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METHODS IN BUSINESS RESEARCH

Base Support in Management Processs

Boyke Hatman

Jakarta, Indonesia
2018
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A. Introduction

Research method is a scientific way or technique to obtain


data with a specific purpose and usefulness. Scientific means or
techniques in question is where the research activities are carried
out based on the characteristics of science, namely Rational,
Empirical and Systematic. Rational means research is done in a way
that makes sense, so affordable by human reason. Empirical means
the means or techniques performed during the study can be
observed by the human senses, so that others can observe and
know the ways or techniques or steps used during the research
process. Systematic, the point is that the process undertaken in the
research uses certain logical steps.
It is a set of rules, activities, and procedures used by actors of
a discipline. Methodology is also a theoretical analysis of a method
or method. Research is a systematic inquiry to increase some
knowledge, is also a systematic and organized effort to investigate
certain problems that require answers. The nature of research can

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be understood by studying the various aspects that encourage
research to conduct research. Each person has a different
motivation, among them influenced by the goals and professions of
each. Motivation and research objectives in general are basically the
same, that is research is a reflection of the human desire that always
try to know something. The desire to acquire and develop knowledge
is a basic human need which is generally the motivation for doing
research.
Empirical data obtained through the research must have valid
criteria. That is the data that the degree of accuracy between the
actual data occurs on the object with data collected by the
researcher. For example in a business exhibition sold 1080 sets of
gadgets, while researchers reported far below or over 1080 sets of
computers sold, then the degree of validity of the research results
were low. Or for example in a stock trading does not happen riot,
and researchers reported a riot then the reported data is also invalid.
To obtain valid data in research is often difficult, therefore, the
validity of research results can be tested through testing the
reliability and objectivity of research data that has been collected. In
general, if the data is realiabel and objective, then the results of his
research will be valid. Valid data must be reliable and objective.
Reliability relates to the degree of consistency / control of data within
a given time interval. For example, on the first day of the interview,
the data sources say that the number of employees demonstrating
as many as 5,000 people, then tomorrow or even tomorrow the
source data will still say that the number of employees who
demonstrate remains as many as 5,000 people, then the data is
objective data (subjective opponent) .

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If there are several groups of researchers providing the
research data is not objective and therefore invalid. Reliable data is
not necessarily valid, for example every day a company employee
comes home tonight with the reason there is a meeting, when in
reality there is no meeting. It is pronounced consistently but the data
is invalid. Objective data is also not necessarily valid, for example
99% of a group of people declare that A is a thief, and 1% says it is
not a thief. Yet the truth is that only 1% say that A is not a thief.

The validity of the research data can be obtained by using a


valid instrument, using appropriate and sufficient number of data
sources, as well as correct data collection and analysis methods. To
get reliable data, then the instrument must be reliable and his
research is done repeatedly. Furthermore, to obtain objective data,
then the sample data source amounts close to the population.

Every research has a specific purpose and usefulness. In


general, the purpose of research there are three kinds of that is the
nature of discovery, verification and development. The discovery
means the data obtained from the research is a completely new data
that has not previously been known. The proof means that the data
obtained is used to prove the existence of any doubt about certain
information or knowledge, and the development means to deepen
and extend the existing knowledge.
Through research conducted by humans can use the results,
in general data obtained from research can be used to understand,
solve and anticipate problems. Understanding means clarifying an
unknown problem or information and then knowing, solving means

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minimizing or eliminating the problem, and anticipating means trying
to keep the problem from happening.
So a business research method can be interpreted as a
scientific way of obtaining valid data with the purpose of discovering,
proving, and developing a knowledge so that in turn it can be used to
understand, solve, and anticipate problems in the business field.

Usefulness research, in general:


1. Understand the problem
2. Solve the problem
3. Anticipate problems

Business Research
Business research is a process of collecting and analyzing the data
systematically and objectively to assist decision making in a
business field.

Classification Of Business Research


Based on research objectives
1. Basic research (development & evaluation of basic concepts)
a. deductive: test hypothesis through validation theory, type:
hypothesis a priori
b. inductive: developing theory or hypotheses through
disclosure of facts
2. Applied research (solving practical problems)
a. evaluation research

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b. research and development
c. action research

Based On The Characteristics Of The Problem


1. Historical research
2. Descriptive research
3. Field case study
4. Correlational research
5. Causal-comparative
6. Experiments

Based On The Data Type


1. Research opinion
2. Empirical research
3. Archive research

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B. Basic Concept Of Business Research
Methods

Some methodological principles by some experts, among


them:
A. Rene Descartes
In his Discourse On Method there are methodological
principles :
1. Talking about science begins with the mention of common
sense (common sense) that is generally owned by everyone.
Common sense according to Descartes there are less, there
are more who have it, but the most important is its application
in scientific activities.
2. Explain the basic rules about the method to be used in
scientific and research activities. Descartes proposed 4 (four)
steps or rules that could support the method in question:

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(a) Never accept anything as true, if you have no clear
knowledge of the truth. That is, carefully avoid
conclusions and pre-conception in a hurry and do not
put anything into your consideration more than those
exposed so clearly that there is no doubt,
(b) Resolve your difficulties to as many parts as possible
and as much as possible to facilitate a better solution.
(c) Direct your thoughts in a clear and orderly way, from
the simplest and most easily recognizable object, then
gradually increasing, step by step into the most complex
knowledge, and by presupposing a sequence even
among objects before it is not has a new order.
(d) Make the numbering for the whole problem as
complete as possible, and have a thorough review so
you can be sure there is nothing left behind.
(e) The step that Descartes describes depicts a
methodical skepticism in obtaining the definite truth.

3. Mention some moral rules that become the basis for the
application of the following methods:
(a) Obey the laws and customs of the country, while
holding on to the religion taught from childhood.
(b) Act firmly and steadfastly, on both the most
convincing and the most dubious opinions.
(c) Trying more to change oneself than to overhaul the
world order.

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4. Affirming the devotion to truth that is often fooled by the
senses. We can indeed imagine ourselves unchanging but we
can not imagine ourselves not in existence, as we can doubt
the other truths. Therefore, we may doubt everything, but we
can not doubt our own being in a state of doubt.
5. Affirming the dualism in man which consists of two
substances namely Rescogitans (soul reason) and Res-
Extensa (widespread body). The body (Res-Extensa) is
compared to a machine that is certainly because of God's
creation, then arranged better. The dependence of the two
natures is the reasoning soul and the physical nature. The
soul is by nature impossible to die with the body. The human
soul is eternal.

B. Alfred Julesayer
In his work entitled Language, Truth and Logic related to the
principle of methodology is the principle of verification. There are two
types of verification:
1. Verification in the strict sense (strong verifiable) ie the
extent to which the truth of a proposition (guesses) it supports
the experience convincingly
2. Verification in a soft sense, ie if it has opened the possibility
of accepting statements in history (past) and future forecasts
as statements containing meaning
3. Ayer denies metaphysical concern in the scientific world,
since metaphysical statements (including theological ethics)
are Meaning Less statements because no verification can be
done.

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C. Karl Raimund Popper
K.R. Popper is a contemporary philosopher who sees the
weakness in the principle of verification in the form of justification
against the existing theory. K.R. Popper put forward the principle of
verification as follows:
1. Popper rejects the common belief that a theory is
formulated and can be verified by the verification principle.
Scientific theories are always hypothetical (alleged temporary),
there is no final truth. Every theory is always open to being
replaced by a more appropriate theory.
2. The method of induction method which is systematically
started from observation carefully symptom which is being
investigated. This repeated observation will show the
existence of general characteristics that are formulated into
hypotheses. Furthermore, the hypothesis was confirmed by
finding empirical evidence that can support it. A justified
hypothesis (justification) will turn into law. K.R. Popper rejects
the above work, especially on the principle of verification, that
a statement may be justified on the basis of empirical
observation verification evidence.
3. K.R Popper offers a new solution by proposing the principle
of Bilitas Falsifa, namely that a statement can be proved
wrong. It means a hypothesis, law, or the theory of truth is
temporary, as long as there is no error found in it. For
example, if there is a statement that all white goose through
the principle of falsifiability is enough to find a goose that is not
white (either black, yellow, green, etc.), then the statement

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collapses. But if a hypothesis can withstand all denial
attempts, then the hypothesis is further strengthened.

Research method is a scientific way or technique to obtain


data with a specific purpose and usefulness. Scientific means or
techniques in question is where the research activities are carried
out based on the characteristics of science, namely Rational,
Empirical and Systematic. Rational means research is done in a way
that makes sense, so affordable by human reason. Empirical means
the means or techniques performed during the study can be
observed by the human senses, so that others can observe and
know the ways or techniques or steps used during the research
process. Systematic, the point is that the process undertaken in the
research uses certain logical steps.
If there are some groups of researchers provide the research
data is not objective so invalid. Reliable data is not necessarily valid,
for example every day a company employee comes home tonight
with the reason there is a meeting, when in reality there is no
meeting. It is pronounced consistently but the data is invalid.
Objective data is also not necessarily valid, for example 99% of a
group of people declare that A is a thief, and 1% says it is not a thief.
Yet the truth is that only 1% say that A is not a thief.
The validity of the research data can be obtained by using a
valid instrument, using appropriate and sufficient number of data
sources, as well as correct data collection and analysis methods. To
get reliable data, then the instrument must be reliable and research
done repeatedly. Furthermore, to obtain objective data, then the
sample data source amounts close to the population.

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Every research has a specific purpose and usefulness. In
general, the purpose of research there are three kinds of that is the
nature of discovery, verification and development. The discovery
means the data obtained from the research is a completely new data
that has not previously been known. The proof means that the data
obtained is used to prove the existence of any doubt about certain
information or knowledge, and the development means to deepen
and extend the existing knowledge.
Through human research can use the results, in general data
obtained from research can be used to understand, solve and
anticipate problems. Understanding means clarifying an unknown
problem or information and then knowing, solving means minimizing
or eliminating the problem, and anticipating means trying to keep the
problem from happening.
So a business research method can be interpreted as a
scientific way of obtaining valid data with the purpose of discovering,
proving, and developing a knowledge so that in turn it can be used to
understand, solve, and anticipate problems in the business field.
Scientific Method
Scientific method is a procedure or a method used to acquire
knowledge called science (scientific knowledge Not all knowledge is
science, because science is a certain criterion) The way to acquire
knowledge in philosophical studies is known as epistemology
(knowledge philosophy).

Characteristics Of Science

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Knowledge is basically the result of the process of seeing,
hearing, feeling, and thinking that is the basis of man and behave
and act. Science is a part of knowledge that provides explanations of
facts or natural phenomena (facts that are true or generally true
value). Knowledge that explains natural phenomena is useful for
predicting natural phenomena. The embodied knowledge assessed
in the sciences is judged to be the correct knowledge to address
problems in human life.

Types Of Scientific Research


Research can be categorized into several types based on
certain criteria, based on:
(1) Purpose;
(2) Approach;
(3) Place;
(4) Use or result / reason obtained;
(5) Field of study;
(6) Level of Research;
(7) Technique used;
(8) scholarship;
(9) Specialization field (science) arable.

Criteria For Scientific Research


1. Be able to state objectives clearly,
2. Using the theoretical foundations and methods of testing
relevant data,

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3. Develop a hypothesis that can be tested from theoretical
analysis or based on data disclosure,
4. Has had the ability to be retested,
5. Choosing the right data so that the results can be trusted,
6. Drawing conclusions objectively,
7. Report results parsimony,
8. The results can be generalized.

C. Reseach Process

Quantitative research is based on a logico-hypotheco-


verifikatif positivism paradigm based on assumptions about empirical
objects. The first assumption that objects / phenomena can be
classified according to nature, type, structure, shape, color and so
on. Based on this assumption the researcher can focus his research
on some of the business context in the form of certain variables of a
research object that becomes a problem.

Researchers can do research on business variables, for


example about the process Production, marketing, accounting,

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institutions, finance, taxation, leadership, work attitude. The
researcher should not examine all variables in the business context,
since it is based on the assumption that each context has clarified
properties. For example, the classification of the nature of people
based on their work motivation, based on their leadership style,
based on their ability, etc.
Actually quantitative research also recognizes that all the traits
in a person (personality, talent, leadership style etc.) can not be
separated. But in a person will have a certain mode in its nature, for
example A, high motivation work but leadership style, ability, and
relationships with others is not good. In addition quantitative
research holds that everyone has limited ability in certain fields only.
Perhaps a manager sees an employee whose job motivation is low,
good, low ability; but a doctor will see the employee in terms of the
physical health of the employee.
The second science assumption is determinism (causality).
This assumption states that every symptom is causing. Companies
can go bankrupt because there are causes the value of the rupiah
could fall because there are causes, people are lazy to work
because there are causes.
Based on the first and second assumptions the researcher can
select the variables studied, and look for the relationship between
one variable with another variable. Thus the title of his research can
read X relationship with Y, the effect of X1 and X2 on Y.
The third science assumption is that a symptom will not
change over time. If the observed phenomenon changes
continuously it will be difficult to learn. Students whose thesis or
dissertation exam is retained past data which may be at the time the

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examination of the data of the object under study has changed.
Moreover, data from the social field.
Based on the above assumptions and also based on the
logico-hypotheco-verifikatif scientific method, the quantitative
research process will be linear. As has been pointed out in the sense
that the research in principle is to answer the problem. Problem is a
deviation from what should be with what really happened. Deviations
between rules and execution, theory with practice, planning with
implementation etc.
Quantitative research departs from a preliminary study of a
premature object to get the real problem. Problems can not be
obtained from behind the table, therefore they must be explored
through preliminary studies through empirical facts. In order for
researchers to explore the problem well, the researcher must master
the theory through various references. Furthermore, so the problem
can be answered so well the problem is formulated specifically, and
generally made in the form of a question sentence.
To answer the temporary problem formulation (hypothesized)
then, the researcher can read the theoretical references relevant to
the problem and thinking. In addition, previous research findings that
are relevant can also be used as material to provide answers to new
problem formulations based on theory and supported by relevant
research, but there is no empirical proof (factual) then the answer is
called the hypothesis.
To test the hypothesis the researcher can choose the method /
strategy / approach / research design accordingly. The ideal
consideration for choosing the method is the level of data accuracy
that can be obtained and the desired consistency. While practical

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considerations, is the availability of funds, time, and other
conveniences.
After the appropriate research method is chosen, the
researcher can develop the research instrument. This instrument is
used as a data collection tool that can be in the form of a
questionnaire / questionnaire, for interview or observation guidelines.
Before the instrument is used for data collection, the research
instrument must first be tested the validity and reliability.
Data collection is done on certain object either in form of
population or sample. If the researcher wants to memebuat
generalization to the findings, then the samples taken must be
representative (representing).
After the data collected, it is then analyzed to test the
hypothesis proposed by certain statistical techniques. Based on this
analysis whether the proposed hypothesis is rejected or accepted or
whether the invention is in accordance with the proposed hypothesis
or not.
Conclusion is the last step of a research period in the form of
an answer to the problem formulation. Although the quantitative
research step is linear but it does not mean that research ends there.
Quantitative research process can also be done repeatedly as in the
process of qualitative research, repetition in quantitative research
done in order to obtain consistency / reliability of research data and
prove existing research.
Based on the quantitative research process above it appears
that the mindset of quantitative research, not only deduction but also
induction both in formulating hypotheses and for generalization of
research results.

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The use of relevant concepts and theories and the
assessment of the results of the research that precedes the
hypothesis are logical aspects (logico-hypotetico), whereas the
choice of research methods, collecting instruments, collecting data
and analyzing them is a methodological aspect to verify the
proposed hypothesis.
The descriptions in this article focus on quantitative research
that can be used in business research, both for academic,
professional and institutional purposes. Research can use survey
methods, ex-post facto, experiments, policy and action research.

Research Paradigm
Quantitative Paradigm
a. Traditional, positivist, experimental, empirical paradigms.
b. Emphasizes on testing theories through measurement of research
variables with numbers and performs data analysis with statistical
procedures.
c. Reality is objective and single dimension.
d. Independent researchers of the facts studied.
e. Free value and unbiased.
f. A deductive approach.
g. Testing theory and quantitative analysis.

Qualitative Paradigm
a. A constructive, naturalistic (interpretative) approach, or a
postmodern perspective.

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b. Emphasizes the understanding of issues in social life based on
the conditions of reality.
c. Reality is subjective and has many dimensions.
d. Researchers interact with the facts studied.
e. Not value-free and biased.
f. Inductive approach.
g. Preparation of the theory with qualitative analysis

Quantitative Paradigm Difference With Qualitative Paradigm


The difference between the Quantitative Paradigm and the
Qualitative Paradigm lies in the assumptions used in the study.
Further differences will affect research strategies and design.
Differences of these assumptions include the following:
1. The researcher's relationship with the facts examined
according to the quantitative paradigm is assumed to be
independent so that the researcher can test the reality of the
fact objectively, confined to a single dimension, free value.
Conversely, according to the assumption of a qualitative
paradigm, the research interacts with the facts studied so that
it is more subjective, not worth the value,
2 The research process of quantitative paradigm using
deductive approach, while the research paradigm qualitative
using inductive approach.
3. Quantitative paradigms emphasize theoretical testing with
quantitative analysis rather than a qualitative approach that
puts emphasis on theoretical formation through the disclosure
of facts with qualitative analysis.

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D. Types Of Research Data

As has been argued that research is a scientific way to get


valid data. To be able to get valid data, then the researcher must
know the various kinds of data. The various data presented below
are obtained by instruments using nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio
scales.

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Various Data There Are Two That Qualitative Data And
Quantitative Data.
Qualitative data are data expressed in terms of words,
sentences, and images. Quantitative data is data in the form of
numbers, or qualitative data that is guessed (scoring: excellent = 5,
good = 4, neutral = 3, less good = 2 and not good = 1).
Quantitative data is divided into two, ie discrete / nominal data
and continuum data. Nominal data are data that can only be
categorized separately, discrete or category.
This data is obtained from the count, for example in a class
after calculated there are 50 students, consisting of 30 men and 20
women. In a group there are 5,000 Javanese and 1080 Sundanese
tribes. So nominal data is discrete data, not continuum data.
• Continuum data, is data that varies by level and this is
obtained from the measurement results. This data is
divided into ordinal data, interval data and data ratio.
Ordinal data is data in the form of rank or rank. For
example champion I, II, III and so on. This data, when
expressed in scale, then the distance of one data with
other data is not the same.
• Interval data, are data of equal distance but do not have
zero (0) absolute / absolute value). Example of
thermometer scale, although there is a value of 00 C, but
still there is value. The data obtained from measurement
with attitude instrument with Likert scale for example is
in the form of interval data.
• Data ratio is the same distance data, and has absolute
zero value. For example data about weight, length, and

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volume. Weight 0 kg means no weight, length 0 m
means no length. This data can be changed into interval
and ordinal. This data can also be summed or made
algebraic multiplicity. For example 2 m + 3 m = 7 m. If in
the sum interval data is not as in the data ratio. For
example water 1 cup with a temperature of 2000 C +
water 1 cup with a temperature of 1500 C then the
temperature does not become 3500 C, but about 17, 50
C. Data ratio is the most thorough data.

E. Research By Types Of Data & Analysis

As has been pointed out in the sense of research, that


basically examines it is to obtain objective, valid and reliable data
about something (certain variables). The type of data and its analysis

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in research can be grouped into two main things that is qualitative
and quantitative data.
In a research process there is often only one type of data that
is quantitative or qualitative, but may also be a combination of both.
In the data analysis there are also two kinds, namely the analysis of
quantitative data with statistics and qualititatif (not prioritizing
statistics).
• Qualitative data is data in the form of words, sentences,
schemes and drawings. Qualitative data are data in the
form of numbers or qualitative data that Arranged.
• The qualitative data that is scored (eg scoring) is present
in the measurement scale.

A statement / question that requires an alternative answer,


strongly agree, agree, disagree, disagree where each: strongly
agree given the number 5 - Strongly agree. number 4 - Agreed,
number 3 - Neutral, number 2 - disagree, number 1 - strongly
disagree.

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F. Research By Explanation Level

The level of explanation (level of explanation) is the level of


explanation. So research according to explanation level is research
that intends to explain the position of variables studied and
relationship between one variables with other variable. Based on
this, research can be grouped into, descriptive, comparative, and
associative.

a. Descriptive Research
Research done to describe a variable independently, either one or
more variables without making a comparison or connecting variables
with other variables. Research done on variables whose data
already exist without manipulation process (past and present data).
A research that seeks to answer questions such as, how business
profiles in Indonesia, how much employee productivity in XYZ; how

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much profit of PT ABC this year; how the work ethic, and the work
performance of employees in the P department, is a descriptive
research. The italics are the variables studied, which are
independent.
Descriptive Research Title:
1. Performance of State-Owned Enterprises in 2017
2. Health Service Convenience in Jakarta

b. Comparative Research
Comparative research is a comparative study. Here the variable is
still the same as the Research independent variable but for more
than one sample, or in different time.
Example:
Is there a difference in profits between state-owned enterprises and
private companies, is there any difference in sales value between
2013 and 2014, 2015 and 2016, 2016 and 2017 is different times.
Comparative Research Title:
1. Comparison of the performance of state-owned enterprises
with private sector.
2. Comparison of work discipline Civil Servants with Private
3. Comparison of employee performance after the training

C. Associative Research / Relationships


Associative research is research that aims to determine the
relationship between two or more variables. This research has the
highest level when compared with descriptive and comparative

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research. With this research will be built a theory that can serve to
explain, predict and control a symptom.
Associative Title:
1. Influence Climate Organization on employee performance
2. Relationship motivation with work productivity
3. Effect of leader's Soul on work effectiveness

In this research there are at least two related variables, the


relationship between the three variables are: symmetrical, causal,
and interactive / reciprocal.

 Relations Symmetrical is a form of relationship because of


the emergence of together, for example there is a
relationship between the arrival of butterflies with guests. If
there are butterflies entering the house there will be a
guest. Which causes the arrival of guests not butterflies.
 (due to the emergence together) X does not affect Y or
vice versa.
 A causal relationship is a causal relationship, if X then Y,
for example if the salaries of public and private employees
rise, then people's purchasing power will rise. So that
causes the purchasing power to rise is a salary increase.
Causal / cause of effect. X affects Y
 Interactive or reciprocal or reciprocal relationships are
interrelated relationships. When spending on advertising
rises then the value of sales will also rise, and if the value
penjulan rise, then the cost for advertising will rise as well.

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Interactive / Reciprocal (reciprocal) X and Y influence each
other

Research conducted with the aim to know the relationship


between 2 variables or more. Associative research is the highest
level of research compared to descriptive and comparative research.
With associative research can be built a theory that serves to
explain, predict and control a phenomenon / phenomenon.

G. Research By Method

Research by method, can be grouped into, as follows:


1. Survey Research Method,
2. Ex Post Facto,
3. Experiments,
4. Naturalistic,
5. Policy Research (Policy Research),
6. Action Research (Action Research),
7. Evaluation
8. and History.

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a. Survey Research
Research survey is Research conducted on large and small
population, but the data studied is the data from the samples
taken from the population, so that there are relative events,
distribution and relationships between sociological and
psychological variables.
Survey research is generally undertaken to take a
generalization of in-depth observation. Although this survey
method does not require control groups as well as in
experimental methods, generalizations can be more accurate
when used representative samples.
Example for example:
• Research to express the community's tendency to consume
food & beverages.
b. Ex Post facto Research
Ex post facto research is a research done to examine the
events that have occurred and then trace back to know the
factors that can cause the incident. This research uses the
same basic logic as experimental research that if x then y, only
in this research there is no direct manipulation of independent
variables.
example:
• Research to reveal the causes of shoe factory fire.
• Research to reveal the causes of a decrease in sales
productivity.

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c. Experimental Research
Research with experimental approach is a research that seeks
to influence the effect of certain variables on other variables in
tightly controlled conditions. There are four forms of
experimental methods: experimental, true experimental
factorial, and quasi experimental. This experimental research
is generally done in the laboratory. The research conducted on
the variables whose data have not yet existed so that the
process of manipulation is necessary through the giving of
certain treatment / treatment to the research subject then
observed / measured the impact (future data). Research is
done intentionally by the researchers by providing treatment /
treatment of certain subjects of research in order to generate
something events / circumstances to be examined how the
consequences. This research is a causal research (cause of
effect) whose proof is obtained through comparison /
comparison between:
a. The experimental group (treated) with the control group
(without treatment); or;
b. Condition of subject before treatment with after treatment.
Example for example:
• The influence of certain chemical elements on food delicacy
• The influence of certain types of materials on the beauty of
cloth colors,

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d. Naturalistic Research
This research method is often referred to as qualitative
methods. Qualitative method is a research method used to
examine the condition of natural objects (as opposed to
experiments) where researchers are as key instrument. Data
collection techniques are done inductively. The results of
qualitative research emphasize the meaning of generalization.
Example:
• Research to reveal the meaning of ritual ceremonies or
offerings to business success.
• The relationship between business people who have
"pesugihan" with the amount of sales, etc.

e. Policy Research
Policy Research (the use of policy research methods) begins
because of problems, and these problems are generally
owned by administrators / managers or decision makers in an
organization. Majchrzak (1984) defines policy research as a
research process undertaken on, or an analysis of, basic
social problems, so that its findings can be recommended to
decision makers to act practically in solving problems. Policy
research is very relevant for planners and planning.
Example:
• Research to get information to determine employee payroll
system.
• Research to get information to determine what types of
goods need to be mass produced, etc.

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f. Action Research
Action research is a research that aims to develop the most
efficient working methods, so that production costs can be
reduced and institutional productivity can increase. Research
involves researchers and employees to jointly review the
weaknesses and virtues of working procedures, working
methods, and work tools used so far and then get the working
methods used so far and then get the new working methods
that are considered most efficient. The new work method is
then tested, evaluated continuously in the implementation, so
that until found the most efficient method to be implemented.
Research carried out by a person working in a particular field
on the ongoing process of action by providing certain actions
and observed continuously plus-minusnya views, then held
controlled conversion to the maximum effort in the form of the
most appropriate action.
Example:
• Research to improve procedures and working methods
in the manufacture of a mass-produced type of food.

So it can be stated here that, Action Research is a process


through which individuals or groups wishing to change in
certain situations to test the procedure that is supposed to
produce the change and then, after reaching the stage of
accountable conclusions, carry out this procedure. The main
purpose of this research is to change :
(1) situation,
(2) behavior,

32
(3) organization including work mechanism structure,
work climate and institution.

g. Research Evaluation
In particular, evaluation research can be expressed as an
evaluation, but in others it can also be expressed as research.
As evaluation means it is part of the decision-making process,
that is to compare an event, activity and product with
predefined standards and programs. Evaluation as research
means it will serve to explain the phenomenon.
There are two types of evaluation research: formative
evaluation research that emphasizes process and summative
evaluations that emphasize the product.
Formative evaluation wants to get feedback from an activity in
the process, so it can be used to improve the program or
product. Summative evaluation emphasizes the effectiveness
of program achievement in the form of certain products.
Example:
• Research to evaluate whether a product that is planned to
sell 95% is achieved or not.

h. Historical Research
Historical research is concerned with a logical analysis of
events that took place in the past. So research is no longer
possible to observe the events to be studied. However, the
data source may be primary, that is, the person directly

33
involved in the event, or the sources of documentation relating
to the incident.
The purpose of historical research is to reconstruct past
events systematically and objectively, through collection,
verification evaluation, and data synthesis obtained, so that
facts can be established to make a conclusion. However, the
conclusions obtained are still hypothetical.
Historical research can mainly be used to answer questions
about: when the incident took place, who the perpetrators, and
how the process.
Example:
• Research to know business development in Indonesia
between 1998 and 2017.

H. Types Of Research
The following is presented various types of research in this Research
Methodology that can be used for Research in the field of business,
either Research that is, as follows:
1. Academic (student),
Academic research is a research done by students in making
thesis, thesis and dissertation. this research is an educative
means, so that more nmementingkan limited validity, and the
sophistication of the analysis adjusted to the level of education
(Undergraduate, Postgraduate degree) with the
characteristics, as follows:
o Is a means of education
o Prioritize internal validity (the way it should be true)

34
o Limited research variables
o The sophistication of the analysis is adjusted to the level
(Undergraduate, Postgraduate)

2. Professional (science development)


Professional research is the research of the lecturers and
other researchers. The goal is to gain new knowledge.
Complete research variables, the sophistication of the analysis
is tailored for the benefit of the scientific community. For that
research must be done in the right way (internal validity), and
the results are useful for the development of science (external
validity). characteristics / emphasis:
o Aim to gain new knowledge of science and science,
technology and art.
o Complete research variable

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o The sophistication of the analysis is tailored to the
interests of the scientific community
o Internal validity (the right way) and external validity
(usability and generalization) take precedence

3. Institutional (research for policy formulation or decision making)


Institutional research is a research that aims to obtain
information that can be used institution development. The
results of information research that can be used institution
development. The results of the research will be very useful
for leaders, managers, directors for decision making.
Therefore research results emphasize on external validity
(usefulness), complete variables (completeness of
information), and analysis sophistication adjusted for decision
making. With emphasis on:
o Objectives to obtain information that can be used for
institutional development
o Prioritize external validity (usability)
o Complete research variable (completeness of
information)
o Analytical sophistication is tailored for decision making.

The types of research can be grouped according to,


objectives, approaches, level of explanation, and analysis & data
types. This can be compiled by knowing the types of research, so
researchers in the business field are expected to choose the most
effective and efficient method to obtain information that will be used
to solve business problems.

36
According to the Approach :
1. Longitudinal Research (Longitude)
The data-gathering research is carried out through a
long process and time of a particular set of research
subjects (fixed) and observed / measured continuously
following its development (firing several times against
the same case).

2. Cross-Sectional Research (Cross)


The data-gathering research is conducted through a
process of compromise (crossed) on several groups of
research subjects and observed / measured once for
each group of research subjects as representative of the
development of each stage of subject development
(firing once against one case).

TYPES OF RESEARCH

Based on the paradigm / approach:

- Quantitative research

- Qualitative research

Based on Functions and Purpose:

- Basic research

37
- Applied research

- Research evaluation

- Research development

By type of method:

- Correlational surveys

- Comparative survey

- Experiment

- Action research

- Grounded research

Research Model

Quantitative & Qualitative Research

Survey and Ex-post facto Research

Experimental Research and Action Research

Correlational and Comparative Research

QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES

QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE

Inferential Case
Variables Focused Issues
Eksplanatif Explorative
Measure Revealing
Raw Installation Researcher as Installation
Data analysis Data processing
General Themes Typical Themes

38
Based On Orientation, Researched Research
1) Knowledge-oriented approach that consists of:
Scientific Realism, and Social Constructivism, and
2) Action-oriented approach (Action- oriented-approach) that
consists of: Advocacy or Liberatoris (Advocacy or
Liberatory Framework), and Pragmatism (Pragmatism).

Scientific Realism: Knowledge-Oriented Approaches


• Research aims to describe an objective reality that most or
everyone agrees with.
• Backgrounds and problems can be investigated with
empirical component analysis.
• Research must be value-free.
• Researchers should be separate from participants and be
objective.
• Theories and hypotheses are formulated and then confirmed
or rejected through data analysis based on empirical data.

Social Constructivism: Knowledge-Oriented Approaches


• Reality is historical and culturally constructed so there are
various possible realities.
• Backgrounds and problems must be understood as a
complex whole.
• Researchers should continually seek to realize and control
the researchers' internal values.

39
• Researchers should become actively involved with
participants to understand their views.
• Theories and hypotheses are generated during data
collection and gain meaning through interaction between
humans / participants.

Advocacy-Liberatory: Action-Oriented Approaches


• Reality is constructed by and under conditions of social,
political, and cultural inequality.
• Although qualitative methods are preferred, research
backgrounds and problems can be examined using any
method that truly represents the participants' experience.
• Research is based on values and in order to empower
marginal groups to improve their standard of living.
• Researchers should collaborate as equal partners.
• Theories and hypotheses should be able to provide action
planning for improved improvement / betterment of life.

Pragmatism: Action-oriented Approaches


• The immediate reality of problem solving should be the
focus of research.
• Background and research problems can be investigated
through any method that can accurately describe and
solve a problem.
• Researchers should try to find ways to make certain
aspects (eg aspects of education services) better.

40
• Researchers should collaborate with participants to fully
understand what to do.
• Theories and hypotheses are useful tools to help increase
knowledge (eg education)

Characteristics Of The Research


1. The purpose of research is to obtain knowledge that can
answer various questions or can solve a problem.
2. Research methodology is knowledge that examines the
provisions regarding the methods used in the study.
3. Research and science is the operationalization of the
methods used to acquire scientific knowledge.

I. Research By Purpose

41
When research is directed toward obtaining information that
can be used to solve problems, then research is directed merely to
deeply understand the problem within the organization in depth
(without wanting to apply the results) then it is called basic research.
The results of research obtained will be useful for the development
of management science.
It is actually difficult to distinguish between pure (basic) and
applied research separately, since they are located on a continuum
line. Basic research aims to develop theory and not pay attention to
immediate usefulness is practical. Basic research is generally
conducted in laboratories whose conditions are strictly controlled.
Applied research is conducted with the aim of applying, testing, and
evaluating the capabilities of a theory applied in solving practical
problems. So pure / basic research deals with the discovery and
development of science.

According to Purpose
1. Explorative Research
Aims to reveal broadly and deeply about the causes and
things that affect the occurrence of something.
2. Research Development
Aims to discover and develop a new or existing
prototype in order to improve and develop so as to
obtain more productive, effective and efficient results.
3. Verifikatif Research
Aims to check the truth of previous research results /
previous.

42
4. Policy Research
Research conducted by an institution / institution with
the aim to make anticipatory steps to overcome
problems that may arise in the future.
Basic or pure research is research aimed at discovering new
knowledge that has not previously been known, whereas applied
research is aimed at solving practical life problems.

According to Usefulness
1. Pure Research / Basic Research
Research whose usefulness is directed in the discovery
and development of science.
2. Applied Research
Research whose usefulness is directed in order to solve
practical life problems.

The Research Process


1. The problem of research includes: problem discovery and
problem solving stages: problem identification, problem selection
or selection and formulation of theoretical study problems
constitute the theoretical framework that becomes the basis for
answering research questions or questions.
2. Fact-finding (data) includes: selection, gathering and factual
analysis related to the problem under study data: a collection of
facts obtained through observation or survey. conclusions are the
results of research that feed back on research problems or
questions.

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J. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
• The application of scientific methods in the research process
basically uses the logic of reasoning or reasoning.

• Research uses two types of reasoning: deductive reasoning,


and inductive reasoning.

• Deductive reasoning uses a "top-down" approach to acquiring


knowledge.

• The researcher uses one aspect of deductive reasoning to


begin: first make a general statement, both look for specific
evidence that can support or reject the statement.

• This type of research uses what is called the hypothetic-


deductive method.

• The researcher begins with the preparation of a hypothesis that


is a tentative statement that can be tested with empirical data.

• This hypothesis should be based on a theory or a knowledge


based on the results of previous research.

• A theory is a systematically developed rational explanation of


how a phenomenon or phenomenon of life occurs by using a
framework of concepts, principles, and other hypotheses.

• Scientific research using deductive reasoning, beginning with:

1. examine previous theories and knowledge (research


results) used to construct a hypothesis,

44
2. collect data, and make a decision based on the results of
data analysis to accept or reject the hypothesis or make
predictions.

• A scientific research approach with inductive reasoning often refers


to a "bottom-up" approach to acquiring knowledge.

1. Researchers use careful and meticulous observations to


build an abstraction or describe a phenomenon under study.

2. Inductive reasoning leads to an inductive method in data


collection, the researcher performs:

- observation of the phenomena studied systematically

- look for patterns or themes in the observations made

- develop a generalization of the analysis of the themes.

• The hypothetic-deductive approach and the inductive approach to


knowledge are the two common pathways used in research.

The hypothetic-deductive approach is associated with


a quantitative approach, with the main characteristics of
information and data analysis using numbers.

Inductive reasoning is associated with a qualitative research


approach, which collects and summarizes data using narrative or
verbal methods: observation, interview, and document analysis.
Qualitative researchers are often said to take an inductive approach
to collecting data, because they formulate hypotheses only after they

45
start doing observations, interviews, and document analysis. This
hypothesis is tested and modified by further data collection rather
than being accepted or rejected simultaneously.

Qualitative researchers believe that the full understanding of


phenomenon depends on the context, so they use theory after data
collection to support the description of the observed patterns.

• Broadly speaking, there are two research approaches, namely


quantitative (quantitative research), and qualitative (qualitative
research).

• Each of these approaches has advantages as well as weaknesses,


so to determine the approach to be used in conducting a research
depends on a few things between them

(1) if you want to do a more detailed research that emphasizes


critical detail and case aspects, then the approach that should
be used is a qualitative approach. If the research done for
general conclusions and research results is based on
empirical testing, it should be used a quantitative approach,
and

(2) if the research is to answer a broadly applicable question


with many research objects, a more precise quantitative
approach, and if the research is to answer in-depth questions
and specific details for a single object, then a qualitative
approach is better used,

(3) if the research undertaken to gain an understanding of a


phenomenon comprehensively in both process and outcome,
the researcher can use both approaches.

46
K. Stages / Step Research

1. Problems

- Background

- Identification & Restrictions

- Formulation

2. Theoretical Review

- Theoretical Description

- Framework of thinking

- Hypothesis

47
3. Research Method

- Place and Time of Research

- Variable & Research Design

- Research Instruments

- Sampling

- Data collection technique

4. Data Analysis

- Presentation of Descriptive Data

- Hypothesis testing

5. Withdrawal of Inference

L. Sampling Research
In the study, the sampling method is very useful for a large
number of populations (usually more than 100). Instead of taking the
entire population for study, it will be more useful in terms of time and
cost if researchers use sampling techniques.

Many researchers, especially students, have difficulty


establishing sampling techniques for their research. For that reason,
the knowledge of how the research sample should be taken is
necessary to know the students (and teachers) who are required to
carry out a study.

48
Public Opinion Research Sampling Technique

In everyday life, we unintentionally often relate in the


use of samples. For example when we are going to buy
oranges at the fruit store we do not need to eat 1 kilogram of
oranges to make sure it's enough to eat 1-2 slices of orange
as a sample to make sure it tastes sweet or not. Likewise to
taste the taste of a vegetable, we do not need to eat 1 bowl of
vegetables enough to taste 1-2 spoon.

In the above case, the sample is used as a tool to


measure and test a population we want to know. The above
illustrations can be matched by the selection of public opinion
(public opinion) including public opinion in relation to the
election. In this case researchers will be faced with thousands,
tens or even hundreds of thousands of voters. The best way to
find out what they think is to ask everyone. This technique is
commonly referred to as a census. However, this way is
almost impossible to do. To interview tens to hundreds of
thousands of people takes a little time (can be months).

Meanwhile, opinions and opinions of people easily and


quickly change. To measure the public opinion we need to
take measurements as quickly as possible but to represent the
entire population we want to know. The only way to know
public opinion (the public) is to draw a number of samples.
Researchers do not need to interview the entire voting
population but only a fraction of the population (all voters) in
an area (Regency / City / Province).

49
If done with the correct techniques and methods,
interviewing a few voters can illustrate the opinion of all voters
in an area. This is what is known as the Public or Polled
Survey. In public opinion surveys or polls the sample plays an
important / central role in the survey.

Use of the sample will be required if it can be used as


an estimation tool. In a survey of general opinion or survey of
the election of the sample will be used as a tool to estimate
how the value of a population. If in the election survey a regent
/ mayor candidate gets a percentage of the vote, the
researcher will be able to predict how much votes a regent /
mayor may have if local elections are held at this time.

This action is called prediction or known by


generalization. Of course to do the generalization properly
requires some prerequisites. The sampling technique should
be done correctly. One of the conditions of sampling must be
done randomly. This technique will give equal opportunity to
all members of the population to be selected as a sample.

50
Need for Sample

Public opinion surveys or polls are often opposed to


censuses. In the census the researchers interviewed all
members of the temporary population in a public opinion
survey or research poll only took and interviewed some
members of the population. There are several reasons why in
the measurement of general opinion the sample is used
instead of the whole population. These considerations include:

• It is almost impossible to observe all members of the


population

In the selection of public opinion researchers will be


faced with very large voters. It is impossible to interview
all the voters. This method is not only ineffective but it
also takes a very long time.

51
• Save time, effort and cost

The use of samples in measuring public opinion can


save time, effort and cost. If the researcher will interview
all the voters in an area, it may take hundreds or even
thousands of interviewers and the cost will be
enormous. The thing that can not be tolerated is time.
Voters' opinion on a candidate for head of region
(Regent / Mayor / Governor) as well as voting behavior
can quickly change. Prolonged potential research will
produce false (wrong) findings because when research
is published public opinion may have changed. For
example, surveys of support for regent candidates can
change rapidly at any time. If the research is done too
long, we can mistakenly determine candidate b to
change. For example, surveys of support for regent
candidates can change rapidly at any time. If the
research is done too long, we can mistakenly determine
the candidate of regent with the greatest support.
Therefore, the use of public opinion surveys or polls will
result in more accurate findings in reflecting voter
opinion.

• Sample usage is often more accurate

Theoretically, interviewing all voters in a district or city


(census) can produce a conclusion that is close to the
truth. But often, the results of a study using samples are
better than research by including all members of the
population. Why does this happen? Because
interviewing all members of the population does reduce

52
the error in sampling (often called sampling error), but
more mistakes will arise from humans (in this case the
interviewer) often called human error (non sampling
error). The more people interviewed theoretically the
greater the likelihood of an interview error and the
greater the answer that can not be analyzed. More
importantly, sample usage can generally make the
research more focused and deep. With fewer numbers
of people, researchers can create more in-depth
question designs.

Sampling And Non Sampling Error

In a survey of public opinion or poll involving a number


of samples there are two possible errors, first error arising
from sampling error and error arising from the interview activity
and the ability of the interviewer (non sampling error).

Errors arising from sampling can not be avoided in any


measurement of public opinion or poll. Therefore the
researcher must specify the particular error sampling that
arises from the error in the sampling. Determination of error
sampling is commonly known as margin error (ME).
Determination of the sampling error or margin error will have
implications on the number of samples taken in representing
the voting population in a Kabupaten / City or Province.

Meanwhile, errors that arise not from sampling or


commonly referred to errors due to the procedure interview
conducted (non sampling error) is kept to a minimum avoided

53
in the survey of public opinion or opinion polls. If non sampling
error occurs very large even though the sampling error /
margin error is small then still the result will be inaccurate.

Non-sampling error is largely due to human error in this


case the interviewer as the spearhead of a public opinion
survey or opinion poll. This may arise from the interviewer's
understanding of the question material, the interviewer's
understanding of the sample determination procedure or the
ability of the interviewer in the interview process with the voter
(face to face interview). To avoid the occurrence of non
sampling error researchers usually have to design a training
for interviewer (interviewer) about how good interview
procedure. Likewise, a briefing to the interviewer should be
made in relation to the material of public opinion survey or
public opinion.

Population And Sample Framework

In a survey of public opinion, it is very important to


know in advance who our population is. Error determining the
population, will have an impact on the error on the resulting
sample. As good as any sampling technique we use, the result
will be biased if from the beginning we are wrong in
determining the population

An introduction to the basic concepts of sampling will


be described first before the description of the sampling
technique. The basic concepts of the sample are: population,
target population, element, sample unit, and sample frame.

54
1. Element / Unit Sample

Element is the unit to be investigated and the


basis of the analysis. In the survey research
generally elements are people, for example
residents, students, workers or voters. It is this
person element that we will examine (interviewed)
and become our basis in conducting analysis.

2.. Population

The population is all the parts or members of the


object to be observed. The population can be
people, objects, objects, events, or the object of
our survey. The first step that must be done first
by the researchers is to determine who the
population of the survey.

Population is determined by the topic and


purpose of the survey. The question that the
researcher must answer is what to research? This
question is important because different survey
objectives will produce different populations.

Target Population is an abstract concept, can not


be designated directly. To be more operational
(measurable, measurable), the population must be
clearly defined and specific. This defined
population is referred to as the target population.
In target populations, the researcher should
specify the boundaries and definitions of the
population used. When formulating the target

55
population, there are 2 aspects that the
researcher must pay attention to: the target
population is highly dependent on the objectives
of the survey and the target population should
define the criteria of the elements included in the
target population. In addition to these two aspects,
the target population should also consider access
to reach the population.

3. Unit sample

The sample unit is the element on which the


samples are based. In a simple sampling (one
stage), the sample unit is identical to the element.
In complex surveys (with a number of sampling
stages), sample units can be of some type. At
each sample drawing stage, the researcher must
determine what element is the basis of the
sampling. In each survey, the sample unit should
be clearly defined as the basis for determining
and sampling. This sample unit is generally
formulated with various terms. For example
Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) is the first sample
unit taken by the researcher, for example, PSU is
village or kelurahan. There is another so-called
Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU) which is a
sample unit under PSU, eg Rukun Tetangga (RT).
While the last sample unit is Final Sampling Unit
that is household.

56
Sample Frame

The sample frame ensures that all members of


the population have the same opportunity selected as
the sample. The sample frame is determined by the
target population already created. A good sample
template should contain all members of the population.
No member of the population should be included in the
sample frame because the sample frame is the basis for
sampling. A good sample template should have the
following characteristics:

a. Comprehensive:
a sample frame is called comprehensive if the
sample framework includes all members of the target
population.
b. Probability;
a good sample frame should also ensure that every
member of the population in the sample frame list
has equal opportunity to be selected as a sample
c. Efficient;
the sample framework should be efficient - easy to
obtain and does not require the cost and great effort
to get it

Determining the Sample Amount

Another important aspect of sampling is determining the


size of the sample. A good sampling technique guarantees the
samples to be representative of the population. Meanwhile,

57
the size of the sample relates to how far the results of the
sample can be generalized to the population.

The number of samples draws with how far we want the


accuracy of a sample. Determining the size of the sample
depends on 3 (three) variations of the population, the desired
error limits (sampling error), and the confidence interval.

a. Formula of sample size for Large Population (Unknown)

n = Z2. p (1 - p) / e2

Where ; Z: value Z at the confidence interval, p =


desired population variation, e is the desired sample
error (sampling error), and n = number of samples

b. Formula of sample size for small population (known)

n = [Z2. {p * (1-p)} * N] / [Z2 {p * (1-p)} + (N-1). E2]

Where ; Z: value Z at confidence interval, p = desired


population variation, e is sampling error, N = population
number and n = number of samples

Sampling Technique

Before the researchers take a sample, researchers must


first determine the approach to be used. Is the survey used as
a tool for generalizing (making estimates of a voting
population) or not. The sample with the generalization goal
must be representative (representing the population). While
unused samples with generalization objectives do not require
conditions to be representative of the population. In the survey

58
of the election of the sample must meet the generalization
objectives. Based on these considerations there are 2 types of
sampling approaches, ie probability and non probability
samples.

1. Sampling probability

Sampling with this method is used for general purpose


survey. The majority of public opinion surveys include public
policy surveys and election surveys using this approach. The
results of the survey are used to estimate the votes of the
community (population). For samples to be used for that
purpose it must satisfy the principle of probability. This
principle occurs when the sample is taken on the basis of
randomness. This means that every element or element in the
population has the same chance of being selected as a
sample.

Several types of sampling techniques with probability


approaches are:

a. Simple Random Sampling

b. Systematic Random Sampling (Systematic Random


Sampling)

c. Stratification Random Sampling (Stratified Random


Sampling)

d. Random Sampling Cluster (Cluster Random


Sampling)

e. Random Sampling (Multistage Random Sampling)

f. Area Sampling (Area Random Sampling)

59
Sample Taking Method By Random

There are 5 ways of sampling included randomly, as follows:

a. Simple RandomSampling (Simple RandomSampling).

The sampling process is done by giving equal


opportunity to every member of the population to be a
member of the sample. So here the process of selecting
a sample of n of population N is done randomly. There
are two known ways of using Cointoss or Random
Numbers. When the population is small, it can be done
by drawing "Cointoss". But if the population is large, it is
necessary to use the label "Random Numbers" whose
procedure is as follows:

• For example a population of 300 (N = 300).

• Specify the number of each unit of population (from 1


to 300 = 3 digits / column).

• Determine the size of the sample to be taken. (Say 75


or 25%)

• Specify the use of random numbers label scheme. (eg


starting from the first 3 columns and first row) using the
random numbers table, specify which unit is selected,
the required number of sizes, ie by sorting the numbers
in the first 3 columns, from top to bottom, each number
≤ 300, is sample number taken (100, 175, 243, 101), if
there is number ≥ 300, not taken as sample (N = 300). If
on the first sheet the number of samples is not enough,
continue the next twin, and so on. If a similar number is

60
found, take only one, because everyone has only 1
identification number.

The advantage of using this sampling method is that the


estimation procedure is simple and easy. While
Kerugianya will require a list of all members of the
population, Samples may be spread over a large area,
so the cost of transportation is great.

b. Systematic Random Sampling (Systematic Random


Sampling)

The sampling process, each sequence to .K "from a


randomly selected starting point,

where: K = N (Number of population members)

n (number of sample members)

For example, every third patient who visits a hospital is


taken as a sample (patient No. 3,6,9,15) and so on. This
method is used when there is little stratification in the
population.

Advantages Planning and its use is easy, Samples are


scattered in population areas. While Kerugianya Need
list of population.

c. Sampled Random Sampling (Stratified Random Sampling)

Population divided by strata, (sub population), then


sampling is done in every strata either by simple
random sampling, and systematic random sampling. For

61
example we examine the nutritional state of a
kindergarten school kid in a city (≥ 4-6 years). Because
the conditions of Kindergarten in the city are very
different (heterogeneous) then make certain criteria that
can classify Kindergarten schools into 3 groups (A =
good, B = medium, C = less). For example for
Kindergarten with condition A there: 20 pieces of 100
kindergartens in the city, condition B = 50 pieces C = 30
pieces. If based on a large sample calculation, we want
to take as many as 25 pieces (25%), then take 25% of
each sub-population mentioned above. Sampling
Method 5 Group A, 12-13 Group B, and 7. 8. Group C is
random because the sub populations are
homogeneous.

Benefits in this way Estimates of population


characteristics are more accurate, but their
disadvantages List of populations of each strata is
required and If the geographical area is large,
transportation costs are high.

d. Grouped Random Sampling (Cluster Sampling)

Sampling is done on sampling unit, where sampling unit


consists of one group (cluster). Each item (individual)
within the selected group will be taken as a sample. This
method is used: if the population can be divided into
groups and each learned characteristic exists in each
group. For example want to examine the picture

62
characteristics (age, ethnicity, education and
occupation) of a college student's parents. Students are
divided into 6 levels (I s / d VI). Select at random one
level (eg level II). So the parents of all students who are
on the second level are taken as a sample (Cluster).

The Benefits Does not require a population list.


Transportation cost is less. Loss Prosudur estimation is
relatively difficult.

e. Multiple Sampling (Multi Stage Sampling)

The sampling process is done multilevel, either in


stages two or more. For example: provincial district of
KK sub-district. For example we want to examine the
weight and height of high school students. According to
the conditions and calculations, then the number of
samples to be taken ± 2000.

This method is used when the population is quite


homogeneous, the population is very large, the
population occupies a very wide area, the research
costs are small. Advantages of using this method
Transport costs are relatively small, but they are in a
difficult estimation procedure, the sampling procedure
requires a plan.

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Unres Tricted Random Sampling Covers Simple And Systematic
Random Sampling

The sample is part of the population. The sample can explain


the state of a population in only certain population units. There are a
variety of sampling techniques, the following is a sampling technique
based on the division of C.W. Churchman et al., Where the first
sampling is divided into two: fixed sampling design and Sequential
Sampling.

1. Fixed Sampling Design (Fixed Sampling Design)

The sampling design is fixed, the sample is formed


according to certain rules, and this rule does not change
as long as the sampling is valid. The sampling design is
still divided into two, namely: unrestricted random

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samples and samples with restrictions (restricted
random sample).

In unrestricted random sampling, samples are drawn


directly from the population. Population is not divided
first on subsample, this technique can be divided again
that is:

a) A simple random sample (simple random


sampling)

Each population unit is numbered, then the


sample drawn randomly.

b) Systematic sample (systematic sample)

The units of the population are numbered and


sorted, then the number is determined as the
starting point of the sample draw. An example is if
we draw the sample in multiples of 5, then the
sample then is the 10th sample, the 15th sample,
and so on.

In the restricted random sampling, samples were drawn from


the grouped population. Initially the samples are grouped first until
drawn from each group. The analogy is that we can make groupings
by gender, age interval, profession, income level, educational level,
and so on.

Restricted Random Sampling Includes:

a) Multiple Stage Sample

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Samples are drawn from population groups, but not all
members of the population are members of the sample.
In each population group we select a certain number of
members to be members of the sample of the same
amount, or proportional to the relative magnitude of the
members of the population group entering the sub
sample.

b) Stratified Sample

The population is divided into a homogeneous group


(based on strata) first, then drawn samples from each
strata.

c) Cluster Sampling

The population is divided first by area (cluster).


Members of each subpopulation of each cluster are not
necessarily homogeneous, some clusters are selected
first as samples, and then again selected unit members
from cluster samples above.

d) Stratified Cluster Sampling

Samples were drawn by a combination technique of


stratified sampling and cluster sampling.

The Sequential Sampling Design

Unlike the case with the fixed sampling design, if the sampling
is not the same during the sampling taking place, then the sampling
design is called sequential. Sequential sampling can be done in two

66
ways: (a) drawing the sample in stages, and (b) by observing one by
one the members of the population.

• Non-Random Sampling Method

Sampling Methods Non-randomly

The selection of the sample by non-random (selected)


method ignores the probability principles. The sample
selection is not random. Expected results are only a rough
idea of a situation. This method is used When the cost is very
small, the result is requested immediately, does not require
accuracy yanq tingqi, because it is just a general description
only. The known ways are as follows:

a. Purposive Sampling.

Sampling is done only on the basis of


consideration of the researcher who considers the
desired elements already present in the sample
members taken.

b. Accidental Sampling.

Samples are taken on the basis of if only,


unplanned. Also the number of samples being
traced is not based on considerable
consideration, provided that they only serve the
purpose. The conclusions obtained are rough and
transient.

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Sampled Sampling (Quota Sampling).

Sampling is based solely on the researcher's


consideration, only this is large and sample criteria are
predetermined. For example Samples to be taken amounted
to 100 people with details of 50 men and 50 women aged 15-
40 years. This method is used if the researcher knows the
area and the situation of the area where the research will be
conducted.

Snowballing Sampling

The initial sampling technique of small quantities. By Selecting his


friends to be sampled.

Accidental

Accidental Sampling.

Samples are taken on the basis of if only, unplanned. Also the


number of samples being traced is not based on considerable
consideration, provided that they only serve the purpose. The
conclusions obtained are rough and transient.

Sample Taking Method By Random

There are 5 ways of sampling included randomly, as follows:

a. Simple RandomSampling (Simple RandomSampling).

The sampling process is done by giving equal


opportunity to every member of the population to be a

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member of the sample. So here the process of selecting
a sample of n of population N is done randomly. There
are two known ways of using Cointoss or Random
Numbers. When the population is small, it can be done
by drawing "Cointoss". But if the population is large, it is
necessary to use the label "Random Numbers" whose
procedure is as follows:

• For example a population of 300 (N = 300).

• Specify the number of each unit of population (from 1


to 300 = 3 digits / column).

• Determine the size of the sample to be taken. (Say 75


or 25%)

• Specify the use of random numbers label scheme. (eg


starting from the first 3 columns and first row) using the
random numbers table, specify which unit is selected,
the required number of sizes, ie by sorting the numbers
in the first 3 columns, from top to bottom, each number
≤ 300, is sample number taken (100, 175, 243, 101), if
there is number ≥ 300, not taken as sample (N = 300). If
on the first sheet the number of samples is not enough,
continue the next twin, and so on. If a similar number is
found, take only one, because everyone has only 1
identification number.

The advantage of using this sampling method is that the


estimation procedure is simple and easy. While
Kerugianya will require a list of all members of the

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population, Samples may be spread over a large area,
so the cost of transportation is great.

b. Systematic Random Sampling (Systematic Random


Sampling)

The sampling process, each sequence to .K "from a


randomly selected starting point, where: K = N (Number
of population members) n (number of members
sampel)

For example, every third patient who visits a hospital is


taken as a sample (patient No. 3,6,9,15) and so on. This
method is used when there is little stratification in the
population.

Advantages Planning and its use is easy, Samples are


scattered in population areas. While Kerugianya Need
list of population.

c. Sampled Random Sampling (Stratified Random


Sampling)

Population divided by strata, (sub population), then


sampling is done in every strata either by simple
random sampling, and systematic random sampling. For
example we examine the nutritional state of a
kindergarten school kid in a city (≥ 4-6 years). Because
the conditions of Kindergarten in the city are very
different (heterogeneous) then make certain criteria that

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can classify Kindergarten schools into 3 groups (A =
good, B = medium, C = less). For example for
Kindergarten with condition A there: 20 pieces of 100
kindergartens in the city, condition B = 50 pieces C = 30
pieces. If based on a large sample calculation, we want
to take as many as 25 pieces (25%), then take 25% of
each sub-population mentioned above. Sampling
Method 5 Group A, 12-13 Group B, and 7. 8. Group C is
random because the sub populations are
homogeneous.

Benefits in this way Estimates of population


characteristics are more accurate, but their
disadvantages List of populations of each strata is
required and If the geographical area is large,
transportation costs are high.

d. Grouped Random Sampling (Cluster Sampling)

Sampling is done on sampling unit, where sampling unit


consists of one group (cluster). Each item (individual)
within the selected group will be taken as a sample. This
method is used: if the population can be divided into
groups and each learned characteristic exists in each
group. For example want to examine the picture

characteristics (age, ethnicity, education and


occupation) of a college student's parents. Students are
divided into 6 levels (I s / d VI). Select at random one

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level (eg level II). So the parents of all students who are
on the second level are taken as a sample (Cluster).

The Benefits Does not require a population list.


Transportation cost is less. Loss Prosudur estimation is
relatively difficult.

e. Multiple Sampling

The sampling process is done multilevel, either in


stages two or more. For example: provincial district of
KK sub-district. For example we want to examine
Weight and High.

Probability Sampling
It is a random sampling method that ensures every member of
the population has equal opportunity to be selected as a sample
member. Examples of implementation are in the arisan, the selection
of lottery winners, and so forth.

Some definitions used in probability sampling are:

N = Number of cases within the sampling frame

n = Number of cases in sample

NCn = Number of combinations (subsets) n of N

f = n / N = sample fraction

In Probability Sampling known some techniques, among others:

72
• Simple Random Sampling

This technique aims to select n units of N then each NCn must


have the same opportunity to choose from. The trick is to use
a random number table, a random number generating
computer, or a mechanical device to select a sample.

• Stratified Random Sampling

This technique is often called proportional or quota random


sampling. Performed by dividing the population into groups
that are not overlapping (eg strata) N1, N2, N3, ... Ni, so N1 +
N2 + N3 + ... + Ni = N. Then create a simple random sample
of f = n / N at each strata .

The choice of stratified sampling technique compared to simple


random sampling has several alasa, among others:

73
First, it is considered more secure because it not only
represents the entire population but is the key to the subset of
the population, especially the minor or minority groups or
clusters.

Secondly, If it is desirable to discuss the problem of a small


group (subgroup) then only this way is effective.

Thirdly, Stratified random sampling is generally more precise


than random sampling. Of course on condition that the strata
or grouping made is homogeneous.

• Systematic Random Sampling

This technique is applied by: the sample selected begins by


determining the initial selection of randomly, then the next unit
is selected according to each sequence to k.

examples of its application is if you want to do sampling on the


driver of the car at the toll gate. First randomly determine the
driver of the car as the first sample unit, the next sample unit
can be selected every 100 next car.

This sampling method is used because it is faster when the


population is large.

• Cluster (Area) Random Sampling

Populations are grouped as small clusters. Then the


observations were only done on randomly selected cluster
samples. This method is usually used in surveys that use the

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map area (geographic). For example housing survey in urban
areas. The city area is divided into blocks. Then randomly
selected blocks as samples to be observed.

• Multi-Stage Sampling

Multi-Stage Sampling is the use of various random sampling


methods together with as efficiently and effectively as
possible. This method is used in the study of complex social
issues. For example, in the sample of Jakarta residents on
certain social problems, with direct interviews. First select the
cluster sampling process as the first stage of the process. The
next stage can be selected stratified sampling of cluster
samples. By combining several random sampling methods it is
confronted that the results obtained are truly qualified and
useful.

Nonprobability Sampling
The next sampling method is non probability sampling. This
way is different with probability sampling. nnonprobability sampling
does not select a random sample unit. The samples in this technique
do not depend on probability theory. The sample obtained from this
method has the same great possibility between its ability to
represent the nature of the population well and not. It is difficult to
know the goodness or lack of use of this method, because it
depends on the situation. The researchers used the probability
method compared with the nonprobability method. However, in

75
social research there are some conditions that are not practically
possible or theoretically to do random sampling. It is therefore
necessary to use an alternative nonprobability sampling.

Nonprobability sampling method is broadly divided into two


types, namely; accidental and purposive. The difference lies in the
approach taken. Most of the methods used are purposive because
there is usually a problem in sampling so that there is already a
picture / previous plans.

Accidental, Haphazard or Convenience Sampling

It is a commonly used nonprobalistic sampling method. An


example is a television interview of the person on the street in a
News show to see how public opinion / opinion is about a social
occurrence. A second example is a sample taken in clinical practice,
used by existing patients. The problem that arises in this way is that
there is no definite measure that the selected sample is
representative of the population.

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Purposive Sampling

In purposive sampling, sampling is done by first setting a


specific goal and planning. There is usually a predefinition of
specific groups and specificities sought.

Several methods are included in the purposive sampling as


follows:

• Capital Instance Sampling

In statistics, mode is the most common value in a


distribution. Samples taken with capital instance ie
samples taken from cases that often appear or special
cases. In a poll usually the interviewee is a person who
has been selected specifically.

Problems in using this method are:

How to know that the sample to be taken is typical /


special. Often the sample of instance capital is a person
with average age, education level, and income in the
population. But it is not enough that using the average
age benchmark in the survey is the fairest (for example,
reviewed by skewed distribution of income).

And how to know that the three variables-age,


education, and income-are the most relevant measures
to classify the people in the sample. What about other
variables such as religion and tribe? So it is clear here
that modal instance sampling is only sensible for the
context of informal sampling.

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• Expert Sampling

Expert sampling consists of samples of people who are


known to have experience or expertise in a field.
Therefore this sample is also known as "panel of
experts."

There are two reasons why expert sampling is used.


First, This is the best way to get a sample of people with
specific expertise. In this case, expert sampling is a
special thing of purposive sampling. Another reason is
that the expert can be used as proof of validity of
selected samples using other nonprobabilistic methods.

• Quota Sampling

In quota sampling, the selection is not randomly


according to the quota that has been set before.

There are two types of quota sampling: proportional and


non proportional.

a. In the proportional quota sampling desired the


main characteristics of the population with
proportional sampling. For example if known a
population consisting of 40% women and 60%
of men and the desired number of samples 100,
then taken the sample according to the
comparison that is 40 women. The male sample
is not done considering the quota has been
fulfilled.

b. Nonproportional quota sampling is to determine


the minimum number of sample units of each

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category. There is no mention of the proportion
present in the population. This analogy is
similar to stratified random sampling that
specifically emphasizes that small groups in the
population are represented in the sample.

• Heterogeneity Sampling

Often also called sampling for diversity. In order to


brainstorm (usually brainstorm) is usually used to get a
broad spectrum, so not to identify "average" or "modal
instance". So that will be a sample not a person but an
idea. This is the opposite of modal instance sampling.

• Snowball Sampling

In snowball sampling, identification begins with a person


who has the criteria included in the research
conclusions. From this initial identification the next
sample unit will be found next. Snowball sampling is
specifically used to obtain a population that is difficult to
access or obtain. For example, a study of homelessness
in Jakarta. It is difficult to get homeless only on the basis
of the area, however, after the discovery of two
homeless people in an area, it is easily obtained where
other homeless people will be sampled.

M. Quantitative Research
1. Comparative Kuatitatif Research

- Experimental Research:

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• Based on research location:

a. Laboratory experiments

(Research experiment in Laboratory)

b. Field experiments (Research

Field Experiments)

• Based on the level of precision achieved:

a. Pre experiment

b. Quasi-experiments

c. True-Experiment

- Expo Facto Research

The study of expost facto is research that studies the facts that
already exist / have occurred by using experimental design.

2. Assessative Quantitative Research

Quantitative aative research consists of:

a. correlational association research

b. causal association research

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CHARACTERS

 Inferential (population & sample)


 Using quantitative data obtained by measurement
 Has a standard process

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 Focus on variables
 The study objective is a research / analytical unit
 Using statistical techniques

Problems & Designs

 Background of the problem


 Identify and limit the problem
 Determination of research topics
 Determination of research variables
 Research constellation (correlation analysis and causal
analysis)
 Formulation of the problem
 Theoretical studies (theoretical process)
 The research hypothesis
 Empirical process (data collection)
 Hypothesis testing

EXAMPLE RELATIONS TESTS

Influence of Self Concept, Working Atmosphere, and


Competence with Employee Performance

Formulation of the problem:

◦ Do self-concepts have an effect on employee performance?

◦ Does the work atmosphere have an impact on employee


performance?

◦ Does competence have an effect on employee performance?

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◦ Do self-concept, working atmosphere, and competence
together have relationship to employee performance?

Hypothesis

o The concept of self has a positive effect on employee


performance
o The working atmosphere has a positive effect on
employee performance
o Competence has a positive effect on employee
performance
o Self-concept, work experience, and competence
together have a positive influence on employee
performance

Example Of Test Effect

 Influence of Incentive, Working Atmosphere, and Work


Motivation to Employee Performance
 Problem Formulation:

◦ Do incentives have a direct impact on employee


performance?

◦ Does the work atmosphere have a direct impact on


employee performance?

◦ Does work motivation have a direct impact on


employee performance?

◦ Do incentives have a direct effect on employee work


motivation?

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◦ Does the work atmosphere have a direct impact on
employee work motivation?

◦ Do incentives have a direct effect on employee mood?

Hypothesis:

◦ Incentives have a positive direct impact on employee


performance

◦ The working atmosphere has a positive direct impact on


employee performance

◦ Work motivation has a direct positive effect on employee


performance

◦ Incentives have a positive direct impact on employee work


motivation

◦ The working atmosphere has a direct positive influence on


employee work motivation

◦ Incentives have a positive direct effect on employee mood

Hypotheses Research

 Temporary answer to research questions


 Statement on the characteristics of the population
 The result of the theoretical process, so theoretically correct
 Must be tested with empirical data
 Regarding the relationship between variables
 Hypothetical form (correlation, influence, difference)

Variables Research

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 Variables are concepts that have value variations
 The conceptual variables are divided into factual and
conceptual variables
 Variables can be divided over continuum variables and
discontinum variables
 Based on the measurement scale, variables can be
differentiated on Nominal, Ordinal, Interval / ratio.

Interruption Of Variables

 Unrelated variable
 Variable is free
 Control variables
 Variable intervening (between)
 Moderator variables
 An antecedent variable
 Interference variable

POPULATION AND SAMPLES

 Population is the whole unit which will be investigated its


characteristics
 The population can be divided into targeted populations and
affordable populations
 Affordable population consists of whole units who really get
the opportunity to be selected as a sample
 The target population is the generalized population of the
research results

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WHY SAMPLING ?

 Samples are some of the units in the population that are


actually studied or investigated in a research
 Reason for using sample because:
o Limited power, time & cost
o Change parameters by time
o There are inferential statistics that can be used to draw
conclusions about the population based on sample data

SAMPLE SIZE

 One of the determinants of the quality of research results is the


sample size
 There are four considerations used in determining sample size

◦ Heterogeneity of population characteristics

◦ The desired level of precision

◦ Statistical engineering requirements used in data analysis

◦ Availability of resources (manpower, time & cost)

BASIC TECHNIQUES OF SAMPLES

 Random
 Systematic
 Stratified (stratified)
 Cluster (Cluster)
 Multi stage

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RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
 Test
- Written test
- Oral test
- Action test
 Questionnaire
 Attitude Scale
 Rating Scale
 Format of observation

INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT STEPS


 Reviewing concepts
 Constructs
- definition of concept
- operational definition
 Develop dimensions & indicators
 Make a grid
 Specify a range of parameters
 Identify characteristics
 Write the instrument item
 The concept validation process
- expert review / justification
- panel
 Improvement / revision
 Empirical validation process
- instrument test
- data analysis of trial results (validity test)
 Selection of valid grains
 Assembly of instruments

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N. Qualitative Research

• Qualitative research is research that contains the view or belief that


the research focus is the quality of meanings (essence and
essence),

• the philosophical roots embraced are on the assumption that:


reality is subjective and plural as it is in the individuals of the
participants studied (ontological assumptions),

• researchers try to approach with participants in data collection


(epistemological assumptions),

• researchers prefer the participant's perspective (emik) rather than


the researcher's perspective (ethics),

• use narrative writing style,

87
• the use of qualitative terms / terminology, and the limits of the
definitions used (rhetorical assumptions),

• using inductive logic, working in detail, detailed descriptions of the


study context under study, and flexible / changeable research design
(methodological assumptions)

FIVE FATHER LEADS KEY LEADS OF QUALITATIVE


RESEARCH :

1• Naturalistic. Qualitative research has an actual backdrop as a


direct source of data and the researcher is a key instrument.
Researchers enter and spend time in research background
(eg school, family, community groups, and other locations) to
learn every aspect of research focus.

2• Descriptive Data. Qualitative research is descriptive. The data


collected over takes the form of words or images rather than
numbers. The results of written research contain excerpts
from data to illustrate and provide proof of presentation. The
data includes interview transcripts, field notes, photography,
videotapes, personal documents, memos, and other official
records. To gain an understanding, qualitative researchers do
not reduce page by page from narration and other data into
numerical symbols. They try to analyze the data with all their
wealth as closely and as closely as possible with the form of
recording and transcripts.

3• Dealing with Processes. Qualitative researchers concentrate


more on processes than on results or products. How do
people negotiate meaning? How do certain terms or labels

88
appear to be applied? How do certain thoughts come to be
part of what is known as common sense? What is the natural
history of the activity or event under study?

4• Inductive. Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data


inductively. They do not search beyond the data or evidence
to reject or accept the hypothesis they propose before the
research. Theories developed in this way appear from the
bottom up (not from top to bottom), from the many different
collecting evidence that are interconnected. Theory is built on
data from below / participants. As a qualitative researcher
plans and develops: a) what kind of theories about what has
been studied, b) the direction to go, after collecting the data,
and c) the researcher interacts with the research subject.

5• Mean. Meaning is an essential concern for the qualitative


approach. Researchers using this approach are interested in
how people make sense of their lives. In other words,
qualitative researchers are concerned with what is called
participant perspective. They focus on questions such as:
What assumptions do people make about their lives? What
are the views on how to live life? How to deal with life's
challenges? In an educational research, for example,
researchers focus on parents' perspectives on their children's
education. Researchers want to know what parents think
about why their children can not do the best things at school.

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TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

• Qualitative research can be categorized into the following


types:

- Ethnographic Research

The purpose of the discovery of cultural themes

- Case Study Research

The purpose of deepening the case

- Phenomenological Research

The purpose of exploring participants' subjective


experiences

- Grounded Theory Research

The purpose of generating theory from the data

- Biographical / Narrative Research

The purpose of exploring individual experiences, then


compiling them in story form (biography or
autobiography).

- Research Content Analysis

The purpose of describing the content of the text.

JOINT RESEARCH TYPES

• Mixed Methods

Combined research is action-oriented research using both


quantitative and qualitative methods in the process of conducting a
similar research.

90
Combined research is a procedure for data collection, data analysis,
with the use of sequential combinations of quantitative and then
qualitative methods or vice versa, to gain a deeper understanding of
key issues.

CHARACTERISTICS

The characteristics of joint research are:

• research objectives to answer comprehensive research


questions that are not sufficiently answered by the use of a
single research method

• the main dominance is the demands of research questions


that include the results / outcomes (quantitative), as well as
about the process / process (qualitative)

• research philosophy is practical and applied

TYPES OF RESEARCH JOINT

• Research on Model / Instrument Development

• Program Evaluation Research

• Policy Research

• Action Research

TEST DEVELOPMENT AS A EVALUATION TOOL

 A test is a means or tool to hold an assessment in the form of


a task or a series of tasks that must be done by students or

91
groups of students so as to generate value about the behavior
or achievement of students as learners.
 Achievement or behavior can indicate the level of achievement
of learning objectives or level of mastery of a set of
competencies that become the goal of the learning process,
and can also indicate the position of students concerned in the
group.

CONSTRUCTION STEPS TESTS

• Setting test goals

• Curriculum Analysis (SK and KD)

• Analysis of books and other learning resources

• Creating Grids

• Define indicators

• Writing Problems

• Problem Review (concept validation)

• Revision or Repair Problem

• Reproduction of Restricted Tests

• Test-Test Tests (for empirical validation)

• Analysis of trial results (Test Validity)

• Assemble the matter into a test

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WRITE PROBLEMS

 The question should measure the achievement of the


competencies that are the goal
 The issue should measure the achievement of a single
competency (not double)
 Competence may be cognitive, affective - behavioral, or skill-
oriented
 Competency is measured by indicator
 Each question measures whether or not a competency
indicator is achieved
 The language of the problem should be short, clear &
communicative
 Problems have clear answers (description, attitude & behavior
or skills / skills)
 The matter is certainly not wrong / wrong
 Appearance of test kits should be final

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE

 Questionnaire (measuring factual variables)


 Interview

- Deep interview

- Structured interviews

 Observation
 Documentation
 Focus Group Discussion

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DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

 Descriptive analysis
 Test correlational hypothesis
 Comparative hypothesis test
 Use of multiple regression analysis
 Use of variance analysis (ANOVA)

ANOVA

Analysis of variance (analysis of variance, ANOVA) is a method of


statistical analysis that belongs to the branch of inference statistics.
In Indonesian literature this method is known by various other
names, such as analysis of variance, variance, and variance

94
analysis. It is an extension of the Behrens-Fisher problem, so the F-
test is also used in decision making. Analysis of variance was first
introduced by Sir Ronald Fisher, the father of modern statistics. In
practice, variance analysis can be a test of hypotheses (more often
used) and estimates (especially in the field of applied genetics).

In general, analysis of variance tests two variances (or


variations) based on the null hypothesis that the two variance
are the same. The first variance is the inter-sample variance
(between samples) and the second variance is the variance
within each instance (within samples). With this idea, the
analysis of variance with two examples will give the same
result as the t-test for two mean (mean).

In order to be valid (valid) in interpreting the results, the


analysis of variance relies on four assumptions that must be
met in experimental design:

1. The data is normally distributed, because the test


uses F-Snedecor test

2. Variant or homogeneous variety, known as


homoscedasticity, since only one estimate is used for
the variance in the sample

3. Each example is mutually free, which must be


managed by proper experiment design

4. The components in the model are additive (mutually


addictive).

The analysis of variance is relatively easy to modify and can


be developed for more complex forms of experimentation. In
addition, this analysis also still has relevance to the regression

95
analysis. As a result, its use is extensive in many fields,
ranging from laboratory experiments to advertising,
psychological, and social experiments

ANCOVA

Covariance Analysis (ANCOVA) is a linear model


with one continuous dependent variable and one or
more independent variables. If the phrase reminds you
of multiple linear regression, yep, you are right, because
ANCOVA is a combination of ANOVA and linear
regression that typically uses continuous variables
(quantitative). ANCOVA is done by adding the
reinforcing variables (covariates) into the model thereby
strengthening the precision / precision analysis and
increasing the significance statistically.

Specifically, the ANCOVA test uses assumptions


like the ANOVA test, where the error of each
explanatory variable is normally distributed and
homoskedastic, meaning that it does not contain
heteroscedasticity problems where residual values have
a constant diversity, and the data has at least a small
error standard. ANCOVA test also requires a linear
relationship between dependent and independent
variables, say you want to see the factors that affect the
growth of cat mamat pack, it is not possible you use the
explanatory factor of the amount of cat food production
"eg whiskas" per year, could be cat pack mamat salted

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fish , the illustration between these two factors can be
said to have no linear relationship. : p

The models used in ANCOVA are as follows:

Yi,j,k,…z = α+ d1 + X + εijk…m

Where:

Y = independent variables i, j, k, ..., z

α = constants

d1 = independent factor or variable (can be either


continuous or categorical variable)

X = amplifier factor (covariate)

ε = error

With the equation, ANCOVA test can be done for several things as
follows:

1. Compare the effects of treatment or the effect of factors /


variables used on predictors.

2. Calculating diversity (variance)

3. enter the amplifier variable (covariate) to control the


diversity.

4. Explain the relationship between the dependent variable (Y)


with the independent variable (X) after connecting the amplifier
variable to the independent variable.

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MANOVA

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

 Manova is a statistical test used to measure the effect of


categorical independent variables on several dependent
variables simultaneously quantitative data scale. This analysis
is also called multivariate anova.

 Multivariate anova stands for multivariate analysis of variance,


meaning it is a multivariate form of analysis of variance
(ANOVA). The multivariate form means that there is more than
one dependent variable.

 So the manova test is used to measure the effect of


independent variables on several dependent variables
simultaneously or simultaneously.

 This test is very similar to Hotelling's T2 test. Location


difference is if hotelling's T2 test is used if there is only 1
independent variable with 2 categories only. While multivariate
anova can be used on more than 1 independent variable and /
or category two or more.

So if made the conclusion:

 This test is a multivariate form of ANOVA, while Hotelling's T2


is a multivariate form of independent t test.

 Multivariate anova can be said to be the opposite of


discriminant analysis, because on discriminant analysis of
categorical-scale dependent variable and quantitative-scale
independent variable. Both of these tests have similarities in

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how to determine the value of variate and test the significance
of statistics between groups.

 The advantage is that it can be used to analyze the effect of


each independent variable of categorical scale to each
dependent variable separately, where the dependent variable
is quantitative scale.

 In its use requires an assumption, ie a larger sample size than


the univariate ANOVA, where in manova there is a specific
limit in each cell (group), a minimum of 20 observations. And
the number of samples in each cell should be greater than the
number of dependent variables.

 Thus the above has been briefly explained to the readers or


students who are researching. Although brief, it would be
obvious that the analysis in this article could be useful for
researchers or students to perform comparative causal tests if
the scale of the dependent variable data exists over and
scaled interval or ratio data. While the free variable free is
categorical data.

MANCOVA

Mancova Test is a Multivariate Analysis Covariance test.

This test is a multivariate form of the Ancova test. Therefore, we


hope you read our article entitled "Ancova Test" and "Ancova Test in
SPSS". We recommend that you also read our article entitled
"Manova Test in SPSS".

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How to perform this test on SPSS is similar to Ancova Test and
Manova Test. Why is it similar to a manova test? because it has
similarities, ie there is more than one dependent variable tested. Of
course the dependent variable must be scaled interval or ratio data
and normally distributed. The difference lies in the Manova test, the
independent variable consists of only one variable of a categorical or
qualitative data scale. While the Mancova Test, is a combination of
one variable scale data interval or ratio and one variable scale
categorical data.

The difference with the Ancova test lies in the number of dependent
variables, in the Ancova test there is only one dependent variable
scaled interval or ratio data, whereas in Mancova there is more than
one dependent variable scaled interval or ratio data.

Since you have read the articles we have recommended above, in


this discussion, we assume that you have encountered material
about Anova, Ancova and Manova. Therefore then we just start
Tutorial Test Mancova by using SPSS.

Sample Test Mancova With SPSS

As an Example we will conduct research under the title "The


Influence of Parents' Work and Student IQ on the Value of
Mathematics and Physics Examination of Class A Students".

From the Title above, note and identify as follows:

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Independent Variables:

• Occupation: Categorical Data Scale with category: 1 = farmer, 2 =


Laborer, 3 = civil servant

• IQ: Interval Data Scale.

Dependent Variables:

• Mathematics: Interval Data Scale.

• Physics: Interval Data Scale.

CANONICAL ANALYSIS
 Canonical analysis was first introduced by Hotelling (1936), as
a double-converter statistical technique (Multivariate) that
investigated the closeness of relations between two variable
groups. The cluster here means group. A variable group is
identified as an independent variables group, whereas the
other variable group is treated as a response variable
(dependent variable). And through the dependency
(dependency) between the two groups of variables can be
explained the influence of one group of variables to other
variable groups.

 Canonical correlation analysis is one of the statistical analysis


techniques used to look at the relationship between a single
set of independent modifiers with one set of dependent
modifiers. This analysis can measure the degree of closeness
of a relationship between a set of dependent modifiers with a

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single set of independent modifiers. In addition, canonical
correlation analysis is also able to decipher the relationship
structure within an independent modifier set.

 The steps in forming canonical correlation analysis are:


1. Define the purpose and specify each set of modifiers.
The exact data for canonical correlation analysis are two sets
of both metric and nonmetric modifiers. It is assumed that
each set can be assigned several theoretical meanings, at
least one set can be defined as a collection of dependent
modifiers and other sets as a collection of independent
modifiers.
2. Determine the number of observations per modifier and the
total sample size.
A small sample will not represent a modifier properly. Likewise
large samples will have statistically significant trends in
everything, but in practice they do not indicate significant.
Researchers are expected to maintain at least ten
observations per modifier.
3. Testing assumptions.
Before the further process first tested various assumptions
that must be met include linearity, normal multivariate
distribution, homoscedastisity and nonmultycolinierity.
1. There is a linear relationship between two modifiers
To know the linearness of two modifiers can be seen
from the coefficient of determination (r2). The coefficient
of determination states the proportion of the total
diversity of dependent-converting values which can be
explained by the independent conversion values

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through the linear relationship. The value of the
coefficient of determination lies between 0 and 1. If all
observations lie along linear lines then the coefficient of
determination is worth 1. If the slope of the
corresponding regression line is 0 and the coefficient of
determination 0, then there is no linear relationship
between independent and dependent, and independent
independent converter does not help in reducing the
dependent diversity with linear regression.
2. The need for normal multivariate diffused data
Examination of normal multivariate assumptions can be
done by graph analysis and statistical tests with
skewness and kurtosis values. Normal multivariate test
method with test based on skewness and kurtosis
statistic consists of two test statistic, skewness and
kurtosis,

 There is no multicollinearity between group members of


modifiers, neither free changers nor free converters. There are
two methods to detect the occurrence of multicollinearity,
namely informal and formal methods. The formal method by
looking at the VIF value.

 Choosing a canonical function The maximum of the canonical


functions formed is the minimum number of modifiers in each
set. Determination of the function to be selected is based on
the level of significance. When all significant functions can see
the canonical correlation, there is no definite measure of how

103
much the relationship should be, the loading factor may be an
alternative in determining the meaningful size. Loading factor
greater than 0.5. In addition to this, if seen still too many
functions that must be defined, it can see its redundancy.
Jhonson and Wichern, 2002 stated that they can use the size
contained in the main component analysis of the cumulative
diversity of the canonical converter pair in explaining the
diversity of data to be analyzed further ie the cumulative
cumulative minimum of 80 percent.

INTERPRET CANONICAL MODIFIERS.

There are three methods that can be used, among others canonical
weight (canonical weight), canonical loading (canonical load), and
canonical cross-loading.

1. Canonical weights

The canonical weight represents the contribution of the origin


modifier in its canonical modifier in a set. Modifiers having large
coefficients then contribute more to their canonical modifiers, and
vice versa. Then for modifiers that have opposite sign weights,
illustrate the inverse relationship with other canonical modifiers, and
modifiers having equal signals have direct or unidirectional
connections. The canonical weights have some weaknesses that
make it rarely used for the interpretation of canonical functions. The
disadvantage is a property that only describes the magnitude of the
modifier's contribution to the canonical modifier. The contribution is
considered inaccurate in reflecting the relationship between
modifiers. In addition, this value is said to be inaccurate to describe

104
the relationship between modifiers as susceptible / sensitive to the
presence of multicollinearity. Also very unstable from one sample to
another.

2. Canonical load

The canonical load is also referred to as structural correlation,


measuring simple linear correlations between observed data in
independent or dependent modifiers with their canonical modifiers. In
SPSS, canonical load values can be seen in the correlation between
dependent modifiers and independent modifiers with their canonical
modifiers. An original converter that has a large canonical load value
(> 0.5) will be said to have a large role in its modifier set. While the
canonical canon mark shows the direction of the relationship. The
larger the value of the canonical load will be the more important the
role of the modifier in its collection of modifiers. The canonical load is
better at interpreting the inter-modifier relationship than the canonical
weight because of the weaknesses present in the canonical weights.

3. Canonical cross-loading

Canonical weights and canonical weights see only the contribution


and correlation of its canonical modifiers in a set. While cross
loading is used to see the correlation between origin modifiers in one
set with canonical modifiers in other collections. The greater this
value, it can illustrate the more closely the relationship between the
two sets.

Looking at alternatives in interpreting canonical changes, then


choose the interpretation can use a variety the size. Usually
researchers use which way is there or displayed in data processing
software. Because it is canonical cross-loading is not given output

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directly, can name calculated manually, making the canonical loads
often interpreted for canonical modifiers.

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