI pipe of dia

12.7mm at a depth of about 60cm below the ground.

The earth wires are connected to the GI pipe above the ground level and can be

physically inspected from time to time and continuity checks can be easily performed.

This is an important advantage of pipe earthing over plate earthing. The contact

surface of the GI pipe with soil is greater as compared to the plate because of its

circular section and hence can handle heavier leakage current for the same electrode

size.

Disadvantage of pipe earthing is that the embedded pipe length has to be increased

sufficiently in case the soil specific resistivity is of a high order, resulting in increased

cost of material and excavation work. In ordinary soil condition, the range of earth

resistance should be 2-5 ohms.

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MODULE 4

THREE PHASE AC CIRCUITS

A three phase supply is a set of three alternating quantities displaced from each other by an angle

of 120⁰. A three phase voltage is shown in the figure. It consists of three phases- phase A, phase

B and phase C. Phase A waveform starts at 0⁰. Phase B waveform stars at 120⁰ and phase C

waveform at 240º.

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The phase A voltage is taken as the reference and is drawn along the x-axis. The phase B voltage

lags behind the phase A voltage by 120⁰. The phase C voltage lags behind the phase A voltage

by 240⁰ and phase B voltage by 120⁰.

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Phase Sequence :

The order in which the voltages in the three phases reach their maximum value

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Balanced Load :

A load is said to be balanced if the impedances in all three phases are equal in magnitude and

phase. A three phase load can be connected in two ways - Either in Delta connection or in Star

connection as shown in the figure.

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A balanced star connected load is shown in the figure. A phase voltage is defined as voltage

across any phase of the three phase load. The phase voltages shown in figure are EA, EB and

EC. A line voltage is defined as the voltage between any two lines. The line voltages shown in

the figure are EAB, EBC and ECA. The line currents are IA, IB and IC. For a star connected

load, the phase currents are same as the line currents.

The phasor diagram shows the three phase voltages and the line voltage EAB drawn from EA

and –EB phasors. The phasor for current IA is also shown. It is assumed that the load is

inductive.

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MODULE 4 (b)

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

The machines generating a.c emf are called alternators. The alternators work at a specific

constant speed called synchronous speed and hence called synchronous generators.

Construction of Alternators :

In alternator the stationary winding is called stator while the rotating winding is called

rotor. Most of the alternators have stator as armature and rotor as field.

Stator:

The stator is a stationary armature. This consists of core and the slots to hold the armature

winding similar to the three phase induction motor. The stator core uses a laminated

construction. It is built up of special steel stampings insulated from each other with varnish or

paper. The laminated construction is basically to keep down eddy current losses. Generally

choice of material is steel to keep down hysteresis losses. The entire core is fabricated in a frame

made of steel plates. The core has slots on its periphery for housing the armature conductors.

Frame does not carry any flux and serves as the support to core. Ventilation is maintained with

the help of holes casted in frame.

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Rotor:

2. Smooth Cylindrical or Non salient type

This is also called projected pole type as all the poles are projected out from the surface of rotor.

The poles are built up of thick steel laminations. The poles are bolted to rotor as shown in

figure.The pole face has been given a specific shape as discussed earlier in case of d.c

generators. The field winding is provided on pole shoe. These rotors have large diameters and

small axial lengths. As mechanical strength of salient pole type is less, this is preferred for low

speed alternators ranging from 125 to 500rpm. The prime movers used to drive such rotor are

generally water turbines and I.C engines.

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This is also called non salient type or non- projected pole type rotor. The rotor consists of smooth

solid steel cylinder having number of slots to accommodate the field coil. The slots are covered

at top with the help of steel or manganese wedges.The unslotted portion of cylinder itself act as

the poles. The poles are not projecting out and the surface of rotor is smooth which maintains

uniform air gap between stator and rotor.

These rotors have small diameters and large axial lengths. This is to keep peripheral speed within

limits.The main advantage of this type is that these are mechanically very strong and thus

preferred for high speed alternators ranging between 1500 to 3000rpm. Such high speed

alternators are called turbo alternators.

The prime movers used to drive such type of rotors are generally steam turbines, electric motors.

The alternators work on the principle of “electromagnetic induction”. When there is a relative

motion between conductors and flux, emf gets induced in the conductors.In an alternator the

conductors are stationary and field is rotating but for the sake of understanding, we have

considered the relative motion of conductors with respect to flux produced by field winding.

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Consider a relative motion of a single conductor under the magnetic field produced by two

stationary poles. The magnetic axis of two poles produced by field is vertical shown in the

figure.

Let conductor starts rotating from position 1. At this instant the entire velocity component is

parallel to flux lines. Hence there is no cutting of flux lines by conductor. Hence induced emf in

conductor is also zero. As the conductor moves from position 1 towards position 2, the part of

velocity component becomes perpendicular to flux lines and an emf which is proportional to the

amount of flux cut by conductor is induced. The magnitude of such an induced emf increases as

the conductor moves from position 1 towards 2. At position 2, the entire velocity component is

perpendicular to flux lines. Hence there exists maximum cutting of flux lines and at this instant

the induced emf in conductor is at its maximum.

As the position of conductor changes from 2 towards 3, the velocity component perpendicular to

flux starts decreasing and hence induced emf magnitude also starts decreasing. At position 3,

again the entire velocity component is parallel to flux lines and hence at this instant induced emf

in conductor is zero. As the conductor moves from position 3 towards 4, the velocity component

perpendicular to flux lines again starts increasing. But the direction of velocity component now

is opposite to direction of velocity component existing during the movement of conductor from

position 1 to 2. Hence an induced emf in conductor increases but in opposite direction. At

position 4, it achieves maxima in opposite direction, as the entire velocity component becomes

perpendicular to flux lines. Again from position 4 to 1, induced emf decreases and finally at

position 1, again becomes zero. This cycle continues as conductor rotates at a certain speed.

So the plot of magnitude of induced emf against time gives an alternating emf as shown in figure

above. Thus for 2 pole alternator one mechanical revolution corresponds to one electrical cycle.

i.e 360˚ electrical of an induced emf.

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Consider 4 pole alternator i.e the field winding is designed to produce 4 poles. Due to

4 poles the magnetic axis exists diagonally shown dotted in the figure.

Position 2 : There is gathering of flux lines and entire velocity component is perpendicular to

flux lines

So at position 1 induced emf is zero and at position 2 induced emf is maximum. Similarly as

conductor rotates the induced emf will be maximum at positions 4,6 and 8 and will be zero at

positions 3,5 and 7. So during one complete revolution of conductor, induced emf will

experience four times maxima and 4 times zero. This is because of distribution of flux lines due

to existence of four poles.

Thus the number of cycles of induced emf depends on the number of poles of a n alternator. So

for a 4 pole alternator,

= 360˚ * (P/2)

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= (P/ 2 )* ( N/ 60)

f = (PN / 120) Hz

Synchronous Speed ( N s ) :

With a fixed number of Poles the speed at which an alternator rotates to keep the frequency of

generated emf constant at required value is called synchronous speed of alternator.

Ns = 120f / P

The frequency of an alternating emf is standard equal to 50Hz. The alternators are driven at

different speeds for different number of poles.

Armature Winding :

The three phase alternators carry three sets of windings arranged in slots in such a way that, there

exists a phase difference of 120˚ between the induced emf ’s.

Winding Te rminology :

1. Conductor : The part of wire which is under the influence of magnetic field and

responsible for induced emf is called active length of conductor. They are placed in

armature slots.

2. Turn : A conductor in one slot when connected to a conductor in another slot forms a

turn. So two conductors constitute a turn.

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3. Coil: The number of turns are grouped together to form a coil. It is of two types.

A coil consisting of one turn is called single turn coil. A coil consisting of many turns

is called multiturn coil.

4. Coil Side : Part of the coil in each slot is called coil side of coil.

5. Pole pitch : It is the center to center distance between the two adjacent poles. 1 pole is

responsible for 180˚ electrical of induced emf and is nothing but one half cycle. So

180˚ electrical is called one pole pitch. The slots under one pole are measured to

specify the pole pitch.

Number of Slots / pole = n

Pole pitch = 180˚ electrical

= Slots per pole

=n

6. Slot angle ( β ) : The phase difference contributed by one slot in degree electrical is

called slot angle ( β ). As ‘n’ slots present per pole are responsible for 180˚ electrical

emf.

β= 1 slot angle = 180˚ / n

If we consider an induced emf in conductor which are placed in slots which are

adjacent to each other, then there will exist a phase difference of β˚ in between them.

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1. Single layer winding : if a slot consists of only one coil side, winding is said to be

single layer.

2. Double Layer Winding : If there are two coil sides per slot, o ne at the bottom and

one at the top the winding is said to be double layer winding.

3. Full pitch winding : If a coil side in one slot is connected to a coil side in another

slot which is one pole pitch distance away from first slot, the winding is said to be

full pitch winding and coil is called full pitch coil.

4. Short pitch winding : if a coil side in one slot is not connected to a coil side in

another slot which is one pole pitch away from first coil, it is called short pitch

winding. The coils are called short pitched or fractional pitch coil.

5. Coil Span : It is the distance on the periphery of armature between two coil sides

of a coil. It is expressed as no. of slots on degree electrical.

In three phase alternators there are three different sets of windings, each for a

phase. So there are three phase windings available under each pole. So if there are

‘n’ slots per pole and ‘m’ slots are dedicated for one phase winding then, m gives

no. of slots/pole/phase.

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one slot under every pole.

n = 18/2 = 9

m = 9/3 = 3

In practice an attempt is always made to use all the ‘m’ slots per pole per phase

available for distribution of winding.

P = Number of poles

N s = synchronous Speed in rpm

f = frequency of induced emf in Hz

Z = Total number of conductors

Zph = Conductors per phase

Consider a single conductor placed in a slot. The average value of e.m.f induced

in conductor = dØ/ dt

Eavg per conductor = Flux cut in one revolution / Time taken for one revolution

f = Ns P /120

PNs /60 = 2f

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= 2[ 2fØ ]

= 4fØ volts

Let Tph be total number of turns per phase connected in series. Assuming

concentrated winding, we can say that all the turns per phase are placed in single

slot. Hence net emf per phase will be algebraic sum of emf’s per turn.

= Tph [ 4f Ø]

= Tph * 4fØ

Kf = form factor = Rms Value/ average Value = 1.11

= 1.11 * [ 4fTph Ø ]

Eph = 4.44fØ Tph volts

Where Tph = Zph / 2

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Module 5

A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without

Necessity of transformer:

Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Hence electrical

power is generated in low voltage level. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to

the receiving end. But if the voltage level of a power is increased, the current of the power is reduced

which causes reduction in ohmic or I2 R losses in the system, reduction in cross sectional area of the

conductor i.e. reduction in capital cost of the system and it also improves the voltage regulation of the

system. Because of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power

transmission. This is done by step up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As

this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to

the desired level at the receiving end with the help of step down transformer. These are the uses of

electrical powe r transformer in the electrical power system.

Types of Transformer:

Transformers can be categorized in different ways, depending upon their purpose, use,

construction etc. The types of transformer are as follows,

1. Step Up Transforme r & Step Down Transformer - Generally used for stepping up and down

the voltage level of power in transmission and distribution power network.

2. Three Phase Transforme r & Single Phase Transforme r - Former is generally used in three

phase power system as it is cost effective than later but when size matters, it is preferable to use

bank of three single phase transformer as it is easier to transport three single phase unit separately

than one single three phase unit.

3. Electrical Powe r Transforme r, Distribution Transformer & Instrume nt Transformer -

Transformer is generally used in transmission network which is normally known as power

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transformer, distribution transformer is used in distribution network and this is lower rating

transformer and current transformer & potential transformer, we use for relay and protection

purpose in electrical power system and in different instruments in industries are called instrument

transformer.

4. Two Winding Transformer & Auto Transformer - Former is generally used where ratio

between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It is cost effective to use later where the

ratio between high voltage and low voltage is less than 2.

5. Outdoor Transformer & Indoor Transforme r - Transformers that are designed for installing at

outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers designed for installing at indoor are indoor

transformers.

Core type transforme rs :

In this type of transformer, a large part of the core is surrounded by the windings. Figure shows the

simplified representation of the core type transformer where the primary and secondary windings have

been shown wound on the opposite limbs. However in actual practice of the primary and of the

secondary windings are situated side by side on each limb so as to reduce leakage flux

The general form of the coils may be circular or oval rectangular. A rectangular core is used with

cylindrical coils for small transformers. However in the case of large size core type transformers,

round or circular cylindrical coils are wound over a cruciform core section (as shown in fig 2) offering

considerable mechanical strength. These coils are wound in helical layers. Each layer being insulated

from the other by using paper cloth or cooling ducts.

In this type the windings occupy a smaller portion of the core as shown in figure. The primary and

secondary windings are shown located on the central limb.

The coils are form- wound in this case too. They are multi layer disc type and is insulated from the

other by using paper. The entire winding comprises stacked discs with insulation spaces between the

coils. A commonly used shell type transformer has a simple rectangular form as shown in figure

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The working principle of transformer is very simple. It depends upon Faraday's law of electromagnetic

induction. Actually, mutual induction between two or more winding is responsible for transformation

action in an electrical transformer.

According to these Faraday's laws,

"Rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a

conductor or coil".

Say you have one winding which is supplied by an alternating electrical source. The alternating current

through the winding produces a continually changing flux or alternating flux that surrounds the winding.

If any other winding is brought nearer to the previous one, obviously some portion of this flux will link

with the second. As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there must be a

change in flux linkage in the second winding or coil. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic

induction, there must be an EMF induced in the second. If the circuit of the later winding is closed, there

must be an current flowing through it. This is the simplest form of electrical power transformer and this

is the most basic of working principle of transformer For better understanding, we are trying to repeat

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the above explanation in a more brief way here. Whenever we apply alternating current to an electric

coil, there will be an alternating flux surrounding that coil. Now if we bring another coil near the first

one, there will be an alternating flux linkage with that second coil. As the flux is alternating, there will

be obviously a rate of change in flux linkage with respect to time in the second coil. Naturally emf will

be induced in it as per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. This is the most basic concept of the

theory of transformer.

The winding which takes electrical power from the source, is generally known as primary winding of

transformer. Here in our above example it is first winding.

the winding which gives the desired output voltage due to mutual induction in the transformer, is

commonly known as secondary winding of transformer. Here in our example it is second winding.

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The above mentioned form of transformer is theoretically possible but not practically, because in open

air very tiny portion of the flux of the first winding will link with second; so the current that flows

through the closed circuit of later, will be so small in amount that it will be difficult to measure.

The rate of change of flux linkage depends upon the amount of linked flux with the second winding. So,

it is desired to be linked to almost all flux of primary winding to the secondary winding. This is

effectively and efficiently done by placing one low reluctance path common to both of the winding. This

low reluctance path is core of transformer, through which maximum number of flux produced by the

primary is passed through and linked with the secondary winding. This is the most basic theory of

transformer.

The three main parts of a transformer are,

electrical source.

2. Magnetic Core of transforme r - the magnetic flux produced by the primary winding, that will

pass through this low reluctance path linked with secondary winding and create a closed magnetic

circuit.

3. Secondary Winding of transformer - the flux, produced by primary winding, passes through the

core, will link with the secondary winding. This winding also wounds on the same core and gives

the desired output of the transformer.

It can be established in a very easy way. Actually in electrical power transformer, one alternating

electrical source is applied to the primary winding and due to this, magnetizing current flowing through

the primary winding which produces alternating flux in the core of transformer. This flux links with both

primary and secondary windings. As this flux is alternating in nature, there must be a rate of change of

flux. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction if any coil or conductor links with any

changing flux, there must be an induced emf in it. As the current source to primary is sinusoidal, the flux

induced by it will be also sinusoidal. Hence, the function of flux may be considered as a sine function.

Mathematically, derivative of that function will give a function for rate of change of flux linkage with

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respect to time. This later function will be a cosine function since d(sinθ)/dt = cosθ. So, if we derive the

expression for rms value of this cosine wave and multiply it with number of turns of the winding, we

will easily get the expression for rms value of induced emf of that winding. In this way, we can easily

derive the emf equation of transformer.

Φm is the maximum flux in the core in Wb.

Where φ is the instantaneous alternating flux and represented as,

As the maximum value of cos2πft is 1, the maximum value of induced emf e is,

To obtain the rms value of induced counter emf, divide this maximum value of e by √2.

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If E1 & E2 are primary and secondary emfs and T1 & T2 are primary and secondary turns then, voltage

ratio or turns ratio of transformer is,

This constant is called transformation ratio of Transformer , if T2 >T1 , K > 1, then the transformer is step

up transformer. If T2 < T1 , K < 1, then the transformer is step down transformer.

This above stated ratio is also known as voltage ratio of transformer if it is expressed as ratio of the

primary and secondary voltages of transformer.

As the voltage in primary and secondary of transformer is directly proportional to the number of

turns in the respective winding, the transformation ratio of transformer is sometime expressed in ratio of

turns and referred as turns ratio of transformer .

Voltage Regulation :

The voltage regulation is the percentage of voltage difference between no load and full load voltages of

a transformer with respect to its full load voltage.

Say an electrical power transformer is open circuited, means load is not connected with secondary

terminals. In this situation, the secondary terminal voltage of the transformer will be its secondary

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induced emf E2 . Whenever full load is connected to the secondary terminals of the transformer, rated

current I2 flows through the secondary circuit and voltage drop comes into picture. At this situation,

primary winding will also draw equivalent full load current from source. The voltage drop in the

secondary is I2 Z2 where Z2 is the secondary impedance of transformer. Now if at this loading condition,

any one measures the voltage between secondary terminals, he or she will get voltage V2 across load

terminals which is obviously less than no load secondary voltage E2 and this is because of I2 Z2 voltage

drop in the transformer.

Expression of Voltage Regulation of Transformer, represented in percentage, is

Now we will derive the expression of voltage regulation in detail. Say lagging power factor of

the load is cosθ2 , that means angle between secondary current and voltage is θ2

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Angle between OC & OD may be very small, so it can be neglected and OD is considered nearly equal

to OC i.e.

Let's derive the expression of voltage regulation with leading current, say leading power factor of the

load is cosθ2 , that means angle between secondary current and voltage is θ2 .

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Angle between OC & OD may be very small, so it can be neglected and OD is considered nearly equal

to OC i.e.

Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer

As the electrical transformer is a static device, mechanical loss in transformer normally does not

come into picture. We generally consider only electrical losses in transformer. Loss in any machine is

broadly defined as difference between input power and output power. When input power is supplied to

the primary of transformer, some portion of that power is used to compensate core losses in transformer

i.e. Hysteresis loss in transformer and Eddy current loss in transformer core and some portion of the

input power is lost as I2 R loss and dissipated as heat in the primary and secondary windings, because

these windings have some internal resistance in them. The first one is called core loss or iron loss in

transformer and the later is known as ohmic loss or copper loss in transformer. Another loss occurs in

transformer, known as Stray Loss, due to Stray fluxes link with the mechanical structure and winding

conductors.

Copper loss is I2 R loss, in primary side it is I1 2 R1 and in secondary side it is I2 2 R2 loss, where I1 & I2 are

primary & secondary current of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of primary & secondary

winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer, copper loss in

transformer vary with load.

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Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, both depend upon magnetic properties of the materials used to

construct the core of transformer and its design. So these losses in transformer are fixed and do not

depend upon the load current. So core losses in transformer which is alternatively known as iron loss in

transformer can be considered as constant for all range of load.

Ke = Eddy current constant.

Kf = form constant.

Copper loss can simply be denoted as,

IL2 R2 ′ + Stray loss

Now we will discuss Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss in little bit more details for better

understanding the topic of losses in transformer

Hysteresis loss in transformer can be explained in different ways. We will discuss two of them, one is

physical explanation and the other is mathematical explanation.

The magnetic core of transformer is made of ′Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel′. Steel is very

good ferromagnetic material. This kind of materials are very sensitive to be magnetized. That means,

whenever magnetic flux would pass through, it will behave like magnet. Ferromagnetic substances have

numbers of domains in their structure. Domains are very small regions in the material structure, where

all the dipoles are paralleled to same direction. In other words, the domains are like small permanent

magnets situated randomly in the structure of substance. These domains are arranged inside the material

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structure in such a random manner, that net resultant magnetic field of the said material is zero.

Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is applied to that substance, these randomly directed domains

get arranged themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing this external mmf,

maximum numbers of domains again come to random positions, but some of them still remain in their

changed position. Because of these unchanged domains, the substance becomes slightly magnetized

permanently. This magnetism is called " Spontaneous Magnetism". To neutralize this magnetism, some

opposite mmf is required to be applied. The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer

core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal, there will be extra work done. For this

reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of

transformer.

Consider a ring of ferromagnetic specimen of circumference L meter, cross - sectional area a m2 and N

turns of insulated wire as shown in the picture beside,

Let us consider, the current flowing through the coil is I amp,

Magnetizing force,

Therefore, total flux through the ring, Φ = BXa Wb

As the current flowing through the solenoid is alternating, the flux produced in the iron ring is also

alternating in nature, so the emf (e′) induced will be expressed as,

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According to Lenz’s law this induced emf will oppose the flow of current, therefore, in order to maintain

the current I in the coil, the source must supply an equal and opposite emf. Hence applied emf ,

Energy consumed in short time dt, during which the flux density has changed,

Thus, total work done or energy consumed during one complete cycle of magnetism,

Now aL is the volume of the ring and H.dB is the area of elementary strip of B - H curve shown in the

figure above,

Therefore, Energy consumed per cycle = volume of the ring X area of hysteresis loop.

In the case of transformer, this ring can be considered as magnetic core of transformer. Hence, the work

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done is nothing but the electrical energy loss in transformer core and this is known as hysteresis loss in

transformer.

In transformer, we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current produces

alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with secondary winding, there will be

induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through the load connected with it. Some of the

alternating fluxes of transformer; may also link with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body

of transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of transformer, there would be a locally

induced emf. Due to these emfs, there would be currents which will circulate locally at that parts of the

transformer. These circulating current will not contribute in output of the transformer and dissipated as

heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of transformer. This was a broad and simple

explanation of eddy current loss.

Efficiency of Transformer:

Transformer efficiency may be defined as the ratio between Output and Input.

Efficiency = Output/Input

On specified Power factor and load, the Transformer efficiency can be found by dividing its output on

Input (Similar to other Electrical Machines i.e. motors, generators etc). But the values of both input and

Output should be same in unites (i.e. in Watts, kilowatts, megawatts etc)

But note that a transformer has very high efficiency because the losses occur in transformer is very low.

Since the Input and Output almost equal, therefore measurement of input and output is not possible

practically. The best way to find the transformer efficiency is that, first determine the losses in

transformer and then calculate the transformer efficiency with the help of these losses.

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Taking LCM

As we know that the rating of Transform is expressed in kVA not in kW. But the efficiency doesn’t

depend on VA i.e. it would be expressed in Power Watts (kW) not in kVA. Although, the Losses are

directly proportional to VA (Volt-Amperes), thus, efficiency depends on Power factor on every kind of

VA load. And the efficiency would be maximum on unity (1) Power factor.

We know that,

Copper Loss = WC = I1 2 . R1 or I2 2 R2

WI = WH + WE

Taking LCM

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Or

For Maximum Efficiency, the value of (Dη/ dI1 ) should be Minimum i.e.

Dη/ dI1 = 0

Or

WI = I1 2 . R1 or I22 R2

The value of Output current (I2 ) on which Maximum efficiency can be gained

I2 = √ (WI/ R2 )

The value of Output current (I2 ) is the actor who equals the value of Copper Loss and Iron Loss (i.e.

Copper Loss = Iron Loss)

Doing so, the maximum efficiency can be gained. Therefore, with proper designing, maximum

efficiency can be attained at any desired load i.e. Copper loss and Iron Loss can be equaled.

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MODULE 5(b)

An electric motor which operates on a.c supply is called a.c motor. The a.c motors are classified as

single and three phase induction motors, synchronous motors and some special purpose motors.

Out of all these types, three phase induction motors are widely used.

The important advantages of three phase induction motors over other types are self starting property, no

need of starting device, higher power factor, good speed regulation and robust construction.

Construction :

1. The part i.e three phase windings which is stationary called stator.

2. The part which rotates and is connected to the mechanical load through shaft called rotor.

Stator :

The stator has a laminated type of construction made up of stampings which are 0.4 to 0.5mm thick.

The stampings are slotted on its periphery to carry the stator winding. The stampings are insulated from

each other. Such a construction essentially keeps iron losses to a minimum value.

The number of stampings are stamped together to build stator core. The built up core is then fitted in a

casted or fabricated steel frame. The choice of material for stampings is generally

Silicon steel, which minimizes hysteresis loss. The slots on periphery of stator core carries a three phase

winding, connected either in star or delta. This three phase winding is called stator winding. It is wound

for definite number of poles. The radial ducts are provided for cooling purpose.

Rotor :

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

The rotor is placed inside stator. The air gap between stator and rotor is 0.4mm to 4mm. The two types

of rotor constructions which are used for induction motor are.

2. Slip ring or phase wound rotor

The rotor is cylindrical and slotted on its periphery. The rotor consists of uninsulated copper or

aluminium bars called rotor conductors. The bars are placed in slots. These bars are permanently shorted

at each end with the help of conducting copper ring called end ring. The bars are usually brazed to end

rings to provide good mechanical strength.

The entire structure looks like a cage, forming a closed electrical circuit. So the rotor is called squirrel

cage rotor. As the bars are permanently shorted to each other through end ring, the entire rotor resistance

is very small. Hence this rotor is also called short circuited rotor.

As rotor itself is short circuited no external resistance can have any effect on rotor resistance. Hence no

external resistance can be introduced in rotor circuit. So slip ring and brush assembly is not required for

this rotor. Hence the construction of this rotor is very simple.

Fan blades are generally provided at ends of rotor core. This circulates the air through machine while

operation, providing necessary cooling.

In this type of construction, rotor winding is exactly similar to stator. The rotor carries a three phase star

or delta connected, distributed winding wound for same number of poles as that of stator.The rotor

construction is laminated and slotted. The slots contain rotor winding. The three ends of three phase

winding, available after connecting the winding in star or delta are permanently connected to slip rings.

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

With the help of slip rings, external resistance can be added in series with each phase of rotor

winding.This way the value of rotor resistance per phase can be controlled. This helps us to control

some of the important characteristics of motor like starting torque, speed etc.

Working Principle:

Induction motor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When a three phase supply is

given to the three phase stator winding, a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude is produced. The

speed of this rotating magnetic field is synchronous speed (N s).

Ns = 120f / P

This rotating field produces an effect of rotating poles around rotor. Let direction of rotation of this

rotating magnetic field is clockwise as shown in fig (a). Now at this instant rotor is stationary and stator

flux rmf is rotating. So its obvious that there exists a relative motion between rmf and conductors of

rotor.

Whenever conductor cuts flux, emf gets induced in it. So emf gets induced in rotor conductors called

rotor induced emf. This is electromagnetic induction. As rotor forms closed circuit, induced emf

circulates current through rotor called rotor current, as shown in fig (b). let direction of this current is

going into paper denoted by a cross.

Any current carrying conductor produces its own fluc. So rotor produces its flux called rotor flux. For

assumed direction of rotor current, the direction of rotor flux is clockwise as shown in fig ( c).

Both the fluxes interact with each as shown in fig (d) below.

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

On left of rotor conductor, two fuxes are in same direction hence add up to get high flux area. On

right side, two fluxes cancel each other to produce low flux area. As flux lines act as stretches

rubber band, high flux area exerts a push on rotor conductor towards low flux density area. So

rotor conductor experiences a force from left to right in this case, as shown in fig ( d) due to

interaction of two fluxes. As all the rotor conductors experience a force, the overall rotor

experiences a torque and starts rotating. So interaction of two fluxes is very essential for a

motoring action.

The stator of a three phase induction motor carries a three phase star or delta connected winding,

to which three phase a.c supply is given.

The three phase currents flow simultaneously through windings and are displaced by 120° from

each other. If the phase sequence is RYB, the three phase currents produce the three fluxes Ø R ,

Ø Y and Ø B which are displaced by 120° from each other.

Let the magnitude of each flux is Ø m. The figure below shows the phasor diagram with Ø R as

reference. The directions shown are assumed positive directions of three fluxes. The flux in

opposite direction to the directions shown is treated as negative.

Ø R = Øm sin Ө

Ø Y = Øm sin ( Ө - 120°)

Ø B = Øm sin ( Ө - 240° )

Case 1: Ө = 0°

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

ØR = 0

Ø Y = Øm sin ( 0- 120) = -0.866 Ø m

Ø B = Øm sin ( 0- 240) = 0.866Ø m

The phasor diagram is as shown in figure below. The negative Ø Y is indicated in opposite

direction to assumed positive direction of Ø Y.

OD = DA = Ø T / 2

In ∆OBD,

∟BOD = 30°

Cos 30 = OD / OB = ( Ø T /2 ) / 0.866Ø m

ØT = 1.5Øm

ØR = 0.866 Ø m

ØY = -0.866 Ø m

ØB = 0

ØT = 1.5Øm

Similarly if phasor diagram is drawn for various values of Ө , it can be seen that magnitude of Ø T is

always 1.5Ø m but it rotates in space. Such a magnetic field is called rotatinf magnetic field. Thus though

supply is stationary windings are stationary the resultant flux produced is rotating in space with constant

magnitude and speed.

This shows that when a three phase stationary windings are excited by balanced three phase a.c supply

then the resulting field produced is rotating magnetic field. Though nothing is physically rotating the

field produced is rotating in space having constant amplitude.

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

According to lenz law, the direction of induced current in rotor is so as to oppose the cause producing it.

The cause of rotor current is induced emf which is induced because of relative motion present between

the rotating magnetic field and rotor conductors.

Hence to oppose the relative motion i.r to reduce the relative speed, the rotor experiences a torque in

same direction as that of r.m.f and tries to catch up the speed of rotating magnetic field.

Ns – N = Relative speed between the two, rotating magnetic field and rotor.

Significance of Slip in an Induction Motor ( or) Why does the induction motor can not run at

synchronous Speed :

When rotor starts rotating, it tries to catch the speed of rotating magnetic field. If it catches the speed

of rotating magnetic field, the relative mtion between rotor and rotating magnetic field will vanish. ( N s

– N = 0)

In fact the relative motion is main cause for induced emf in rotor. So induced emf will vanish and hence

there cannot be rotor current and rotor flux which is essential to produce the torque on rotor.

Eventually motor will stop. But immediately there will exist a relative motion between rotor and

rotating magnetic field and it will start. But due to inertia of rotor, this does not happen in practice and

rotor continuous to rotate with a speed slightly less than synchronous speed of rotating magnetic field in

steady state.

The induction motor never rotates at synchronous speed. The speed at which it rotates is hence called

subsynchronous speed and motor sometimes called asynchronous motor.

N < Ns

So it can be said that rotor slips behind the rotating magnetic field produced by stator. The difference

between the two is called slip speed of motor.

This speed decided the magnitude of induced emf and rotor current which in turn decides torque

produced.

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

Slip of induction motor is defined as the difference between synchronous speed ( N s ) and actual speed

of rotor ( N) expressed as a fraction of synchronous speed ( N s ). This is also called absolute slip or

fractional slip and is denoted as ‘S’.

Thus S = (N s - N) / N s

% S = [ (N s – N ) / N s ] * 100

N = Ns ( 1- s)

At start motor is at rest and hence its speed N is zero. Therefore S=1 at start

This is maximum value of slip ‘s’ possible for induction motor which occurs at start. While s =0 gives

us N = N s which is not possible for an induction motor. So slip of induction motor cannot be zero under

any circumstances. Practically motor operates in slip range of 0.01 to 0.05. The slip corresponding to

full load speed of motor is called full load slip.

Ns = 120f / P

At start when N = 0, s = 1 and atationary rotor has maximum relative motion with respect to rmf. Hence

maximum emf gets induced in rotor at start.

The frequency of this induced emf at start is same as that of supply frequency. As motor actually rotates

with speed N, the relative speed of rotor with respect to rmf decreases and becomes equal to slip speed

of N s – N.

The induced emf in rotor depends on rate of cutting flux i.e relative speed N s – N. Hence in running

condition magnitude of induced emf decreases so as its frequency. The rotor is wound for same number

of poles as that of stator i.e P. If fr is the frequency of rotor induced emf and rotor currents in running

condition at slip speed ( N s – N) then there exists a fixed relation between ( N s – N ), fr and P similar to

Ns.

( Ns – N ) = 120fr / P

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

Now,

But s = ( N s – N ) / N s

S = fr / f

fr = sf

Thus frequency of rotor induced emf in running condition ( fr ) is slip times the supply frequency ( f). As

slip of induction motor is in range of 0.01 to 0.05, rotor frequency is very small in the running condition.

2. Maintenance is less as robust and rugged

3. Simple in construction

4. Efficiency is high

5. Power factor is better

6. Starting torque can be controlled in slip ring type

2. The starting torque is low and cannot be adjusted in squirrel cage type.

3. The various parameters like speed, power factor, efficiency etc. vary as load condition

changes.

Applications :

1. Squirrel cage type of motors having moderate starting torque and constant speed

characteristics preferred for driving fans, blowers, drilling machines, water pumps, blowers.

2. Slip ring induction motors can have high starting torque as high as maximum torque. Hence

they are preferred for lifts, hoists, elevators, cranes.

In a three phase induction motor magnitude of induced emf in rotor circuit depends on slip of induction

motor. At start the value of slip is at its maximum equal to unity. The rotor current at start is given by,

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

The magnitude of induced emf at start is maximum as slip speed i.e relative speed between rotor and

rotating magnetic field is maximum. Hence at start large emf gets induced in rotor. As rotor conductors

are short circuited in most of motors, this emf circulates very high current through rotor at start. Hence

as rotor current is high at start, consequently stator draws a very high current of order of 5 to 8 times full

load current at start.

Due to such high current at start there is possibility of damage of motor winding and other appliances

connected to same line may be subjected to voltage spikes which may affect their working.

To avoid such effects it is necessary to limit current drawn by motor at start. Hence starter is necessary

for an induction motor.

In the running condition, the relative speed of rotor with respect to rotating magnetic field becomes slip

speed which is very small. Hence magnitude of induced emf in rotor also reduces by slip times the

magnitude of induced emf at standstill condition.

Hence in running condition, the rotor current is not very high. Starters not only limit the starting current

but also provide protection to induction motor against over loading and low voltage conditions.

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

This is the cheapest starter of all. It uses TPDT [ Tripple pole double throw switch] which connects the

stator winding in star at start and then in delta while normal running. Hence this starter is suitable only

for those motors designed to run with the delta connected stator winding.

Initially when the switch is in START position, the stator winding gets connected in star. Hence phase

voltage gets reduced by factor 1 / √3.

Vph = Vl / √3

Due to this starting current also gets reduced by factor 1/√3. When motor attains 50 to 60% of normal

speed, switch is thrown in RUN position. Hence winding gets connected in delta.

Each phase of winding gets rated voltage. The operation of switch can be automatic by using re lays

which ensures that motor will not start with switch in RUN position. As this is cheap and maintenance

free is frequently used. The limitations of this starter are that it is suitable for normal delta connected

motors and factor by which voltage changes is 1/ √3 and cannot be changed.

1. Rotor consists of a three phase Rotor consists of bars which are

winding similar to stator shorted at ends with the help of slip

winding rings

2. Construction is complicated Construction is very simple

3. Resistance can be added As permanently shorted external

externally resistance cannot be added

4. The construction is delicate and The construction is robust and

due to brushes, frequent maintenance free.

maintenance is necessary

5. High starting torque can be Moderate starting torque which cannot

obtained be controlled

6. Rotor copper losses are high Rotor copper losses are less hence have

hence efficiency is less higher efficiency

7. Rotor resistance starter can be Rotor resistance starter cannot be used

used

8. The rotors are very costly Due to simple construction, the rotors

are cheap.

9. Rotor must be wound for same Rotor automatically adjusts itself for

number of poles as that of stator same number of poles as that of stator

10. Speed control by rotor Speed control by rotor resistance is not

resistance is possible possible

Basic electrical engineering-15ELE15/25

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

Question bank

MODULE 1 :

1. Find the values of currents in all the branches of the network shown in figure.

2. A current of 20A flows through 2 ammeters A & B in series. The potential difference

across A is 0.2 V & across B is 0.3 V .Find how the same current will divide between A

& B when they are in parallel.

3. Coils A & B in a magnetic circuits have 600 & 500 turns respectively. A current 8 A in

coil A produces a flux of 0.04 wb. If coefficient of coupling is 0.2, calculate (a) Self

inductance of coil A with B open circuited (b) Flux linking with the coil B (c) The

average emf induced in coil B when the flux with it changes from 0 to full value in 0.02

sec. (d) Mutual inductance.

4. A circuit consists of two parallel resistors having resistances of 20Ω and 30Ω

respectively, connected in series with a 15Ω resistor. If the current through 30Ω resistor

is 1.2A, find

a) Currents in 20Ω and 15Ω resistors

b) The voltage across the whole circuit

c) Voltage across 15Ω and 20Ω resistor

d) Total power consumed in the circuit

5. Obtain the relation between self inductances, mutual inductance and coefficient of

coupling.

6. A coil consists of 600turns and a current of 10A in the coil gives rise to a magnetic flux

of 1mwb. Calculate a) Self inductance

b) Induced emf c) Energy stored when the current is reversed in

0.01sec.

7. State and explain faradays laws of electromagnetic induction.

8. An air cored solenoid has a length of 50cm and a diameter of 2cm. Calculate its

inductances if it has 1000turns and also find the energy stored in it, if the current rises

from zero to 5A.

9. If the total power dissipated in the circuit shown is 18W, find the value of ‘R’ and its

current.

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

10. State the following : a) Flemings right hand rule b) Flemings left hand rule

11. A closed iron ring of mean diameter 12cm is made from round iron bar of diameter 2cm.

It has a uniform winding of 1000turns. Calculate the current required to produce a flux

density of 1.5wb/ m2 given that relative permeability is 1250. Hence calculate the self

inductance.

12. What is the potential difference between the point x and y in the network shown.

14. Show that the equivalent resistance of two resistors connected in parallel in the ratio of

the product of these two resistances divided by the sum of those two resistance values.

15. Two coils having 1000turns and 1600 respectively are placed close to each other such

that 60% of the flux produced by one coil. If a current of 10A , flowing in the first coil,

produces a flux of 0.5mwb. Find the inductance of the second coil.

16. State and explain kirchoffs laws.

17. Obtain an equation for the energy stored in a magnetic field.

18. Two storage batteries A and B are connected to supply a load of 0.3Ω. The open circuit

emf of battery A is 11.7V and that of B is 12.3V. The internal resistances are 0.06Ω and

0.05Ω respectively. Determine the current supplied to the load.

19. For the circuit shown in figure. Find the current supplied by each battery and power

dissipated in 1Ω resistor.

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

20. A coil of resistance 150Ω is placed in a magnetic field of 0.1mwb. The coil has 500turns

and a galvanometer of 450Ω is connected in series with it. The coil is moved in 0.1sec

from the given field to another field of 0.3mwb. Find the average ind uced emf and the

average current through the coil.

MODULE 2:

22. Explain with a neat diagram, the constructional features and operation of an induction

type single phase energy meter.

23. A 30KW, 300V DC shunt generator has armature and field resistances of 0.05Ω and

100Ω respectively. Calculate the total power developed by the armature when it delivers

full output power.

24. Derive the emf equation for a dc generator.

25. With a neat diagram explain the construction and working of dynamometer type

wattmeter.

26. A 200V lap wound dc shunt motor has 800 conductors on its armature. The resistance of

the armature winding is 0.5Ω and that of field winding is 200Ω. The motor takes a

current of 21A, the flux per pole is 30mwb. Find the speed and torque developed in the

motor.

27. Explain the characteristics of dc series motor with a neat diagram.

28. Explain the significance of back emf in dc motor.

29. A 4 pole dc shunt motor takes 22.5A from a 250V supply, Ra = 0.5Ω and Rsh = 125Ω. The

armature is wave wound with 300 conductors. If the flux per pole is 0.02wb. Calculate

a) Speed b) Torque developed c) Power developed

30. With a neat diagram explain the constructional and working of dynamometer type

wattmeter.

31. A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots, each having 24 conductors.

The flux per pole is 0.01wb. At what speed must the armature rotate to give an induced

emf of 220V? What will be the voltage developed if the winding is lap and the armature

rotates at the same speed.

32. Explain with a diagram, the constructional features of various parts of a dc generator.

33. A 250V shunt motor on no load, runs at 1000rpm and takes 5A. The armature and shunt

field resistances are respectively 0.2Ω and 250Ω. Calculate the speed of the motor when

loaded and taking a current of 50A, if the armature reaction weakens the field by 3%.

34. Mention the classification of d.c generators.

35. A series motor runs at 600rpm when taking 110A from a 250V supply. The resistance of

the armature circuit is 0.12Ω and that of series winding is 0.03Ω. The useful flux per pole

for 120A is 0.024wb and that for 50A is 0.0155wb. Calculate the speed when the current

has fallen to 50A.

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

36. A 100KW belt driven shunt generator running at 300rpm on 220V bus-bars, continues to

run as a motor when the belt breaks, then taking 10KW. What will be its speed? Given

Ra= 0.025Ω, Rsh = 60Ω, Brush contact drop = 1V per brush and armature reaction

drop=0.

37. A dc series motor is running with a speed of 1000rpm, while taking a current of 22A

from the supply. If the load is changed such that the current drawn by the motor is

increased to 55A, calculate the speed of the motor on new load. The armature and series

winding resistances are 0.3Ω and 0.4Ω respectively. Assume supply voltage as 250V.

38. A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots each having 24 conductors.

The flux per pole is 0.01 wb. At what speed the armature rotate to give an induced emf of

220 volts. What will be the voltage of the winding in lap and armature rotates at the same

speed.

39. A 4 pole 3 phase 50 hz induction motor runs at a speed of 1470 rpm. Find the frequency

of the induced emf in rotor under this condition

40. Sketch the various characteristics of DC shunt motor and mention its applications.

MODULE 3:

41. Obtain expression for current trough pure inductor if the voltage across it is V=Vm sinwt

42. A voltage V=100sin 314t is applied to a circuit consisting of a 25 Ω resistor and an

18mF capacitor in series . Determine a) peak value of the current. b) power factor c) total

power consumed by the circuit.

43. Write a short notes on a) Necessity of earthing b) Precautions to be taken to prevent

electric sock

44. Voltage of 200Vis applied to a series circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor and the

capacitor. The respective across these components are 170V, 150V and 100 Ω and the

current is 4A.Find a) Power factorb) resistance c)Impedence d) Inductive reactance &

capacitive reactance.

45. Explain the necessity and operation of earth leakage circuit breaker.

46. Two impedences Z1=6-j8 Ω and Z2= 16+j12 Ω are connected in parallel. If the total

current of combination is 20+j10A. find a) Voltage across combination b) current in two

branches

47. What is meant by power factor in ac circuit and explain its significance.

48. Draw and explain the wiring diagram for 3 way control of lamp.

49. A series circuit with resistance of 10 Ω , inductance of 0.2h and capacitance of 40 µF is

supplied with a 100V supply at 50 Hz.Find the current , power and power factor of the

circuit.

50. State form factor of an alternating quantity derive the expression for it.

51. Show that the average power consumed in a pure capacitance is 0. draw the neat

waveform for voltage , current , power.

52. With a neat diagram explain Pipe earthing.

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

53. Show that the power consumed in an R-C series circuit is VicosΦ. Draw the waveform

for voltage, current and power.

54. What are the advantages of 3 phase systems over single phase system.

55. A 3 phase 400 V motor takes an input of 40kW at 0.45pflag.Find the reading of each of

the 2 single phase wattmeters connected to measure the input.

56. Obtain the relationship between line and phase current in a balanced 3 phase delta

connected system.

57. A balanced 3 phase star connected load draws power from 440V supply. The two

wattmeters connected indicate W1=5kw and W2= 1.2KW. Calculate power , power

factor and current in the circuit.

58. With a neat diagram explain Plate earthing.

59. Describe the factors affecting the choice of a wiring system.

60. A series RLC circuit having R=100 Ω , L=0.15H, C=25 µF draws a current of 1.96A

from 60 Hz supply. Determine the supply voltage using ohm’s law and kirchoff’s

law.

MODULE 4 :

61. Obtain the relationship between line and phase voltages and currents in a three phase

62. A 3-Φ delta connected balanced load consumes a power of 60KW taking a lagging

current of 200A at a line voltage of 400V, 50 Hz. Find the parameters of each phase.

63. A 12 pole, 500 rpm star connected alternator has 48slots with 15conductors per slot. The

flux per pole is 0.02Wb. The winding factor is 0.97 and pitch factor is 0.98. Calculate the

phase emf and line emf.

64. Define phase sequence and list out the advantages of three phase system as compared to

single phase system.

65. A 4 pole, 1500rpm, star connected alternatot as 9 slots per pole and 8 conductors per

slot. Determine the flux per pole to give a terminal voltage of 3300V take winding factor

and pitch factor as unity.

66. The input power to a three phase induction motor running on 400V,50Hz supply was

measured by two wattmeter method and readings were 3000w and 1000W. Calculate a)

Total power input b) power factor c) Line current

67. With the usual notation derive the expression for emf equation of an alternator.

68. A balanced star connected load of (8+j6)Ω/ phase is connected to three phase, 230 V

supply. Find the line current, power factor, power reactive volt ampere and total volt

ampere.

69. Show that the power in a balanced three phase circuit can be measured by two

wattmeters. Draw the circuit and vector diagram.

70. Explain the generation of three phase ac voltage.

71. A three phase, 50Hz, 16 pole generator with star connected winding has 144slots with

conductor/ slot is 10. The flux per pole is 24.8mWb is sinusoidally distributed. The coils

are full pitched. Find a) speed b) Line emf

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

73. List the differences between salient and non-salient type rotors.

74. A 3-phase, 6 pole star connected ac generator revolves at 1000rpm. The stator has 90

slots and 8 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 0.05wb. Calculate the generated line

voltage by the machine if the winding factor is 0.96.

75. Enumerate te advantages of having stationary armature and rotating field system in large

capacity synchronous generators.

76. Explain the terms pitch factor, distribution factor as applied to alternator.

77. Define voltage regulation of a synchronous generator.

78. A 6 pole three phase 50Hz alternator has 12 slots per pole and 4 conductors per slot. A

flux of 25mWb is sinusoidally distributed along the air gap. Determine the line emf if the

alternator is star connected.

79. A balances three phase star connected load of 150KW takes a leading current of 100A

with a line voltage of 1100V, 50Hz. Find the circuit constants of the load per phase.

80. Three identical coils each having an impedance of (10+ j10)Ω are connected in delta

across a 400 V, three phase supply. Find the line current and the readings on the two

wattmeters used to measure the total power.

Module 5

82. In a 25KV 2000/200V single phase transformer, the iron and full load copper losses are

350 W and 400W respectively. Calculate the efficiency at unity power factor on full load

and half full load.

83. An 8 pole alternator runs at 750 rpm and supplies power to a 6pole induction motor

which runs at 970 rpm. What is the slip of induction motor.

84. A 600 KVA transformer has an efficiency of 92% at full load, unity power factor and

half full load, 0.9 pf. Determine its efficiency at 75% of full load, 0.9 pf.

85. An 8 pole alternator runs at 750 rpm and supplies power to a 4 pole IM. The frequency

of rotor current is 1.5 Hz. Determine the speed of motor.

86. Derive the condition for which the efficiency of transformer is maximum.

87. Explain the construction and working principle of a transformer with a neat sketch

88. Explain the concept of rotating magnetic field in a 3 phase IM

89. The frequency of emf in the stator of a 4 pole IM is 50 Hz and in the rotor is 1.5 Hz.

What is the slip and at what speed is the motor running.

90. What is slip in an IM. Explain why slip is never zero in an IM.

91. A single phase transformer has 400 turns primary and 1000 turns secondary. The net

cross section area of the core is 60 cm2 .The primary winding is connected to a 500V 50

Hz supply. Find

a. Peak value of flux density

b. Emf induced in secondary winding

Basic Electrical Engineering- 15ELE15/25

92. The maximum efficiency at full load and unity pf of a single p hase 25 KVA

500/1000V,50 Hz Transformer is 98%. Determine its efficiency at

a. 75% load, 0.9 pf

b. 50% load, 0.8 pf

93. Define the transformation ratio and regulation of transformer.

94. Explain how torque is produced in a 3 phase induction motor.

95. A 4 pole 3 phase 50 Hz IM runs at a speed of 1470 rpm. Find the frequency of induced

emf in the rotor under this condition.

96. Explain the working principle of 3 phase IM

97. Why does an IM need a starter.

98. What are the losses in a transformer? On what factors do they depend? How are they

minimized?

99. Discuss the magnetizing and de-magnetizing effect in a transformer.

100.With the help of neat figures, explain the construction of squirrel cage and slip ring IM.

Geetha Shishu Shikshana Sangha

GSSS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN

(Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt of Karnataka)

KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysuru. 570016

Ph: 0821-4257304/305/306, Ext 301. Fax: 0821-2581305,

"To become a recognized world class Women Educational Institution, by imparting professional

education to the students, creating technical opportunities through academic excellence and

technical achievements, with ethical values".

To support value based education with state of art infrastructure.

To empower women with the additional skill for professional future carrier

To enrich students with research blends in order to fulfill the International challenges

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