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TAGOLOAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


Baluarte, Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental
COLLEGE OF CRIMINOLOGY-Review Center

Review Notes in Drug Education and Vice Control

LAW ENFORCEMENT APPROACH


A. GOVERNMENT LAWS AND STRATEGIES
R.A. 6425,also known as the Dangerous Drug Act of 1972 was promulgated in March 30,
1972,estimated 20, 000 Filipino users were recorded. The execution of LIM SENG in 1972 dried
up the supply of heroin in the street and never recovered its marketability. By the year 1980 the
number of drug users increased to 250,000 in the country. The Government stared feeling the
alarming increase of drug use.
Presidential Decree No. 1675 as supplemented by General Order No. 65; Presidential Decree
No. 1683, and Presidential Decree1708 which were all procedural in nature were promulgated
to supposedly give more teeth to out drug laws.

In 1981, despite of intensive drug efforts and the passage of drug laws, the foreign syndicates
used our shores as a transit point of heroin and cocaine traffic. Metro Manila still remained as
the center of drug activity accounting 42% number of arrest in 1981. With the growing number
of drug users the government implemented and rehabilitation program by putting-up more
dormitories but despite of all efforts the drug population increases by 10% in the same year
there were 312,000 drug users.

LESSON 1

TERMS AND DRUG ABUSE JARGONS

A. TERMS TO PONDER

Administer- the act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person with or
without his knowledge.

Chemical- it is any substance taken into the body that alters the way and the mind and the
body work.
Chemical abuse- it is an instance when the use of chemical has produced negative or harmful
consequences.
Cultivate- it is the act of knowingly planting, growing, raising or permitting the planting or
growing,
raising any plant which is the source of prohibited drugs.
Drug- traditionally, drugs are synthetic chemicals used as medicine or in making medicines,
which affects the body and the mind and have potential for abuse. Drugs in its criminological
meaning refers to substances, other than food and water that is intended to be taken or
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administered for the purpose of altering, sustaining or controlling recipients physical, mental or
emotional state.
Drug abuse- it is illegal, wrongful or improper use of any drug.

Drug addiction- it refers to the state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by a repeated
consumption of a drugs.

Drug dependence- it refers to the state of psychic or physical dependence or both on


dangerous drugs following the administration or the sue of drugs. Who define it as a periodic,
continuous, repeated administration of drugs.

Drug experimenter- one who illegally, wrongfully, or improperly used any narcotic substances
for reasons of curiosity, peer pressure, or other similar reasons.

Drug syndicate- it is the network of illegal drug operations operated and manned carefully by
groups of criminals who knowingly traffic through nefarious trade for personal or group profit.

Manufacture- the production, preparation, compounding or processing a dangerous drugs


either directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin or by chemical
synthesis.

Narcotic drug- refers to illegally used of drugs or dangerous drugs which are either prohibited
or regulated drugs. It also refers to drugs that produces sleep or stupor and relieves pain due
to is depressants effect on the CNS. The term narcotics come from the Greek word “narcotikos”.
It is sometimes known as “opiates”.

Physical dependence- an adaptive state caused by repeated drug use that reveals itself by the
development of intense physical symptoms when the drug is stopped (withdrawal syndrome).

Psychological dependence- an attachment to drug use which arises from a drug ability to
satisfy some emotional or personal needs of an individual.

Pusher- any person who sells, administer, deliver or give away to another, distribute,
transport any dangerous drug.

Rehabilitation- it is a dynamic process directed towards the changes of health of the person to
prepare him from his fullest life potentials and capabilities, and making him law abiding and
productive member of the community without abusing drugs.

Tolerance- it is the tendency to increase dosage of drugs to maintain the same effect in the
body.
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Treatment- a medical service rendered to a client for the effective management of his total
condition. related to drug abuse. It deals with the physiological and psychological complications
arising from drug abuse.

Use- the act of injecting, consuming, any dangerous drugs. The means of introducing the
dangerous drug into the physiological system of the body.

B. The Drug Abuse Jargons

Jargons Meaning

“Opiate” -Narcotic
“On-the-nod/”Nodding” -suspended sleep
“Mainline’/ “to shoot” -injecting a drug into the vein
“A Hit” -slang for injection of drugs
“Work” -apparatus for injecting a drug
“A Fix” -one injection of opiate
“Juni” -heroin
“Junkie” -an opiate addict
“Skin popping” -to inject a drug under the skin
“A Bag” -a pocket of drug
“Cold Turkey” -withdrawal effects of opiate use
“Track” -scars on the skin due injection
“Overdose” -death occurred
“Speed” -amphetamines
“Speed Freaks” -amphetamine addicts
“Uppers” -street slang for amphetamines
“Rush” -the beginning of a high
“Coke” -street slang for cocaine
“Flashback” -drug use after stoppage
“Acid” -slang term for LSD
“Acid Head” -LSD user
“Drop” -taking drug orally
“Joint” -an MJ cigar
“Roach” -butt end of a joint
“Stoned” -intoxicating effect of a drug
“Trip” -reaction that is caused by drugs
“Head” -drug user
“Downer” -street slang for depressant

LESSON 2
THE NATURE AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DRUGS
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A Drugs is a substances used as medicine or in making medicines, which affect the body and
mind and have potential for abused. Without an advice or prescription from a physician, drugs
can be harmful. There are two forms of drugs, natural and synthetic/artificial. The natural
drugs includes natural plant leaves, flowering tops, resin, hashish, opium and marijuana, while
the synthetic drugs are produce by clandestine laboratories which includes those drugs that
are controlled by law because they are used in medical practice. Drug is also any chemical
substance that by virtue of its chemical nature alters the structure and functioning of the living
organism.

The amount of drugs in a dose can be described as follows:

1. minimal dose- the amount needed to heal or treat, that is, the smallest amount of a drug
that will produce a therapeutic effect.

2. maximal dose- the largest amount of drug that produce a desired therapeutic effect,
without any accompanying symptoms of toxicity.

3. toxic dose- the amount of drug that produces untoward effects or symptoms of poisoning.

4. abusive dose- the amount needed to produce the side effects and action desired by an
individual who improperly uses it.

5. lethal dose- the amount of drug that will cause death.

COMMON METHODS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION

1. Oral- this is the safest most convenient and economical route whenever possible, the drug is
taken by mouth and must pass through the stomach before being absorbed into the
bloodstream. This is one of the most common ways of taking a drug.

2. Injection- it makes use of needle or other device to deliver the drugs directly into the body
tissue and blood circulation in the following ways;
a. subcutaneous (SC)- Drug is injected just below the surface of the skin, sometimes called skin
popping.

b. intramuscular (IM)- Drug is injected in the large muscle mass that has a good blood supply.

c. intravenous (IV)- The most efficient means of drug administration which involves depositing
the drug directly into the bloodstream, this is also the most rapid method of drug
administration.

3. Inhalation- this route make use of gaseous and volatile drugs enters the lungs and is quickly
absorbed by the capillary system. It is the second most commonly-used route of drug
administration.
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4. Topical- this refers to the application of drugs directly to a body site such as skin and mucous
membrane.

5. Iontophoresis- the introduction of drugs into the deeper layers of the skin by the use of
special type of electric current for local effect.

6. Snorting- inhalation through the nose of drugs not in gaseous form, it is done by inhaling a
powder of a liquid drug into the nasal coats of the mucous membrane.

7. Buccal- the drug is administered by placing it in the buccal cavity just under the lips.

8. Suppositories- the drug is administered through the vagina or rectum in suppository form
and the drug is also absorbed into the bloodstream.

MEDICAL USE OF DRUGS

1. Analgesics- are drugs that relieve pain. However, they may produce the opposite effects on
somebody who suffers from peptic ulcer or gastric irritation.

2. Antibiotics- are drugs that combat or control infectious organisms. Ingesting the same
antibiotics for a long time can result in allergic reactions and cause resistance of the drugs.

3. Antipyretics- those that can lower body temperature or fever due to infection.

4. Antihistamines- those that control or combat allergic reactions. People who on


antihistamine therapy must not operate or drive vehicles since these drugs can cause
drowsiness.

5. Contraceptives- drugs that prevent the meeting of the egg cell and sperm cell or prevent the
ovary from releasing egg cells. Pregnant women must not take birth control pills to avoid
congenital abnormalities. This advice also applies to women suffering from heart disease,
varicose veins, breast limps, goiter and anemia. The effectiveness of oral contraceptives may
be reduced when taken with antibiotic.

6. Decongestants- those that relieve congestion of the nasal passages. Prolonged used of these
decongestants might include nasal congestion upon withdrawal.

7. Expectorants- those that can ease the expulsion of mucus and phlegm from the lungs and
the throat. They are not drugs of choice for the newborn that does not know to cough the
phlegm out.

8. Laxatives- those that stimulate defecation and encourage bowel movement. They shall not
be given to pregnant women and those suffering from intestinal obstruction. Taking purgatives
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(stronger than laxatives) unnecessarily might result in rupture of the intestines or appendix if
there is an obstruction. Constant use might make the intestines sluggish.

9. Sedatives and Tranquilizers- are those that can calm and quiet the nerves and relieve
anxiety without causing depression and clouding of the mind. Precautions must be taken in the
use of tranquilizers since they can cause impairment of judgment and dexterity.

10. Vitamins- those substances necessary for normal growth and development and proper
functioning of the body. A person who eats a balanced diet does not need supplements. If
they are found necessary vitamin preparation should be taken with meals. Vitamins should be
treated as drugs since the body does not manufacture them. Excessive dosage of vitamins A
and D can lead to nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss, calcification, and heart and kidney
troubles. Too much vitamin A might result in symptoms of a disease of the liver.

Seven Categories of Drugs

1. Herbal drugs
These are plant substances that have drug effects and whose use is not generally
regulated by law. These substances generally require little processing after the plants are
gathered. Although they may be processed or sold commercially, it is possible for the consumer
to prepare the drug for use if it be grown locally.

2. Over-the-Counter Drugs
These are commercially-produced drugs that may be purchased legally without
prescription. These drugs are also known as “propriety drugs.”

3. Prescription Drugs
These are commercially-produced drugs that can be legally sold or dispensed only by a
physician or on a physician’s orders. They are like over-the-counter drugs in that they are
manufactured by pharmaceutical companies, but they differ in that the decision to use drugs is
legally vested in a licensed physician not in the user.

4. Unrecognized Drugs
These are commercial products that have psychoactive drug effects but are not usually
considered drugs. These substances are not generally regulated by law except in so far as
standards of sanitation and purity are required.

5. Illicit Drugs
These are drugs whose sale, purchase or use is generally prohibited by law. Criminal
penalties usually apply to violators of these laws.(ex. shabu, and 9165 table)

6. Tobacco
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This is not generally considered a drug and can thus be classed as an unrecognized
drug. Tobacco, however, holds such a distinct positions in terms of usage patterns, economic
importance and health consequences that it merits a category by itself. (Nicotine)

7. Alcohol
Alcohol seems to merit its own category, although it too could be included in the
unrecognized drugs category. Alcohol in forms such as beer, wine and distilled liquors is one
of the most widely-used drugs in the world. It is regarded by many experts as the most
commonly-abused drugs.

Four Pharmacological Classifications of Drugs

1. Hallucinogens
These are drugs capable of provoking sensation, self-awareness and emotion.
Alternations of depending on the dose. The results are very variable, a good trip or a bad trip
may occur in the same person in different occasions. LSD, marijuana and mescaline are some of
the most popular hallucinogens.

2. Stimulants
These are drugs which increase alertness, reduce hunger and provide a feeling of well-
being. Cocaine and amphetamines are the most common stimulants.

3. Depressants
These are drugs which decrease or depress body functions and nerve activity. This
group includes sedatives, hypnotics and tranquilizers.

4. Narcotics
These are drugs which produce insensitivity, stupor, melancholy or dullness of mind
with delusions(false belief of oneself). Opium, heroin, codeine and morphine are some of the
most popular narcotics.

History of Drug Abuse

The use of chemical substances that alter physiological and psychological functions dates
back the Old Stone Age. Egyptian relics from 3500 BC depict the use of opium in religious
rituals. By 1600 BC, an Egyptian reference work listed opium as an analgesic, or pain killer. The
Incas of South America were known to have used cocaine at least 5000 years ago. , the hemp
plant from which marijuana and hashish are derived, also has a 500- year history.
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Since antiquity, people have cultivated a variety of drugs for religious, medicinal, and
social purposes. Modern drug abuse began with the use of drugs for medicinal purposes. By
the nineteenth century, the two components of opium, which were derived from opium
poppy, were identified and given names, morphine and codeine. Ignorant of the addictive
properties of these drugs, physicians used them to treat a wide variety of human illnesses. So
great was their popularity that they found their way into almost all patient medication used for
pain relief and were even incorporated on soothing syrups for babies.

During World Wars 1 and 11, the use of injectible morphine to ease the pain of battle
casualties was so extensive that morphine addiction among veterans came to be known as the
soldier’s disease. By the time the medical profession and the public recognized how addictive
morphine was, its use had reached epidemic proportions. Then in 1898, the Bayer Drug
Company in Germany introduced a new opiate, supposedly a non-addictive substitute for
morphine and codeine. It came out under the trade name “heroin,” yet it proved to be even
more addictive than morphine.

When cocaine, which was isolated from the cocoa leaf in 1869, appeared on the
international drug scene, it too was used for medicinal purposes. Its popularity spread and
soon it was used in other products, a variety of gin tonics, and the most famous of all, Coca-
Cola, which was made of coca until 1903.

Abuse of marijuana began to arouse public concern during the 1930’s in other foreign
countries. Because marijuana use was associated with groups outside the social mainstream –
petty criminals, jazz musicians, bohemians – a public outcry for its regulation arose. Despite
the law, the popularity of marijuana continued. As the drugs being abused included glue,
tranquilizers, such as Valium and Librium, LSD, amphetamines, and many others, the public
became increasingly aware of the dangers of drug abuse.

Drug Syndicates

A drug syndicate is a group of organized and professional criminals with a formal


hierarchy of organization set in illicit drug trade. It is also otherwise known as a “drug cartel”. It
is perhaps one of the most important reasons why international drug trafficking is hardly to
control because of their involvement in the illicit drug trade.

One of the known world’s notorious drug syndicate is the Columbian Medellin Cartel,
founded during the 1980’s by Colombian drug lords Pablo Escobar Gaviria and drug bosses
Jose Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha and the top aid cocaine barons Juan David and the Ochoa
brothers. The cartel is reputedly responsible for organizing world’s drug trafficking network.
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The Columbian government with the aid of the United States succeeded in containing
the Medellin Cartel, which resulted in the death, surrender, and arrest of the people behind
the organization. This further resulted to the disbandment of the Cartel led to its downfall.

The Cali Cartel was another drug cartel based in the south part of Colombia, around
the city of Cali. According to some estimates at its height the Cali Cartel controlled 80% of the
cocaine exports from Colombia to the United States. Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela founded the
Cali Cartel in the 1970’s with his brother Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, Jose Santacruz Londono
and Helmer “Pacho” Herrera. During the height of Pablo Escobar’s Medellin Cartel, the two
engaged in constant conflict. The Cali Cartel helped fund the vigilante group Los Pepes, who
fought against Escobar under the banner of prosecution, although they were funded by
Escobar’s rivals. Some observers consider the cartel to have fragmented somewhat in recent
years, that it does not hold as much power as it once did, due to law enforcement efforts and
the emergence of smaller cartels, though many of its newer members and drug trade routes
still continue to operate.

The Norte Del Valle Cartel, or North Valley Cartel, is a drug cartel which operated
principally in the north of the Valle del Cauca region of Colombia. It rose to prominence during
the second half of the 1990s, after the Cali Cartel and the Medellin Cartel fragmented, and
became known as one of the most powerful organizations involved in the illegal drug trade.

The leading drug lords of the Norte del Valle cartel included Diego Leon Montoya
Sanchez, alias “Don Diego”, Wilber Varela alias “Jabon” (“Soap”), and Hernando Gomez
Bustamante, alias “Rasguño” (“Scratch”) . Diego Montoya was part of the list containing the
FBI’s Ten Most Wanted Fugitives.

Other organized crime groups involved in the control of illicit drug trade are: The
Chinese Mafia known as Triad, the Cosa Nostra based in the United States, Octopus Napolitan
Camorra based in Europe, the Yakuza of Japan, the Silican Mafia of Italy, and some locally
Turkey
organized crime group in the country.
Preparation for distribution<<
ILLICIT DRUG ROUTES

Middle East

>> discovery, plantation, cultivation, harvest


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Europe

>>manufacture, synthesis, refine

The first important drug traffic route as illustrated above shows how illicit drugs
are distributed from its discovery, preparation up to marketing in the illicit market. It is noted
that plants such as opium poppy, as sources of dangerous drugs are cultivated and harvested
mostly in the areas of Middle East while Europe become the center for drug manufacture and
synthesis. United States become the overall center for drug trafficking.
The Second Major Drug Traffic Route is also illustrated below:
1. Drugs that originates from the Golden Triangle
Thailand

Laos Myanmar(BURMA)

Figure 2
In Southeast Asia- the “Golden Triangle” approximately produced 60% of
opium in the world and 90% percent of opium in the eastern part of Asia. It is also the officially
acknowledged source of Southeast Asian Heroin. Heroin is produced in the Golden Triangle
and passes through nearby countries in relatively small quantities through air transport while in
transit to the United States and the European countries.
United States
2. Drugs that originates from the
Marketing, Golden Crescent
distribution<<
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Afghanistan
Pakistan
Iran
India no

Figure 5
In Southwest Asia- the “Golden Crescent” is the major supplier of opium
poppy, MJ and Heroin products in the western part of Asia. It produces at least 85% to 90%
illicit heroin channeled in the drug underworld market.

World Wide Perspective

1. Middle East. Lebanon is also became the transit country for cocaine form South America to
European illicit drug markets.

2. Spain- known as the major transshipment point for international drug traffickers in Europe-
and became “the paradise of drug users in Europe”

3. South America- Columbia, Uruguay, Peru and Panama are the principal sources all
cocaine supply in the world due to the robust production of the cocoa plants-source of the
cocaine drug.

4. Morocco- is known in the world to be the number one producer of marijuana (cannabis
sativa)-(2006 UNDCP Report). However Mexico still a major producer of cannabis.

5. Philippines- is second to Morocco as to the production of marijuana. It also became the


major transshipment point for the worldwide distribution of illegal drugs particularly shabu
and cocaine from Taiwan and South America. It is also noted that Philippines today is known as
the drug paradise of drug abusers in Asia.

6. India- is the center of the world’s drug map, leading to rapid addiction among its people.

7. Indonesia- Northern Sumatra has traditionally been the main cannabis growing area in
Indonesia. Bali Indonesia is an important transit point for drugs en route to Australia and New
Zealand.

8. Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand- is the most favorable sites of drug distribution from
the “Golden Triangle” and other parts of Asia.

9. China- is the transit route for heroin form the “Golden Triangle” to Hong Kong. It is also
the country where the “epedra” plant is cultivated-source of the drug ephedrine- the principal
chemical for producing the drug shabu.
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10. Hong Kong- is the world’s transshipment point of all forms of heroin.

11. Japan- became the major consumer of cocaine and shabu from the United States and
Europe.

Philippine as a Transshipment Country

According to the International Narco Control Strategy Report of 2006, the Philippines is a
narcotics source and transshipment country. Illegal drugs enter the country through seaports,
economic zones, and airports. With over 36,200kilometers of coastline and 7,000 islands, the
Philippine archipelago is a drug smuggler’s paradise. Vast stretches of the Philippine coast are
virtually un-patrolled and sparsely inhabited. Traffickers use shipping containers, fishing boats,
and cargo ships (which off-load to smaller boats) to transport multi-hundred kilogram quantities
of methamphetamine and precursor chemical by AFP and law enforcement marine interdiction
efforts are hamstrung by deficits in equipment, training, and intelligence sharing. The Philippine
is also a transshipment point for further export of crystal methamphetamine to Japan,
Australia, Canada, Korea and the U.S (including Guam and Saipan). Commercial air couriers
and express mail services remain the primary means of shipment to Guam and to the mainland
U.S., with a typical shipment size of one to four kilograms. There has been n notable increase or
decrease in transshipment activities in 2005.

LESSON 3

THE DANGEROUS DRUGS IDENTITIES

Dangerous drugs refer to broad categories or classes of controlled substances. Controlled


substances are generally grouped according to pharmacological classifications, effects and so
to their legal criteria.

Under the dangerous drug law in the Philippines (RA 9165), dangerous drugs includes those
listed annexed to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972
Protocol, and the scheduled annexed to the 1971 Single Convention on Psychotropic
Substances (Art 1, Sec. 3). As an example: MMDA – Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
(known as the Ecstacy), Tetrahydrocannabinol (MJ); Mescaline (Peyote).

CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (According to effects)

The Depressants (Downers)

These are drugs which suppress vital body functions are specially those of the brain or central
nervous system with the resulting impairment of judgment, hearing, speech and muscular
coordination. They dull the minds, slow down the body reactions to such an extent that
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accidental deaths and/or suicides usually happen. They include the narcotics, barbiturates,
tranquilizers, alcohol, and other volatile solvents. These drugs, when taken in, generally
decrease both mental and the physical activities of the body. They cause depression, relieve
pain and induce sedation or sleep and suppress cough.

1. Narcotics – are drugs, which relieve pain and produce profound sleep or stupor
when introduced to the body. Medically they are potent pain killers, cough depressants and as
an active component of anti diarrhea preparations. Opium and its derivatives like morphine,
codeine and heroin, as well as the synthetic opiates, meperidine and methadone, are classified
as narcotics.

2. Opium – derived from a poppy plant –Papaver somniferum popularly known as


“gum”, “gamot”, “kalamay” or “panocha”. A plant that can grow from 3 to 6 ft height originally
in Mesopotamia. Its active ingredient is the “meconic acid”- the analgesic property.

3. Morphine –most commonly used and best used opiates. Effective as pain killer six
times potent than opium, with a high dependence producing potential. Morphine exerts action
characterized by analgesia, drowsiness, mood changes, and mental clouding.

4. Heroin – is three to five times more powerful than morphine from which it is derived
and the most addicting opium derivative. With continued use, addiction occurs within 14 days.
It may be sniffed on swallowed but is usually injected in the veins.

5. Codeine –a derivative of morphine, commonly available in cough preparations.


These cough medicine have been widely abused by the youth whenever hard narcotics are
difficult to obtain. Withdrawal syndromes are less severe than other drugs.

6. Paregoric - a tincture of opium in combination with camphor. Commonly used as


household remedy for diarrhea and abdominal pain.

7. Demerol and methadone – common synthetic drugs with morphine – like effects.
Demerol is widely used as pain killer in childbirth while methadone is the drug of choice in the
withdrawal treatment of heroine dependents since it relieves the physical craving for heroin.

8. Barbiturates – are drugs used for inducing sleep in persons plagued with anxiety,
mental stress, and insomnia. They are also value in the treatment of epilepsy and
hypertension. They are available in capsules, pills or tablets, and taken orally or injected.

9. Seconal – commonly used among hospitality girls. Sudden withdrawal from these
drugs is even more dangerous than opiate withdrawal. The dependent develops generalized
convulsions and delirium, which are frequently associated with the heart and respiratory
failure.
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10. Tranquilizers – are drugs that calm and relax and diminish anxiety. They are used in
the treatment of nervous states and some mental disorders without producing sleep.

11. Volatile Solvents – gaseous substance popularly known as “gas”, “teardrops”.


Examples are plastic glues, hair spray, finger nail polish, lighter fluid, rugby, paint, thinner,
acetone, turpentine gasoline, kerosene, varnishes and other aerosol products. They are inhaled
by the used of plastic bags, handkerchief or rags soaked in these chemicals.

12. Alcohol – the king of all drugs with a potential for abuse. It is considered as the
most widely used, socially accepted and most extensively legalized drugs throughout the world.
In the field of medicine, it is valuable as disinfectant, as an external remedy for reducing high
fever among children and as preservative and solvent for pharmaceutical preparations like
elixirs, spirits and tincture.

THE STIMULANTS (UPPERS)

They produce effects opposite to that of the depressants. Instead of bringing about relaxation
and sleep, they produce increased mental alertness, wakefulness, reduce hunger and produce a
feeling of well-being. Their medical users includes narcolepsy – a conditioned characterized by
an overwhelming desire to sleep. Abrupt withdrawal of the drug from the heavy abuser can
result in a deep and suicidal depression.

1. Amphetamines – used medically for weight reducing in obesity, relief of mild


depression and treatment.

2. Cocaine – the drug taken from the coca bush plant (Erothroxylon Coca) grows in
South America. It is usually in the form of powder that can be taken orally, injected or sniffed as
to achieve euphoria or an intense feeling of “ highness”.

3. Caffeine - it is in the coffee, tea, chocolate, coca-cola drinks, and some wake-
up pills.

4. Shabu/ “poor man’s cocaine” – chemically known as methamphetamine


hydrochloride. It is a central nervous system stimulant and sometimes called “upper” or
“speed”. It is a white, colorless crystal or crystalline powder with a bitter numbing taste. It can
be taken orally, inhaled (snorted), sniffed (chasing the dragon) or injected.

5. Nicotine – an active component of tobacco which act as a powerful stimulant


of the central nervous system. A drop of pure nicotine can easily kill a person.

THE HALLUCINOGENS ( Psychedelic)


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These are grouped of drugs that consist of a variety of mind-altering drugs, which distort
reality, thinking and perception of time, sound, space and sensation. The users experience
hallucination (false perception) which at times can be strange. His “trips” may be exhilarating or
terrifying good or bad. They may dislocate his consciousness and change his mood, thinking
and concept of self.

1. Marijuana – it is the most commonly abused hallucinogen in the Philippines


because it can be grown extensively in the country many users choose to smoke marijuana for
relaxation in the same way people drink beer or cocktail at the end of the day. The effects of
marijuana include the feeling of grandeur. It can also produce the opposite effect, a dreamy
sensation of time seeming to stretch out.

2. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – these drug is the most powerful of the
psychedelics obtained from ergot, a fungus that attacks rye kernels. LSD is 1,000 times more
powerful than marijuana as supply, large enough for a trip can be taken from the glue on the
flab of an envelope, from the hidden areas inside one’s clothes. LSD causes perpetual changes
so that the users see’s color, shapes or objects more intensely than normal and may have
hallucination of things that are real. To him real objects seem to change, building seems to be
crackling open and walls pulsating. He experience frequent bizarre hallucinations, loss spatial
perceptions, personality diffusion and change in values. Usually users perceive distortion of
time, colors, sounds and depth. They experience “scent” music and sounds in “color”.

3. Peyote –peyote derive from the surface part of small gray brown cactus. Peyote
emits a nauseating odor and its users suffer from nausea. This drug causes no physical
dependence and therefore, no withdrawal syndrome; although in some cases psychological
dependence has been noted.

4. Mescaline - it is alkaloid hallucinogen extracted from the peyote cactus and can
also be synthesized in the laboratory. It produces less nausea than peyote and shows effects
resembling those of LSD although milder in nature. One to two hours after the drug is taken in
a liquid or powder form, delusion begin to occur. Optical hallucinations follow one upon
another in rapid succession. These are accompanied by imperfect coordination and perception
with a sensation of impeded motion, and a marked sense that time is still standing. Mescaline
does not cause physical dependence.

5. STP (SERENITY, TRANQUILITY, and PEACE) – It is a take-off on the motor oil


additive. It is a chemical derivative of mescaline claimed to produce more violent and longer
effects than mescaline dose. Its effects are similar to the nerve gas used in chemical warfare. It
is less potent than LSD although its effect is similar to those psychedelics.
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6. Psilocybin – this hallucinogenic alkaloid from small Mexican mushroom are


used by Mexican Indians today. These mushrooms induced nausea, muscular relaxation, mode
changes, with visions of bright colors and shapes, and other hallucinations. These effects may
last for four to five hours later may be followed by depppressions, laziness complete loss of
time and space perceptions.

7. Morning Glory Seeds- The black and brown seeds of the wild tropical morning
glory are used to produce hallucinations. The seeds are ground into flour, soak in cold water,
then strained though a cloth and drunk. They are sold under the name “heavenly blues”,
“flying dancers’ and “pearly gates”. The active ingredient in the seed is similar to LSD although
less potent. The reactions are likened to those resulting from LSD. Prolonged psychosis is also
one of its effects.

a) C. The Commonly Abused Drugs

Drugs that are commonly abused depending on their pharmalogical effects may be
classified into:

Sedatives- are depressant drugs, which reduce anxiety and excitement such as
barbiturates, non-barbiturates, tranquillizers and alcohol.

Stimulants- are drugs, which increase alertness and activity such as amphetamines,
cocaine and caffeine.

Hallucinogens/Psychedelics- drugs which affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness and


emotion. Changes in time and space perception, delusions (false beliefs and hallucinations) may
be mild or overwhelming, dispersion on dose and quality of the drug. This includes LSD,
mescaline and marijuana.

Narcotics- drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep. The opiates, which are
narcotics, include opium, such as morphine codeine and heroin.

Solvents- or the volatile substances which are found to be the most commonly abused
by children lured into the drug habit.

D. POPULAR PLANTS AS SOURCE OF DANGEROUS DRUGS

In the world of drug abuse and addiction, certain plants are popular to drug users as
resource of drugs such as the following:

The Marijuana Plant


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The term marijuana is a Spanish-Mexican term used to refer to the Indian hemp plant. It is
a plant that grows in tropical region and attains an approximate height of 15 to 20 feet.
Scientifically named as Cannabis Sativa Lima and a member of the Cannabinaceae family of
plants (separate male/female plant), the female plant is known as the Pistillate (shorter but
long-lived) while the male plant is called Staminate (taller but short-lived). Its leaves formed a
fingerlike look-odd in numbers from 3 to 13 fingerlike leaves. The stalk of the plant can attain a
height of 3 to 16 feet while roots can attain a length of approximately 8 inches. The resin called
“hashish” can be found on the most top portion of the female plant. The active ingredient or
alkaloid of the plant is called cannabin (the one that produces the physiological effect) or the
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- the concentrated alkaloid which is 5 to 20 times stronger than the
plain marijuana plant. The means of using drug varies from ingestion to smoking.

The Opium Poppy Plant

The poppy plant is scientifically known as Papaver Somniferum. The word Papaver is a
Greek term which means poppy while the word Somniferum is a Latin term which means
dream/induced sleep. The plant can grow from 3 to 6 feet in height originally in Mesopotamia.
The Sumerians called it “Hul Gil” which means, “plant of joy” due to its joyful effect when
administered. Its active ingredient is the Meconic acid – the analgesic property. The dangerous
drugs that can be derived from the plant are morphine, heroin and codeine.

The Coca Bush Plant

The coca bush plant is scientifically known as Erythroxylon Coca common in South
America. The plant grows in mountainous and tropical climate areas, on clay like soil. A fully-
grown cultivated coca plant attains a height of 6 to 8 feet and can be harvested 3 to 4 times in a
year. The dangerous drug that can be produced from this plant is the drug. Cocaine- the most
powerful natural stimulant known as cocaine hydrochloride.

The Epedra Plant

Known to the Chinese as “Ma Huang”, the Epedra plant (Ephedra Vulgaris) is a
psychoactive plant that contains psychotropic properties one of which is the alkaloid Ephedrine
and pseudoephedrine, an active ingredient of anti-asthma drugs used in over the counter
medications. It is also an essential chemical precursor in the production of Methamphetamine
or Amphetamine drugs. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride commonly known as “shabu” is a
product derived from this plant through chemical processes.

SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE DANGEROUS DRUGS

On The Depressants
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Narcotics – Narcotic drugs produces lethargy and drowsiness. Pupils are constricted and
fail to respond to light. Inhaling heroin in powder form leaves traces of white powder around
nostrils causing redness and irritation. Injecting heroin leaves scars, usually on the inner
surface of the arms and elbows although user may inject drugs in the leave syringes, bent
spoons, bottle caps, eyedroppers, cotton and needles in lockers at or hidden at home. The user
scratches self frequently, loss of appetite, sniffles, running nose, red watery eyes, and coughing
which disappears when user gets a “fix “.

Barbiturates/Tranquilizers- symptoms of alcohol intoxication without odor or alcohol


on breath, staggering or stumbling, falling asleep unexplainably, drowsiness, may appear
disoriented, lack of interest in school and family activities.

Volatile Solvents –there is unusual odor of substance on breath and clothes of the
user. Excessive nasal secretions, watering of eyes and poor muscular control are also
experienced. There is also an increased preference for being with a group rather than being
alone. Plastic or paper bags or rags, containing dry plastic cement or other solvent found at
home or in locker at school or at work. Obvious slurred speech.

On the Stimulants

Amphetamines/Cocaine/Speed/Uppers- drugs categorized as speed or upper can give the


following symptoms of abuse:

1. Pupils may be dilated


2. Mouth and nose dry, bad breath; licks lips frequently
3. Goes long periods without eating or sleeping; nervous; has difficulty sitting still
4. Chain smoking
5. If infecting drug, user may have hidden eye droppers and needles among possessions

Shabu- use of the drug Metamphetamine Hydrochloride can give the following symptoms of
abuse:

1. Produces elevation of mood, heightened alertness and increased energy


2. Some individuals may become anxious, irritable or loquacious
3. Causes decreased the appetite and insomnia

On the HALLUCINOGENS

Marijuana- smoking of this kind of drug the user can experience the following symptoms:

1. May appear animated with rapid, loud talking and bursts of laughter
2. Sleepy or stuporous
3. Pupils are dilated
qq

4. Odor (similar to burnt rope) on clothing or breath


5. Remnants of marijuana, either loose or in partially smoked “joints” in clothing or possessions

LSD/STMP/DMT

1. User usually sits or reclines quietly in a dream or trance – like state


2. User may become fearful and experience a degree and terror which makes him attempt to escape
from his group
3. Sense of sight, hearing, touch, body image and time are distorted
4. Mood and behavior are affected, the manner depending upon emotional and environmental condition
of the user

DANGERS OF ABUSE OF THE DANGEROUS DRUGS

On the Depressants

Users of depressant drugs may suffer the following:

a. Death due to respiratory arrest


b. In large doses can cause respiratory depression and comma, the combination of depressants and
alcohol can multiply the effect of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks
c. Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the
drug and show withdrawal symptom shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioralproblems
may also result

On the Stimulants

Users of the stimulants may suffer the following:

a. Death due to the infections, high blood pressures


b. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even
physical collapse.

Shabu

a. Overdose leads to chest pains, hypertension, acute psychotic reaction, convulsions and death
due to cardiac arrest
b. Due to the appetite suppressing effects of shabu, pregnant mother may become
malnourished. This may affect the nutritional needs of the baby
c. Babies born to shabu-using women show sever emotional disturbances

On the Hallucinogens

Users of the hallucinogens may suffer the following:


qq

a. Can lead to serious mental changes (psychoses) like insanity, suicidal and/or homicidal
tendencies
b. Poor impulse control
c. Damage of chromosomes, hence, affecting potentially the offspring
d. Death due to the paralysis f the respiratory system.

The New Law on Dangerous Drugs

R.A. 9165 – COMPREHENSIVE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT OF 2002

Approved on June 7, 2002 - Effective July 4, 2002

What is Dangerous Drug under this law?

Includes those listed in the schedules annexed to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs,
as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the schedules annexed to the 1971 Single Convention on
Psychotropic Substances (Art 1, Sec. 3).

Ex. MMDA – Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstacy)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (MJ); Mescaline (Peyote)

What are the Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals?

Include those listed in Tables I and II of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic
Drugs and Psychotrophic Substances (Art 1, Sec 3)

Ex. Table 1 – Acetic Anhydride

N- Acetyl Anthranilic Acid

Epedrine, Ergometrine, Lysergic Acid, etc.

Table 2 – Acetone, Ethyl Ether, Hydrochloric Acid

Sulfuric Acid, etc..

NOTE:

Under RA 6425 (Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972), Dangerous drugs refers to the Prohibited drugs,
Regulated drugs and Volatile substances.

Prohibited Drugs – ex. Opium and its derivatives, Cocaine and its derivatives, Hallucinogen drugs
like MJ, LSD, and Mescaline

Regulated drugs – ex. Barbiturates, Amphetamines, Tranquillizers

Volatile Substances – ex. rugby, paints, thinner, glue, gasoline


qq

What are the Unlawful Acts and Penalties?

Unlawful Acts Penalty

Importation of Dangerous drugs and/or Controlled Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine
Precursors and Essential Chemicals (sec. 4) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million

Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine
Distribution and transportation of Dangerous Drugs ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million
and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential
Chemicals (sec. 5)

Maintenance of a Den, Dive or Resort where Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine
dangerous drugs are used or sold in any form (sec. ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million
6)

Being an employee or visitor of a den, dive or resort Imprisonment ranging from 12 yrs and 1
(sec. 7) day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from
P100, 000 to P500, 000.

Manufacture of dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine
Precursors and Essential Chemicals (sec. 8) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million

Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors Imprisonment ranging from 12 yrs and 1
and Essential Chemicals (sec. 9) day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from
P100, 000 to P500, 000.

Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Imprisonment ranging from 12 yrs and 1


Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from
Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential P100, 000 to P500, 000.
Chemicals (sec. 10)

Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine


ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million
Possession of Dangerous Drugs

(sec. 11)

Possession of Dangerous drugs in the following quantities,


qq

regardless of degree of purity:

10 grams or more of opium; morphine; heroin; cocaine; MJ resin;

10 grams or more of MMDA, LSD and similar dangerous drugs;

50 grams or more of “shabu”/ Methamphetamine Hydrochloride;

500 grams or more of Marijuana

NOTE:

If the quantity involved is less than the foregoing, the penalties shall be graduated as follows:

1. Life imprisonment and a fine ranging from P400, 000 to P500, 000 if “shabu” is 10 grams or
more but less than 50 grams;

2. Imprisonment of 20 yrs and 1 day to Life imprisonment and a fine ranging from P400, 000 to
P500, 000 if the quantities of dangerous drugs are 5 grams or more but less than 10 grams of opium,
morphine, heroin, cocaine, mj resin, shabu, MMDA, and 300 grams or more but less than 500 grams of
marijuana

3. Imprisonment of 12 yrs and 1 day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from P300, 000 to P400, 000 if
the quantities of dangerous drugs are less than 5 grams of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, mj resin,
shabu, MMDA, and less than 300 grams of marijuana.

Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Imprisonment ranging from 6 mos and
other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs 1 day to 4 yrs and a fine ranging from
P10, 000 to P50, 000
(sec. 12)

Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social The maximum penalties provided for
Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 13), and Sec. 11.

Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and


other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during
Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 14)

Use of Dangerous Drugs (sec. 15) Minimum 6 mos rehabilitation (1st


offense),

Imprisonment ranging from 6 yrs and 1


day to 12 yrs and a fine ranging from
P50,000 to P200, 000 (2nd Offense)

NOTE:
qq

Section 15 shall not be applicable where the person tested is also found to have in his/her
possession such quantity of any dangerous drug provided in sec.11, in which case the penalty provided in
sec. 11 shall apply.

Cultivation of Plants classified as dangerous drugs or Life Imprisonment to Death and a fine
are sources thereof (sec. 16) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million

Failure to comply with the maintenance and keeping of Imprisonment ranging from 1 yr and 1
the original records of transaction on any dangerous day to 6 yrs and a fine ranging from
drugs and/or controlled precursors and Essential P10, 000 to P50, 000
Chemicals on the part of practioners, manufacturers,
wholesalers, importers, distributors, dealers, or retailers Plus revocation of license to practice
(sec. 17) profession.

Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs (sec. Imprisonment ranging from 12 yrs and
18) 1 day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from
P100, 000 to P500, 000.

Plus revocation of license to practice


profession

Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs (sec.19) Life imprisonment to Death and a fine
ranging from P500, 000 to 10 Million
pesos

The Unlawful Acts Punishable by Death Penalty


1. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of dangerous drugs using diplomatic passport or
facilities or any means involving his/her official status to facilitate unlawful entry of the same (sec
4, Art II).
2. Upon any person who organizes, manages or acts as “financiers” of any of the activities involving
dangerous drugs (sec 4, 5, 6, 8 Art II).
3. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and transportation of
Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals with in 100 meters from
the school (sec 5, Art II).
4. Drugs pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers and
messengers or in any other capacity directly connected to the dangerous drug trade (sec 5, Art
II).
5. If the victim of the offense is a minor or mentally incapacitated individual, or should a dangerous
drug and/or controlled precursors and essential chemical involved in the offense be the proximate
cause of death of the victim (sec 5, Art II).
6. When dangerous drug is administered, delivered or sold to a minor who is allowed to use the
same in such a place (sec 6, Art II).
7. Upon any person who uses a minor or mentally incapacitated individual to deliver equipment,
instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs (sec. 10, Art II).
8. Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 13), and
Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs
during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 14)

What is the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB)?


qq

The DDB is the policy-making body and strategy-making body in the planning and
formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and control. (under the Office of the
President) (sec. 77, Art IX)

Composition: 17 members (3 as permanent, 12 as ex-officio, 2 regular members)(sec. 78, Art


IX)

3 permanent members: to be appointed by the President, one to be the Chairman.

12 ex officio members:

Secretary of DOJ, DOH, DND, DOF, DOLE, DILG, DSWD, DFA, and DepEd, Chairman of
CHED, NYC, and the Dir.Gen of PDEA.

2 regular members: President of the IBP, and the Pres/Chaiman of an NGO involved in a
dangerous drug campaign to be appointed by the President.

The NBI Director, the Chief of the PNP – permanent consultant of the Board.

What are the Powers and Duties of the DDB?

(sec. 81, Art IX)

 Formulation of Drug Prevention and Control Strategy,


 Promulgation of Rules and Regulation to carry out the purposes of this Act,
 Conduct policy studies and researches,
 Develop educational programs and info drive,
 Conduct continuing seminars and consultations,
 Design special training,
 Coordination with agencies for community service programs,
 Maintain international networking,

What is the PDEA?

PDEA means Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency.

It is the implementing arm of the DDB and responsible for the efficient and effective law
enforcement of all the provisions on any dangerous drugs and/ or precursors and essential chemicals.

Head: Director General – appointed by the President

Assisted By: 2 Deputies Director General (one for Admin, another for Opns) – appointed by
the President (sec. 82, Art IX).

PDEA Operating Units:


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It absorbed the NDLE-PCC (created under E.O. 61), NARCOM of the PNP, Narcotics Division
of the NBI, and the Customs Narcotics Interdiction Unit (sec. 86, Art IX).

What are the Powers and Functions of the PDEA?

(sec. 84, Art IX)

 Cause the effective and efficient implementation of the national drug control strategy,
 Enforcement of the provisions of Art II of this Act,
 Undertake investigation, make arrest and apprehension of violators and seizure and
confiscation of dangerous drugs,
 Establish forensic laboratories,
 Filing of appropriate drug cases,
 Conduct eradication programs,
 Maintain a national drug intelligence system,
 Close coordination with local and international drug agencies.

Important Features of R.A 9165

 In the revised law, importation of any illegal drug, regardless of quantity and purity or any part
therefrom even for floral, decorative and culinary purposes is punishable with life
imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to P10 million.

 The trading, administration, dispensation, delivery, distribution, and transportation of


dangerous drugs is also punishable by life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from
P500, 000 to P10 million.

 Any person who shall sell, trade, administer, dispense, deliver, give away to another or
distribute, dispatch in transit or transport any dangerous drugs regardless of quantity and
purity shall be punished with life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to
P10 million.

But if the sale, administration, delivery, distribution or transportation of any of these illegal
drugs transpires with in 100 meters from any school, the maximum penalty shall be
imposed.

Pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers, and
messengers or in dangerous drug transactions shall also be meted with the maximum
penalty.

A penalty of 12 yrs to 20 yrs imprisonment shall be imposed on financiers, coddlers, and


managers of the illegal activity.
qq

 The law also penalizes anybody found in possession of any item or paraphernalia used to
administer, produce, cultivate, propagate, harvest, compound, convert, process, pack, store,
contain or conceal illegal drugs with an imprisonment of 12 yrs to 20 yrs and a fine of P100,
000 to P500, 000.

 Owners of resorts, dives, establishments, and other places where illegal drugs are
administered is deemed liable under this new law, the same shall be confiscated and
escheated in favor of the government.

 Any person who shall be convicted of violation of this new law, regardless of the quantity of
the drugs and the penalty imposed by the court shall not be allowed to avail the privilege
provisions of the Probation Law (P.D. 968).

(sec.58, Art VIII) Filing of charges against a drug dependent for confinement and rehabilitation under
voluntary submission program can be made:

 second commitment to the center


 upon recommendation of the DDB
 may be charge for violation of sec. 15
 if convicted – confinement and rehab

Parents, spouse or guardian who refuses to cooperate with the Board or any concerned agency
in the treatment and rehabilitation of a drug dependent may be cited for Contempt of Court (sec.
73, Art VIII).

IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF DANGEROUS DRUGS

DRUG Identification – is a branch of forensic chemistry that deals with the scientific examination
of drugs and volatile substance.

TWO PHASES OF EXAMINATION OF DANGEROUS DRUGS

1. Screening test/preliminary test – this is employed to reduce the family or group to a


small and manageable number. Screening test includes the series of color test producing
characteristics of colors for each family group of drugs.

2. Confirmatory test – it is the method employed to confirm the result of the screening test.
It involves the application of an analytical procedure to identify the presence of specific drugs or
metabolites.

Some methods in confirmatory test

a. Chromatography – a set of laboratory techniques for separation of mixtures.


b. Spectroscopy – use light to determine the atom and molecules
c. Fourier – Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
d. Ultraviolet – Visible spectroscopy
qq

Examination of urine specimen – the rate of excretion from the body depends on the drugs
solubility in fat. Drug test must be conducted to apprehend individuals who is suspected to be a
user.

Validity test for urine specimen

Validity test is conducted to determined the integrity of the samples.

Different types of tampered Urine Specimen

 Adultered- a specimen containing either a substance that is not a normal


constituent for that type of specimen or containing an endogenous substance at a
concentration that is not a normal physiological concentration.
 Diluted- refers to a specimen with less normal physiological constituents.
 Substituted- a specimen which has been derived through switching or replacement
of the original sample

Urine drug screen

This procedures requires that one provide a sample of urine, either a test card use on site
from immediate results or the sample is sent away to a lab to undergo gas chromatography or
immunoassy analysis.

Hair drug testing

Hair drug testing labs, only use about 2.5-4 cm of the scalp and discard the rest. This limits
the detection history to about 90 days, depending upon the rate at which the individual’s hair growth.

Saliva drug screen

This test can generally detect use during the previous few days. It is becoming more
prevalent and usually performed by employers, for either pre employment, random, reasonable
suspicion or return-to-duty testing.

Detection in saliva test begins immediately upon use;

 Marijuana- from time to ingestion up to 24 hours


 Cocaine- from time of ingestion up to 2 to 3 days
 Opiates- from time of ingestion up to 2 to 3 days
 Methamphetamine and Ecstacy- from time of ingestion up to 2 to 3 days
 Benzodiazephines- from time of ingestion up to 2 to 3 days

APPROXIMATE VALUES FOR DETECTION PERIODS

SUBSTANCE URINE HAIR BLOOD


ALCOHOL 3-5 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 12 HOURS
AMPHETAMINE 1 TO 2 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 12 HOURS
METHAMPHETAMINE 2 TO 4 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 24 HOURS
qq

BARBITURATES 2 TO 3 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 1 TO DAYS


PHENOBARBITAL 7 TO 14 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 4 TO 7 DAYS
CANNABIS 14 AND 30 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 2 DAYS
COCAINE 2 TO 4 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 24 HOURS
CODEINE 2 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 12 HOURS
COTININE 2 TO 4 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 2 TO 4 DAYS
MORPHINE 2 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 6 HOURS
HEROIN 2 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 6 HOURS
LSD 24 HOURS TO 2 DAYS UP TO 90 DAYS 0 TO 3 HOURS
BENZODIAZEPINES 3 DAYS AND 4 TO 6 UP TO 90 DAYS 6 TO 48 HOURS
DAYS

VICE- refers to any immoral conduct or habbit, the indulgence of which leads to depravity,
wickedness and corruption. The four most persistent and common forms of vices are
alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution and gambling.

Vice Control- is the means of adopted by the government to provide appropriate regulatory
measures in any vice activity.This poses problem to law enforcement work.

ALCOHOLISM

Very few are aware of the fact that alcohol is a drug which is commonly available to the
public.Abuse of alcohol has injurious effects to the consumer’s physical health and well being
and may result in serious problems or his personal relationship causing disruption of marital
harmony and family relation and job performance.

DRUNKARD

Refers to a person who habitually takes place or use any intoxicating beverage containing
alcohol and while under its influence of the effects thereof is either dangerous to himself or to
others.

Kinds of Intoxication

 Involuntary- when a drunkard person does not know the intoxicating strenght of
the beverage he has taken.
 Intentional- when a person deliberately drinks liquor fully knowing its effects,
either to obtain mitigation or to find the liquor as a stimulant to commit a crime.
 Habitual- when a person finds that drinking is a constant necessity and the vice
ultimately takes hold of him.
qq

Degree of Intoxication:

a. Slight inebriation- 10 to 100 mg/100 cc

b. Moderate inebriation- 100-200 mg/100cc

c. Drunk- 200-300 mg/100 ml

d. Very drunk- 300-400 mg/100 ml

e. Coma- 400 mg and above/100 ml

REPUBLIC ACT 10568

Simply known as “Anti-Drunk Driving Act of 2013,”The Department of Transportation


and Communication has finally published the implementing rules and regulations for
penalizing drivers caught operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol or illegal
substances.

Based on the rules and regulations, an apprehend driver who is suspected of driving
under the influence of alcohol will be subjected to three field sobriety tests:

*An eye test, which is requires the driver to follow with his gaze an object that the law
enforcer moves horizontally, around one foot away from the driver’s face;

*A walk-and turn test, which requires the driver to walk nine stepts forward in a straight line,
turn, then walk back the same distance without difficulty;and

*The one-leg stand,which requires the driver to stand on one leg and raise yhe other one
around six inches from the ground for about 60 seconds.

If the driver passes these tests, he/she will only be apprehended for his traffic violation
only.However, if the driver fails any of the three tests, he/she will then be subjected to an
alcohol breath analyzer test, which determines the blood alcohol level of a person by testing
his/her breath.

Arrested violators of the act will be subjected to penalties ranging from a minimum of three-
month imprisonment plus a P20,000 fine, to a maximum of 20-year imprisonment plus a
P500,000 fine.

Non-professional driver’s licence holders will also have their licence suspended for 12 months
on their first offense, with their second offense resulting in their license’s perpetual
qq

revocation.For professional driver’s licence holders, the first offense alone will result in their
license’s perpetual revocation.

PROSTITUTION

Is a type of calling which involves the performance of sexual acts in exchange of


monetary consideration.

Classification of Prostitution on the basis of operation

 Call girls/boys- they are part time who engage in other legitimate profession.
 Hustler-also known as street walker is the oldest and common type of prostitute
 Door knocker- they are occasional and selective prostitute, usually a new comer
to the sex trade.
 Factory girls- they work in regular houses of prostitution such as massage
parlons, bothels and accept all costumers as they come.

GAMBLING

Is a risky action or decision that a person takes in the hopes of gaining monetary value
or success.The large profit from gambling is issued to circumvent the law, influence politics
and public perception. Funds are made available to influence, to bribe, to campaign and to
employ the legal minds to retain in office friendly public officials and to remove unfriendly ones.

Mere presence in a gambling house where illegal stakes occurs or cook pit house is
punishable, but a mere spectator or bystander in a gambling game is not criminally liable.

January 4, 1977 PD 1067 was decreed by President Ferdinand Marcos creating the PAGCOR,
which aimed to tap potential sources of funds to finance the government infracture and
sociocivic development projects and prevent the creation of illegal casinos and clubs conducting
games of chance.