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8601 Assignment Autumn 2017

Q.1 Give answers to the following short questions.

(1) The Personal Qualities of a Teacher

Here I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a
teacher? Probably no two people would draw up exactly similar lists, but I think the following would be
generally accepted.

First, the teacher's personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. This does not rule out people
who are physically plain, or even ugly, because many such have great personal charm. But it does rule
out such types as the over-excitable, melancholy, frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated, and over-bearing: I
would say too, that it excludes all of dull or purely negative personality. I still stick to what I said in my
earlier book: that school children probably 'suffer more from bores than from brutes'.

Secondly, it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have a genuine capacity for sympathy -
in the literal meaning of that word; a capacity to tune in to the minds and feelings of other people,
especially, since most teachers are school teachers, to the minds and feelings of children. Closely related
with this is the capacity to be tolerant - not, indeed, of what is wrong, but of the frailty and immaturity
of human nature which induce people, and again especially children, to make mistakes.

Thirdly, I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest. This does not mean
being a plaster saint. It means that he will be aware of his intellectual strengths, and limitations, and will
have thought about and decided upon the moral principles by which his life shall be guided. There is no
contradiction in my going on to say that a teacher should be a bit of an actor. That is part of the
technique of teaching, which demands that every now and then a teacher should be able to put on an
act - to enliven a lesson, correct a fault, or award praise. Children, especially young children, live in a
world that is rather larger than life.

A teacher must remain mentally alert. He will not get into the profession if of low intelligence, but it is
all too easy, even for people of above-average intelligence, to stagnate intellectually and that means to
deteriorate intellectually. A teacher must be quick to adapt himself to any situation, however
improbable (they happen!) and able to improvise, if necessary at less than a moment's notice. (Here I
should stress that I use 'he' and 'his' throughout the book simply as a matter of convention and
convenience.)

On the other hand, a teacher must be capable of infinite patience. This, I may say, is largely a matter of
self-discipline and self-training; we are none of us born like that. He must be pretty resilient; teaching
makes great demands on nervous energy. And he should be able to take in his stride the innumerable
petty irritations any adult dealing with children has to endure.

Finally, I think a teacher should have the kind of mind which always wants to go on learning. Teaching is
a job at which one will never be perfect; there is always something more to learn about it. There are
three principal objects of study: the subject, or subjects, which the teacher is teaching; the methods by
which they can best be taught to the particular pupils in the classes he is teaching; and - by far the most
important - the children, young people, or adults to whom they are to be taught. The two cardinal
principles of British education today are that education is education of the whole person, and that it is
best acquired through full and active co-operation between two persons, the teacher and the learner.

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The Professional Qualities of a Teacher

A great teacher is one a student remembers and cherishes forever. Teachers have long-lasting impacts
on the lives of their students, and the greatest teachers inspire students toward greatness. To be
successful, a great teacher must have:

1. An Engaging Personality and Teaching Style


A great teacher is very engaging and holds the attention of students in all discussions.
2. Clear Objectives for Lessons
A great teacher establishes clear objectives for each lesson and works to meet those specific
objectives during each class.
3. Effective Discipline Skills
A great teacher has effective discipline skills and can promote positive behaviors and change in the
classroom.
4. Good Classroom Management Skills
A great teacher has good classroom management skills and can ensure good student behavior,
effective study and work habits, and an overall sense of respect in the classroom.
5. Good Communication with Parents
A great teacher maintains open communication with parents and keeps them informed of what is
going on in the classroom as far as curriculum, discipline, and other issues. They make themselves
available for phone calls, meetings, and email.
6. High Expectations
A great teacher has high expectations of their students and encourages everyone to always work at
their best level.
7. Knowledge of Curriculum and Standards
A great teacher has thorough knowledge of the school's curriculum and other standards they must
uphold in the classroom. They ensure their teaching meets those standards.
8. Knowledge of Subject Matter
This may seem obvious, but is sometimes overlooked. A great teacher has incredible knowledge of
and enthusiasm for the subject matter they are teaching. They are prepared to answer questions and
keep the material interesting for the students.
9. Passion for Children and Teaching
A great teacher is passionate about teaching and working with children. They are excited about
influencing students' lives and understand the impact they have.
10. Strong Rapport with Students
A great teacher develops a strong rapport with students and establishes trusting relationships.

(2) What is a case method?

The case method combines two elements: the case itself and the discussion of that case. A teaching case
is a rich narrative in which individuals or groups must make a decision or solve a problem. A teaching
case is not a "case study" of the type used in academic research. Teaching cases provide information,
but neither analysis nor conclusions. The analytical work of explaining the relationships among events in
the case, identifying options, evaluating choices and predicting the effects of actions is the work done by
students during the classroom discussion.

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(3) Define and compare active learning and Cooperative Learning.

Active learning is any teaching method that gets students actively involved; cooperative learning is one
variety of active learning which structures students into groups with defined roles for each student and
a task for the group to accomplish. Lecture-based library instruction is often unsuccessful for many
reasons, including poor student attention, simplified examples, and too much material presented at one
time. Active and/or cooperative teaching techniques involve the students in the class and increase
retention of information following the class period. Active learning techniques are easier to apply and
take less class time, while cooperative learning techniques require more advance planning and may take
an entire class period. Choosing a teaching technique must be done carefully, with an understanding of
the goals of the class session. Several possible goals are detailed, along with suggested techniques for
meeting each one.

(4) What is lesson planning? Write down the five merits of lesson planning for the teachers.

Lesson planning is one of the most crucial parts of your work in the classroom: Get it right, and it’s a
great day of teaching. Get it wrong, and the lesson feels painfully long for both you and your students.
Building technology into your lesson can be even more cumbersome, particularly as teachers and
students transition to a more technology-centered learning environment. Setting classroom norms can
take time.

The five merits of lesson planning for the teachers

1.Sharing
The power to share lesson plans in the cloud lets teachers adapt and improve their efforts in a
classroom quicker than they could in the past. Before cloud sharing, exchanging lesso n plans
included a hassle-filled morning at the copy machine or extensive hand-written notes. Today,
student information systems allow teachers to collaborate on a larger repository of ideas that are
proven and tested in the real world.
Administrators can also access lessons and communicate with teachers directly. Teachers can also
share lessons with colleagues and save lesson plans to a template collection, for easy reuse in the
future.

2. Access

Speaking of home computers, lots of teachers have a computer at home that they might prefer to
use instead of bringing home their school-provided laptop. Of course, this is only possible if they
have access to school information at home.

Storing school information in the cloud allows teachers and staff the freedom to work on school-
related tasks from any device, not just school-provided laptops. In addition to the increased ability
to collaborate (see #1), teachers have access to all their information via the cloud and can work
from their preferred device regardless of location.

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3. Efficiency

As Teach Thought points out, if your current lesson plan system isn’t making teacher's lives easier, it
might be time for an upgrade. For example, if your school is considering moving from an on-
premises system to the cloud, the new tools should enable users to do a better job with less effort.
This includes reducing word processing time and duplicated work by keeping records and planning
enclosed within the same system.

Moving lessons and other digital resources to the cloud can also make schoolwork more efficient for
students. When worksheets are available as downloads from a central location, students don’t have
to worry about leaving important papers at school – they can just print out a new copy from their
home computer. And once students are comfortable with this system, teachers won’t have to print
as many assignments and waste as much paper at school.

4. Security

Lots of teachers rely on their home computers to prepare lesson plans and information for their
students, and use email or a USB drive to transfer that information to their devices at school. But
what if one of those devices is lost, stolen or damaged? The lack of a dedicated, device -independent
backup could cost hours of work and cause massive stress and frustration.
Cloud wards notes that you don’t have to worry about losing data to a faulty device in a cloud-
based system because everything is backed up offsite. Also, concerns about accessing sensitive
information are reduced since a username and password are required to get access to the cloud
backup service. You can also set additional passwords on individual folders or place restrictions on
what people can do with the contents for added security.

5. Flexibility

Teachers often find themselves spending more time on a lesson than they intended to. Sometimes
an unexpected event or delay can require "bumping" large portions of their lesson plans around on
the schedule.

Good systems make it easy to extend lessons, move plans around, and push the lessons that follow
down automatically with a few clicks. Flexibility can also refer to various calendar viewing and date
selection options, such as monthly, weekly, daily and list views.

(5)
Define the term inquiry approach; enlist the methods that come under the umbrella of this approach.
Inquiry is a dynamic process of being open to wonder and puzzlement and coming to know and
understand the world. As such, it is a stance that pervades all aspects of life and is essential to the way
in which knowledge is created. Inquiry is based on the belief that understanding is constructed in the
process of people working and conversing together as they pose and solve the problems; make
discoveries and rigorously testing the discoveries that arise in the course of shared activity.

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Inquiry is a study into a worthy question, issue, problem or idea. It is the authentic, real work that that
someone in the community might tackle. It is the type of work that those working in the disciplines
actually undertake to create or build knowledge. Therefore, inquiry involves serious engagement and
investigation and the active creation and testing of new knowledge.

There are several dimensions of inquiry:

 Authenticity
 The inquiry study emanates from a question, problem or exploration that has meaning to the
students.
 An adult at work or in the community might actually tackle the question, problem, issue or
exploration posed by the task/s.
 The inquiry study originates with an issue, problem, question, exploration or topic that provides
opportunities to create or produce something that contributes to the world’s knowledge.
 The task/s require/s a variety of roles or perspectives.
 Academic Rigor
 The inquiry study leads students to build knowledge that leads to deep understanding.
 Students are provided with multiple, flexible ways to approach the problem, issue or question
under study that use methods of inquiry central to the disciplines that underpin the problem,
issue or question.
 The inquiry study encourages students to develop habits of mind that encourage them to ask
questions of
 Evidence (how do we know what we know?)
 Viewpoint (who is speaking?)
 Pattern and connection (what causes what?)
 Supposition (how might things have been different?)
 why it matters (who cares)
 Assessment
 On-going assessment is woven into the design of the inquiry study providing timely descriptive
feedback and utilizes a range of methods, including peer and self evaluation. Assessment guides
student learning and teacher’s instructional planning.
 The study provides opportunities for students to reflect on their learning using clear criteria that
they helped to set. The students use these reflections to set learning goals, establish next steps
and develop effective learning strategies.
 Teachers, peers, adults from outside the classroom and the student are involved in the
assessment of the work.
 Beyond The School
 The study requires students to address a semi-structured question, issue or problem, relevant to
curriculum outcomes, but grounded in the life and work beyond the school.
 The study requires students to develop organizational and self management skills in order to
complete the study.
 The study leads students to acquire and use competencies expected in high performance work
organizations (eg. team work, problem solving, communications, decision making and project
management).

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8601 Assignment Autumn 2017

 Use of Digital Technologies


 Technology is used in a purposeful manner that demonstrates an appreciation of new ways of
thinking and doing. The technology is essential in accomplishing the task.
 The study requires students to determine which technologies are most appropriate to the task.
 The study requires students to conduct research, share information, make decisions, solve
problems, create meaning and communicate with various audiences inside and outside the
classroom.
 The study makes excellent use digital resources.
 Students and parents have on-going, online access to the study as it develops.
 The study requires sophisticated use of multimedia/hypermedia software, video, conferencing,
simulation, databases, programming, etc.
 Active Exploration
 The study requires students to spend significant amounts of time doing field work, design work,
labs, interviews, studio work, construction, etc.
 The study requires students to engage in real, authentic investigations using a variety of media,
methods and sources.
 The study requires students to communicate what they are learning with a variety of audiences
through presentation, exhibition, website, wiki, blog, etc.
 Connecting With Expertise
 The study requires students to observe and interact with adults with relevant expertise and
experience in a variety of situations.
 The study requires students to work closely with and get to know at least one adult other than
their teacher.
 The tasks are designed in collaboration with expertise, either directly or indirectly. The inquiry
requires adults to collaborate with one another and with students on the design and assessment
of the inquiry work.
 Elaborated Communication
 Students have extended opportunities to support, challenge, and respond to each other’s ideas
as they negotiate a collective understanding of relevant concepts. Students have opportunities
to negotiate the flow of conversation within small and large group discussions.
 Students have opportunities to choose forms of expression to express their understanding.
 The inquiry provides opportunities for students to communicate what they are learning with a
variety of audiences.

Q.2
Define and explain the concept of effective teaching. Highlight the principles of effective
teaching.
Effective teaching is more than just the successful transference of knowledge and skill or
application around a particular topic. Effective teaching ensures that this surface approach to
learning is replaced by deeper, student driven approaches to learning that analyses, develop,
create and demonstrate understanding. Students need to initiate learning and maintain
engagement during learning in their development as independent lifelong learners.

Principles of effective teaching:

Principle 1:
Care about helping your kids to do the best that they can
Effective teachers are passionate about helping their students to learn. They form warm and caring

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relationships with their students. However, they also set high expectations, and they demand that their
students meet them. This leads to a situation where the teacher and the students are working together
towards a common goal – helping every child to learn as much as they can.
Principle 2:
Understand but don’t excuse your students
Effective teachers seek to understand their students, but so do most teachers. The difference is that
effective teachers still expect each of their students to behave and to achieve well. Effective teachers
use their understanding to adjust their approach to teaching, but they did not use it to excuse
misbehavior, poor effort or a lack of real academic progress.
Principle 3:
Be clear about what you want your students to learn
Effective teachers are clear about what they want their students to learn and they share this with
their students. Everyone understands what success entails. Effective teachers also know where students
are currently at in this area. They then work towards developing the understanding and skills their
students need to demonstrate that they have mastered the material.
Principle 4:
Disseminate surface knowledge and promote deep learning
Effective teachers want their students to be able to think critically and to develop a deep
understanding of the material being taught in class. However, they recognize developing this deep
understanding requires sharing a foundational set of knowledge and skills. Armed with this foundation,
teachers can help students to develop a deep understanding of the topic at hand.
Principle 5:
Gradually release responsibility for learning
Effective teachers do not ask their students to perform tasks that they have not shown their students
how to do. Rather, they start by modeling what students need to do. They then ask their students to
have a go themselves, while being available to help as needed. Only when students are ready, do they
ask their students to perform the tasks on their own. Finally, they offer ongoing cumulative practice,
spaced out over time, to help students retain what they have learned.

Principle 6:
Give your students feedback
Effective teachers give students dollops of feedback. This feedback tells students how they are going
and gives them information about how they could improve. Without feedback, students are likely to
continue holding misconceptions and making errors. Feedback allows students to adjust their
understanding and efforts before it is too late.
Principle 7:
Involve students in learning from each other
Effective teachers’ supplement teacher-led, individual learning, with activities that involve students in
learning from each other. When done well, strategies such as cooperative learning, competition and
peer tutoring can be quite powerful. Yet, these activities must be carefully structured and used in
conjunction with more traditional teaching.

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Principle 8:
Manage your students’ behavior
Effective teachers know that students’ behavior can help or hinder how much students learn in the
classroom. They implement strategies that nurture positive behavior and minimize misbehavior. They
are consciously aware of what is going in the classroom, and they nip problems in the bud before quickly
returning the focus to the lesson at hand. Finally, they follow up on more serious misbehavior and help
students to change any entrenched bad habits.
Principle 9:
Evaluate the impact you are having on your students
Effective teachers regularly assess student progress, and they then use this insight to evaluate the
impact they are having on their students. If what they are doing is working, they continue to use or even
make more use of a particular approach. If what they are doing is not having the desired impact (even
for just one student), they reflect on and refine what they are doing until they are getting the results
they want.
Principle 10:
Continue learning ways that you can be of even more help to more students
Effective teachers love learning and are always seeking to improve their own practices. They seek out
evidence-based insights, and they are happy to challenge their existing beliefs about teaching. However,
they are also critical of mindless innovation, innovation for the sake of it, and innovation that adopts
practices that are not supported by research.
You can use these principles of effective teaching to reflect on your own practice, to discuss effective
teaching with colleagues or evaluate particular programs/approaches you are considering.
Q.3
What is Ganges’ framework for instructional development?
Gagne created a nine-step process that detailed each element required for effective learning. The
model is useful for all types of learning, but this article focuses on applying it to training your team in a
work environment.
Benefits of Gagne's Model
Gagne's Nine Levels of Learning model gives trainers and educators a checklist to use before they
engage in teaching or training activities. Each step highlights a form of communication that aids the
learning process. When each step is completed in turn, learners are much more likely to be engaged and
to retain the information or skills that they're being taught.
If you use this approach before any type of training session or presentation, you'll remember how to
structure your session so that your people get the best possible learning experience.
Using the Tool
We'll now look at each of the nine levels, and provide example of how you can apply each step in
your own situation.
Level 1: Gaining Attention (Reception)
Start the learning experience by gaining the attention of your audience. This change in stimulus
alerts the group that learning will soon take place.

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Level 2: Informing Learners of the Objective (Expectancy)


Next, you must ensure that your team knows what they need to learn, and that they understand why
they're about to learn this new information.
Level 3: Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning (Retrieval)
When your people learn something new, match the new information with related information or
topics they've learned in the past.
Level 4: Presenting the Stimulus (Selective Perception)
Present the new information to the group in an effective manner.
Level 5: Providing Learning Guidance (Semantic Encoding)
To help your team learn and retain the information, provide alternative approaches that illustrate the
information that you're trying to convey.
Level 6: Eliciting Performance (Responding)
At this stage, you need to ensure that your people can demonstrate their knowledge of what you've
taught them. The way that they show this depends on what they're learning.

Level 7: Providing Feedback (Reinforcement)


After your team demonstrates their knowledge, provide feedback and reinforce any points as
necessary.
Level 8: Assessing Performance (Retrieval)
Your team should be able to complete a test, or other measurement tool, to show that they've
learned the material or skill effectively. Team members should complete this test independently,
without any help or coaching from you.
Level 9: Enhancing Retention and Transfer (Generalization)
In this last stage, your team members show that they've retained information by transferring their new
knowledge or skill to situations that are different from the ones you've trained them on.
Comparing With Other Training Models
Gagne's Nine Levels of Learning provide a useful approach that helps managers and structure the
learning process. Each different stage complements the others, and by working through all nine levels,
you can help to ensure that your team fully understands and retains information.
Although Gagne's model is different from other popular training models, you can still combine it with
other methods. A good example is 4MAT , a training method that helps you to structure your approach
so that people with different learning styles will learn just as effectively as everyone else. (Our article on
4MAT also explains common learning styles – Kolb's, and Honey and Mumford's are particularly
respected.)
The ARCS model is also a good learning method to use with Gagne's model. ARCS focuses on motivation
and making sure that learners understand the benefits of the new skill or information. Since this is step
2 in Gagne's model, the ARCS model can help you to understand better how to increase your team's
motivation and engagement with the training.

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Q.4 Why is outlining of goals/objectives necessary before planning a lesson? How are objectives
stated in behavioral terms?
Goals and objectives are important to strategic planning because they turn the mission and vision into
specific measurable targets. Goals and objectives are concrete and help translate the mission and vision
into reality.
♦ Goals are the ends toward which a program or problem solution is directed. Goals are outcome
statements to guide implementation of the strategy (i.e., the tactics of what is planned to be done).
While goals tend to be general or broad and ambitious, they also must be clear and realistic in order to
clarify the team's direction and gain support of other stakeholders.
♦ Objectives are more detailed than goals and explain how goals will be accomplished. Objectives detail
the activities that must be completed to achieve the goal.
An example of a goal is-to successfully reintegrate released offenders back into society by severing ties
with gangs. The objectives might be: (1) develop anti-gang campaign and (2) 50 percent of offenders will
sever ties with gangs in the first year. The goal is a broad statement of a changeable condition, one
many community members could identify with. The objectives then provide specific direction and
approaches. The objectives are measurable and realistic.
When setting goals it is important to create ones that range from the comfortable to the challenging. A
challenging goal is often referred to as a “stretch goal” and is designed to inspire a reach beyond where
we normally would expect to achieve. The significance of setting a stretch goal is that it provides focus
and generates energy.

How are objectives stated in behavioral terms?


A behavioral objective is a learning outcome stated in measurable terms, which gives direction to the
learner’s experience and becomes the basis for student evaluation.
Objectives may vary in several respects. They may be general or specific, concrete or abstract, cognitive,
affective, or psychomotor. Cognitive objectives emphasize intellectual outcomes, such as knowledge,
understanding, and thinking skills. Affective objectives emphasize feeling and emotion, such as interests,
values, attitudes, appreciation, and methods of adjustment. Psychomotor objectives emphasize motor
skills, such as physical assessment skills and administration of chemotherapy.

Points in writing behavioral objectives:


1. Begin each behavioral objective with a verb. The critical aspect of any behavioral objective is the
verb selected to indicate expected behavior from learning activities.
2. State each objective in terms of learner performance. A behavioral objective is one that is
considered to be observable and measurable. Behavior is generally construed to be an action of an
individual that can be seen, felt, or heard by another person.
3. State each objective so that it includes only one general learning outcome.
Examples of objectives
At the graduate level of nursing education, it is expected that learning objectives will
be general, abstract, and cognitive or affective. Examples of appropriate objectives for graduate
students are as follows:
 Cognitive: Create an assessment tool based on a nursing theory for patients experiencing pain.
 Cognitive: Evaluate the usefulness of nursing research in clinical practice.
 Affective: Accept professional responsibility for change in problem clinical situations.

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Q.5 Define and describe the term motivation. What are different types of motivation? Discuss in
detail.
The term motivation is derived from the Latin verb mover (to move). The idea of movement is
reflected in such commonsense ideas about motivation as something that gets us going, keeps us
working, and helps us complete tasks. Yet there are many definitions of motivation and much
disagreement over its precise nature. These differences in the nature and operation of motivation are
apparent in the various theories we cover in this text. For now, we will say that motivation has been
conceptualized in varied ways including inner forces, enduring traits, behavioral responses to stimuli,
and sets of beliefs and affects.
The different types of motivation
1: INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
When the source of the motivation is from within the person himself/herself or the activity itself.
2: EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
When that which motivates a person is someone or something outside himself/herself.
3: TYPE OF MOTIVATION WHICH IS MORE BENEFICIAL
Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious
external incentive present. Intrinsic motivation is more beneficial than extrinsic motivation.
4: THE ROLE OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
External motivation in the form of rewards, incentives or punishment. Extrinsic motivation is necessary
to develop the love for learning among poorly motivated students.
5: THE ROLE OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Hopefully the students develop the genuine love for learning and become intrinsically motivated in
the process. It is expected, however, that these extrinsic motivational factors be gradually replaced
internal motivation.
6: THE ROLE OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
We may begin employing extrinsic motivation at the start but this should fade away as the students get
intrinsically motivated themselves.

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