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Chapter 3



Initial Temperature: 19 0C

Final Temperature: 21.2 0C

Concentration of NaOH: 0.100 N

Volume of NaOH: 6.20 mL

Weight of HNO3: 0.03906 g HNO3

Heat of combustion: (-) 3225.6136 kJ


The adiabatic combustion calorimeter (Parr) used was a very direct way for ensuring an

adiabatic environment due to its insulation and volume controlling capabilities to acquire accurate

and precise temperature readings during the combustion phases. An electronic stirrer was used to

ensure the temperature is even out all throughout the system. There must be careful reading of the

thermometer reading once combustion took place and that the temperature reading must be stable

after combustion. In the titration procedure, the amount of NaOH to be used in the analyte will

depend on the water content placed.

The heat of combustion and the weight of nitric acid produced in the experiment was then

computed given the formula and the following solution and calculations that can be seen in the

Appendix Section C.
Chapter 4


The heat released in a chemical reaction was determined experimentally by using an

adiabatic combustion calorimeter (Parr). The reaction proceeded without any side reactions and

sufficiently fast that the heat exchange with the surroundings is negligible. The combustion

reaction occurred in a closed container under constant volume (“bomb”). The bomb was immersed

in a weighted quantity of water and surrounded by an adiabatic shield that serves as a heat insulator.

Continuous stirring ensured that heat was distributed evenly in the calorimeter. The bomb and the

water bath, which are in direct thermal contact, constitute the adiabatic bomb calorimeter used by

the researchers. In this experiment the heat of combustion of benzoic acid was determined using a

commercial Parr adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The heat of combustion is directly related to

important quantities such as the internal energy and enthalpy of a chemical reaction and the

researchers could determine such values.

The heat of combustion acquired in the experiment was valued to be 3225.6136 kJ/mol and

that heat was released or was an exothermic reaction. The heat of combustion numerically valued

a negative (-) value indicating that there was a release of heat during the reaction. This is minimally

different to the true value of 3226.6 kJ/mol and may be due to some systematic errors occurred in

doing the experiment. This can also be due to the sample not being completely combusted.

To limit the errors in determining the heat of combustion by means of the bomb

calorimeter, the following should be observed; proper measurement and reading of values, and

proper conduction of the experiment procedures. Moreover, trials could have also been done to get

a proper average value. When proper care and correct procedure is to be followed, and exercised
using the bomb calorimeter, this equipment can be used for highly accurate and precise

determination of the heat of combustion of a sample to be analyzed.