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SOLAR COOLING TECHNOLOGIES S . SRINIVASA MURTHY Professor of Refrigeration & Clean Energy Technologies

SOLAR COOLING TECHNOLOGIES

S. SRINIVASA MURTHY

Professor of Refrigeration & Clean Energy Technologies ssmurthy@iitm.ac.in

India - Spain Workshop on Renewable Energies Sevilla (Spain)

March, 1-4, 2011

Renewable Energies Sevilla (Spain) M arc h , 1-4 , 2011 Dep artment of Science &

Department of Science & Technology

arc h , 1-4 , 2011 Dep artment of Science & Technology Dirección General de Coop
arc h , 1-4 , 2011 Dep artment of Science & Technology Dirección General de Coop

Dirección General de Cooperación Internacional

Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technolo gy Madras Chennai ­ India

100% 20% 80%
100%
20%
80%

Overview on physical ways to convert solar radiation into cooling or air-conditioning. Processes marked in dark grey: market available technologies which are used for solar assisted air-conditioning. Processes marked in light grey: technologies in status of pilot projects or system testing.

CLOSED-CYCLE SYSTEMS

Absorption (WET) and adsorption (DRY) cycles are examples. They produce chilled water that can be used in combination with any airconditioning equipment such as an air-handling unit, fan-coil systems, chilled ceilings, etc.

Common Wet Systems:

Water (H2O)– Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Systems Ammonia (NH3)– Water (H2O) Systems

Common Dry Systems:

Water-Zeolite, Water – Silica Gel, Methanol-Activated Carbon, Ammonia-Activated Carbon, etc.

OPEN-CYCLE SYSTEMS

Desiccant Systems (Wet and Dry) are the main types. The term “open” cycle is used to indicate that the refrigerant is discarded from the system after providing the cooling effect, and new refrigerant is supplied in its place in an open-ended loop.

WET ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

Typical coefficient of performance (COP) for large single-effect machines are 0.7 to 0.8. Double-effect absorption systems, with typical operating COPs of 1.0 to 1.2 are also available . Current R&D efforts are focusing on three - and four - effect systems , with a COP of 1.7 to 2.2.

For so l ar - ass i s t e d sys t ems , it i s important t o se l ec t the appropr i a t e so l ar co ll ec t or type t o meet the temperature needs of the cooling machine. Systems with high COPs need higher operating temperatures.

Most commercially available absorption chillers range in capacity from medium (40 to 100 kW) to high (300 kW and above). However, given the increasing cooling demand in residential and small size building applications , a growing market exists for low cooling capacity equipment (i.e. less than 10 kW to 40 kW).

Some firms are offering s y stems in the small ranges , es peciall y suitable for solar energy applications: examples - Broad (China), Rotartica (Spain), Yazaki (Japan).

In India, Thermax offers “Half-Effect” systems for low hot water input temperatures of about 60 C. There are other companies also which supply absorption coolin g s y stems.

DRY ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

Today, adsorption or solid-sorption chillers have a higher efficiency than absorption chillers at low driving tem peratures ( defined as the avera g e tem perature of the heating fluid between inlet and outlet of the heating system).

The advanta ge is that their internal c y cle does not have an y moving parts ( no pumps, no electrically driven valves). Also, crystallization cannot occur, as in the case of LiBr/H2O absorption chillers.

However, due to their intermittent operation ( periodic c y cle ) , the y require more effort in system design and operation control.

In a dditi on, compare d t o a b sorption mac hines, the y are l ar ger, heav i er, and more expensive per kW cooling capacity.

Only a f ew manuf ac t urers ma k e the s y s t ems, lim iting equipment c ho ices. Th e COP of commercially available systems is 0.55 to 0.65, depending on operating conditions.

More suitable for smaller capacity domestic , mobile and portable applications .

COP-curves of sorption chillers and ideal thermodynamic limit (Carnot)
COP-curves of sorption chillers and ideal thermodynamic limit (Carnot)
COP-curves of sorption chillers and ideal thermodynamic limit (Carnot)
POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF SOLAR THERMAL AND SORPTION REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES

POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF SOLAR THERMAL AND SORPTION REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES

POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF SOLAR THERMAL AND SORPTION REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF SOLAR THERMAL AND SORPTION REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
Distribution of the specific collector area (collector area in m 2 of installed cooling capacity
Distribution of the specific collector area (collector area in m 2 of
installed cooling capacity in kW) for different technologies.
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
Some of the work done by the author at R & AC Lab of IIT
Some of the work done by the author at
R & AC Lab of IIT Madras

WET SYSTEMS Multi-Effect Systems for performance improvement (Water-LiBr) Multi-Stage Systems for performance improvement (Water-LiBr) Multiple Heat Sources at Different Temperature Levels (Water-LiBr) Heat Pump Chillers for both Heating and Cooling (Water-LiBr) New Working Fluids (R22 or R134a with Organic Solvents) Pumpless / Transfer Tank to eliminate the Mechanical Pump Heat and Mass Transfer in Falling Film Absorbers DRY SYSTEMS Water-Silica Gel Systems: Performance improvements by Multi-Bed, Multi-Effect, Heat and Mass Recovery Systems Metal Hydride based Systems for Portable Cooling and Automotive Airconditioning Heat and Mass Transfer in Solid Sorption Beds / Optimization and Design DESICCANT BASED SYSTEMS Rotary wheel based silica – gel systems LiBr-Water based liquid desiccant systems Solid and liquid desiccant + vapour compression hybrids

Simulation of Solid Sorption Cooling Systems

Refrigerant Vapour

of Solid Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat
of Solid Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat

Adsorbent Bed

Adsorber

Configuration

Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat Transfer Fluid

Fins / Separators

Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat Transfer Fluid

Heat Transfer

Fluid

Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat Transfer Fluid
Sorption Cooling Systems Refrigerant Vapour Adsorbent Bed Adsorber Configuration Fins / Separators Heat Transfer Fluid

Performance of Sorption Bed; Carbon (FX400)-Methanol

Performance of Sorption Bed; Carbon (FX400)-Methanol Spatial temperature distribution Concentration vs time

Spatial temperature distribution

Carbon (FX400)-Methanol Spatial temperature distribution Concentration vs time (Adsorption) 1. Chilling

Concentration vs time (Adsorption)

1. Chilling Temperature : 0 o C

2. Cooling Fluid Temperature : 30 o C

3. Adsorption Bed Pressure : 4000 Pa

4. Desorption Bed Pressure : 21000 Pa

5. Desorption Temperature : 85 o C

Bed Pressure : 21000 Pa 5. Desorption Temperature : 85 o C Longitudinal concentration variation 13

Longitudinal concentration variation

13

Performance of Sorption Bed; Carbon (FX400)-Methanol (contd )

Performance of Sorption Bed; Carbon (FX400)-Methanol (contd ) Concentration vs time (Desorption) Specific heat

Concentration vs time (Desorption)

(contd ) Concentration vs time (Desorption) Specific heat variation in the bed Reaction rate and
(contd ) Concentration vs time (Desorption) Specific heat variation in the bed Reaction rate and

Specific heat variation in the bed

vs time (Desorption) Specific heat variation in the bed Reaction rate and Concentration variations

Reaction rate and Concentration variations (Refrigeration Cycle)

14

COP

Performance of Carbon (FX400)-Methanol Cooling Cycle

Kj /Kg
Kj /Kg

The Carbon methanol cycle

COP vs Cooling Fluid Temperature

2

1,8

1,6

1,4

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

,

0,2

0

0 4

Fluid Tem perature 2 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 , 0,2 0 0 4

0

10

20

30

40

Cooling Fluid Temperature 0 C

Th=85 0C, Tchill=0 oC

Th=85 0C, Tchill= -5 oC

Th=85 0C, Tchill= 5 oC

SCE vs Cooling Fluid Temperature

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

vs Cooling Fluid Temperature 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 5 15 25

5

15

25

35

Cooling Fluid Temperature 0 C

Th=85 0C, Tchill=0 oC

Th=85 0C, Tchill= -5 oC

Th=85 0C, Tchill= 5 oC

Optimal Performance of Carbon (FX400)-Methanol Cooling Cycle

24,0 21,0 18,0 15,0 12,0 9,0 6,0 3,0 0,0 Coo ling Pow er (W/Kg)
24,0
21,0
18,0
15,0
12,0
9,0
6,0
3,0
0,0
Coo ling Pow er (W/Kg)

0

0,25

0,5

0,75

COP

1

1,25

1,5

Th=85 0C, Tchill= -5 oC Th=85 0C, Tchill=0 oC

Parameters studied

1. COP

2. Cooling Power

3. Chilling Temp.

4. Pressure

Temperature 0 C

COP

Cooling

Time (Sec)

Power (W/Kg)

(KJ/Kg)

15

1.41

137.3

6500

21.1

20

1.21

117.2

5800

20.0

25

0

. 99

94

. 9

5300

17.9

30

0.75

70.6

4500

15.7

16

Performance of Silica Gel-Water Adsorption Cooling System

Performance of Silica Gel-Water Adsor p tion Coolin g Sy stem Heat and mass recovery processes

Heat and mass recovery processes greatly improve the performance of the system as apparent in COP of the system. Heat recovery results in a 10-21% increase in the COP of the system, but the SCP remains the about the same and also reduces in some cases. Mass recovery results in an 11-19% increase in COP, and the SCP increases by 9-20%. Heat and mass recovery processes together result in improvements in COP of 16-40% and SCP of 14-34%.

FourFour--bedbed MetalMetal HydrideHydride systemsystem withwith combinedcombined recoveryrecovery

QQ hh atat TT hh

combinedcombined recoveryrecovery QQ h h atat TT h h AA 11 AA 22 BB 11 BB
AA 11 AA 22

AA 11

AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22

AA 22

AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
AA 11 AA 22
BB 11 BB 22
BB
11
BB
22
QQ h h atat TT h h AA 11 AA 22 BB 11 BB 22 QQ

QQ m2m2 atat TT mm

QQ m1m1 atat TT mm

QQ cc atat TT cc

(a)(a) QQ m1m1 atat TT mm AA BB 11 11 QQ atat cc TT cc
(a)(a)
QQ m1m1 atat TT mm
AA
BB
11
11
QQ
atat
cc
TT cc
AA 22
BB 22
QQ m2m2 atat TT mm
QQ hh atat TT hh
((bb))
HTHT AlloyAlloy AA:: ZrZr00
LTLT AlloAlloyy BB:: ZrZr 00
99
TiTi00
11CrFeCrFe
((10001000 g/reactor)g/reactor)
HydrogenHydrogen flowflow lineslines
MassMass recoveryrecovery lineline withwith valvevalve
HeatHeat recoveryrecovery lineline withwith valvevalve
HeatHeat flowflow
77 TiTi 00
33 CrFeCrFe ((900900 gg/reactor)/reactor)
0 . 9 0.8 0 . 7 0.6 0.5 0.4 T m =30°C T c
0
.
9
0.8
0
.
7
0.6
0.5
0.4
T
m =30°C
T
c =0°C
0.3
Combined recovery
0.2
Heat recovery cycle
Mass recovery cycle
0.1
Basic cycle
0
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
CO P

Heat source temperature, T h : °C

VariationVariation ofof COPCOP withwith TT hh forfor differentdifferent casescases

0 . 9 0.8 0 . 7 0.6 0 . 5 T =90°C h =10°C
0
.
9
0.8
0
.
7
0.6
0
.
5
T =90°C
h
=10°C
T c
T
h =90°C
0.4
T
c =10°C
Combined recovery cycle
0.3
Heat recovery cycle
C
om
bi
ne
d
recovery
Mass recovery cycle
cycle
0.2
Basic cycle
Heat recovery cycle
0.1
Mass recovery cycle
Basic cycle
0
25
30
35
40
CO P

Intermediate temperature,T m : °C

VVarariiaatitionon ooff COPCOP wwithith TT mm fforor diffdifferenerentt casescases

Desi g n, Anal y sis and O p timization of Sor p tion Beds

Design, Analysis and Optimization of Sorption Beds

Desi g n, Anal y sis and O p timization of Sor p tion Beds Liquid

Liquid Cooled Hydrogen Storage Device with Embedded Heat Exchanger Tubes

Hydrogen Storage Device with Embedded Heat Exchanger Tubes Hydrogen Storage Device with Plate Fins Hydrogen Storage
Hydrogen Storage Device with Embedded Heat Exchanger Tubes Hydrogen Storage Device with Plate Fins Hydrogen Storage

Hydrogen Storage Device with Plate Fins

Hydrogen Storage Device with Radial Fins

Computational Models used in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage

Computational Models used in COMSOL Multiphysics TM

Computational Models used in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage Device
Computational Models used in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage Device

Liquid Cooled Storage Device

in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage Device with Radial Fins
in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage Device with Radial Fins
in COMSOL Multiphysics T M Liquid Cooled Storage Device Air Cooled Storage Device with Radial Fins

Air Cooled Storage Device with Radial Fins

Air Cooled Storage Device with Plate Fins

Minimization of Total Weight Example Data Charging capacity Charge level Char g e time Supply
Minimization of Total Weight Example Data Charging capacity Charge level Char g e time Supply

Minimization of Total Weight Example

Data Charging capacity Charge level Charge time Supply pressure Coolant Temperature L/D ratio Hydriding alloy

= 2 kg = 80 % = 300 s = 15 bar = 300 K = 2 – 4 = LaNi 5

Results Radius of container (r 1 ) = 154 mm

Radius of HX tube (r 2 ) Radius of filter (r 3 ) Pitch distance (s) Total no. of HX tubes Total no. of filters Length of device (L) L/D of device A sc /V c of device

Total system weight (W t ) = 370 kg

/V c of device Total system weight (W t ) = 370 k g = 5.5
/V c of device Total system weight (W t ) = 370 k g = 5.5
/V c of device Total system weight (W t ) = 370 k g = 5.5

= 5.5 mm = 1.5 mm = 22 mm = 163 = 282 = 986 mm = 3.2 =1.182 cm 2 /cm 3

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Radial Fins Ai r Formation of hydride inside tubular

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Radial Fins

Ai

r

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Radial Fins Ai r Formation of hydride inside tubular storage

Formation of hydride inside tubular storage device with fins kept within the air stream during absorption at different time intervals (b=5 mm, p=15 bar, T f =300 K)

different time intervals (b=5 mm, p=15 bar, T f =300 K) Effect of external fins on

Effect of external fins on rate of hy

intervals (b=5 mm, p=15 bar, T f =300 K) Effect of external fins on rate of

Effect of air temperature on hydrid

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Tube Bundle

Air

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s c)

a) 60 s

Results on Air Cooled Devices with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s c)

b) 120 s

on Air Cooled Devices with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s c) 180

c) 180 s

Devices with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s c) 180 s d) 240

d) 240 s

with Tube Bundle Air a) 60 s b) 120 s c) 180 s d) 240 s

18981

e) 300 s

19250 mol/m 3

s b) 120 s c) 180 s d) 240 s 18981 e) 300 s 19250 mol/m

300

360 K

s c) 180 s d) 240 s 18981 e) 300 s 19250 mol/m 3 300 360

Temperature profile of air and concentration profile of hydride bed for the finned-tube metal hydride storage device at different time intervals (p=15 bar, T f =300 K, s/d=2, b=5.5 mm, u= 1 m/s)

(p=15 bar, T f =300 K, s/d=2, b=5.5 mm, u= 1 m/s) Variation of hydride density

Variation of hydride density at leading and trailing cross sections at different bed thicknesses

CFDCFD BasedBased StudyStudy ofof SolidSolid SorptionSorption BedsBeds

H2 z z = H Tf Tf z = 0 r = 0 r =
H2
z
z
= H
Tf
Tf
z
= 0
r = 0
r = R
r

Tf

M t

e a

y

bed

l h

d id

r

e

Physical model of the problem

(a) t= 1500 s (b) t= 2000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different

(a) t= 1500 s

(a) t= 1500 s (b) t= 2000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times
(a) t= 1500 s (b) t= 2000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times

(b) t= 2000 s

(a) t= 1500 s (b) t= 2000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times

Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times

(c) t= 2500 s (d) t= 3000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different

(c) t= 2500 s

(c) t= 2500 s (d) t= 3000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times
(c) t= 2500 s (d) t= 3000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times
(c) t= 2500 s (d) t= 3000 s Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times

(d) t= 3000 s

Velocity vector and Concentration distribution at different times

Pictori al v i ew o f the exper i mental set up f or

Pictorial view of the experimental set up for coupled reactor studies (1) HT hydride reactor (2) LT hydride reactor (3) Hydrogen reservoir /receiver (4) High pressure cylinder (5) HT thermostatic bath (6) LT thermostatic bath, (F1, F2) Gas flow meters, (BP) Bypass, (P1, P2) Pressure gauges

SpecificationsSpecifications ofof thethe SorptionSorption CoolingCooling SystemSystem

HydrideHydride pairpair (HT/LT)(HT/LT) MassMass ofof ZrMnFeZrMnFe MassMass ofof MmNiMmNi 4.54.5 AlAl 0.50.5 CycleCycle timetime

HeatHeat sourcesource temperaturetemperature :: 110110 toto 130130 oo CC :: 2525 toto 3030 CC

HeatHeat sinksink temperaturetemperature ColdCold temperaturetemperature CoolingCooling COPCOP

:: ZrMnFeZrMnFe/MmNi/MmNi 4.54.5 AlAl 0.50.5 :: 700700 gg :: 800800 gg :: 33 toto 1212 minutesminutes

oo

:: 55 toto 1515 oo CC

:: 00

22

toto 00

3535

LiBr ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM
LiBr ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM

Solar thermal air conditioning system in India in Ahmedabad operating since February, 2006.

5000L Hot water & 500L buffer tank s t o r a g e t

5000L Hot water

& 500L buffer tank

storage tank

& 500L buffer tank s t o r a g e t a n k LiBr
& 500L buffer tank s t o r a g e t a n k LiBr

LiBr Vapor Absorption Machine

ETHP Solar Collector Arrays

Vapor Absorption Machine ETHP Solar Collector Arrays Annual System Performance The 25 TR (88 kW cooling)

Annual System Performance

The 25 TR (88 kW cooling) Vapor Absorption Machine is powered by hot water generated through 98.4 kW of high efficiency heat pipe evacuated tube solar collectors. The total carpet area air-conditioned is 227

m2.

Annual Mean COP: 0.856

DESICCANT COOLING SYSTEMS

These are useful when latent heat load is larger than the sensible heat load. Thermal energy input is needed to regenerate the desiccant.

Advantages of desiccant cooing systems:

Environment friendliness Significant potential for energy savings Electrical energy requirements are about 25% of the conventional V-C refrigeration system. Source of input thermal energy are diverse viz solar, waste heat and natural gas. IAQ is improved due to higher ventilation rates and the capability of desiccants to remove air pollutants. Operation at near atmospheric pressures ensures their construction and maintenance to be simple. Desiccant systems can be used for summer/ monsoon air conditioner as well as winter heating when regeneration energy can be used for heating.

Solar Liquid Desiccant System at IIT Madras REGENRATOR HUMID AIR SOLN SOLN HX FROM SOLAR
Solar Liquid Desiccant System at IIT Madras
REGENRATOR
HUMID AIR
SOLN SOLN HX
FROM SOLAR TANK
TO COOLING TOWER
PRE HEATER
PRE COOLER
ABSORBER
TO SOLAR TANK
DRY AIR
FROM COOLING TOWER
AIR
SOLUTION
HOT WATER
COLD WATER

MAJOR PARTS. ABSORBER REGENERATOR SOLUTION HX PRECOOLER PREHEATER

AUXILARY-

FITTINGS

Test Setup

MAJOR PARTS. ABSORBER REGENERATOR SOLUTION HX PRECOOLER PREHEATER AUXILARY- FITTINGS Test Setup

The Regenerator

The Regenerator

The Solar Panels

The Solar Panels FLAT PLAT E COLL E CTOR FI E LD 15 C0LLECTORS PARALLEL IN

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FIELD 15 C0LLECTORS PARALLEL IN 2 ROWS

RANGES OF OPERATING PARAMETERS

Sl.

PARAMETER

RANGE

MEAN

No .

VALUE

1.

HOT WATER TEMPERATURE, o C

60

- 80

80

2.

HOT WATER FLOW RATE, m 3 /h

0.4

- 0.6

0.6

3.

RETURN AIR FLOW RATE, m 3 /s

0.12 - 0.2

0.6

4.

REGENERATION AIR FLOW RATE, m 3 /s

0.18 - 0.34

0.34

5.

SOLUTION FLOW RATE, l/h

125 - 225

225

6.

COOLING WATER FLOW RATE, m 3 /h

0.4

- 0.6

0.6

7.

COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE, o C

28

- 32

28

Note:-

Each parameter is varied in 5 equal steps over the given range and the results are shown in the figures which follow. While one parameter is varied, the other parameters are kept constant at the mean value.

Cooling capacity increases with all input parameters except the cooling water temperature.

Hotwatertemperatureinput parameters except the cooling water temperature. Hotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate

except the cooling water temperature. Hotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate

Hotwaterflowrate

Returnairflowrate

RegenerationairflowrateHotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate

CoolingwaterflowrateHotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate Solutionflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C) .

SolutionflowrateRegenerationairflowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C) . (0.12-0.20m 3

CoolingwatertemperatureCoolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate (60-80 o C) . (0.12-0.20m 3 /s) (0.18-0.34m 3

(60-80 o C) . (0.12-0.20m 3 /s) (0.18-0.34m 3 /s) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr)

(

04

-

06

.

m

3 /h

r)

(125-225l/hr)

(28-32 o C)

• Effect of solution 1.5 flow rate is not significant cooling capacity. on 1 •
• Effect
of
solution
1.5
flow
rate
is
not
significant
cooling capacity.
on
1
Effect of return air 05
flow rate is the
most significant on
.
coolin ca acit
g
p
y.
0

0123456

Input parameter step

Effect of Parameters on (virtual) Cooling Capacity (kW)

Quantity

of water

vapour absorbed in- creases with para- meters except cooling water temperature.

Effect of regeneration air flow rate and cooling water flow rate is not significant on

vapour

water

absorbed.

Effect of return air flow

most

on water

rate

is

the

significant

vapour absorbed.

flow most on water rate is the significant vapour absorbed. Hotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Return air flowrate

Hotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Return air flowrate

RegenerationairflowrateHotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Return air flowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate

CoolingwaterflowrateHotwaterflowrate Return air flowrate Regenerationairflowrate Solutionflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C)

Solutionflowrateair flowrate Regenerationairflowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr)

CoolingwatertemperatureCoolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate (60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr) (0.12-0.20m /s)

(60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr) (0.12-0.20m /s) (0.18-0.34m 3 /s) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr)

3

(125-225l/hr)

(28-32 o C)

3 2 1 0
3
2
1
0

0123456

Inputparameter step

Effect of Parameters on Water Vapour Absorbed (kg/hr)

Increase in hot water temperature the COP remains same.

Increase in hot water flow rate increases heat input so COP decreases.

Increase in return air, regeneration air and

flow

COP

since

capacity

same

cooling

rate

water

the

with

increases cooling increase heat input.

Increase in solution flow rate the COP initially increase and then reduce. Effect of return air flow rate is most significant on COP.

Hotwatertemperatureof return ai r flow rate is most significant on COP. Hotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate

Hotwaterflowrateflow rate is most significant on COP. Hotwatertemperature Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate

Returnairflowrate

RegenerationairflowrateCOP. Hotwatertemperature Hotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate

CoolingwaterflowrateHotwaterflowrate Returnairflowrate Regenerationairflowrate Solutionflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C)

SolutionflowrateRegenerationairflowrate Coolingwaterflowrate Coolingwatertemperature (60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr)

CoolingwatertemperatureCoolingwaterflowrate Solutionflowrate (60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr) (0.12-0.2m 3 /s)

(60-80 o C) (0.4-0.6m 3 /hr) (0.12-0.2m 3 /s) (0.18-0.34m 3 /s)

( 0.4-0.6m 3 /hr)

(125-225l/hr)

(28-32 o C)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0123456

Input parameter step

IntegrationIntegration,, prototypeprototype development,development, andand performanceperformance evaluationevaluation ofof solarsolar collectioncollection devicesdevices withwith heatheat basedbased coocoolilingng tectechhnonollogogiieses iinn tthhee capaccapaciityty rangerange << 1100TRTR

Project Sponsored by MNRE Investigators : Sanjeev Jain & Subhash Mullick; IIT Delhi

Contact: sanjeevj@mech.iitd.ac.in

MAIN OBJECTIVES:

To develop prototype of a membrane based solar desiccant cooling systems for air-conditioning applications

cum

regenerator To carry out detailed experimental investigations and long term performance studies on the prototypes

To

develop

prototype

of

a

solar

collector

Desiccant Dehumidifier Core

Cross flow of air and desiccant

No direct contact between the desiccant and the air stream

Series of double channeled sheets to prevent carryover of liquid in air stream (Sealing ? )

Liquid to wet the sheet completely to ensure maximum area for air/liquid interaction

to wet the sheet completely to ensure maximum area for air /li qu id int erac
to wet the sheet completely to ensure maximum area for air /li qu id int erac

An inside view of the contactor

Experimental dehumidification system

Experimental dehumidification system

Typical Performance

T yp i ca l P er f ormance

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Significant Research and Developmental works are being done by the author on various aspects of Solar cooling technologies.

All the three technologies, i.e. Wet Absorption, Dry Solid Sorption and also Liquid- and Solid Desiccant Dehumidification, are being studied.

Main emphasis is on the Thermodynamics, and Heat & Mass Transfer studies. Integration with Solar Energy Collection and Thermal Energy Storage Sub-Systems are also being done.

All these studies are yielding data for Optimal Thermal Design of Solar Cooling Systems for a variety of applications.

The author is the Chairman of the Solar Thermal Projects Advisory Committee and also the Chairman of the Solar Cooling Expert Committee of the MNRE; and may be contacted for collaboration in specific areas (ssmurthy@iitm.ac.in).

THANK YOU VERY MUCH
THANK YOU VERY MUCH