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When a ductile material like mild steel is subjected to tensile test, then it passes various stages

before fracture. These stages are as follows:

Proportional Limit is point on the curve up to which the value of stress and strain remains
proportional. This is the point up to which Hook’s law of proportionality applies. Elastic Limit is
the limiting value of stress up to which the material is perfectly elastic. Within this region,
material will return back to its original state without sustaining permanent deformation when the
force is unloaded. Yield Strength is the stress after which material extension takes place more
quickly with no or little increase in load. At this point, the material will sustain permanent
deformation and will no longer return to its original state even after the force is unloaded.
Ultimate Strength is the maximum strength that material has to bear stress before breaking. It
can also be defined as the ultimate stress corresponding to the peak point on the stress strain
graph. Rupture Point is point where the strength of material breaks.

Plain and deformed are the two classes of steel bars that are commonly used. These are further
classified into three grades – structural, intermediate, and hard. Properties of which are listed in
Table I (Data is based on Philippine National Standards provided by MIRDC).
Plain & Deformed Round Bars

Structural Grade Intermediate Grade Hard Grade


(Grade 230) (Grade 230)
(Grade 230)

Ultimate Strength (GPa) 0.390 0.480 0.620

Yield Strength (GPa) 0.230 0.275 0.410

Elongation, d < 25 mm 18% 10% 8%

Elongation, d ≥ 25 mm 16% 8% 7%

Table I. Tensile Requirements

1.5. Resources
 Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine UMH-100
 Wedge Grips
 Weighing Scale
 Steel Tape / Digital Caliper
 Marking Device (Centre punch or drawn with ink)

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1.6. Procedures
1.0 Preparation
1.1 Prepare two (2) specimens both plain and deformed round bar specimen with a length
of 500 mm each.
1.2 Mark the bars as specimen 1 or 2 (both plain and deformed bars).
1.3 Measure and mark 150 mm in length from both ends of each bar.
Note: Use a marking device, the middle section is the gauge length (GL) of about 200
mm (standard).
1.4 Determine the weight of each specimen.
1.5 Determine the actual cross sectional area of deformed and plain bars:

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 1
𝐴𝑅𝑜𝑑 = 𝑥
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝜌 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙

𝑘𝑔
𝜌 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 = 7850
𝑚3
1.6 Determine the average space of lugs.
1.7 Determine the average height of lugs.
1.8 Determine the summation of gaps.

Figure 2-2. Deformed Round Bar Specimen

2.0 Tensile Test as per Appendix A.

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Figure 2-3. Deformed Round Bar Specimen

Where:

LG = Gage length of steel, mm


L = Length of Specimen, mm

3.0 Data Recording


3.1 Get data from generated results.
3.2 Compute for other necessary data.
3.3 Fill up the preliminary
4.0 Round Bar Analysis
4.1 After fracture, put together the end of the specimen.
4.2 Measure accurately the distances between the gage marks.

Figure 2-4. Behavior of Deformed Round Bar Specimen

Where:

LF= Final length of steel, mm


AF = Final Cross Sectional Area of Specimen,
mm2

4.3 Compute for percent elongation.

𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ − 𝐺𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ


%𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑥 100 %
𝐺𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

Note: A fracture occurring outside of the middle half of the gage length, the
elongation vale may not be representative of the material. IF the elongation
measured meets the minimum requirements specified, no further testing is indicated,
otherwise discard the test and repeat.

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4.4 Fit the ends of the fractured specimen together.
4.5 Measure the mean diameter of the width of the specimen.
4.6 Measure the thickness at the smallest cross section to the same accuracy as the
original length.

4.7 Compute for reduction of area.

AO − AF
%𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑥 100 %
AO
Where:

AO= Initial/original Cross Sectional Area, mm2


AF = Final Cross Sectional Area, mm2

Note: Reduction in area pertains to the difference between the original cross
sectional area of the specimen and its final cross section after the test, expressed in
percentage.

SET-UP OF APPARATUS

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1. Table 7. Insert Grip Hold-Down Plate
2. Lower Crosshead 8. Rubber Plate
3. Upper Crosshead 9. Upper Liner
4. Table Top Protective Mat 10. Lower Liner
5. Insert Grip Holder 11. Specimen Leap-Prevention Plate
6. Insert Grip 12. Compression Plate Mount

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FEU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
FEU Institute of
Engineering Materials and Testing Laboratory Technology

SCHOOL OF
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Manual

1.7. Experiment Report

Course: Experiment No.:


Group No.: Section:
Group Members: Date Performed:
Date Submitted:
Instructor:

1.7.1. Data and Results


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Experiment No.: 2

TENSILE TEST OF REINFORCING STEEL BARS

Preliminary Data Sheet

Name: Date:

Section: Group No.:

Specimen Label 1 2 Specimen Label 1 2

Classification Yield Strength, KPa

Ultimate Strength,
Length, mm
KPa

Weight, kg Break Strength, KPa

Gage Length, mm Final Length, mm

Variation in Mass,
Percent Elongation, %
%

Average Height of Final Cross-Sectional


lugs, mm Area, mm2

Average Spacing of Percent Reduction


lugs, mm Area, %

Gap of lugs, mm Grade

Nominal Diameter,
mm

Cross-Sectional
Area, mm2

Assisted by: Approved by:

ME-UTM ENGINEER INSTRUCTOR

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1.7.2. Conclusion
Many engineering applications that require high tensile strength normally use mild steel. This is
because of the crystalline structure of mild steel that allows it to withstand high axial loads
before fracture can occur. Aluminum however has found many uses in designs that require low
density materials like in aerodynamics and some motor vehicles. Aluminum experiences high
ductility rates compared to mild steel and have therefore low level values of 6oung5s Modulus, a
factor that determines deflections in structural components. This experiment therefore gives
close relationship of tensile strength to the theoretical data.

1.7.3. Schematic Diagram/ Illustration

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1.8. Assessment

1. Explain the importance of yield strength in design and analysis of machine.

2. State the difference between proportionality limit and elastic limit.

3. Why is it necessary to state the gage length when reporting the percent of elongation?

4. Are wedge grips suitable for testing of brittle materials?

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5. Based from the experiment result, what is the steel grade of specimen? Explain.

1.9. References
• EN 472 : Pressure gauge - Vocabulary.
• EN 837-1 : Pressure gauges. Bourdon tube pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology,
requirements and testing.
• EN 837-2 : Pressure gauges. Selection and installation recommendations for pressure gauges.
• EN 837-3 : Pressure gauges. Diaphragm and capsule pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology,
requirements and testing..

(Note: Cite all references used in the development of this experiment using APA format.)

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