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First Law of Motion

- "A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will
remain in motion unless it is acted upon by an external
force." This simply means that things cannot start, stop, or
change direction all by themselves. It takes some force
acting on them from the outside to cause such a change.
This property of massive bodies to resist changes in their
state of motion is sometimes called inertia.

Second Law of Motion


- states that when a force acts on an object, it will cause
the object to accelerate. The larger the mass of the
object, the greater the force will need to be to cause it to
accelerate. This is written in mathematical form as F = ma,
where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration.

Third Law of Motion

- states that for every action, there is an equal and


opposite reaction. This means is that pushing on an object
causes that object to push back against you, the exact
same amount, but in the opposite direction.

Example:

A soccer ball is sitting at rest. It takes an unbalanced force of a


kick to change its motion.

Example:

Two teams are playing tug of war. They are both exerting equal
force on the rope in opposite directions. This balanced force
results in no change of motion.

Example:

Catching the ball is a very clear example which uses Newton’s


second law of motion. Professional sportsmen swing their hand
back once they catch the ball as it provides the ball more time
to lose its speed, in turn increasing the Δt and reducing Δp / Δt.

Example:

When hitting a tennis ball, the force of the racquet swing causes
the ball to accelerate in the direction of the swing force. A
heavier ball is slower than a lighter one.

Example:

The birds use action and reaction pair while flying. The wings
push the air downwards, and the air pushes the bird upwards.

Example:

You can’t walk on the slippery surface but you can easily do so
on a rough surface. This is because the horizontal component of
the force you exert on the floor for pushing it backwards gets a
reaction force from the rough ground in terms of friction acting
forwards on your feet, but slippery surface lacks this friction.
 Distance
- is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered"
during its motion.
 Displacement
- is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the
object's
 Velocity
- is a vector quantity that refers to "the rate at which an object changes its
position."
 Speed
- is a scalar quantity that refers to "how fast an object is moving." Speed can be
thought of as the rate at which an object covers distance.
 Acceleration
- is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes
its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.
 Projectile
- is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity.
 Momentum
- is a physics term; it refers to the quantity of motion that an object has.
Momentum can be defined as "mass in motion." All objects have mass; so, if an
object is moving, then it has momentum - it has its mass in motion.
 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Is it same as the motion having uniform acceleration
First Law of Motion
- "A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will
remain in motion unless it is acted upon by an external
force." This simply means that things cannot start, stop, or
change direction all by themselves. It takes some force
acting on them from the outside to cause such a change.
This property of massive bodies to resist changes in their
state of motion is sometimes called inertia.

Second Law of Motion


- states that when a force acts on an object, it will cause
the object to accelerate. The larger the mass of the
object, the greater the force will need to be to cause it to
accelerate. This is written in mathematical form as F = ma,
where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration.

Third Law of Motion

- states that for every action, there is an equal and


opposite reaction. This means is that pushing on an object
causes that object to push back against you, the exact
same amount, but in the opposite direction.

Example:

A roller coaster has inertia. When it starts to drop it wants to


continue moving in the same direction at a constant speed. It
doesn’t however because the tracks act as an outside force and
change the roller coaster car’s direction.

Example:

When a car slows down quickly the people in the car tend to
continue moving forward, possibly crashing their heads into the
windshield if they’re not wearing a seat belt. The seat belt
prevents them from shooting forward through the windshield.

Example:

Pushing your bicycle versus when you are pushing your car. You
require more force to be given to the car in order to move it at
an equal acceleration as compared to force required to move
your bicycle. Bicycle having less mass than a motor cycle
accelerates at a lesser force applied on it.

Example:

Trying to kick a rock as hard as possible? It probably won’t even


budge. But try tossing a pebble in the water and you might just
ace it! The same force produced lesser acceleration in case of a
heavy mass as compared to a lighter mass.

Example:

Rocket propulsion is also a good example of Newton’s Third Law.


The exhaust from the rocket pushes the ground and the ground
pushes the rocket with equal and opposite force to cause the
latter to move forward.

Example:

The third law of motion helps us swim as we propel ourselves


forward and push the water behind us.