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Words often fail to express one s feeling

towards others, still I express my sincere gratitude to
Shri. B Sudhakaran, Assistant Station Engineer
his valuable guidance without which it would have been difficult
for me to complete my training. I also express my gratitude to
Shri. Kesavan Namboodiri, Shri. Muraleedharan P and
Shri. Abraham John, who helped me a lot in understanding the
various processes and concepts involved. It was really a great
experience working in the DD Kendra and learning from such
experienced engineers with hands on experience on the subject.
Abraham Renn S
Roll No 159/05
Electronics & Communication Engg.
BTech, NIT Kurukshetra
considerably increased DD viewership in Kerala. From the available sales estimat
es of set top boxes and receivers it is estimated that Kerala has 3 to 4 lakh
Universal Reach
Doordarshan Kendra Thiruvananthapuram programmes reaches each and every TV house
hold in Kerala. It has universal reach and viewing. As per the TAM Media Researc
h Data DD Malayalam Programmes have very good reach in all the metro cities and
other regions of the country. Viewers in the Gulf and some countries in the west
are regularly demanding for more programmes for them.

The Doordarshan Kendra Thiruvananthapuram

An Overview
Doordarshan Kendra Thiruvananthapuram is part of the DD India, the largest telev
ision network in the world. Doordarshan with over 35 Terrestrial Transmitters an
d 3 production centers serve Kerala, Lakshadweep and Mahi regions. Inaugurated o
n 1st January 1985 by the then Chief Minster of Kerala Shri. K. Karunakaran, Doo
rdarshan Kendra Thiruvananthapuram currently produces and telecasts 168 hrs of M
alayalam programmes per week. 27 transmitters in Kerala, 7 in Lakshadweep and on
e in Mahi relay these programmes. Now more than 90 per cent of the 35 million po
pulations of Kerala, Lakshadweep and Mahi can receive Doordarshan Kendra Thiruva
nanthapuram programmes through a network of terrestrial transmitters. With the i
ntroduction of DTH almost cent percent of the population can now receive DDK Thi
ruvananthapuram programmes without cable connection. Doordarshan studios have be
en established at Thiruvananthapuram, Thrichur and Calicut to foster regional di
versity. People all over India are watching Doordarshan s Malayalam programmes. It
is also received in 64 countries spread over the continents of Asia, Africa, Eu
rope, Australia and America.
TV Scenario in Kerala
As per the 2001 census there are 65,95206 (6.6 million) house holds in Kerala. 7
4.9 per cent of them are in the rural sector (49,42550) the remaining 25.1 per c
ent (16,52656) are in the urban sector. In 2001, 38.8 per cent of the households
owned TV sets (25,60686). Of these 62.3 per cent were in rural areas and the re
maining 37.7 per cent in urban areas. The percentage of TV ownership in the rura
l areas in Kerala is the highest in the country. Even if we estimate 10 15 per c
ent growth per annum, total number of TV households in Kerala will not be more t
han 40 million. Of these estimated 40 million TV households 40 45 per cent is es
timated to have cable connection i.e., 17.5 million and the remaining 22.5 milli
on are without cable connection, and totally depend on DDK Thiruvananthapuram fo
r their TV viewing. The introduction of DTH, DD Direct Plus has


DDK Trivandrum has the following main departments which manage the production, s
torage transmission and maintenance of the two DD National channels and the DD M
alayalam channel.
Each of these departments are discussed in detail with due stress to the
relevant engineering aspects. The studio has
Camera and lights and other equipment required for production
of a feed.
Camera control unit or CCU
It is in the studio that all aspects related to the production of a video takes
place. The DDK has two large studios and a small studio for news
The PCR is where the post production activities like minor editing and
management of feed during a live program takes place. The production
manager sits in the PCR and directs the camera men and selects the angles
sound parameters etc during the production stage in the PCR. It is in the
PCR that we can control all the studio lights and all the microphones and
other aspects. The PCR has a vision mixer and an audio mixer. Its working
and other aspects are discussed in detail in the following pages. The PCR is
where the phone in console and other systems are also kept.
The VTR is the next section where copies of all programs are stored. All the
programs shot in the camera are simultaneously recorded in the VTR. Also
the VTR plays back all the videos as and when required. Videos of pre-
recorded events are queued up in the VTR and are played back without a
break. Videos of famous people and important events are stored in the
central film pool.
The MSR stores all the circuitry of the DDK. All the camera base units, all
the vision mixer base units and all the audio processor base units are kept in
MSR. The audio chain and video chain of MSR is explained in detail. The monitor
ing and control of all activities takes place in MSR. It is the MSR which decide
s what is to go in air. The MSR also performs some additional functions like log
o addition etc.
The next station is the earth station which has an uplink chain, simulcast
transmitters, audio processors video processors, up converters, modulators
etc. The earth station is in fully digital domain.
The last stage is the transmitter which has the antenna and facilities for
terrestrial transmission.

A television creates a continuous series of moving pictures on the screen. This

section will describe in detail how pictures are created in a television. A came
ra works exactly on the same principle applied the other way round.
A picture is "drawn" on a television or computer display screen by sweeping an e
lectrical signal horizontally across the display one line at a time. The amplitu
de of this signal versus time represents the instantaneous brightness at that ph
ysical point on the display.
At the end of each line, there is a portion of the waveform (horizontal blanking
interval) that tells the scanning circuit in the display to retrace to the left
edge of the display and then start scanning the next line. Starting at the top,
all of the lines on the display are scanned in this way. One complete set of li
nes makes a picture. This is called a frame. Once the first complete picture is
scanned, there is another portion of the waveform (vertical blanking interval, n
ot shown) that tells the scanning circuit to retrace to the top of the display a
nd start scanning the next frame, or picture. This sequence is repeated at a fas
t enough rate so that the displayed images are perceived to have continuous moti
on. This is the same principle as that behind the "flip books" that you rapidly
flip through to see a moving picture or cartoons that are drawn and rapidly disp
layed one picture at a time. Interlaced versus Progressive Scans
These are two different types of scanning systems. They differ in the technique
used to cover the area of the screen. Television signals and compatible displays
are typically interlaced, and computer signals and compatible displays are typi
cally progressive (non-interlaced). These two formats are incompatible with each
other; one would need to be converted to the other before any common processing
could be done. Interlaced scanning is where each picture, referred to as a fram
e, is divided into two separate sub-pictures, and referred to as fields. Two fie
lds make up a frame. An interlaced picture is painted on the screen in two passe
s, by first scanning the horizontal lines of the first field and then retracing
to the top of the screen and then scanning the horizontal lines for the second f
ield in-between the first set. Field 1 consists of lines 1 through 262 1/2, and
field 2 consists of lines 262 1/2 through 525. The interlaced principle is illus
trated in Figure 2. Only a few lines at the top and the bottom of each field are

000 image

There are many different kinds of video signals, which can be divided into eithe
r television or computer types. The format of television signals varies from cou
ntry to country. In the United States and Japan, the NTSC format is used. NTSC s
tands for National Television Systems Committee, which is the name of the organi
zation that developed the standard. In Europe, the PAL format is common. PAL (ph
ase alternating line), developed after NTSC, is an improvement over NTSC. SECAM
is used in France and stands for sequential coleur avec memoire (with memory). I
t should be noted that there is a total of about 15 different sub-formats contai
ned within these three general formats. Each of the formats is generally not com
patible with the others. Although they all utilize the same basic scanning syste
m and represent color with a type of phase modulation, they differ in specific s
canning frequencies, number of scan lines, and color modulation techniques, amon
g others. The various computer formats (such as VGA, XGA, and UXGA) also differ
substantially, with the primary difference in the scan frequencies. These differ
ences do not cause as much concern, because most computer equipment is now desig
ned to handle variable scan rates. This compatibility is a major advantage for c
omputer formats in that media, and content can be interchanged on a global basis
In India we use the PAL system. It has 625 lines in each frame and
uses interlaced scanning

Typical Frequencies for Common TV and Computer Video Formats

Format for
America and
Format for
Most of
Europe and
Used in India
High Definition/
Definition Digital
Television Format
Format (visible
lines per
Approx 480
(525 total
Approx 575
(625 total lines)
1080 or 720 or 480;
18 different formats
Format (visible
pixels per line)
Determined by
ranges from
320 to 650
Determined by
ranges from
320 to 720
1920 or 704 or 640;
18 different formats
Rate (kHz)
Vertical Frame
Rate (Hz)
Highest Frequency (MHz)
There are three basic levels of baseband signal interfaces. In order of increasi
ng quality, they are composite (or CVBS), which uses one wire pair; Y/C (or S-vi
deo), which uses two wire pairs; and component, which uses three wire pairs. Eac
h wire pair consists of a signal and a ground. These three interfaces differ in
their level of information combination (or encoding). More encoding typically de
grades the quality but allows the

signal to be carried on fewer wires. Component has the least amount of

encoding, and composite the most.
Composite/CVBS Interface
Composite signals are the most commonly used analog video interface. Composite v
ideo is also referred to as CVBS, which stands for color, video, blanking, and s
ync, or
baseband signal. It combines the brightness information (luma), the color inform
ation (chroma), and the synchronizing signals on just one cable. The connector i
s typically an RCA jack. This is the same connector as that used for standard li
ne level audio connections. A typical
waveform of an

This figure depicts the portion of the signal that represents one horizontal sca
n line. Each line is made up of the active video portion and the horizontal blan
king portion. The active video portion contains the picture brightness (luma) an
d color (chroma) information. The brightness information is the instantaneous am
plitude at any point in time. From the figure, it
can be see that the voltage during the active video portion would yield a bright
- white picture for this horizontal scan line, whereas the horizontal blanking p
ortion would be displayed as black and therefore not beseen on the screen.

Color information is added on top of the luma signal and is a sine wave with the
colors identified by a specific phase difference between it and the color- burs
The amplitude of the modulation is proportional to the amount of color (or satur
ation), and the phase information denotes the tint (or hue) of the color. The ho
rizontal blanking portion contains the horizontal synchronizing pulse (sync puls
e) as well as the color reference (color burst) located just after the rising ed
ge of the sync pulse (called the "back porch"). It is important to note here tha
t the horizontal blanking portion of the signal is positioned in time such that
it is not visible on the display screen.
Y/C Interfaces
The Y/C signal is a video signal with less encoding. Brightness (luma), which is
the Y signal, and the color (chroma), the C signal, are carried on two separate
sets of wires.
Component Interfaces
Component signal interfaces are the highest performance, because they have the l
east encoding. The signals exist in a nearly native format. They always utilize
three pairs of wires that are typically in either a luma (Y) and two- color-diff
erence-signals format or a red, green, blue (RGB) format. RGB formats are almost
always used in computer applications, whereas color- difference formats are gen
erally used in television applications. The Y signal contains the brightness (lu
ma) and synchronizing information, and the color- difference signals contain the
red (R) minus the Y signal and the blue (B) minus the Y signal. The theory behi
nd this combination is that each of the base R, G, and B components can be deriv
ed from these difference signals. Common variations of these signals are as foll
Y, B-Y, R-Y: Luma and color-difference signals.
Y, Pr, Pb: Pr and Pb are scaled versions of B-Y and R-Y. Commonly
found in high-end consumer equipment.
Y, Cr, Cb: Digital-signal equivalent to Y, Pr, Pb. Sometimes
incorrectly used in place of Y, Pr, Pb.
Y, U, V:Not an interface standard. These are intermediate, quadrature
signals used in the formation of composite and Y/C signals.
Sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "component interface."


Some important terms and their meanings in this context are listed below
Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio is the ratio of the visible-picture width to the height. Standard t
elevision and computers have an aspect ratio of 4:3(1.33). HDTV has aspects rati
os of either 4:3 or 16:9(1.78). Additional aspect ratios like 1.85:1 or 2.35:1 a
re used in cinema.
Blanking Interval
There are horizontal and vertical blanking intervals. Horizontal blanking interv
al is the time period allocated for retrace of the signal from the right edge of
the display back to the left edge to start another scan line. Vertical blanking
interval is the time period allocated for retrace of the signal from the bottom
back to the top to start another field or frame. Synchronizing signals occupy a
portion of the blanking interval.
Blanking Level
Used to describe a voltage level (blanking level). The blanking level is the nom
inal voltage of a video waveform during the horizontal and vertical periods, exc
luding the more negative voltage sync tips.
The color portion of a video signal. This term is sometimes incorrectly referred
to as "chrominance," which is the actual displayed color information.
Color Burst
The color burst, also commonly called the "color subcarrier," is 8 to 10 cycles
of the color reference frequency. It is positioned between the rising edge of sy
nc and the start of active video for a composite video signal.
Fields and Frames


A frame is one complete scan of a picture. In NTSC it consists of 525 horizontal

scan lines. In interlaced scanning systems, a field is half of a frame; thus, t
wo fields make a frame.
The monochrome or black-and-white portion of a video signal. This term is someti
mes incorrectly called "luminance," which refers to the actual displayed brightn
The luma (brightness) portion of a video signal without the color information. M
onochrome, commonly known as black-and-white, predates current color television.
Phase alternate line. PAL is used to refer to systems and signals that are compa
tible with this specific modulation technique. Similar to NTSC but uses subcarri
er phase alternation to reduce the sensitivity to phase errors that would be dis
played as color errors. Commonly used with 626-line, 50Hz scanning systems with
a subcarrier frequency of 4.43362MHz.
Picture element. A pixel is the smallest piece of display detail that has a uniq
ue brightness and color. In a digital image, a pixel is an individual point in t
he image, represented by a certain number of bits to indicate the brightness.
Stands for red, green, and blue. It is a component interface typically used in
computer graphics systems.
Sync Signals/Pulses
Sync signals, also known as sync pulses, are negative-going timing pulses in vid
eo signals that are used by video-processing or display devices to synchronize t
he horizontal and vertical portions of the display.


Y Cr Cb
A digital component video interface. Y is the luma (brightness) portion, and
Cr and Cb are the color-difference portions of the signal.
An analog video interface in which the chroma (color) information is carried sep
arately from the luma (brightness) and sync information. Two wire pairs are used
, denoted Y and C or Y/C. Often incorrectly referred to as "S-video."
The camera system in DDK Trivandrum has the following main components
i) Optical system


ii) Video system

iii) Monitor system
iv) Pulse system
v) Control system
vi) Auto setup system
vii) Power system
viii) Intercommunication system and tally system
ix) Transmission system
Camera has a head unit as well as a base unit. The head unit is located in the s
tudio and the base unit is located in the MSR. Also there is a Camera Control Un
it (CCU) which is a separate unit in itself which is used to control the camera.
The base station of the camera houses all the electronics related to the camera
. The head unit of the camera is the part which the camera man handles in the st
udio. The head unit of the camera is connected to other parts of the system thro
ugh a triax cable alone. This reduces the clutter in the studio. The triax cable
carries power for the camera. Signals of the pictures to from the camera and al
so carries the communications in RF to and from the camera. The head unit of the
camera houses the charge coupled devices (CCD) which take in the light from the
viewing area and convert them to electrical signals. Before the light hits the
CCDs in a colour camera, a dichroic prism is used to split the three primary col
ours RGB into three and cause them to be absorbed by different CCDs which are ke
pt at the focus of the lens system. They absorb light from each part of the scre
en pixel after pixel and for a moving picture frame after frame. The CCDs improv
e the apparent limit resolution with the help of spatial pixel shifting. There a
re 3 types of CCDs available
Interline transfer (IT)
Frame Transfer (FT)
Frame Interline Transfer (FIT)
The DDK Trivandrum studio uses 4 IKEGAMI (HK 399W) cameras in
studio 1 and an Ikegami camera and a SONY camera in Studio

Ikegami camera and Sony both uses FIT type CCDs. The sonny camera
gives a digital output where as the Ikegami gives out an analog output.
The FIT type CCD has photodiodes, vertical transfer CCDs and Horizontal transfer
CCDs , all of which but photodiodes are covered with metallic film to prevent a
ny kind of exposure to light. The residual charges in vertical transfer CCD is s
wept out. If it is not swept out smearing occurs (light leaks into vertical tran
sfer CCD and is seen as light above and below a bright object).The charges, the
result of light converted by photodiodes are transferred to vertical transfer CC
Ds during vertical blanking. Then the charges are transferred to the storage CCD s
at high speed. This reduces smear.FIT is complex but has very little smear.
Light entering sections is covered with metallic film do not cause photoelectric
conversion. But light which is reflected enters the photodiodes and may generat
e false signals called moiré (faded distortion). An optical low pass filter is use
d for reducing this moiré phenomenon
It is mounted on the CCD to collect light which is not contributing to photo
electric conversion. This improves CCD sensitivity. Most CCDs have on

chip lens.


Unlike pickup tubes the CCD does not have a continuous surface but discrete phot
odiodes. This lowers spatial frequencies that are higher than half the sampling
frequency on the basis of sampling theorem. These frequently cause spurious sign
als which cause moiré. The optical low pass filter is used to attenuate and surpas
s high pass spatial frequencies. A crystal filter with the effect of double refr
action is used in this.
This is a method of improving horizontal resolution such that the light
receiving element of channel G is shifted by half pitch compared to that of R

and B. This effectively doubles the sampling points and theoretically doubles th
e upper band resolution if luminance signal Y= .25R + .50G + .25B holds true. In
reality however Y= .25R + .50G + .25B is required and that does not result in d
ouble resolution but can achieve a satisfactory effect. An inner sampling point
also reduces moiré.
OVERFLOW DRIVES(OFD) of CCDs are responsible for discharging
excessive charges when a large volume of light falls on the photo diodes Without
OFD the charges will overflow to the adjacent pixels and a phenomenon called bl
ooming occurs. In blooming the ambient are of a spot image extensively in white.


Appropriate control of OFD allows signal charges to discharge by force midway th

rough the charge storage process thus performing same role as a shutter.
Standards of shutter
Preset shutter 1/60th of a second for NTSC and 1/60th of a second to 1/200th
of a second for PAL
CVSS or continuous variable shutter speed is 1/30.3th to 1/ 57.6th for NTSC and
again 1/61.4 to 1/1996 for NTSC. For PAL 1/25.4 to 1/47.6 and from 1/50.4 to 1/1
In particular 1/100 seconds make it possible to eliminate flicker caused
between NTSC field and 50Hz commercial power supply.
New Super V is technology incorporated to improve vertical resolution. It
gives a vertical resolution of 480 TV lines against a normal or 400 TV lines.
Video System
It has a CCD multimodule, a PROC -1 module a PROC-2 module, a Head D PROC and He
ad pulse modules. The video system of BS/CCU contains BS MPV, BS DF PROC and BS
Pulse modules
The electric signal that has undergone photoelectric conversion in the CCD eleme
nt are transferred to the sample hold circuit in the CCD multi module and output
to the A PROC -1 module, undergo video processing by a A

PROC-2 Head D Proc and Head Pulse module and are transmitted to
BS/CCU via the triax cable adaptor as component (Y, Cr, Cb) signals
In self contained mode they are converted into encoder signals by the digital
encoder ASIC in the Head D PROC module for Output.
Monitoring System
The monitoring System generates various signals to be output to VF, PF and WFM.
It is separate from the main, the system can actually switch R, G and B video si
gnal or display signal requirements for monitoring the maker or characters.
Pulse System
The pulse system is installed in department of camera head and BS/CCU, and is de
signed to operate in conjunction with the CCU operation connected to BS/CCU and
in the self contained mode operated by the camera head alone, in either way the
system can be operated in internal or external synchronization mode.
Control System
The camera is normally controlled through the CPUs of the HEAD MPU
and BS MPU modules to keep watching each unit and module.
Soundcraft Audio Processor
Sound mixer is a unit used in the production control room (PCR) to control all t
he audio of the incoming sound from the studio or other source. It is the single
most important component used to control audio in an audio chain. The sound mix
er used in DDK Trivandrum is a Soundcraft sound mixer. It is located in both the
PCRs with a standby arrangement for each.


All mixers carry out the same basic function - to blend and control the volume o
f a number of input signals, add effects and processing where required and route
the resulting mix to the appropriate destination, which could be power amplifie
rs, the tracks of a recording device - or both. A mixer is the nerve centre of t
hese sources, and therefore the most vital part of any audio system. A mixer per
forms a variety of functions and effects some are detailed below.
Equalization is useful for making both corrective and creative changes to a soun
d, but it need to be used with care. Corrective applications include making tona
l changes to compensate for imperfect room acoustics, budget microphones or inac
curate loudspeaker systems. While every effort is to be made to get the sound ri
ght at the source, this is less easily achieved live than in the more controlled
conditions of the recording studio. Indeed, the use of equalization is often th
e only way to reach a workable compromise in live situations. Creative applicati
ons, on the other hand, are equally as valid in the recording studio as they are
live, and an equalizer with a swept midrange control is infinitely more versati
le than one that has simple high and low controls. The only rule of creative equ
alization is - 'If it sounds good, it is good!'
Fixed Equalization
Most people will be familiar with the operation of high and low frequency contro
ls; they work in a similar manner to the tone controls on a domestic stereo syst
em. In the centre position the controls have no effect, but rotate them clockwis
e and they will provide boost, or rotate them anticlockwise and they provide cut
. Despite their apparent simplicity, however, high and low controls should be us
ed with caution as overuse can make things worse. Adding a small amount of high
or low boost should be enough to add a

touch of brightness or warmth to a sound, but a quarter of a turn should be

sufficient, especially where the low control is concerned.
The drawback with fixed controls often lies in the fact that you may want to boo
st just a particular sound such as the punch of a bass drum or the ring of a cym
bal, whereas a fixed control influences a relatively large section of the audio
spectrum. Apply too much bass boost and you could find the bass guitar, bass dru
m and any other bass sounds take on a flabby, uncontrolled characteristic which
makes the mix sound muddy and badly defined. This is because sounds occupying th
e lower mid part of the spectrum are also affected. Similarly, use too much top
boost and the sound becomes edgy with any noise or tape hiss being emphasized qu
ite considerably.
In a PA situation, excessive EQ boost in any part of the audio spectrum will
increase the risk of acoustic feedback via the vocal microphones.
Using Effects Units
Reverberation is the most commonly used studio effect, and also the most necessa
ry. Western music is invariably performed indoors where a degree of room reverbe
ration is part of the sound. Conversely, most pop music is recorded in a relativ
ely small, dry-sounding studio, so artificial reverberation has to be added to c
reate a sense of space and reality. Reverberation is created naturally when a so
und is reflected and re-reflected from the surfaces within a room, hall or other
large structure
Often used to make a sound 'thicker' by taking the original sound, delaying it,
then mixing it back with the original sound. This short delay added to the origi
nal sound has the effect of doubling the signal.


Echo is a popular effect that was used extensively on guitars and vocals in the
60s and 70s. It is not used on vocals so much nowadays, but quite effective on g
uitars and keyboards. A neat trick is to set the echo delay time so that the rep
eats coincide with the tempo of the song.
Chorus & Flanging
Both chorus and flangers are based on a short delay, combined with pitch modulat
ion to create the effect of two or more instruments playing the same part. Flang
ing also employs feedback and is a much stronger effect. Both these treatments w
ork well on synth pad sounds such as strings and are best used in stereo where t
hey create a sense of movement as well as width.
Pitch Shifters
These change the pitch of the original signal, usually by upto one octave in eit
her direction and sometimes by two. Small pitch shifts are useful for creating d
e-tuning or doubling effects. Which can make a single voice or instrument sound
like two or three, while larger shifts can be used to create octaves or parallel
All these effects will be added in the audio processor and the final output will
be sent to VTR along with video in case of a recording or will be telecast live
through MSR as is required.
Production Control Room (PCR)
A major objective of TV program control facilities is to maintain a smooth conti
nuous flow of program material. The overall control of program is done in produc
tion control room by the producer with the help of a production

assistant, a CCU engineer and an engineer at vision mixer. They have in front of
them, the switching panel of the vision mixer console and a stack of monitors f
or the individual cameras, preview monitors of VTRs and transmission monitor for
displaying the switched output, with the aid of which the program is edited.
The PCR usually of the various equipments like:-
Camera Control Unit(CCU)
Vision Mixer(VM)
Video Tape Recorder(VTR)
Audio Mixer(AM)
Camera Control Unit (CCU)
The CCU contains control for
Optical Focus
Zoom of the lens system
Beam Focus
Selecting Gain
Color Temperature
Contours (Camera Details)
Vision Mixer (VM)
A vision mixer or video switcher enables the program producer to select the desi
red sources or a combination of the sources in order to compose the program. The
vision mixer is typically 10x6 or 20x10 crossbar switcher selecting any one of
the 10 or 20 input sources to 6 to10 different output lines. The input sources i
nclude: Camera-1, Camera-2, Camera-3, Telecine- 1, Telcine-2, VTR-1, VTR-2, Test
Signal et

assistant, a CCU engineer and an engineer at vision mixer. They have in front of
them, the switching panel of the vision mixer console and a stack of monitors f
or the individual cameras, preview monitors of VTRs and transmission monitor for
displaying the switched output, with the aid of which the program is edited.
The PCR usually of the various equipments like:-
Camera Control Unit(CCU)
Vision Mixer(VM)
Video Tape Recorder(VTR)
Audio Mixer(AM)
Camera Control Unit (CCU)
The CCU contains control for
Optical Focus
Zoom of the lens system
Beam Focus
Selecting Gain
Color Temperature
Contours (Camera Details)
Vision Mixer (VM)
A vision mixer or video switcher enables the program producer to select the desi
red sources or a combination of the sources in order to compose the program. The
vision mixer is typically 10x6 or 20x10 crossbar switcher selecting any one of
the 10 or 20 input sources to 6 to10 different output lines. The input sources i
nclude: Camera-1, Camera-2, Camera-3, Telecine- 1, Telcine-2, VTR-1, VTR-2, Test
Signal et
The vision mixer provides the following operational facilities for the editing
of the TV programs.
Take selection of any input source, or cut-switching cleanly from one
source to another.
Dissolve-fading in or fading out.
Lap Dissolve-dissolving from one source to another with an overlap
Superposition of two sources-keyed caption when the selected inlay is
superposed on the background picture
Video Tape Recorder (VTR)
The standardized two inch tape quadrupled head recording machines are called the
video tape recorder and are used for the high quality video tape recording one
or half inch helical scan tape recorders have been used for outdoor field record
ing. This multi purpose studio digital video cassette tapes, and is designed to
record, play back and edit interlace signals (6251/5251) as well as record, play
back and edit existing DVCPRO signals (25Mbps). Its 625/525 switching functions
makes this studio video cassette recorder which can be used any where in the wor
ld. In addition, it corporate digital compression technology so that the deterio
ration in picture quality and sound quality resulting from dubbing is significan
tly minimized. The compact, light weight 4U size makes carry easier, even when m
ounted in a 19 inch rack. The settings for the units set up can be performed int
eractively while viewing the screen menus on the monitor, and editing functions
include both assemble and insert editing.
Frequency range - 5.85 GHz to 6.425 GHz for transmission
3.625 GHz to 4.2 GHz for reception
The digital earth station operates in the frequency range of 5.85 GHz to
6.425 GHz for transmission and 3.625 to 4.24 GHz for reception of signals

The whole system operates with DVB/MPEG2 Standards. The base band processor subs
ystem and base band monitoring subsystem operates in fully digital domain. An OF
C carries digital base band signal from studio to earth station site to minimize
the noise and interference. It is controlled by a PC called NMS PC.
The compression segment has an MPEG encoder, digital multiplexer and digital mod
ulator. The monitoring and receiving segment comprises of two digital receivers
for receiving and decoding program. The output of modulator (70MHz) is sent to a
n up converter. The up converted signals are sent to an HPA. Then this signal is
given to a PDA (parabolic dish antenna) for up linking to satellite. The uplink
ed signal is received again by the same PDA for monitoring purposes. The signal
between earth station and satellite are given along line of sight which means th
ere must be a clear path from earth to satellite. The uplink signal is fed from
the earth station by a large PDA. The satellite is equipped with its own dish an
tenna which receives the uplink signals and feeds them to a receiver. The signal
is then amplified and changed to a different frequency which is downlink freque
ncy. This is done to prevent interference between uplink and downlink signals. T
he down linked signal is then again sent to the transmitter which again retransm
its it. Each satellite has a transponder and a single antenna receives all signa
ls and another one transmits all signals back. A satellite transmits signals tow
ards earth in pattern called the satellite footprint of the satellite. The footp
rint is strongest at centre and the footprint is used to see if the earth statio
n will be suitable for the reception of the desired signal. Converts
The parts of the DES are Antenna subsystem including LNA Antenna control unit, b
eacon tracking unit, beacon tracking receiver and up converter system high power
amplifier and power system. The system operates in 2 + 1 mode and is compliant
with DVB MPEG 2 standards. The base band processor subsystem and base band monit
oring system operates in digital domain. An OFC contains the digital base band s
ignal for studio to earth station to minimize noise interference
The network management system or NMS monitors and controls baseband equipments c
ompression equipments and test instruments like video audio generation and video
audio analyzer. They are provided to ensure quality of transmission and help tr
ouble shoot.


The base band segment comprises of baseband subsystems at studio site and base b
and subsystem at earth station site. This baseband segment processes two video P
The base band segment is monitored and controlled using a PC placed near the bas
e band earth station equipments called base band NMS PC. The compression segment
s comprises of Mpeg encoders in 2 + 1 configuration for providing redundancy. It
also comprises of digital multiplexers and digital modulators in 1 + 1 configur
ation. The compression segment is monitored and controlled by compression NMS PC
. The receive and monitoring segment consists of two digital receivers for recei
ving and decoding of the video programmes and one ASI to SDI decoder for decodin
g of the transport stream for monitoring video programmes at the multiplexers ou
tput. RF NMS PC is placed near the receive monitoring segment and video audio ge
nerator placed in the base band segment. For monitoring of video programmes prof
essional video monitor, LCD video monitor and audio level monitor are provided i
n the base band segment. An operator console has one 14 professional video monito
r a video audio monitor unit for quantitative monitor of video programmes and a
personal computer for centralized merit and contention of earth station sub syst
Features of ES
All major sub systems operate in redundant mode and takes over
immediately without any noticeable break in the service in the event
of failure of the main chain
A fiber optic connectivity to transport two SDI video and two AES
audio signals from a studio to the earth station separated by a distance
of approximately 200m
System configuration in MCPc in 2+1 mode
Base band process in fully digital domain. In case input video and
audio are analog A/D counter in first and converts analog signal in to
digital signal to ensure operation in fully digital domain
Digital encoding system compliant to MPEG2/DVB standards
On line trouble shooting with the help of converter, IRD and other
associated test and measuring equipment
Exhaustive professional quality measuring of video and audio
Control and monitoring using NMS
Single point remote monitoring and control on the console

The physical configuration of the racks in the digital earth station is as

Base band Rack(studio)
Base band rack (earth station)
Compression rack
Receive and monitoring rack
System Layout
All the above systems are located in the station as per the typical station
layout to have smooth flow of all signals mainly video audio RF and control
so as to reduce cabling length between racks. An OFC of 200m length with
NMS control cable (RG 5A) is provided for base band between the studio
and the earth station.
Electrical specifications:
System Voltage 230V AC, Single phase
Satellite communication systems
System configuration: (2 +1) mode with full redundancy
Video audio input parameter
No of program input: 2
Type of input format: Analog or digital, 75ohm
Input format (analog): 625 line PAL- B CCIR standard

Input level (analog): 1VPP+-5%

A to D converter: 10 Bits
Video Bandwidth: 5.5MHz
Input format (digital): SMTPE 259M, 270Mbps
Input level (digital): 800mVPP+-10%
No of audio input: Analog dual mono/normal stereo/joint stereo
per program
Input Frequency Range: 20 Hz to 20 kHz
Input Standard: Balanced analog 600ohm
Input Level: 0dB with +-10dB adjustment
No of audio Input Digital: Single at specified program
Input Standard: 110 ohm
Sampling rate: 32/44.1/48 kHz (selectable)
Data Rate: 32-384kBPS
Video/ Audio Compression Parameter
Video compression: MPEG-2 4:2:2@ML
Bit Range: 1.0 To 15Mbps for 4:2:0
1.0 To 50Mbps for 4:2:2
Resolution: 704X576/720X576(selectable)
Audio Coding: MPEG layer2
Multiplexer O/P rate: 1-80Mbps

Modulation Type: QPSK selectable

FEC Rate: ½ 2/3 ¾ 5/6 7/8
Domain Concession receiver frequency: 3.6 to 4.2 GHz
C to L o/p frequency: 950 to 1750 MHz
Video/Audio Decoder and Receiver: L Band
RF Monitoring
IF (70 MHz monitoring): using 70 to L converter
L Band monitoring: Using IRD
C Band monitoring: Using downlink through satellite
Base Band monitoring: Video and Audio monitoring in transmit or
receive path through router
RF Measurement
RF Parameters: Spectrum Analyzer
Video Generation and Monitoring
Video Monitoring(digital): one 14 professional colour monitor, one 5.6 LCD monitor
in the base band rack for high quality monitoring and one 14 professional and on
e 4 LCD in console for confidence monitoring
Video analyzer (SDI/Analog): Waveform Monitor (wfm-601M) and
Video Generator (SDI/Analog): TG-700


Environmental specifications
Operation 00C to 450C
Storage -200C to 800C
Humidity 0% to 95% non condensing
Altitude 0 to 3000msl
NMS Functions
monitoring all the subsystems
control of the subsystems
configuration of all the subsystems
separate monitor and control computer for baseband and compression
monitor and control of the earth station subsystem for a remote
computer wanted in the console
interface between the computer and equipment is RS 232
Base Band Rack (studio)
The base band system is divided into two parts of Video /Audio compression syste
m at studio site and further audio and video base processing at the earth statio
n site
It has the following parts
Audio Patch panel
Video Patch panel


Base band frame which as

Video ADC
Dual Audio embedder
Dual Audio ADC
Fiber optic transmitter
Line interface unit for fiber input/output termination
Video audio termination panel
The base band segment of the system carries two programs from the studio to the
earth stations equipment separated by a distance of about 200m. To cater to thes
e needs two video and two audio signals each one stereo are processed. The video
signals are handled in the digital domains in SDI (serial 4:2:2@ 270 Mbps data
rate) and the audio signals in AES/EBU as per the AES 2- 1992 standards. If all
the input signals are analog, A/D converters will have to be used in the transmi
tter end, which give SDI and AES outputs for operation in fully digital domain.
One A/D card is mounted in the frame and wired up to the patch panel so that in
case of failure of main video A/D card this spare A/D card can take over.
The analog or digital input from the camera or VTR and from live events are fed
to the suitable connectors on video and audio termination panel depending upon w
hether the type of signal is analog or digital.
If the signal is analog, then the video ADC cards perform the analog to digital
conversion of the incoming video and audio signals. The serial digital video and
audio outputs are further fed to the audio embedder through a patch panel.
If the input video and audio signals are digital, suitable patching is to be don
e and the video patch panel and audio patch panel for routing these inputs to th
e embedder
The dual channel audio embedder can embed up to two AES/EBU streams in to a seri
al 4:2:2 video streams. In the earth station, one AES/EBU stream embeds one digi
tal video signal so that the cards are used for two program channels. The embedd
er is fed to the fiber optic transmitter.


The OFC takes two inputs of SDI at 270Mbps for the two embedder and provides mul
timode operation option for each input in accordance with SMPTE 297M.
The O/P signal from the optional transmitter is in the opt form so it protects t
he signal from EM interference and cross talk. The OFC loss is less than co axia
l loss and so signal can travel longer distances. In earth station an OFC is use
d to handle two embedded SDI signals. The channel A and channel B optical output
from the unit are made available via a SC connector with shutters.
These two optical outputs are fed to the line interface unit; they are transport
ed back to earth station base band rack for further processing through the optic
al link.
The video patch panel (2x24 way) employed in the system is 2u unit suitable for
the digital video. The two patch cords are used for making connection through on
the patch panel either for analog or digital video input. The audio patch panel
(2x24 ways) is a 1u unit. Two patch cords are used for making connection throug
h on the patch panel either for analog or for digital input. Both the patch pane
ls are configured through for analog input in normal condition for video as well
as audio. All the IQ modules from the Sand W are incorporated in the IQH3A encl
osure. It can accommodate 8 double or 16 single width modules or every combinati
on fitted with a roll call gateway for roll net 2.5Mbps network. The enclosure c
onsists of dual PSU for redundancy. The max power consumption of the unit is 225
VA.The BNC connector on the near panel of the connector allows it to be connecte
d to the roll call network. The bicolor LED s V1 and V2 indicate positive and nega
tive supplies. They are green if PSU supplies power and is red otherwise.
The UPC will add in any frequency within stated transmission BW in 125 kHz stepp
ed increments. The IF bandwidth is indented for operation within an 80Mhz BW cen
tered at 70MHz (for +/- 40 MHz) Due to its low phase noise and HF stability the
model UC6M2D5 (satellite networks) meets
INTELSAT, DOMSAT, EUTELSAT and regional requirements. It can stand alone up con
verter or in a 1:1 protection switch option. The uplink frequency for Trivandrum
is 6036.5 MHz and downlink is 3811.5MHz.
Designed specifically for the demands of television audio, the programmable OPTI
MOD-TV 8282 digital audio processor meets all requirements of the various system
s in use around the world. It is impossible to characterize the listening qualit
y of even the simplest limiter or compressor on the basis of the usual specifica
tions, because such specifications cannot adequately describe the crucial dynami
c processes that occur under program conditions. Therefore, the only way to mean
ingfully evaluate the sound of an audio processor is by subjective listening tes
ts. Certain specifications are presented here to assure the engineer that they a
re reasonable, to help plan the installation, and to help make certain compariso
ns with other processing equipment. Some of the specifications are for features
that are optional. The TX s sampling rate can be synchronized with that of audio p
rocessors or can be allowed a free run of 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz. The audio
signal is sent to the digital I/O cards and analog cards separately. These cards
provide pre emphasis truncations required and attenuation on the digital signal
before transmission.
Specifications for measurements from analog left/right input to analog
left/right output are as follows:
Frequency Response (all structures, measured below gain reduction and
clipping thresholds, high-pass filter off): Follows standard 50 microseconds.
Or 75 microseconds. Pre-emphasis curve ±0.20dB, 5Hz-15 kHz. Analog and
digital left/right outputs can be independently user-configured for flat or pre-
emphasized output.
Noise: Output noise floor will depend upon how much gain reduction the
processor is set for (AGC and/or DENSITY), gating level, equalization,
noise reduction, etc. It is primarily governed by the dynamic range of the
A/D Converter. The dynamic range of the digital signal processing is 144dB.
Total System Distortion (de-emphasized 100% modulation): Less than

Reflector structure
The 6.3 m diameter antenna is made up of 4 quarter segment. Each and every quart
er is made up of 10 segments fixed on five trusses. Panels which are fixed to th
e trusses are made up of fine aluminium expanded mesh strengthened with the help
of channel sections and tee sections whose ends are fixed to the backup structu
re. Trusses are composed of aluminium square tubes and the welded back up made u
p of hub and 20 trusses. The hubs and trusses are constructed in such a way that
they constitute to the high level of surface accuracy.
Mount structure
A simple tubular steel space frame makes up most of the mount structure. It allo
ws rotation about x-axis as well as y axis. The x axis drive rod is connected be
tween the top of the mounted structure and the concrete foundation. The y axis d
rive rod is connected between the base of the x axis bearing mount and the refle
ctor back up structure on the left hand side as viewed from the rear of the ante
nna. The mount is rigidly attached to the concrete base which is facing north su
ch that it can survive even in wind speeds up to 200 kmph.
Drive mechanism
It has a telescopic pipe arrangement and a screw rod within it along with manual
handle. There are mechanical angle indicators along the screw rod which indicat
e the exact position and angle of the antenna with respect to both the axes.

Most of the parts of the panel and antenna structure are made up of
aluminium alloy which has corrosion resistance and yield strength.
The reflector is treated in the following order before installation
(A) Etch primer is applied after caustic soda acid treatment
(b) Painted with white matt paint
The mount is treated with the following
(a) A hot dip which galvanizes all steel parts
(b) Etch primer treatment
(c) White enamel paint is applied as a last coating
Fixing the feed onto the antenna
The feed is supported by a set of four pipes called as a quadripod. It is fixed
before the whole antenna structure is hoisted, that is, it is fixed on the groun
d itself before the whole antenna structure is fixed. Care should be taken that
the feed is at the exact focus of the reflector. A maximum tolerance of +3mm is
allowed for the separation between the actual focus and feed position. Also the
feed entrances and cable output ports are covered with waterproof Teflon sheet t
o prevent the entry of moisture into the arrangement.
The LNBC (Low Noise Block Converter) and cables are connected to the feed output
. The x-y adjustment is then done and fixed. The bolts are tightened with care a
nd the arrangement is set. Care should be taken while lifting and fixing of the
whole apparatus to prevent any damage.

The signals which are received by the antenna are given to the feed and from the
re it goes to the LNB from where the signals are given to the receiver. The rece
iver changes the frequency bandwidth of the signal so as to decrease the losses
through noise. These signals can now be observed on a TV screen. And this is the
principle which is used in home dish antennas and by cable operators for broadc
asting in a small area. For transmitting these signals back to air there are som
e changes which are to be made to these signals. I.e., these signals have to be
properly set according to the specifications given. So the signal is next fed to
a control console. From here the different programmes or channels have to be se
lected first and then each channels visual and aural property can be set properl
y before transmission to air. The visual properties can be seen in the video wav
eform screen
Video waveform modifications
In the video waveform as can be observed, 625 vertical lines make up one frame o
f the video which appears on the TV screen. It is divided into odd lines and eve
n lines on either side of the video waveform. In this video waveform, the peak t
o peak voltage is 1 volt. The synchronizer or the synch voltage which extends be
low the other parts of the graph and in the middle has a voltage of .3V.this is
the standard level for horizontal as well as for vertical synch. The next part i
s colour burst which controls the colour characteristics of the video. The remai
ning 0.7V is the video level. Many characteristics of the video signal like its
brightness its chroma etc can be modified here at this stage before transmission
. A colour stability amplifier is used at this stage to regenerate synch colour
burst and brightness level of the signal. Many times the signal which is receive
d from the antenna do not confirm to the standards. Hence it might need modifica
tions before transmission so that it can be received uniformly by all the viewer
The 5KW and 10 KW TX of TW200 HP series com band 1 on band 3 and are equipped wi
th two dims operating in a passive reserve mode. The sound and vision channels a
re amplified separately.
It is designed to operate in all the negative modulation standards with PAL, NTS
C and SECAM colour systems. Each transmitter is designed for a precise output po
wer and a specific frequency but is built using a series of common modules based
on the same technology the standardization has


following advantages like the maintenance personnel of one type can work
with the other type as well and spare parts can be shared.
All amplifiers are WB devices (170 to 230 MHz in B3 and 44 and 88 MHz
in B1) and can operate in band 3 and band 1 of both sound and vision.
In the driver Audio and video I/P signals are connected to vision and sound IF s
ignals. These IF proceed prior to concession to RF output frequencies and amplif
The attenuated 5 and 10 KW sideband pattern is obtained through the use of a lit
hium niobate ground wave filter. Each amplifier is equipped with AGC. The driver
also consists of a vision synchronization detection circuit used to automatical
ly switch the transmitter on and off. Also the transmitter can be controlled loc
ally and remotely. All IF and RF interconnections use 50ohm coaxial links to sim
plify maintenance.
By the use of redundant of the ampliform and power supplies, briefently can esti
mated reduced power levels in the event of a failure in several transistors ampl
ifiers or a power supply.
This man machine interface ensures high user friendliness both in terms of
operation and maintenance. System info and controls are accessed through a
touch screen controlled by a microprocessor.
Description of TX
The TX is in a single cabinet which the diplexer and filter assembly is associat
ed. The TX as discussed above has two drivers two RF amplification channels, powe
r supplies and associated co-ordination and control system, a diplexer and a RF
filter. All amps power supplies and their driver components are plug-in drawers
and sub assemblies are designed for easy access and removal. The main switch is
designed for use with all types of 3phiW/W with or without neutral 208V or 480V.


This subassembly is used to generate vision and sound signals corresponding to t

he selected standard using input video and audio signals. This sub assembly perf
orms the processing and conversion required to generate the filtered and vision
and sound signals in the selected RF band.
The dent also provides phase and amplitude corrections to ensure that the
linearity specifications comply with various standards.
The driver acknowledges s the presence or absence of the video and audio
signals that are applied to the driver.
The driver consists of plug-in mounted in a single PCB rack, 6 units high. Each
driver has 5 modules connected to the mother board. Each can be replaced separat
ely without changing the entire assembly. MaxOutput power is 19ddBm for vision s
ignals and 13dBm for sound signals.
Local driver controls are on the local freq and interface board. In the maintena
nce mode of the TX these controls are active. The 2 drivers and associated passi
ve resonance relays are directly controlled by the control system. (Each driver
has +_ 12V power supply).Each driver has its own internal oscillator. However th
ey can be made to work with an external frequency synthesizer. In case of synthe
sizer failure the change into internal oscillator takes place automatically. In
this dual drive configuration the sys automatically switches over to the reserve
Power amplification
The driver generates a low power vision RF signal and a low power sound
RF signal. They are applied to the vision and sound amplification chains


consisting of identical parallel wired high gain amplifier decreases. These

drivers are used for the 10Kw sys. They are distributed as follows
Each high gain amplifier provides a power of 1600 W at peak and has
?An interface safety board for gain and phase adjustments, SWR,
and power surge protection
?Class A preamplifier mode.
?Class AB Driver amplifier generating 30 to 80 W to the 3
channel input distribution.
Three 2X300 W amplifiers grouped by a empty system diagonal
power in the high generator amplifier drawer to 1600W peak
A power supply distribution board.
Each amplifier has its own protection devices for
1.Power surge
2. SWR
3. Temperature rise
The LCD screen provides control system monitoring and analysis. The amplifier dr
ivers are provided by plug in high power supplies. (1power supply for 2 amplifie
rs.)These highly reliable units generate 50V with 120A.
Each RF O/P of amplifier is coupled with a balanced WILKINSON COMBINER. Ensuring
insulation of approximately 18dB between O/P. This drive makes it possible to r
emove an amplifier driver when on the air without disrupting broadcast. This way
a faulty amplifier can be replaced with a spare drawer and also a sound amplifi
er can be used in case of a vision amplifier.
CPU or Control System
It is a microprocessor board and with a LCD screen coupled to it with a command
and control facility. Safety is achieved through hardwired systems to maintain o
perations and safety precautions and optimum performance.
The CPU can in fact control


?Sound to vision ratio

?System power
?Type of pilot wave
?Synthesizer frequency
?Single drive or dual drive
Filtering assembly
It is formed by a diplexer reflecting sound signal and an RF pass band filter in
troducing 2 rejecters. A wave counter reset signal is sent to sample vision and
output signal
Tx Cooling
The amplifiers are cooled with pressurized air through an external vertical
system that lets filtered air.
Protection systems
Thermal protection: the Tx is protected against excess temperature increase. For
air if T> 450C then the output power is reduced and when outside temperature is
greater than 600C the Tx is shut down.
SWR protection: it is independent for each high gain amplifier. If a faulted amp
lifier is detected it can be restarted. If the failure causes power rise then th
e TX is cut off
Power surge protection: the amplifier has a fast protection circuit in the
event of a power surge at amplifier locations.
Power distribution system
The network is directly connected to I/P of main breaker. And the power
distribution is as shown in figure

Why is an LNB needed?

The dish antenna does one amplification by concentrating the signals at the focu
s. The LNB mounted exactly at the focus amplifies this signal again. This signal
cannot be sent through a coaxial cable because of high frequency attenuation. S
o the LNB converts it to a lower frequency between .950MHz to2.150MHz as that is
the frequency required by the IRD.
The IRD used is a Scopus IRD. it has a demultiplexer, an MPEG-2 video and audio
decoder as well as data and VBI insertion functions. It can also handle high see
d and low speed data input functions. And has an on board DVB descrambling with
BISS mode1 and BISS-E support.
It can be used to descramble Scopus CAS 5000 encryption system and a
DSNG CA fixed key encryption system
The DVB deciphers by means of a smart card and conditional access module
CA method- Multicrypt, Simulcrypt
CAS Method Irdeto, Via access, Crypto works, Covax, Aston, Nagra
Vision, On Digital, Codi Crypt, Beta Crypt, NDS Video Guard