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The phonemes of English: Consonants

Bilabials
/p/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, stop, bilabial, LABIAL
/b/ voiced, oral, obstruent, stop, bilabial, LABIAL

/m/ voiced, nasal, sonorant, stop, bilabial, LABIAL

/w/ voiced, oral, sonorant, approximant, glide, bilabial, LABIAL

Labio-dentals
/f/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, fricative, labio-dental, LABIAL
/v/ voiced, oral, obstruent, fricative, labio-dental, LABIAL

Interdentals
/θ/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, fricative, interdental, CORONAL
/ð/ voiced, oral, obstruent, fricative, interdental, CORONAL

Alveolars
/t/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, stop, alveolar, CORONAL
/d/ voiced, oral, obstruent, stop, alveolar, CORONAL

/s/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, fricative, alveolar, CORONAL


/z/ voiced, oral, obstruent, fricative, alveolar, CORONAL

/n/ voiced, nasal, sonorant, stop, alveolar, CORONAL

/l/ voiced, oral, sonorant, approximant, lateral, alveolar, CORONAL

/r/ voiced, oral, sonorant, approximant, rhotic, alveolar, CORONAL

Alveo-palatals
/ʃ/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, fricative, alveo-palatal, CORONAL
/ʒ/ voiced, oral, obstruent, fricative, alveo-palatal, CORONAL

/ʧ/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, affricate, alveo-palatal, CORONAL


/ʤ/ voiced, oral, obstruent, affricate, alveo-palatal, CORONAL

Palatals
/j/ voiced, oral, sonorant, approximant, glide, palatal, CORONAL

Velars
/k/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, stop, velar, DORSAL
/g/ voiced, oral, obstruent, stop, velar, DORSAL

/ŋ/ voiced, nasal, sonorant, stop, velar, DORSAL

Laryngeals
/h/ voiceless, oral, obstruent, fricative, laryngeal, GUTTURAL

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Notes
All consonantal phonemes are arranged in classes.

The complete description of each consonant is provided (voicing, manner of


articulation, place of articulation, larger grouping).

Pairs of voiceless and voiced consonants are grouped together. Consonants in such
pairs share all characteristics, except for voicing.

English obstruents can be either voiceless or voiced.

All English sonorants are voiced.

The larger grouping CORONAL contains the largest number of consonants.

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The phonemes of English: Vowels

Monophthongs

Short vowels
Front
/ɪ/ high, front, unrounded, non-ATR
/ε/ low-mid, front, unrounded, non-ATR
/æ/ low, front, unrounded, non-ATR

Central
/ə/ mid, central, unrounded, non-ATR
/ʌ/ low, central, unrounded, non-ATR

Back
/ʊ/ high, back, rounded, non-ATR
/ɒ/ low-mid, back, rounded, non-ATR

Long vowels
Front
/i:/ high, front, unrounded, ATR

Central
/ɜ:/ mid, central, unrounded, ATR

Back
/u:/ high, back, rounded, ATR
/:/ low-mid, back, rounded, ATR
/ɑ:/ low, back, unrounded, ATR

Notes
The complete description of each vowel is provided (tongue height, frontness vs.
backness, lip rounding, tongue root).

All English short vowels are non-ATR.

There are no front or central rounded vowels.

All English long vowels are ATR.

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Diphthongs

Closing
/eɪ/, /aɪ/, /ɪ/
/əʊ/, /aʊ/

Centring
/ɪə/, /εə/, /ʊə/

Notes
All English diphthongs are falling.

Closing diphthongs end in /ɪ/ or /ʊ/.

Centring diphthongs end in /ə/.

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