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JBoss Application Server Overview

Community Project

JBoss Application Server* is the world's lead-

ing Open Source Java EE application server for
developing and deploying enterprise applica-
tions. The latest in this line, JBoss AS 7 (Java EE
Web Profile certified), provides the same devel-
oper friendly environment as previous versions
JBoss Application Server 7 while offering revolutionary new management
capabilities, and much more.
Blazing fast startup (~3seconds)
Services are started concurrently to eliminate unnecessary waits and leverage multi-core processors, while non-critical
services remain passivated until first use. JBoss AS 7 offers a 10-fold reduction in startup time over previous versions.

An aggressive approach to memory management and metadata indexing keeps the footprint exceptionally small,
enabling it to run with stock JVM settings and on small devices. Profiles can be used to tune the capabilities of
the server.

Modular core
JBoss Modules offers true application isolation, hiding server implementation classes and only loads the classes your
application needs. Class loading is concurrent for extreme performance. OSGi support is available the moment you
install the application server.

Hot, incremental deployment

Quick turnaround during development as a result of fast, concurrent deployment and the ability to edit static resources
without redeployment in a flexible deployment structure.

Elegant administration
Consistent and powerful management is available, ranging from a polished, user-friendly web console to Java and
HTTP APIs to a command line tool to direct XML edits. Configuration data is centralized and user-focused.

Domain (multi-server) management

One controller can rule them all or you can simply start a standalone server. Port offsets can be changed with a single
switch. Rolling deployments are available

First class components

JBoss AS builds on many best of breed standalone OSS projects: Hibernate, JBoss Transactions, Infinispan, Iron
Jacamar, RESTEasy, Weld, HornetQ, JGroups, JBoss Logging, Mojarra, Apache CXF, and more.

Java EE 6 programming model

Java EE 6 offers a modern, loosely coupled programming model, founded on CDI, a specification driven by JBoss.
With Java EE 6 you can focus on implementing your business logic, and allow the platform to take care of the rest.

Testable by design
Arquillian offers absolute fidelity for testing: the ability to test your application inside the actual environment. Just like
CDI, Arquillian takes care of all the boilerplate in the background, removing clutter from your tests.

Scan this and find out

more about the JBoss Application Server project.

* JBoss Application Server is in the upstream for JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.
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About the Platform
Common Annotations For Java
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition
Java Enterprise Edition 6
Java Servelet 3.0
The Most Elegant Enterprise Java Yet

JavaServer Faces 2.0
Enterprise JavaBeans 3.1 By Andrew Lee Rubinger


Enterprise software development is inherently complex, and multi-user JSR-250

systems open the door to concerns such as transactional integrity, security, he common annotations for Java EE are a shared package used throughout
persistence integration, and interaction between components. Very simply the platform specifications that generally focus on shared services like
put, the mission of the Java Enterprise Edition is to enable an out-of-the-box lifecycle, injection, and security.
set of configurable services that allows the programmer to write less and focus
on delivering clean business logic.
Class Name Description
To this end, Java EE 6 is an aggregate of many interoperable technologies
designed to deliver a unified experience. Application Servers that are Generated Marks generated code
certified to the standards defined by the Java Community Process are
intended to service applications written to the specifications within the ManagedBean Defines a class as a Java EE 6 Managed Bean

For the sake of brevity, this reference card will focus on the key APIs of Java EE PostConstruct Lifecycle callback after an instance has been created but
6 that are most relevant to modern development. before it is put into service
PreDestroy Lifecycle callback before an instance is to be removed from

JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION 6 (JAVA EE 6) Resource Defines an injection point, marks that this is to be provided by
the container

JSR-316 Resources Allows for injection of N resources

This umbrella specification ties together the various subsystems that comprise
the platform and provides additional integration support.
DeclareRoles Class-level target defining valid security roles
New to Java EE 6 is the notion of the “Web Profile”, a subset of the full DenyAll Marks that no roles are allowed to access this method
specification that is targeted to cater to more specialized and minimal web-
based application requirements. It is guaranteed to support the platform PermitAll Marks that all roles are allowed to access this method (or all
common annotations for injection and lifecycle (JSR-250), JNDI Naming methods if applied to a class)
standards, and the Java Transaction API. Additionally, the Web Profile
focuses on Servlet and closely related technologies such as persistence, view RolesAllowed Specifies list of roles permitted to access this method (or all
presentation (JavaServer Faces and JavaServer Pages), and the business logic methods if applied to a class)
elements of EJB Lite.
RunAs Defines the identity context when run in the container
Code Example
The simple class below is all it takes in Java EE 6 to define a POJO-based
managed component capable of lifecycle callbacks, interceptors, and
resource injection.

* Interceptor logging that an invocation has been received
public class LoggingInterceptor {

Java Enterprise Edition 6

public Object intercept(InvocationContext context) throws Exception {

System.out.println(“Been intercepted: “ + context);
return context.proceed();

* Defines a simple managed bean able to receive an injection
@Interceptors({LoggingInterceptor.class}) // Invocations will be
// intercepted
public class ComponentResourceInjection {

private UserTransaction userTransaction;

// ... business methods will be intercepted

// by LoggingInterceptor

The full JavaDoc for the Java EE 6 API is located at:

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2 Java Enterprise Edition 6


JSR-315 JSR-311
Servlet technology models the request/response programming model and New to Java EE, the JAX-RS specification allows for standard development
is commonly used to extend HTTP servers to tie into server-side business adhering to the Representational State Transfer (REST) paradigm. These
logic. In Servlet 3.0, the specification has been expanded to include applications are packaged as a Servlet inside a web application archive.
support for annotations, asynchronous processing, pluggability, and
general ease-of-configuration.
Code Example * JAXB Model of a Name
Because Servlet 3.0 includes annotations to define servlets, the descriptor @XmlRootElement
web.xml is no longer required in most of the common cases; below is an public class Name {

example of all that’s needed to create a simple servlet. private String name;

public Name(String name) {

this.name = name;
/** }
* Simple Servlet which welcomes the user by name specified public Name() {}
* by the request parameter “name”.
*/ public String getName() {return this.name;}
@WebServlet(urlPatterns =
{“/welcome”}) // Will service requests to the path “/welcome” public void setName(String name) {
public class WelcomeServlet extends HttpServlet this.name = name;
{ }
/** }
* Inject a reference to an EJB
*/ /**
@EJB * Services requests for the path “/name”
private WelcomeBean bean; * returning the JAXB-formed Name XML
/** @Path(“/name”)
* Service HTTP GET Requests @Produces({“application/xml”})
*/ public class NamedResource extends javax.ws.rs.core.Application {
@Override @GET
protected void doGet(final HttpServletRequest request, final HttpServletResponse public Name get(@QueryParam(“name”) String name) {
response) throws ServletException, return new Name(name);
IOException }
{ }
// Get the name from the request
final String name = request.getParameter(“name”);

// Precondition checks
...and HTTP GET requests to “{baseUrl}/myapp/name?name=andrew” will
if (name == null) return the XML form for the Name.
response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_BAD_REQUEST, “Request
parameter \”name\” is required”); Public API Annotation Selection from javax.ws.rs:
Class Name Description
// Set content type
Consumes Defines the media types that may be accepted
// Get the welcome message
final String welcomeMessage = bean.welcome(name);
CookieParam Injects the value of an HTTP cookie to a method param
// Write out or bean/class field
DefaultValue Defines default values for cookies and other parameters

DELETE Flags that a method is to service HTTP DELETE requests

Public API from javax.servlet.annotation:
Class Name Description Encoded Disables automatic decoding of parameter values
HttpConstraint Defines security constraints for all HTTP-servicing meth-
ods in a secured servlet FormParam Injects the value of a form parameter to a resource method
HttpMethodCon- Defines security constraints for an HTTP-servicing
straint method in a servlet GET Flags that a method is to service HTTP GET requests

MultipartConfig Indicates the servlet is to service requests for multipart/ HEAD Flags that a method is to service HTTP HEAD requests
form-data MIME type

ServletSecurity Secures a servlet class for HTTP-servicing methods HeaderParam Injects the value of a header parameter

HttpMethod Draws an association between an HTTP method with an an-

WebFilter Defines a class as a servlet filter notation

WebInitParam Specificies an initialization parameter on a servlet or filter MatrixParam Injects the value of a URI matrix parameter

WebListener Defines a class as a web listener Path Designates the URI path that a resource class or resource
method will serve

WebServlet Defines a class as a servlet

PathParam Injects the value of a URI path parameter

PermitAll Marks that all roles are allowed to access this method (or all
method if applied to a class) POST Flags that a method is to service HTTP POST requests

RolesAllowed Specifies list of roles permitted to access this method (or all Produces Signals the media type(s) to be served by this resource
methods if applied to a class)
PUT Flags that a method is to service HTTP PUT requests
RunAs Defines the identity context when run in the container
QueryParam Injects the value of a query parameter

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3 Java Enterprise Edition 6

javax.enterprise.inject.Stereotype Specifies that an annotation is a


javax.enterprise.inject.Typed Restricts the types of a bean

The Java Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) specification Relevent Public Annotation API from JSR-330,
introduces a standard set of application component management services Dependency Injection for Java in package javax.inject:
to the Java EE platform. CDI manages the lifecycle and interactions Class Name Description
of stateful components bound to well defined contexts. CDI provides
typesafe dependency injection between components. CDI also provides Inject Identifies injectable constructors, methods, and fields
interceptors and decorators to extend the behavior of components, Named String-based qualifier
an event model for loosely coupled components and an SPI allowing
portable extensions to integrate cleanly with the Java EE environment.
Qualifier Identifies qualifier annotations
Additionally, CDI provides for easy integration with view layers such as
JavaServer Faces 2.0 (JSR-314). Scope Identifies scope annotations

Singleton Identifies a type that the injector only instantiates once

Code Example
Below is a simple example of a CDI Bean that is placed in scope alongside
the HTTP session, given a String-based name binding (such that it may be For a deeper dive into CDI, check out DZone’s CDI Refcard: http://
used in JSF view components, for example) and injects the FacesContext refcardz.dzone.com/refcardz/contexts-and-depencency
such that it may be used in business methods.


@SessionScoped // Bind to the web session
@Named // To be used in view components by name
public class GreeterBean implements Serializable {
@Inject // Used to integrate w/ JSF
private FacesContext context;
New to Java EE 6, the Bean Validation Specification provides for unified
declaration of validation constraints upon bean data. It may be used to
public GreeterBean() {} maintain the integrity of an object at all levels of an application: from user
// ... business methods form input in the presentation tier all the way to the persistence layer.
Code Example
Here is an example of how to apply Bean Validation constraints in a
Class Name Description declarative fashion to ensure the integrity of a User object.

javax.decorator.Decorator Declares the class as a Decorator public class User {

@Size(min=1, max=15)
javax.decorator.Delegate Specifies the injection point of a private String firstname;
@Size(min=1, max=30)
private String lastname;
javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped Specifies the bean has applica-
tion scope @Pattern(regexp=”\b[A-Z0-9._%+-]+@[A-Z0-9.-]+\.[A-Z]{2,4}\b”)
public String email;

javax.enterprise.context.ConversationScoped Specifies the bean has conversation

Public Annotation API for javax.validation

javax.enterprise.context.Dependent Specifies the bean belongs to
dependent pseudo-scope Class Name Description
Constraint Link between a constraint annotation and its constraint
javax.enterprise.context.NormalScope Specifies the bean is normally- validation implementations
GroupSequence Defines a group sequence
javax.enterprise.context.RequestScoped Specifies the bean is request-scoped

javax.enterprise.context.SessionScoped Specifies the bean is session-scoped OverridesAttribute Mark an attribute as overriding the attribute of a com-
posing constraint
javax.enterprise.event.Observes Identifies an event parameter of an
observer method OverridesAttribute.List Defines several @OverridesAttribute annotations on the same

javax.enterprise.inject.Alternative Specifies that the bean is an ReportAsSingleViola- A constraint annotation hosting this annotation will return the
Alternative tion composed annotation error report if any of the composing
annotations fail.
javax.enterprise.inject.Any Built-in qualifier type Valid Mark an association as cascaded

javax.enterprise.inject.Default Default qualifier type

javax.enterprise.inject.Disposes Identifies the disposed parameter of

a disposer method
javax.enterprise.inject.Model Built-in stereotype for beans
defining the model layer of an MVC
webapp (ie. JSF) JSR-314
JavaServer Faces is a user interface (UI) framework for the development
javax.enterprise.inject.New Built-in qualifier type of Java web applications. Its primary function is to provide a component-
javax.enterprise.inject.Produces Identifies a Producer method or field
based toolset for easily displaying dynamic data to the user. It also
integrates a rich set of tools to help manage state and promote code
javax.enterprise.inject.Specializes Indicates that a bean specializes reuse.
another bean

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4 Java Enterprise Edition 6

Additionally, JSF is an extensible specification that encourages the Public API from javax.faces.application:
authoring of custom user views. It’s designed with tooling in mind such
that integrated development environments (IDEs) can intelligently assist Class Name Description
with design. Application Singleton scoped per web application to provide
configuration for things like validators, components
Code Example and converters
Here we’ll show a simple example of a JSF managed bean whose state is
scope to the HTTP request, and is registered to a bean name that may be ApplicationFactory Creates (if required) and returns Application instances
accessed by the view layer.
ApplicationWrapper Application type which may be used by developers to
/** add to an existing ResourceHandler
* This class defines a bean to live bound to the HTTP
* request scope, and may be accessed by the view layer
* under the name “hitchhikersGuide”. ConfigurableNavigation- Extends NavidationHandler to provide runtime inspection
*/ Handler of the NavigationCase which defines the rule base for
import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;
import javax.enterprise.context.RequestScoped;
import javax.faces.application.ProjectStage;
import javax.faces.bean.ManagedBean;
FacesMessage A single validation message
import javax.faces.bean.ManagedProperty;

NavigationCase A single navigation case in the navigation rule base
@ManagedBean(name = “hitchhikersGuide”)
public class HitchhikersGuide {
private String ultimateAnswer;
NavigationHandler Handles navigation from a given action and outcome
@ManagedProperty(value = “#{facesContext.application.projectStage}”)
private ProjectStage journeyStage; Resource Models a client resource request
public String getUltimateAnswer() {
return ultimateAnswer;
} ResourceHandler API by which UIComponent and Renderer instances can
reference Resource instances
public void setUltimateAnswer(String ultimateAnswer) {
this.ultimateAnswer = ultimateAnswer;
} ResourceWrapper Simple base implementation of Resource to be extended
by developers looking to add custom behaviors
public ProjectStage getJourneyStage() {
return journeyStage; StateManager Coordinates the process of saving and restoring the view
between client requests
public void setJourneyStage(ProjectStage journeyStage) {
this.journeyStage = journeyStage;
} StateManagerWrapper Base implementation of a StateManager which may be
subclasses by developers looking to add custom behaviors
public void findUltimateAnswerToUltimateQuestion() {
ultimateAnswer = “42”; ViewHandler Pluggable point for the render response and restore view
} phases of the request lifecycle.

index.xhtml View: ViewHandlerWrapper Base implementation of a ViewHandler which may be sub-

classes by developers looking to add custom behaviors.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN”
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”
<title>Sample JSF Page</title> ENTERPRISE JAVABEANS 3.1
<h2><h:outputText value=”Test Managed Bean Annotations”/></h2>
<p><h:outputText value=”hitchhikersGuide.ultimateAnswer =
#{hitchhikersGuide.ultimateAnswer}”/></p> Enterprise JavaBeans provide a component model to encapsulate
<h2><h:outputText value=”Test Project Stage”/></h2> business logic. As such, they provide a few bean types:
<p><h:outputText value=”project stage = #{hitchhikersGuide.
journeyStage}”/></p> • Session Beans
</html> • Stateless
• No conversational state between requests
Public API from javax.faces.bean:
• Stateful
Class Name Description
Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in application
• Same bean instance used to service each client/session
scope • Singleton
CustomScoped Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in a custom-de-
fined scope of the specified value • One shared bean instance for all users
ManagedBean Defines a class as a ManagedBean type • Message-Driven
ManagedProperty Injection point for fields in ManagedBean classes • Event Listener
• JCA endpoint
NoneScoped Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in the “none” scope
• Asynchronous
ReferencedBean Denotes the class as a referenced bean
• Entity
RequestScoped Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in request scope
• Integration point w/ Java Persistence
SessionScoped Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in session scope

ViewScoped Denotes a ManagedBean is to be in view scope

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5 Java Enterprise Edition 6

Code Example TransactionAttribute Configures the transactional context under which business
It’s simple to define an EJB capable of greeting a user. methods should execute

TransactionManage- Configures transactional management for a Session or

/** ment Message-Driven Bean (container or bean provided)
* Stateless Session EJB
@Stateless // Defines a Stateless Session Bean
@LocalBean // No-interface view
public class GreeterBean {
public String greet(String name) { JAVA PERSISTENCE 2.0
return “Hi, “ + name + “!”;

Most enterprise applications will need to deal with persistent data,
Other components, such as Servlets, may now inject a proxy to the above and interaction with relational databases can be a tedious and difficult
EJB: endeavor. The Java Persistence specification aims to provide an object
view of backend storage in a transactionally aware manner. By dealing
@EJB private GreeterBean greeterEjb; with POJOs, JPA enables developers to perform database operations
without the need for manually tuning SQL.

Public API Annotation Selection from javax.ejb:

Class Name Description Code Example
A JPA entity is simply a POJO with some annotations to provide additional
AccessTimeout Designates the amount of time a concurrent method mapping metadata. For instance:
should block before timing out
ActivationConfig- Used to configure Message-Driven Beans @Entity
public class SimpleEmployee {
Property @Id @Auto
private Long id;
AfterBegin Defines a Tx callback method for the “after begin” private String name;
event public Long getId(){ return id; }
public void setId(final Long id) { this.id = id; }
AfterCompletion Defines a Tx callback method for the “after completion” event public String getName() { return name; }
public void setName(final String name) { this.name = name; }
ApplicationException Defines a user exception which should not be wrapped

Asynchronous Defines methods to be executed asynchronously. Now a managed component such as an EJB or CDI bean can interact with
the database through our entity by associating it with an EntityManager.
BeforeCompletion Defines a Tx callback method for the “before completion”
event @PersistenceContext
private EntityManager em;
ConcurrencyManage- Configures the concurrency management mode for a single-
ment ton session bean public void createUser(){
final SimpleEmployee andrew = new SimpleEmployee();
DependsOn Designates initialization order for Singleton Session Beans andrew.setId(100L);
andrew.setName(“Andrew Lee Rubinger”);
em.persist(andrew); // Store in the DB
EJB Defines an injection point and dependency upon an EJB // Now any state changes done to this managed object will be
component // reflected in the database when the Tx completes
EJBs Plural injection point and dependency for EJB components, to
be applied at the class-level

Local Defines a local business interface view

Public API Annotation Selection from javax.persistence:
LocalBean Defines a no-interface view
Class Name Description
Lock Defines a concurrency lock for Singleton Session Beans using
Basic Describes mapping for a database column
container-managed concurrency

MessageDriven Defines a Message-Driven Bean Column Specifies column mapping for a persistent property
PostActivate Defines an event callback after a Stateful Session Bean has
been activated DiscriminatorCol- Notes the discriminator column used for SINGLE_TABLE
umn and JOINED inheritance strategies
PrePassivate Defines an event callback before a Stateful Session Bean is to
be passivated
DiscriminatorValue Specifies the value of the discriminator column for entities of this
Remote Defines a remote business interface view
ElementCollection Defines a collection of instances
Remove Defines a business method that should trigger the removal of
a Stateful Session Bean instance (i.e., destroy the session)
Embeddable Defines a class whose instances are stored as part of the owning
Schedule Defines a new timer to be created with a specified schedule
Schedules Plural of Schedule
Embedded Specifies a persistent property whose value is an instance of an
Singleton Defines a Singleton Session Bean embeddable class

Startup Denotes that a Singleton Session Bean should eagerly load EmbeddedId Denotes composite primary key of an embeddable class

Stateful Defines a Stateful Session Bean Entity Defines a POJO as a persistent entity

StatefulTimeout Defines the amount of idle time before a Stateful Session is EntityListeners Specifies callback listeners
eligible for removal

Stateless Defines a Stateless Session Bean Enumerated Specifies that a persistent property should be persisted as an
Timeout Defines a timer expiration method

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6 Java Enterprise Edition 6

GeneratedValue Specifies generation strategies for primary keys PostLoad Define an event callback method

PostPersist Define an event callback method

Id Denotes a primary key field
PostRemove Define an event callback method
IdClass Denotes a composite primary key class
PostUpdate Define an event callback method
Inheritance Denotes the inheritance strategy for this given entity
PrePersist Define an event callback method
JoinColumn Specifies a column for joining an entity association or element
collection. PreRemove Define an event callback method
JoinColumns Plural of JoinColumn Define an event callback method
JoinTable Maps associations Specifies the primary table for this entity
Lob Denotes a binary large object persistent property Denotes persistence of Date and Calendar field types
ManyToMany Defines an N:N relationship Denotes that a property is not persistent
ManyToOne Defines an N:1 relationship Specifies the persistent property used as the optimistic lock
NamedQuery Defines a static query in JPAQL

OneToMany Defines a 1:N relationship

OneToOne Defines a 1:1 relationship

OrderBy Specifies ordering of elements when a Collection is retrieved

PersistenceContext Used for injecting EntityManager instances

PersistenceUnit Used for injecting EntityManagerFactory instances


Andrew Lee Rubinger Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test
functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest
Open Source Software Engineer and Author edition of bestselling guide. Written by the
developers of the JBoss EJB 3.1 implementation,
Advocate for and speaker on testable enterprise Java this book brings you up to speed on each of the
development, author of “Enterprise JavaBeans 3.1” component types and container services in this
from O’Reilly Media. Member of the JBoss Application technology, while the workbook in the second
Server development team and technical lead of the ShrinkWrap section provides several hands-on examples for
project. Proudly employed by JBoss / Red Hat. putting the concepts into practice. Enterprise
JavaBeans 3.1 is the most complete reference you’ll find on this


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