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Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Tomus 39 (I), pp.

23--32 (1975)

UNSTEADY FLOW OF A DUSTY VISCOUS LIQUID IN A


ROTATING CHANNEL
By
S. N. Duer. and C. L. SHARMA
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, HIMACHAL PRADESH UNIVERSITYoSIMLA.5, INDIA

(Rer 8. V. 1975)

The unsteady flow of a dusty viseous liquid in a parallel plate channel rotating with
an angular velocity ~ is analysed. Analytical expressions for the velocities of the Hquid aud
the dust particles ate obtained. These expressions contain two paxameters: the dimensionless
decay factor X and Kz which is the reciproca1 of the Ekman number. The effects of these
parameters on the velocity distributions are studied.

Introduetion

SAFFMAN [ 1 ] has discussed the stability of the laminar flow of a dusty


gas in which the dust partieles are uniformly dist¡ He has assumed
t h a t the dust particles ate uniform in size and shape and the bulk eoncentration
of the dust is very small to be neglected. On the other hand the density of the
dust material is large compared with the gas density so t h a t the mass concen-
tration of dust is ah appreciable fraction of unity. MICHAEL [2] has investigated
the Ke]vin--Helmholtz instability of the dusty gas. Rxo [3] has discussed
the unsteady laminar flow of a dusty viscous liquid under the influence of
exponential pressure gradient through a circular cylinder.
In the present paper we consider the unsteady flow of a dusty viscous
liquid confined between two parallel infinŸ walls rotating with ah angular
velocity Q about an axis perpendicular to their planes. Exact solutions of
the governing equations are obtained in c]osed form. There ate two parameters
involved, viz. ~ whieh is a dimensionless decay factor and K g = Qz~ which is
v
the ratio of Coriolis and viscous forees. Velocity profiles for sma]l and large
va]ues of these parameters have been drawn.
The importance of the study of fluid flow problems taking into account
the simultaneous effects of dust and Coriolis force lies in their applieation in
m a n y fields of interest. Therefore it is desirable to study their effects in specific
flow problems.

Acta Phydr Ar Sr Hun~m'ieaa 39, 1975


24 S . N . DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

1. Equations of m o t i o n

The equations of motion and continuity in a rotating frame of rcference


f o r a viscous incompressible fluid with uniform distribution of dust particles
ate given b y
Su
- 4 - ( u . v ) u + 2 s 1 9 1 2 1 =5 - - l- g- r a d p + vVzU + K'N~ ( v - - u ) , (1.l)
8t e e

[8,
m ~t
]
A - ( v ' v ) v A - 2 s 1 9 1 2v1 5 = K ' ( u - - v ) , (1.2)

div u ~- 0, (1.3)
div v ---- 0. (1.4)

In these equations u , , are velocities of liquid and dust particles, respectively,


s191
is the angular velocity of the system (consisting of the plates and the dusty
liquid) referred to a fixed inertial frame a n d p ----p ' -- --2-]
0 ~91• r q p ' denoting
the fluid pressure and r denoting the position veetor from the axis of rotation,
m the mass of a dust partide, K" the Stokes resistance eoefficient which for
spherical particles of radius e is 6~r/~~, # being the viscosity of the liquid, No the
number density of dust particles which is a constant throughout the motion,
v, ~ ate respectively the kinematic coeffieient of viscosity and density of the
liquid.
We choose a cartesian system such that z-axis is perpendicular to the
plates, z = q-Zo. The x-axis is in the direction of the pressure gradient. For
simplicity the angular velocity is taken to be parallel to the z-axis. Since the
plates ate infinite in the x and y-directions, the fields set up for the unsteady
state will depend only on z and t.
The velocities u, v m a y rcasonably be assumed as

,, = (ul, u2, 0 ) , (1.5)

v = (vi, v2, 0 ) . (l.6)

The equations of motion then reduce to

8ul 2~u2 -- 1 8p + v 02ul +


_ _ K' No (vi -- ul), (1.7)
0t ~ ax Oz2

_9u2
_ +2•u 1= 1 0p + v 02u2 + K'N o
(v2 - u 2 ) , (1.8)
at e ~Y 8z2
Acre Pbydr Ar162 ~ i a 6 a r u m Huntgaricae 39, 1975
UNSTEADY FLOW 25

0= 1 0p, (1.9)
~ Oz

m [ 0vl -- 2~2 v2] =


Ot
K'(u 1 -- I)1) , ( [ }

[ Ov2
mL 0t + 2 O v i ] = K ' ( u 2 vz). (1.11)

Eqs. (1.3) and (1.4) are identically satisfied and Eq. (1.9) shows the con-
s t a n c y of the fluid d y n a m i c pressure along the axis of rotation. We shalI
assume now t h a t the fluid flows u n d e r the influence of exponential pressure
gradient in t h e direction of the x-axis between the parallel plates, z = _+z0.
The b o u n d a r y conditions to be satisfied ate

z---- + Z o : ul----0, u 2 = 0 ; vl = 0 , v2=0. (1.12)

We now make Eqs. (1.7), (1.8), (1.10) and (1.11) dimensionless b y introducing
the following non-dimensional quantities:

x z uiz o u2z o vlz o


-- , -z = - - , mi- , ~t2- ,-vi-- ,
Z0 Z0 $' -y ,p

V2- i)2Z0 P -- pz~ K Z -- - - - ,


Qz02 mNo my
C - - - ~ ff= 9
v pv z " v ~ K'z~
vt ~z2o

After dropping the bars, Eqs. (1.7), (1.8), (1.10) and (1.11) become

Oql -~-2 q 0p + __0~ql + __c(qz -- ql) , (1.13)


Ot Ox Ozz a
0q2 1
~- 2 q = -_2_(ql -- q2), (1.14)
0t a

where ql = ul + iu2 and q2 = vi -~- iv2.


The b o u n d a r y conditions t h e n reduce to

z =- + 1, ql = O, q2 = O. (1.15)
We now assume t h a t
Op __ e_at" (1.16)
Ox

,4r Physir Ar Sr Hungarica* 39, 1975


26 S.N. DUBE aad C. L. SHARMA

In view of (1.16), we can express

ql = f(z) e- at. (1.17)

Substituting (1.16), (1.17) in (1.13) and solving t h a t using the b o u n d a r y condi-


tions f ( + 1) = 0, we get

1 {.cos~z 1) e_at ' (1.18)


~l ~ "~ COS
where
0{2
(~91-- 2 i K z) [(1 + c) -- a~ A- 2 q
(1 -- aY) + 2 .zK2a
Eq. (1.14) then gives

[ 1 - - a ~ - - 2iK'(r] 1 (cos~z 1)e_at" (1.19)


q2
(1 -- aX) 2 -~ 4 K4a ~ ~2 COS

Separating real and imaginary parts in (1.18), we get

Ul
= [(A, - B ' ) P - - Z A S O _ . ( A " - - B') ]_~,, (1.20)
[ (A 2 + B2)' R (A~ + B2)'J
~'(A 2 - B 2) Q + 2 A B P 2 AB ]
I/9, . [ . . . ] e -~t (1.21)
(A 2 + B2) 2 R (A 2 + B2) 2 '

where
P cos A cos h B cos Az cos hBz + sin A sin hB sin Az sin h B z ,
Q = cos A cos hB sin Az sin hBz -- sin A sin hB cos Az cos h B z ,
R= cos 2 A cos h2B + sin 2 A sin h2B,
TA= ~ l ( f l l Y l -'}- {~2Y2) - - 0C2(fllY2 - - ~2~'1) ' (1.22)

TB= ~~(fl~y~ - ~,r~) + ~,(~~~'~ + ~,~'2),


Tu: (1 -- ~2) 2 + 4K4a 2,

V~~~= [~ + V~~ + 4 K ' ] 1~',


~~,= [-a+V~+4K,] ~/~.
V~~~= [(1 + ~) - ~ ~ + V((1 + ~) - ~a}~ + 4 K",~] 1/',
V~ ~,.= [~~ - (1 + ~) + V{(1 + ~) - ~ay- + 4 K~~~-]~/~,
V~~~-- [1 - ~~ + Vil - ~~)~ + 4 K*~~ ]~/~,
V~~,,.= [ ~ ~ - 1 + V i 1 - ~a)' + 4K"~" ]1/,.
Act4 Physica ,4r Sr Hungaricae 39, 1975
UNSTEADYFLOW 27

F r o m (1.19), w e get
(1 - - a;t) u l § 2 K~au2
(1.23)
T~

(1 - - crŸ u 2 - - 2 K 2 a u l
V2 (1.24)
T~

2. D i s c u s s i o n

Ty])ical n o n - d i m e n s i o n a l v e l o c i t y profiles are s h o w n in Figs. 1 to 12


w h e n c ---~ 0.2, ~ = 0.8 a n d t ---- 1.

.120

.I00

uI
.O50
l
.010

-L0-.8 -.6 -.91 -.2 0 .2 .91 .6 .8 1.0


~z
Fig. 1. Velocity profiles loa liquid pazticles in x-direction

.0080

UT
i .0050

.OOiO

K2=1. ~X~

Fig. 2. Velocity profiles for liquid particles in x-directiou

Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hun~arir 39, 1975


28 8. N. DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

.0008

.0005

-u I

.0001 Kz
I I i I
-1.0 -.8 -.8 -.4 -.2 lO .2 .~ .~ .8 |,0
Z

Fig. 3. Velocity profiles for liquid particles in x-direction

.100

v~ .050

T
.010

q.O -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0


z

Fig. 4. Ve|ocity profiles for dust particles in x-direction

.008

.005

v1

T .00 I

-I.0 1.0
K2=f, ~Z=25
-----D, z

Fig. 5. Velocity profiles for dust particles in x-direction

Acta Physica .4cademiae Scientiarum Hungarirr 39~ ]975


UNSTEADY FLOW 29

.0003
F
ooo21 K2=25, ),2=I
;,:ooo,F f - - - - - - - - 1 - ~
/ I/-.B -.e -.~; -.2 o .2 .91 .6 .B\
-1.0
'~--....L.__L ' '

K2= 25. ~2=25


' ' ' '__...~-~~
1.0
mm~" Z

Fig. 6. Velocity profiles for dust particles in x-direction

"1501

.I00[

-I.0 -.8 -.6 -.~ -.2 0 .2 .91 .6 .8 I.O


~Z

Fig. 7. Velocity profiles for liquid particles in y-direction

,050

I .0~0
-I.0 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.z 0 .2 .:. .6 8 1.0
..... ~ z

Fig. 8. Velocity profiles for liquid particles in y-direction

Ar Physir Academiae Sr Hunsarir 39, 1975


30 S.N. DUBE and C. L. SHAHMA

.OOg

K2:25, },2=1
.005
u2

.001 K2:25, },2:25

,o.8-; i 2 ; ~ 91 ; e ,o
z
Fig. 9. Ve]ocity profi]es for liquid particles in y-direction

.090

.050
v2

T
.01O
i n i i
-1.0-.8 -6 ~ .6 .8 1.0
K2 i, }2=91
--4b. z
Fig. 10. Velocity profi]esIfor dust partic]es in y-direction

,00ZF

to o , ~
-.002 L K2=Z,,~2=1
Fig. I ] . Ve]ocity profi]es for dust partic]es in y-direction

.00091F
.0003 F
v2.0002L K2=25, }2= 1

I .0001
-J.O-.8 -.6 -.91 -.2 0 .2 .91 .6 .8 t.O

Fig. 12. Ve]ocity profi]es for dust partic]es in y-direction

Ar Phy*ir Ar Seientiarum Hungarir 39, 1975


UNSTEADY FLOW 31

Consider first the veloeity profiles of the liquid and the dust particles
in the direetion of the pressure gradient. We observe the following points:
(i) Figs. 1 and 2 show t h a t for small values of K ~ and ~2, the velocity
profiles for liquid particles are n e a r l y parabolie, the m a x i m u m of u 1 occurring
at the centre. F r o m these two Figures we also note t h a t for small K 2, u 1
decreases as 22 increases and after h a exceeds a certain critieal value 2 2, say,
flow is reversed.
(ii) Figs. 2 and 3 show t h a t for sma]l values of ~2, the m a x i m u m of u 1
no longer occurs at the centre as we increase K 2, b u t is shifted towards the
walls. These t w o Figures also show t h e osei]latory e h a r a e t e r of u 1 for large K 2
and small 22. F r o m Figs. 2 and 3 we also note t h a t for large K 2, u t decreases
with the inerease of 22 and after 2 2 exceeds a certain critical value, flow is
reversed.
(iii) Figs. 4 and 5 show t h a t for small K 2, v 1 deereases with the decrease
of 22 and after 22 crosses a eertaiu critieal value, flow is reversed. We also note
from these two Figures t h a t for small values of K 2 and 22, the veloeity profiles
for dust particles are nearly parabo]ic. F r o m Fig. 6 we observe t h a t for large
values of K 2, v 1 decreases as 22 decreases and flow is reversed after ~2 crosses
a certain critieal value.
F r o m the above discussion ir is elear t h a t the m o t i o n of t h e liquid par.
ticles in the positive direction of t h e x-axis does not i m p l y t h a t the dust par-
ticles also m o r e in t h a t direction. This difference is due to the faet t h a t the
pressure gradient is direetly exerted on the fluid, t h e n the d u s t particle is m o v e d
b y Stokes drag due to the difference b e t w e e n the velocities of fluid and dust.
Let us consider now the v e l o c i t y profiles of the s e c o n d a r y flow of the
liquid and dust particles.
(iv) Figs. 7, 8 and 9 show t h a t the profiles for u2 always increase when
b o t h K 2 and 22 increase. The shapes of the profiles ate similar to those of u 1
for small values of K 2 and ~2. The profiles for u 2 n e v e r cut the axis of rotation
(at least for values of K 2 and 22 considered), t h e r e b y discounting the possibi-
lity of flow reversal in the y-direction. F r o m Fig. 9 we also see the oseillatory
c h a r a c t e r of t h e profiles for u 2 when K 2 is large and 22 is small.
(v) Fig. 10 shows t h a t the profiles for dust partieles v 2 are nearly para-
bolic for small values of K 2 and 22. F o r small K 2, the oscillatory c h a r a c t e r of
v 2 is clearly e v i d e n t from this Figure when we increase 2 2. These oscillations
cause reversal o f the velocity.
(vi) F o r large K 2 and 22, the oscillatory c h a r a e t e r of the flow is again
evident from the Figs. 11 and 12 and due to these oscillations there is a reversal
of flow.
F r o m the above discussion we n o t e t h a t the liquid particles will m o v e in
the negative direetion of the y-axis (at least for values of K 2 and 2 2 considered)
whereas the dust particles will move in b o t h the direetions of the y-axis.

Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 39, 1975


32 s N. DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

Acknowledgement

The authors ate grateful to Dr. M. B. BANEaJEE for bis encouragement.

REFERENCES

1. P. G. S h ~ T ~ N , J. Fluid Mech., 13, 120, 1962.


2. D. H. MICHA]BL, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 61, 569, 1965.
3. P. S. S. RAo, Defence Sci. J., 19, 135, 1969.

.4eta Ph3~ir Ar 8r252 Hungarieae 39, 1975