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# CHAPTER 17 FILTER NETWORKS

## Exercise 99, Page 277

1. Determine the cut-off frequency and the nominal impedance of each of the low-pass filter

## sections shown below.

L
(a) Comparing the low-pass T section with circuit (i) below shows that = 0.5 H, i.e. L = 1 H
2
and C = 0.04 106 F
1 1
Cut-off frequency, f C   = 1592 Hz
 LC  1  0.04 106  
 

L  1 
Nominal impedance, R O    6 
= 5 k
C  0.04 10 

(i) (ii)

C
(b) Comparing the low-pass  section with circuit (ii) above shows that = 27.8 nF,
2

## i.e. C = 2  27.8 = 55.6 109 F and L = 20 103 H

1 1
Cut-off frequency, f C   = 9545 Hz
 LC   20 103  55.6 109  
 

L  20 103 
Nominal impedance, R O    9 
= 600 
C  55.6 10 

2. A filter section is to have a characteristic impedance at zero frequency of 500  and a cut-off

frequency of 1 kHz. Design (a) a low-pass T section filter, and (b) a low-pass  section filter to

## With R O  500  and fC  1kHz ,

1 1
capacitance, C =  = 636.6 nF or 0.6366 F
R OfC   500 1000

RO 500
and inductance, L =  = 159.2 mH
f c  1000 

(a) A low-pass T section filter is shown in (i) below, where the series arm inductances are

L 159.2
 = 79.60 mH, and shunt arm capacitance is 0.6366 F
2 2

(b) A low-pass  section filter is shown in (ii) below, where the series arm inductance is

C 0.6366
159.2 mH, and the shunt arm capacitances are  = 0.3183 F
2 2

(i) (ii)

3. Determine the value of capacitance required in the shunt arm of a low-pass T-section if the

inductance in each of the series arms is 40 mH and the cut-off frequency of the filter is 2.5 kHz.

L
For a low-pass T-section filter series arm inductance = = 40 mH, hence, L = 80 mH
2

1 1 1
Cut-off frequency, f C   fC    fC  
2
from which, and
 LC LC LC

1 1
Hence, capacitance, C =  = 203 nF or 0.203 F
L   fC  80 103   2.5 103 
2 2

4. The nominal impedance of a low-pass -section filter is 600 . If the capacitance in each of the

## shunt arms is 0.1 F determine the inductance in the series arm.

C
For a low-pass -section filter series arm inductance = = 0.1 F, hence, C = 0.2 F
2

L L
R0  
2
Nominal impedance, R O  from which,
C C

 
from which, inductance, L = C  R 0   0.2 106  600  = 72 mH
2 2

Exercise 100, Page 280

1. Determine the cut-off frequency and the nominal impedance for each of the high-pass filter

## sections shown below

(a) Comparing circuit (a) with circuit (a) below gives: 2C = 500 pF, i.e. C = 250 pF

and L = 50 mH

1 1
Cut-off frequency, f C   = 22.51 kHz
4 LC 4 50 10  250 10 
3 12

L  50 103 
Nominal impedance, R O    12 
= 14.14 k
C  250 10 

(a) (b)

(b) Comparing circuit (b) with circuit (b) below gives: 2L = 800 mH, i.e. L = 400 mH

and C = 0.2 F

1 1
Cut-off frequency, f C   = 281.3 Hz
4 LC 4  400 103  0.2 106  
L  400 103 
Nominal impedance, R O    6 
= 1414 
C  0.2  10 

2. A filter is required to pass all frequencies above 4 kHz and to have a nominal impedance of

750 . Design (a) an appropriate T section filter, and (b) an appropriate  section filter to meet

these requirements.

## f C  4 103 Hz and R O  750 

1 1
Capacitance, C =  = 26.53 nF
4R O f C 4  750   4 103 

RO 750
and inductance, L =  = 14.92 mH
4f C 4  4 103 

(a) A high-pass T section filter is shown in circuit (i) below where the series arm capacitances are

each 2C, i.e. 2  26.53 = 53.06 nF and the shunt arm is 14.92 mH.

(b) A high-pass  section filter is shown in circuit (ii) below where the shunt arm inductances are

each 2L, i.e. 2  14.92 = 29.84 mH and the series arm is a 26.53 nF capacitor.

(i) (ii)

3. The inductance in each of the shunt arms of a high-pass -section filter is 50 mH. If the nominal

impedance of the section is 600 , determine the value of the capacitance in the series arm.

## 50 mH is equivalent to 2L, hence, L = 25 mH

R0
From equation (8), L = from which,
4 f C
R0 600
the cut-off frequency, f C   = 1909.86 Hz
4 L 4(25 103 )

1 1
From equation (7), capacitance, C =   69.44 109 F = 69.44 nF
4 R 0 f c 4 (600)(1909.86)

4. Determine the value of inductance required in the shunt arm of a high-pass T section filter if in

each series arm it contains a 0.5 F capacitor. The cut-off frequency of the filter section is

1500 Hz.

A high-pass T section is shown in circuit (a) of question 1 above, where 2C = 0.5 F,

## thus C = 0.25F. fC  1500 Hz .

1 1 1
Capacitance, C = from which, R O   = 212.2 
4R O f C 4Cf C 4  0.25 106  1500 

RO 212.2
and inductance, L =  = 11.26 mH
4fC 4 1500 

Exercise 101, Page 282

1. A low-pass T section filter having a cut-off frequency of 20 kHz is connected in series with a

high-pass T section filter having a cut-off frequency of 8 kHz. The terminating impedance of the

filter is 600 . Determine the values of the components comprising the composite filter.

## For a low-pass T section filter, fCL  20 103 Hz

1 1
Capacitance, C =  = 26.53 nF
R O f C   600   20 103 

RO 600
and inductance, L =  = 9.549 H
f C   20 103 

A low-pass T section filter is shown in circuit (i) below, where the series arm inductances are

L 9.549
each , i.e. = 4.77 mH and the shunt capacitance is 26.53 nF
2 2

(i) (ii)

## For a high-pass T section filter, fCH  8 103 Hz

1 1
Capacitance, C =  = 16.58 nF
4R O f C 4  600   8 103 

RO 600
and inductance, L =  = 5.97 mH
4f C 4  8 103 

A high-pass T section filter is shown in circuit (ii) above, where the series arm capacitances are

each 2C, i.e. 2  16.58 = 33.16 nF and the shunt inductance is 5.97 mH.

## The band-pass filter is shown in the circuit below.

2. A band-pass filter is comprised of a low-pass -section filter having a cut-off frequency of

50 kHz, connected in series with a high-pass -section filter having a cut-off frequency of

40 kHz. The terminating impedance of the filter is 620 . Determine the values of the

## With R O  620  and f CL  50 kHz ,

1 1
capacitance, C =  = 10.268 nF
R Of CL   620  50000 

RO 620
and inductance, L =  = 3.95 mH
f CL   50000 

A low-pass  section filter is shown below, where the series arm inductance is 3.95 mH, and

C 10.268
each shunt arm capacitance is  = 5.13 nF
2 2

## With R O  620  and f CH  40 kHz ,

1 1
capacitance, C =  = 3.21 nF
4R O f CH 4  620  40000 

RO 620
and inductance, L =  = 1.233 mH
4f CH 4  40000 

A high-pass  section filter is shown in circuit below where the shunt arm inductances are each 2L,