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Analogies Analytical NTS

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Analogies Analytical NTS

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Tests, This is effort ofNTSFORUMS.com team members and

we will daily add more question and pastpapers

on https://www.facebook.com/NTS.NAT.GAT.Schedule

1: Odometer is to mileage as compass is to ______

.A. speed B. hikingC. needle D. direction

2: Marathon is to race as hibernation is to _______ .A.

winter B. bearC. dream D. sleep

3: Window is to pane as book is to

_________.A. novel B. glassC. cover D. page

4: Cup is to coffee as bowl is to

________.A. dish B. soup C. spoon D. food5: Yard is to

inch as quart is to ________.A. gallon B.

ounceC. milk D. liquid

6: Elated is to despondent as enlightened is

to ___ _______.A. aware B. ignorant

C. miserable D. tolerant

7: Optimist is to cheerful as pessimist is

to _____ _____.A. gloomy B. meanC. petty D. helpful

8: Reptile is to lizard as flower is to

________.A. petal B. stemC. daisy D. alligator

9: Play is to actor as concert is to

_________.A. symphony B. musicianC. piano D. percussion

10: Sponge is to porous as rubber is to

_________.A. massive B. solidC. elastic D. inflexible

11: Careful is to cautious as boastful is

to ______ __.A. arrogant B. humbleC. joyful D. suspico

us

12: Pen is to poet as needle is to _________.A. thread

B. buttonC. sewing D. tailor

13: Secretly is to openly as silently is to

_______ .A. scarcely B. impolitelyC. noisily D. quietly

14: Embarrassed is to humiliated as frightened is to

_________.A. terrified B. agitatedC. courageous D.

reckless

15: Pride is to lion as shoal is to

_________.A. teacher B. studentC. self-respect D. fish

16: Artist is to painting as senator is to

________ _.A. attorney B. lawC. politician D.

constituents

17: Exercise is to gym as eating is to

__________.A. food B. dietingC. fitness D. restaurant

18: Candid is to indirect as honest is to

_________ .A. frank B. wickedC. truthful D. untruthful

19: Guide is to direct as reduce is to

_________.A. decrease B. maintainC. increase D. presere

20: Oar is to rowboat as foot is to

_______.A. running B. sneakerC. skateboard D. jumping

Answers:

1: D

2: D

3: D

4: B

5: B

6: B

7: A

8: C

9: B

10: C

11: A

12: D

13: C

14: A

15: D

16: B

17: D

18: D

19: A

20: C

How to Solve | Learn Analytical Reasoning

Questions in Test | Quiz

• The term "analytic reasoning" refers to recognizing patterns and connections in a variety of

information.

• Each analytical reasoning question is a logical puzzle, based on a given set of conditions

• Analytical reasoning questions are presented in groups of four or five questions. Each group is

based on a short passage followed by a set of conditions.

• Analytical Reasoning test measures your ability to analyze and to draw result from a complex

situation by applying your logic.

• Analytical Reasoning questions are designed to assess the ability to consider a group of facts and

rules, and, given those facts and rules, determine what could or must be true. The specific scenarios

associated with these questions are usually unrelated to law, since they are intended to be

accessible to a wide range of test takers. However, the skills tested parallel those involved in

determining what could or must be the case given a set of regulations, the terms of a contract, or

the facts of a legal case in relation to the law. In Analytical Reasoning questions, you are asked to

reason deductively from a set of statements and rules or principles that describe relationships

among persons, things, or events.

• Analytical Reasoning questions appear in sets, with each set based on a single passage. The

passage used for each set of questions describes common ordering relationships or grouping

relationships, or a combination of both types of relationships. Examples include scheduling

employees for work shifts, assigning instructors to class sections, ordering tasks according to

priority, and distributing grants for projects.

• Analytical Reasoning questions test a range of deductive reasoning skills. These include:

die problem posed (for example, an acceptable seating arrangement of all six diplomats around a

table)

• Reasoning with conditional ("if-then") statements and recognizing logically equivalent formulations

of such statements

• Inferring what could be true or must be true from given facts and rules

• Inferring what could be true or must be true from given facts and rules together with new

information in the form of an additional or substitute fact or rule

• Recognizing when two statements are logically equivalent in context by identifying a condition or

rule that could replace one of the original conditions while still resulting in the same possible

outcomes

Analytical reasoning Types

• Seating Arrangements

• Sequencing

• Combinations

• Comparisons

• Selections

• Ranking

• Relations

• Grouping

• Van Diagrams

• Math Operators

• Line up representation

• Equations

• Table representation

• Diagrams & Notations

• Basic Linear Sequence Game set up

• If then Notation:

• Grouping Game Diagrams

Math Symbols

• Fast - You must be able to express ideas in shorthand to save time

• Easy to Understand —You must instantly understand what your notations mean

1: Entities

• One of the first steps in setting up your diagram is write down a letter or number to represent

each of your entities. Each game will have a list of entities that will be placed into an order or

groups or both. Start by writing down this list of entities. For example: you are told that there are 5

different clogs in a race and they are a Labrador, Mixed Breed, Newfoundland, Poodle, and a

Schauzer. Record this list of entities as follows:

•L M N P S

• Notice that we only used one letter for Mixed Breed. There is no sense in confusing yourself with

additional letters. Keep it to one letter per entity. Also notice that the entities are given in

alphabetical order. However, they will often leave our a letter or two to confuse you. Some students

will unwittingly insert that letter by force of habit. For example in this question many students might

just add in the letter O because the are used to Ofollowing L M N. Make sure your list of entities

matches those given.

• Now that we have our list of entities we can move on to the diagram itself.

• A Linear Sequence Game will ask you to place a set of entities in order. This could be expressed in

a number of ways including: 1st to 6th, First to Last, Monday to Friday, Top to Bottom, Front to

Back, etc.

• In order to make a place for each entity in your diagram simply lout an underline for each space

where an entity will go. So if we are told to list five dogs in order from fastest to slowest we can set

up our game as follows:

• ____ _____ _____ _____ ______

• We now have 5 spots for our 5 dogs. If you want you could put F and S at the ends of the

diagram to represent that it goes from Fastest to Slowest. This is usually not necessary and can

waste time when you are re-drawing your diagram. If you chose to include this extra notation make

sure that the F and S do not match any of your entities. For example if you had a Schnauzer as one

of your dog types you would not want to have S for Schauzer and S for slowest. One way you can

avoid this is to put the f and s for fast and slow in lower case.

3: Fixed Entity

• If we are told that an entity is placed in one spot then we can just fill that directly into the

diagram. This is the easiest type of rule to include. For example if we are told that the Schnauzer

will be 3rd fastest then we can include it as follows:

• Not in that spot: If we are told that a particular entity does not go in a particular spot we should

add that directly to our diagram by putting the entity under that spot and designating that it does

not go there. There are number of ways to designate that the entity does not go there. You can put

a slash through it, or put — in front of the entity. Find one that works best for you. For example if

we are told the the Poodle is not the fastest dog we can include it in our diagram as follows:

• This notation is used when two entities are going to fill two spots but we don't know which entity

is in which spot. For example if K and T must be in spots 2 and 3. We know we either have K in 2

and T in 3 or T in 2 and K in 3.

• The way to express this with the Here or There Pair notation is as follows:

5: If then Notation

• Use an arrow ====> for If then statements. Just rewrite the if then statement replacing If and

then with ====> arrows. Also remember to shorten the entity to the first letter.

• For example the statement: If Albert is included then Bert is also included. Can be expressed as:

• ====> A ====> B

• If we are told that entities are a specific number of spots apart simply insert that many blank lines

between them. For example: Two runners come after Sarah but before Fred. Can be expressed as

S ____ _____ F

Example: 1

• 7 persons live in a street, having houses in line. Consider the following:

2. 2. C is between E and G 3.

3. There is 1 house between D and F 4.

4. F is neighbor of G s.

5. There are two houses between A and G

Solution

7 Persons A,B,C,D,E,F,G

• 7 persons live in a street

We can make

X X X X X X X

A X X X X X X

X X X X X X A

2. C is between E and G

E C G

G C E

D X F

F X D

4. F is neighbor of G

2 possibilities

F G or G F

A X X G

G X X A

C is between E and G: A E C G

F is neighbor of G: A E C G F

And finally: A E C G F B D

Example: 2

• As part of their sports physical, seven college athletes F, G, H, I,J, K and L are being weighed. In

announcing the results of the physical exams, the coach has given the following information.

i. None of the athletes is exactly the same weight as another athlete.

ii: K is heavier than L, but lighter than H.

iii. I is heavier than J

iv. Both F and G are heavier than H.

Solution

• We Can Make Such relations from Given Information

i. None of the athletes is exactly the same weight as another athlete. So we can represent as F > G

>H>I>J>K>L

H>K>L

iii: I is heavier than J : I>J

iv. Both F and G are heavier than H. F > G > H OR G > F > H

H>K>L

Where I > J can be adjusted anywhere in Above relations Any Single Athlete or more can be

possible between I & J Such as I > F > J, I > J > G, I > H > K > J

A. F is the heaviest.

B. G is the heaviest.

C. I is the heaviest.

D. More than three athletes are heavier than K.

E. More than three athletes are lighter than K.

• Answer is E

• F > G > H > k > L > I > J OR G > F > H > k > L > I > J

• Question.2: Which of the following, if true, would be sufficient to determine which athlete is the

lightest?

A. I is the heaviest

B. I is lighter than K

C. K is heavier than J

D. J is heavier than K

E. Exactly five students are lighter than F.

• Answer is D

• F > G > H > k > L OR G > F > H > k > L and I > J before K.

• Question. 3: If J is heavier than F, how many different rankings by weight, of the athletes are

possible?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. 5

• Answer is D

• As F > G > H > k > L OR G > F > H > k > L & I > J > F

• If J > F then following relations can be possible

• I>J>F>G>H>k>L

• I>J>G>F>H>k>L

• I>G>J>F>H>K>L

• G>I>J>F>H>K>L

• Question. 4: If H is heavier than I, which of the following CANNOT be true?

A. I's weight is equal to the average of F's weight and G's weight.

B. I's weight is equal to the average of K's weight and L's weight

C. J's weight is equal to the average of K's weight and L's weight

D. J is the second lightest.

Answer is A

F > G > H > k > I > L > J OR G > F > H > I > k > J > L

May this information help you out.. if this is helpful than please share it with other social web sites.

Quantitative

• The Quantitative section measures your basic mathematical skills, concepts and the ability to solve

problems in a quantitative setting.

Question Types

• Age problems

• Work hours problems

• Clock angles and Sector area

• Algebraic expressions

• Speed distance problems

• Fractions & Percentages

• Range, mean, Mod

• Simple Geometry problems

• Basic Arithmetic

• Probability

• Ratios

• Profit, Discount problems

• Equation solving for Variables

Example:

If a man running at 15 kmph passed a bridge in 9 seconds, what is the length of the bridge?

Solution: As S=v*t

Length=(15*1000/ 3600)*9=37. 5m

------------------------------------

• Mean Value

• The mean average is not always a whole number.

• The mean is the total of the numbers divided by how many numbers there are.

• To work out the mean:

• Add up all the numbers.

7 + 9 + 11 +6+13 + 6 + 6 + 3 + 11 = 72

• Divide the answer by how many numbers there are. There are 9 numbers.

72 / 9 = 8

-------------------------------------------

• Mode Value

• 7 9 11 6 13 6 6 3 11

• To work out the mode:

• Put the numbers in order: 3 6 6 6 7 9 11 11 13

• Look for the number that appears the most. 6 appears more than any other number.

-----------------------------------------

• Median value

• To work out the median:

• Put the numbers in order: 3 6 6 6 7 9 11 11 13

• The number in the middle of the list is the median. So the median value is 7.

• If there are two middle values, the median is halfway between them. Work out the median for this

set of numbers:

• 3 6 6 6 7 8 9 11 11 13

• There are two middle values, 7 and 8.

The median is halfway between 7 and 8, so the median is 7.5.

--------------------------------------

• Range

• The range is the difference between the biggest and the smallest number.

• To work out the range:

• Put the numbers in order:

3 6 6 6 7 9 11 11 13

13 - 3 = 10

--------------------------------------

• Sum of given Series

Example:

• Sum=((7+140)/2)*20

• Sum=73.5*20

• We have to find avg so

• Avg=73.5*20/20=73.5

--------------------------------------------

• Probability

where

Example:

What is the probability of sum 9 on both of two dice when rolled together?

Solution:

Events whose sum is 9 are (3,6),(6,3),(4,5),(5,4)=4

Example: • Marble size is 20cm*30cm. How many marbles are required to cover a square with side

3m?

• 3m= 300cm

• Area of Square=300*300

• =300*300/ 20*30= 150

------------------------------------------------

• LOG PROPERTIES

• 1) Multiplication inside the log can be turned into addition outside the log

• Log(x.y)=log x+logy

• 2) Division inside the log can be turned into subtraction outside the log

• Log(x/y)=logx - logy

• In x^2=21n x

• In e=1

-------------------------------------------

Example:

• 5*30+30*35/60=150+17.5=167.5 degrees

-------------------------------------------

• WORK SHARE

• Amount of Work/Time=Output(Rate)

Example:

• A can do a piece of work in 4 hours; B and C together can do it in 3 hours, while A and C together

can do it in 2 hours. How long will B alone take to do it?

• A=1/4

• B+C=1/3

• A+C=1/2

• C=1/2 - 1/4=1/4

• B=1/3 - 1/4=1/12

----------------------------------------------

• AGE PROBLEM

• Example:

• If father is double the age of his son. 20 years ago he was 12 times that of son. What is the age of

father now?

• F=2S

• F-20=12(S-20)

• 2S-20=12S-240

• 10S=220

• S=22

• F=2S=44

------------------------------------------------

• Percentage % SHARE

• A company sell three types of mobiles worth 100, 125, and 225. It sold equal no. of all mobiles.

What is the percent share of cheapest mobile?

• Total=100+125+225=450

-----------------------------------------------

Commission = cost of service * commission rate

• Loss % = Lost* 1 00 / C. P

---------------------------------------------

• Sector Area

• Sector Area=pi* r^2*angle

Example:

A clock's minute hand is 10cm long. What area it will cover from 9:00am to 9:35am?

• Solution:

r=10 cm

Area=pi* r^2* angle

Area=3.14*10*10*(7/12)

Area=183.3 cm^2

Note: for 35 minute, minute hand position will be at 7 angle with position as 7/12 or angle=

210/360

-------------------------------------------------

• Solving Expressions

Example:

Solution:

3 * 3^x +5 * 3^x=8

3^x (3+5)=8

3^x=1

3^x=3^0

Hence x=0

--------------------------------------------------

• Area= pi*r^2

• C=2*pi*r

• Perimeter=4s

• Area of triangle= b*h/ 2

• Perimeter= sum of all sides

• Area of Equilateral triangle=sqrt3 *s^2 /4

• Perimeter=3s

• Area of rectangle= L*W

• Perimeter=2(L+W)

• Volume of cylinder = pi*r^2*h

-----------------------------------------------------

• Cube :

• 2. Surface area = 6a^2 sq. units.

• 3. Diagonal =sqrt 3a units.

Example:

A.125

b.216

c.294

d.343

• SOLUTION:

a^2=49

So a=7

Volume of Cube= a^3

a^3=7^3=343

-----------------------------------------------

• Cylinder :

--------------------------------------------------

• i values

• I=sqrt of -1

• I^2=-1

• I^4=1

------------------------------------------------

• Average formula:

• Average= sum of elements/no of elements

-------------------------------------------------

• RATIO

• 3:b=x:c

• X=?

• 3c=bx

• X=3c/b

-------------------------------------------------- GOOD LUCK

How to Solve | Learn Logical Reasoning Questions in Test

| Quiz

• Logical Reasoning is a skill-based exercise that requires no outside knowledge of the content.

Logical reasoning refers to the ability to identify, analyze, evaluate and construct complex reasoning.

• Every Logical Reasoning question begins with a stimulus: either a single paragraph or a dialogue

between two speakers. Each stimulus presents an argument or a set of facts drawn from various

sources, such as newspapers and magazines, academic journals, advertisements, and informal

discourse. Regardless of whether the topic is art, medicine, or animals, remember that your

knowledge of any particular content is not tested.

• Logical reasoning section of the test evaluate the understanding of how the test taker interlinks

different ideas presented in a small passage and deduce results from the hidden assumptions on the

basis of logic.

• 1.Assumptions : Find the unstated assumption the author makes to go from the evidence

provided to the conclusion reached.

• 2.Flaws :Determine the error the author makes in going from the evidence to the conclusion.

• 3.Strengthen :Identify information that can be added to the argument to make it more likely to

be so; in other words, to make the assumption of the argument more probable.

• 4.Weaken :Identify information that can be added to the argument to make it less likely to be so;

in other words, to make the assumption of the argument less probable.

• 6.Paradox :Provide an alternative explanation or factor to make sense of two facts that seem

contradictory

• 7.Parallel Reasoning :Identify the choice that contains the same kind of reasoning as the

stimulus.

• 8.Point at Issue :Identify the issue on which two speakers present differing opinions.

• 10.Application :Find the answer that must be true based on the information provided in the

stimulus.

• 11.Main Point :Find application of whole passage/Key word. Determine the function of a given

statement in the argument.

• 12.Inferences :Find the central claim presented in the author's argument.

• Step 1: Identify the Question Type:-Read the question stem to identify the question type.

Reading the question stem first lets you identify the question type and determine your task as you

read the stimulus. It also allows you to read the stimulus actively by pulling specific information that

will help you answer the question.

• Step 2: Untangle the Stimulus:-Read the stimulus and examine it through the lens of the

question type you identified in Step 1. In other words, as you read the stimulus, unpack it for the

information you will need to answer the particular question.

• Now that you've analyzed the information from the question stem and stimulus, it's time to think

critically about the answer. You don't need to use complete sentences or formal language.

• You just need enough to move to the next step and sort through the answers.You also have to be

ready for an answer that is similar to, but not an exact replica of, your prediction. This step is very

important and is the one you will be most likely to skip. Don't! It will feel awkward. In the beginning,

but give it a chance. Once you practice it and get better, it will actually improve your speed and

efficiency. Without this step, you are more likely to get distracted by wrong answers and waste time

analyzing each answer and rechecking it against the stimulus.

• Step 4. Evaluate the Answer Choices:- • Review the answer choices and determine which one

best matches your prediction. Most often, one answer will stand out for you. If not, eliminate wrong

answers and consider the common wrong answer traps.

Now in Logical Reasoning Questions we are adding Three main categories, these three types are

including here due to the GAT (Graduate Assessment Test) and NAT (National Aptitude Test)

test.

1: Verbal Reasoning

2: Quantitative Reasoning

3: Analytical Reasoning

How to Solve | Learn Analogies Reasoning Questions in

Test | Quiz

MEDICINE : ILLNESS ::

hunger : thirst

etiquette : discipline

love : treason

stimulant : sensitivity

Ask yourself the following questions:

Is the purpose of LAW to prevent or cure ANARCHY, or disorder? This works, so hold on to Choice

(A).

Is the purpose of PRIDE to prevent ENVY? No, in fact there is no strong connection between these

two words. Eliminate.

Is the purpose of COURTESY to prevent BEHAVIOR? No, so eliminate.

Is the purpose of LOVE to prevent TREASON? No, so eliminate.

Is the purpose of a STIMULANT to prevent SENSITIVITY? No, a STIMULANT increases SENSITIVITY.

Eliminate.

You could have eliminated choices (B), © and (D) if you had to guess for this one. None of these

word pairs have a strong, defining connection. The pair of words in the stem always have a strong

connection between them, and so the correct answer must as well.

PALTRY : SIGNIFICANCE ::

redundant : discussion

austere : landscape

opulent : wealth

oblique : familiarity

(E) banal : originality

Something PALTRY lacks SIGNIFICANCE. You are looking for the answer choice with the same

connection between the words, so go through the answer choices one by one.

When something is REDUNDANT, or no longer needed, does it lack DISCUSSION? No, this word pair

has no strong connection. Eliminate.

When something is AUSTERE, or plain and undecorated, does it lack LANDSCAPE? No, so eliminate.

When something is OPULENT, or rich and luxurious, does it lack WEALTH? No, quite the opposite.

Eliminate.

Does something OBLIQUE lack FAMILIARITY? An OBLIQUE thing is indirect, so it may lack clarity,

but not FAMILIARITY. These two words are not strongly connected. Eliminate.

Does something BANAL lack ORIGINALITY? Well, if something is BANAL it is predictable, so yes.

That pair has the same relation as the stem pair. The classic relation of lack has left only one

possible answer, choice (E).

EXTORT : OBTAIN ::

pilfer : steal

(B) plagiarize : borrow

explode : ignite

purify : strain

consider : appeal

When you EXTORT something, you obtain it by force or threats. To EXTORT is to OBTAIN

dishonestly. Now look for the answer choice with the same connection between the words:

To PILFER is to STEAL dishonestly? Well, now, this is a tricky one. PILFER, which is a synonym for

STEAL, is certainly dishonest. But how can you STEAL dishonestly? You can't—stealing is always

dishonest! So this answer doesn't work.

To PLAGIARIZE is to BORROW dishonestly? Yes, plagiarism is borrowing material from another

writer without giving him or her acknowledgment. That would fit the description of borrowing

dishonestly. Choice (B) looks good.

To EXPLODE is to IGNITE dishonestly? No, so eliminate.

To PURIFY is to STRAIN dishonestly? No. Eliminate.

To CONSIDER is to APPEAL dishonestly? No. That leaves us with Choice (B).

SODDEN : MOIST ::

arid : harsh

nostalgic : emotional

wet : liquid

(D) maudlin : sentimental

assertive : bold

Something SODDEN is very wet, so it is, by definition, extremely MOIST. This is a bridge of DEGREE.

Similarly, something MAUDLIN is, by definition, extremely SENTIMENTAL.

Of the wrong answers: Something ARID, meaning too dry to support agriculture, may be HARSH,

but it is not necessarily so to a strong degree. Something NOSTALGIC, or reminiscent of some past

place or condition, may make one EMOTIONAL, but there is no strong bridge between the two

words. Something WET has LIQUID on or in it, but it is not, by definition, extremely LIQUID. Wrong

bridge. Someone who is ASSERTIVE, or aggressive, may be BOLD, but there's no degree

relationship here.

MAVEN : EXPERTISE ::

monarch : wisdom

athlete : determination

neophyte : honesty

klutz : grace

(E) supplicant : humility

By definition, a MAVEN, meaning expert, has expertise. Likewise, a SUPPLICANT, or humble beggar,

by definition has HUMILITY.

Of the wrong answers: A MONARCH may or may not have WISDOM, an ATHLETE may or may not

have HUMILITY, and a NEOPHYTE, or beginner, may or may not have HONESTY. You could

eliminate all of these weak bridges. A KLUTZ, or clumsy person, by definition lacks GRACE. This is a

strong but wrong bridge.

EQUANIMITY : HARRIED ::

celebrity : infamous

erudition : urbane

© moderation : dissolute

distinction : singular

intuition : logical

someone who is DISSOLUTE, meaning lacking moral restraint, by definition lacks MODERATION.

Someone with CELEBRITY, or fame, may or may not be INFAMOUS, or disreputable. Someone with

ERUDITION, or book knowledge, may or may not be URBANE, or suave. Someone with INTUITION

may or may not be LOGICAL. You could eliminate all of these weak bridges. Something SINGULAR,

meaning exceptional, by definition has DISTINCTION. This is a strong but wrong bridge.

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