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23--32 (1975)

ROTATING CHANNEL

By

S. N. Duer. and C. L. SHARMA

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, HIMACHAL PRADESH UNIVERSITYoSIMLA.5, INDIA

(Rer 8. V. 1975)

The unsteady flow of a dusty viseous liquid in a parallel plate channel rotating with

an angular velocity ~ is analysed. Analytical expressions for the velocities of the Hquid aud

the dust particles ate obtained. These expressions contain two paxameters: the dimensionless

decay factor X and Kz which is the reciproca1 of the Ekman number. The effects of these

parameters on the velocity distributions are studied.

Introduetion

gas in which the dust partieles are uniformly dist¡ He has assumed

t h a t the dust particles ate uniform in size and shape and the bulk eoncentration

of the dust is very small to be neglected. On the other hand the density of the

dust material is large compared with the gas density so t h a t the mass concen-

tration of dust is ah appreciable fraction of unity. MICHAEL [2] has investigated

the Ke]vin--Helmholtz instability of the dusty gas. Rxo [3] has discussed

the unsteady laminar flow of a dusty viscous liquid under the influence of

exponential pressure gradient through a circular cylinder.

In the present paper we consider the unsteady flow of a dusty viscous

liquid confined between two parallel infinŸ walls rotating with ah angular

velocity Q about an axis perpendicular to their planes. Exact solutions of

the governing equations are obtained in c]osed form. There ate two parameters

involved, viz. ~ whieh is a dimensionless decay factor and K g = Qz~ which is

v

the ratio of Coriolis and viscous forees. Velocity profiles for sma]l and large

va]ues of these parameters have been drawn.

The importance of the study of fluid flow problems taking into account

the simultaneous effects of dust and Coriolis force lies in their applieation in

m a n y fields of interest. Therefore it is desirable to study their effects in specific

flow problems.

24 S . N . DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

1. Equations of m o t i o n

f o r a viscous incompressible fluid with uniform distribution of dust particles

ate given b y

Su

- 4 - ( u . v ) u + 2 s 1 9 1 2 1 =5 - - l- g- r a d p + vVzU + K'N~ ( v - - u ) , (1.l)

8t e e

[8,

m ~t

]

A - ( v ' v ) v A - 2 s 1 9 1 2v1 5 = K ' ( u - - v ) , (1.2)

div u ~- 0, (1.3)

div v ---- 0. (1.4)

s191

is the angular velocity of the system (consisting of the plates and the dusty

liquid) referred to a fixed inertial frame a n d p ----p ' -- --2-]

0 ~91• r q p ' denoting

the fluid pressure and r denoting the position veetor from the axis of rotation,

m the mass of a dust partide, K" the Stokes resistance eoefficient which for

spherical particles of radius e is 6~r/~~, # being the viscosity of the liquid, No the

number density of dust particles which is a constant throughout the motion,

v, ~ ate respectively the kinematic coeffieient of viscosity and density of the

liquid.

We choose a cartesian system such that z-axis is perpendicular to the

plates, z = q-Zo. The x-axis is in the direction of the pressure gradient. For

simplicity the angular velocity is taken to be parallel to the z-axis. Since the

plates ate infinite in the x and y-directions, the fields set up for the unsteady

state will depend only on z and t.

The velocities u, v m a y rcasonably be assumed as

_ _ K' No (vi -- ul), (1.7)

0t ~ ax Oz2

_9u2

_ +2•u 1= 1 0p + v 02u2 + K'N o

(v2 - u 2 ) , (1.8)

at e ~Y 8z2

Acre Pbydr Ar162 ~ i a 6 a r u m Huntgaricae 39, 1975

UNSTEADY FLOW 25

0= 1 0p, (1.9)

~ Oz

Ot

K'(u 1 -- I)1) , ( [ }

[ Ov2

mL 0t + 2 O v i ] = K ' ( u 2 vz). (1.11)

Eqs. (1.3) and (1.4) are identically satisfied and Eq. (1.9) shows the con-

s t a n c y of the fluid d y n a m i c pressure along the axis of rotation. We shalI

assume now t h a t the fluid flows u n d e r the influence of exponential pressure

gradient in t h e direction of the x-axis between the parallel plates, z = _+z0.

The b o u n d a r y conditions to be satisfied ate

We now make Eqs. (1.7), (1.8), (1.10) and (1.11) dimensionless b y introducing

the following non-dimensional quantities:

-- , -z = - - , mi- , ~t2- ,-vi-- ,

Z0 Z0 $' -y ,p

Qz02 mNo my

C - - - ~ ff= 9

v pv z " v ~ K'z~

vt ~z2o

After dropping the bars, Eqs. (1.7), (1.8), (1.10) and (1.11) become

Ot Ox Ozz a

0q2 1

~- 2 q = -_2_(ql -- q2), (1.14)

0t a

The b o u n d a r y conditions t h e n reduce to

z =- + 1, ql = O, q2 = O. (1.15)

We now assume t h a t

Op __ e_at" (1.16)

Ox

26 S.N. DUBE aad C. L. SHARMA

tions f ( + 1) = 0, we get

~l ~ "~ COS

where

0{2

(~91-- 2 i K z) [(1 + c) -- a~ A- 2 q

(1 -- aY) + 2 .zK2a

Eq. (1.14) then gives

q2

(1 -- aX) 2 -~ 4 K4a ~ ~2 COS

Ul

= [(A, - B ' ) P - - Z A S O _ . ( A " - - B') ]_~,, (1.20)

[ (A 2 + B2)' R (A~ + B2)'J

~'(A 2 - B 2) Q + 2 A B P 2 AB ]

I/9, . [ . . . ] e -~t (1.21)

(A 2 + B2) 2 R (A 2 + B2) 2 '

where

P cos A cos h B cos Az cos hBz + sin A sin hB sin Az sin h B z ,

Q = cos A cos hB sin Az sin hBz -- sin A sin hB cos Az cos h B z ,

R= cos 2 A cos h2B + sin 2 A sin h2B,

TA= ~ l ( f l l Y l -'}- {~2Y2) - - 0C2(fllY2 - - ~2~'1) ' (1.22)

Tu: (1 -- ~2) 2 + 4K4a 2,

~~,= [-a+V~+4K,] ~/~.

V~~~= [(1 + ~) - ~ ~ + V((1 + ~) - ~a}~ + 4 K",~] 1/',

V~ ~,.= [~~ - (1 + ~) + V{(1 + ~) - ~ay- + 4 K~~~-]~/~,

V~~~-- [1 - ~~ + Vil - ~~)~ + 4 K*~~ ]~/~,

V~~,,.= [ ~ ~ - 1 + V i 1 - ~a)' + 4K"~" ]1/,.

Act4 Physica ,4r Sr Hungaricae 39, 1975

UNSTEADYFLOW 27

F r o m (1.19), w e get

(1 - - a;t) u l § 2 K~au2

(1.23)

T~

(1 - - crŸ u 2 - - 2 K 2 a u l

V2 (1.24)

T~

2. D i s c u s s i o n

w h e n c ---~ 0.2, ~ = 0.8 a n d t ---- 1.

.120

.I00

uI

.O50

l

.010

~z

Fig. 1. Velocity profiles loa liquid pazticles in x-direction

.0080

UT

i .0050

.OOiO

K2=1. ~X~

28 8. N. DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

.0008

.0005

-u I

.0001 Kz

I I i I

-1.0 -.8 -.8 -.4 -.2 lO .2 .~ .~ .8 |,0

Z

.100

v~ .050

T

.010

z

.008

.005

v1

T .00 I

-I.0 1.0

K2=f, ~Z=25

-----D, z

UNSTEADY FLOW 29

.0003

F

ooo21 K2=25, ),2=I

;,:ooo,F f - - - - - - - - 1 - ~

/ I/-.B -.e -.~; -.2 o .2 .91 .6 .B\

-1.0

'~--....L.__L ' '

' ' ' '__...~-~~

1.0

mm~" Z

"1501

.I00[

~Z

,050

I .0~0

-I.0 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.z 0 .2 .:. .6 8 1.0

..... ~ z

30 S.N. DUBE and C. L. SHAHMA

.OOg

K2:25, },2=1

.005

u2

,o.8-; i 2 ; ~ 91 ; e ,o

z

Fig. 9. Ve]ocity profi]es for liquid particles in y-direction

.090

.050

v2

T

.01O

i n i i

-1.0-.8 -6 ~ .6 .8 1.0

K2 i, }2=91

--4b. z

Fig. 10. Velocity profi]esIfor dust partic]es in y-direction

,00ZF

to o , ~

-.002 L K2=Z,,~2=1

Fig. I ] . Ve]ocity profi]es for dust partic]es in y-direction

.00091F

.0003 F

v2.0002L K2=25, }2= 1

I .0001

-J.O-.8 -.6 -.91 -.2 0 .2 .91 .6 .8 t.O

UNSTEADY FLOW 31

Consider first the veloeity profiles of the liquid and the dust particles

in the direetion of the pressure gradient. We observe the following points:

(i) Figs. 1 and 2 show t h a t for small values of K ~ and ~2, the velocity

profiles for liquid particles are n e a r l y parabolie, the m a x i m u m of u 1 occurring

at the centre. F r o m these two Figures we also note t h a t for small K 2, u 1

decreases as 22 increases and after h a exceeds a certain critieal value 2 2, say,

flow is reversed.

(ii) Figs. 2 and 3 show t h a t for sma]l values of ~2, the m a x i m u m of u 1

no longer occurs at the centre as we increase K 2, b u t is shifted towards the

walls. These t w o Figures also show t h e osei]latory e h a r a e t e r of u 1 for large K 2

and small 22. F r o m Figs. 2 and 3 we also note t h a t for large K 2, u t decreases

with the inerease of 22 and after 2 2 exceeds a certain critical value, flow is

reversed.

(iii) Figs. 4 and 5 show t h a t for small K 2, v 1 deereases with the decrease

of 22 and after 22 crosses a eertaiu critieal value, flow is reversed. We also note

from these two Figures t h a t for small values of K 2 and 22, the veloeity profiles

for dust particles are nearly parabo]ic. F r o m Fig. 6 we observe t h a t for large

values of K 2, v 1 decreases as 22 decreases and flow is reversed after ~2 crosses

a certain critieal value.

F r o m the above discussion ir is elear t h a t the m o t i o n of t h e liquid par.

ticles in the positive direction of t h e x-axis does not i m p l y t h a t the dust par-

ticles also m o r e in t h a t direction. This difference is due to the faet t h a t the

pressure gradient is direetly exerted on the fluid, t h e n the d u s t particle is m o v e d

b y Stokes drag due to the difference b e t w e e n the velocities of fluid and dust.

Let us consider now the v e l o c i t y profiles of the s e c o n d a r y flow of the

liquid and dust particles.

(iv) Figs. 7, 8 and 9 show t h a t the profiles for u2 always increase when

b o t h K 2 and 22 increase. The shapes of the profiles ate similar to those of u 1

for small values of K 2 and ~2. The profiles for u 2 n e v e r cut the axis of rotation

(at least for values of K 2 and 22 considered), t h e r e b y discounting the possibi-

lity of flow reversal in the y-direction. F r o m Fig. 9 we also see the oseillatory

c h a r a c t e r of t h e profiles for u 2 when K 2 is large and 22 is small.

(v) Fig. 10 shows t h a t the profiles for dust partieles v 2 are nearly para-

bolic for small values of K 2 and 22. F o r small K 2, the oscillatory c h a r a c t e r of

v 2 is clearly e v i d e n t from this Figure when we increase 2 2. These oscillations

cause reversal o f the velocity.

(vi) F o r large K 2 and 22, the oscillatory c h a r a e t e r of the flow is again

evident from the Figs. 11 and 12 and due to these oscillations there is a reversal

of flow.

F r o m the above discussion we n o t e t h a t the liquid particles will m o v e in

the negative direetion of the y-axis (at least for values of K 2 and 2 2 considered)

whereas the dust particles will move in b o t h the direetions of the y-axis.

32 s N. DUBE and C. L. SHARMA

Acknowledgement

REFERENCES

2. D. H. MICHA]BL, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 61, 569, 1965.

3. P. S. S. RAo, Defence Sci. J., 19, 135, 1969.

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