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Optical Design and Standards

Materials in lighting

Peter Thorns · Head of Strategic Lighting Applications · Thorn G.P.S. · 20th April 2010
Optical Design and Standards
The purpose of materials in luminaires

 Housing of components

 Environmental protection

 Optics for light emission control

 Insulation of conductors

 Enclosure appearance and aesthetics

 Fixings supports and seals

2 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
The purpose of materials in luminaires

 Housing of components

 Environmental protection

 Optics for light emission control

 Insulation of conductors

 Enclosure appearance and aesthetics

 Fixings supports and seals

3 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

“Optical control is achieved by various mechanical devices : reflectors, baffles,


louvres, diffusers, refractor, etc…... Many believe they want luminaires that will
provide the “most light for the money”. Unfortunately as efficiency increases,
luminaire brightness usually does to and excess high angle brightness can
create discomfort (glare) - enough in fact to defeat the purpose of additional
lux. Thus fixture choice is a trade off between quantity (efficiency) and quality
(comfort).”

4 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

“Optical control is achieved by various mechanical devices : reflectors, baffles,


louvres, diffusers, refractor, etc…... Many believe they want luminaires that will
provide the “most light for the money”. Unfortunately as efficiency increases,
luminaire brightness usually does to and excess high angle brightness can
create discomfort (glare) - enough in fact to defeat the purpose of additional
lux. Thus fixture choice is a trade off between quantity (efficiency) and quality
(comfort).”

5 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection

Ii Ir Ii Ii I
Io

 

Reflectance  Reflectance  Reflectance 

6 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion

Ii
Ii Ii

Ir Io I

7 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction

Limiting
angle

Limiting
Perforated
ray
baffle

8 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction
 Refraction

Ii A

D
i r r' i'

B C n1
P Q n2
n3
I
r
9 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction
 Refraction

10 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction
 Refraction

11 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction
 Refraction

12 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Controlling light

Methods of optical control

 Reflection
 Diffusion
 Obstruction
 Refraction

13 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
A brief look backwards

14 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

 Why Metals?

 Low cost
 Long life
 Appropriate
 Versatile
 Optics quality
 Easy to process
 Strength
 Conductive
 Reusable
 Recyclable

15 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

 Selection criteria

 Photometric Performance: LOR


and distribution

 Subjective feel: Iridescence,Milkiness,


Dark Light appearance, brightness

 Cost: Material cost, fabrication ease/scrap

 Service life

16 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

Enhanced
95%

Raw
88%

High
specular
88%

Satin
84%

Low
Specular
88%

Texture
84%

17 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

MATERIAL TOTAL DIFFUSE


REFLECTIVITY REFLECTIVITY
% %
Multi-layer polymer mirror >98 <2
Ag PVD oxide enhanced 98 <2
Super-pure Al oxide enhanced 95 <5
Enhanced anodised 92 <12
White powder paint 92 >98
White polycarbonate 92 >94
Mirrored glass 90 <2
Mill brite unanodised 89 <18
Standard anodised 88 5-20
White Pre-coated steel 88 >98
Etched satin/textured Al 85 40-80
Porcelain enamel 80 >90
White glass 80 >90
Chromium 65
Stainless steel 65
18 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic – effect of reflectance

19 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

20 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

21 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic – effect of reflectance

22 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - metal

23 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 Why Plastics?

 Light weight
 Corrosion resistant
 Easy to process
 Insulator
 Low cost process
 Less waste
 Recyclable

24 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 Plastics Development

 1920’S-1930’S: polystyrene, acrylic, PVC

 1940’S: polyester, nylon, polyethylene

 1950’S: GRP, polypropylene,


polycarbonate, ABS

 1960’S-1970’S:high temperature
materials, PPS

 1980’S-PRESENT: Blends

25 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

PMMA PC PS PP PP TV20

Polymethylmethacr
Polycarbonate Polystyrol Polypropylen Polypropylen
ylat

environmentally
visually high-quality high-quality
good for compatible
material with a high tranparent talcum
transparent alternative to
aging and weather thermoplastic concentrated PP
applications PVC for interior
stability material
applications

Density g/cm² 1.18 1.2 1.05 0.9 1.05

UV resistance high good poor poor medium

Temperature resistance good high good good/medium high

Light transmission high high high poor bad

Impact strength poor high bad high good

Scratch resistance high poor good poor medium

Chemical resistance poor poor medium high high

Surface glossy glossy glossy matt matt

26 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

MATERIAL Transmission % Reflectance %


2mm Diffusion material 83 8
2mm Thick opal light 38 47

27 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 Micro-prisms
 Microprism/lenses are small lenses,
generally with less than a millimetre
(mm) in diameter.

 Excellent for deglaring indirect or


diffused light by redirecting high angle
incident light down towards the working
plane. However the fact that it is
injection moulded often limits the size
and shape available.
0.4mm
(Pitch)
 These materials do not hide the lamp.
The prisms tend to just displace the
lamp image or make 1 lamp look like 3.

 The light can be split into the spectrum


at some angles as well.

28 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 Micro-prisms
 Can give improved optical control due to
less aberration in prism forming

29 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 MCPET
 99% total reflectance
 Relatively expensive
 Glossy finish (so try to use it where you
can’t see it!)
 MCPET is very easy to thermoform and
doesn’t lose any of its reflectance

30 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 WhiteOptics
 97% total reflectance
 Highly diffuse
 Less expensive
 Laminated on a steel or aluminium
substrate, therefore easy to use
 The gloss level is only 8%, meaning you
could use it in place of textured painted
steel

31 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic - plastic

 Satinated material
 High light transmission
 Good hiding power
 Low inner reflection
 Impact resistant + UV stable
 Light weight

 Diffuser beads suspended in clear


acrylic or polycarbonate material scatter
the light while the matt, textured finish
reduces losses via reflection.
 This has the added bonus of appearing
higher tier than opals.
 It is very good when used as a light
chamber material, diffusing indirect light.

32 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Glass

 Glass for optics

Clear glass: 80-90%

Sandblasted or frosted:
70-85%

Opalescent: 55-80%

Solid Opal: 15-40%

33 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Prismatic Glasses

OMS OMP OMW OME

Standard Semi intensive Semi extensive Extensive Super extensive

60 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Refractors

N°1 N°2 N°3

Symmetrical optic With refractor N°1 With refractor N°2 With refractor N°3

61 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Metal vs. Plastic Metal + Plastic

36 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Light Shaping Diffusers (LSDs)

 Light shaping diffusers precisely


control and distribute light

 Transmission can be in the region of


92%

 The structure of light shaping diffusers


can be considered as micro-lenses

 Light shaping diffusers can be


combined with other optical
components such as lenses and
prismatics

37 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Light Shaping Diffusers (LSDs)

 Light shaping diffusers precisely


control and distribute light

 Transmission can be in the region of


92%

 The structure of light shaping diffusers


can be considered as micro-lenses

 Light shaping diffusers can be


combined with other optical
components such as lenses and
prismatics

 They come in various materials


including polycarbonate, acrylic and
epoxy

38 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Light Shaping Diffusers (LSDs)

 No good at hiding the lamp

39 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Light produced by the diode has to


pass through a number of materials

40 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Light produced by the diode has to


pass through a number of materials

 Each material will have a different


refractive index meaning
- Light is lost due to internal reflection at
material boundaries
- Light is bent, making optical control more
difficult

41 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Light produced by the diode has to


pass through a number of materials

 Each material will have a different


refractive index meaning
- Light is lost due to internal reflection at
material boundaries
- Light is bent, making optical control more
difficult

 So it is important to match the RI of


materials as closely as possible

42 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Light produced by the diode has to


pass through a number of materials

 Each material will have a different


refractive index meaning
- Light is lost due to internal reflection at
material boundaries
- Light is bent, making optical control more
difficult

 So it is important to match the RI of


materials as closely as possible

43 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

PMMA PC PS PP PP TV20

Polymethylmethacr
Polycarbonate Polystyrol Polypropylen Polypropylen
ylat

environmentally
visually high-quality high-quality
good for compatible
material with a high tranparent talcum
transparent alternative to
aging and weather thermoplastic concentrated PP
applications PVC for interior
stability material
applications

Density g/cm² 1.18 1.2 1.05 0.9 1.05

UV resistance high good poor poor medium

Temperature resistance good high good good/medium high

Light transmission high high high poor bad

Impact strength poor high bad high good

Scratch resistance high poor good poor medium

Chemical resistance poor poor medium high high

Surface glossy glossy glossy matt matt

44 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Short wavelengths, typically below


450nm, result in yellowing of plastic
causing
- Loss of light output
- Shift of CCT

45 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 Short wavelengths, typically below


450nm, result in yellowing of plastic
causing
- Loss of light output
- Shift of CCT

 Short wavelengths, typically <460nm,


give greater efficiency when exciting
phosphors

46 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
-
-
-

47 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
-
-
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

48 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
-
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

49 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
- Chemical incompatibility
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

50 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
- Chemical incompatibility
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

 Due to the silicone based encapsulants


(silicone lens) reacting with volatile
hydrocarbons

51 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
- Chemical incompatibility
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

 Due to the silicone based encapsulants


(silicone lens) reacting with volatile
hydrocarbons

 Materials used in the luminaire


construction can emit volatile
hydrocarbons (conformal coatings,
adhesives, gaskets, secondary lens)

52 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
- Chemical incompatibility
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

 Due to the silicone based encapsulants


(silicone lens) reacting with volatile
hydrocarbons

 Materials used in the luminaire


construction can emit volatile
hydrocarbons (conformal coatings,
adhesives, gaskets, secondary lens)

 These then diffuse through the silicone


lens and react with the LED chip,
causing discoloration and loss in light
output

53 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
LEDs

 The most common issues affecting


quality in LED luminaires are
- Chemical incompatibility
- Electrical overstress (poor driver design)
- Thermal issues (poor heat sink design)

 The effect is dependant upon heat,


photonic energy (brightness) and
wavelength of light.

 It occurs even when no phosphor is


present, although not for red or green
LEDs.

54 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Why test?

 In God we trust……

55 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

56 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

Accelerated UV exposure rig


 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

57 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

25

Flame retardant acrylic


20
Yellowness
Index
Polycarbonate
15

10

Acrylic styrene copolymer

Flame retardant acrylic


0 1000 2000 3000 4000

58 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

The Acid attack test


 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

59 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

60 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

61 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack) Plastic viewed between cross polariser to revel stress in
the material.

 Chemical attack The greater the number of fringes the higher is the stress
level.

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

62 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

Concentrated stress
 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)
Poorly annealed/tempered
 Chemical attack

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

Distributed stress
Well annealed

63 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack) Modelling of profile of


a plastic toggle
 Chemical attack
Red spots show
 Hydrolysis concentrated stress

 Stress attack

64 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

 Micro-organism attack
 Insect/animal attack

 Fire attack

65 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

FLAMMABILITY TEST

MATERIAL Fire Growth rate Total heat Release Smoke Growth rate Total Smoke prod'n Lateral Flame Spread Flaming Droplets

FIGRA W/s (0.2MJ) THR MJ (600s) SMOGRA (m2s2) TSP m2 (600s) LFS Yes/No
Polycarbonate 3mm 0 0.3 0 26 N N
GRP Class 1 1mm 967 6.1 557 428 N N
Prismatic polystyrene 3mm 286 28 156 1513 N Y
PET 3mm 12 1.4 11 0 N N
PVC prismatic 3mm 99 1.8 138 253 N N
Acrylic sheet 3mm 2904 126 93 346 N N

66 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

Tensile test
 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

 Micro-organism attack
 Insect/animal attack

 Fire attack

 Misuse

67 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

 Micro-organism attack
 Insect/animal attack

 Fire attack

 Misuse

68 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Breakdown mechanisms in materials

 Oxidation (UV, thermal attack)

 Chemical attack

 Hydrolysis

 Stress attack

 Micro-organism attack
 Insect/animal attack

 Fire attack

 Misuse

69 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Environmental factors

 Solid objects
 Fingers
 Dust

70 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Environmental factors

 Solid objects
 Fingers
 Dust

71 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Environmental factors

 Solid objects
 Fingers
 Dust

 Moisture
 Humidity
 Drips
 Jets
 Immersion

72 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Environmental factors

 Solid objects
 Fingers
 Dust

 Moisture
 Humidity
 Drips
 Jets
 Immersion

73 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 The BS2782 Rate of Burning Test is


called up by the UK Building
Regulations, Approved Document B
covering Fire Safety, as a suitable test
for TP(a) and TP(b) rating assessment

 Part B2 gives requirements for wall an


ceiling linings, with clause 6.10 to 6.16
covering use of thermoplastic materials.
Clauses 6.13 to 6.15 being specific to
lighting diffusers

74 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Criteria for TP(a) rating  Criteria for TP(b) rating

75 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.13 restricts the scope of


requirements to recessed
luminaires only.

76 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.14 is concerned just with fire


rated ceilings – for luminaire diffusers
this would really be a very special case.
Protection of the integrity of a fire rated
ceiling would normally be provided by a
separate cover (or casing) over the back
of the luminaire so that the luminaire is
not critical to the fire rating of the ceiling
system.

77 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.15 is the main clause giving


details to the use of TP(a) and TP(b)
rated plastic materials

78 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.15 is the main clause giving


details to the use of TP(a) and TP(b)
rated plastic materials

 As you can see you are free to use


TP(a) rated materials in almost all
situations without any special
restrictions. The more flammable TP(b)
rated materials can still be used but only
under prescribed conditions – Table 11
and Diagram 27 give more information
to this.

79 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.15 is the main clause


giving details to the use of TP(a)
and TP(b) rated plastic materials

 As you can see you are free to


use TP(a) rated materials in
almost all situations without any
special restrictions. The more
flammable TP(b) rated materials
can still be used but only under
prescribed conditions – Table 11
and Diagram 27 give more
information to this.

80 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
TP(a) and TP(b)

 Clause 6.15 is the main clause


giving details to the use of TP(a)
and TP(b) rated plastic materials

 As you can see you are free to


use TP(a) rated materials in
almost all situations without any
special restrictions. The more
flammable TP(b) rated materials
can still be used but only under
prescribed conditions – Table 11
and Diagram 27 give more
information to this.

81 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

Societies Associations Standards Laws and


directives

World CIE WTO ISO UN

Continents IESNA, NEMA ANSI, ASTM Federal


CIEChina, CCI CCC Governments
IESAustralia AMF ASI..

European (Lux Europa) CELMA CEN EU


ELC

National, LiTG, CIBSE, ZVEI, FEEI, DIN, BSI, ON, National laws
in each LTG, SLG, LIF, SdlE AFNOR, SNI, e.g. Building
country, f.e. AFE, NsVV, ... regulations

82 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

Societies Associations Standards Laws and


directives
World CIE WTO ISO UN
Continents IESNA, CIEChina, NEMA ANSI, ASTM Federal
IESAustralia CCI CCC Governments
AMF ASI..
European (Lux Europa) CELMA CEN EU
ELC
National, LiTG, CIBSE, ZVEI, FEEI, LIF, DIN, BSI, ON, National laws f.e.
in each country, LTG, SLG, AFE, SdlE AFNOR, SNI, Building
f.e. NsVV, ... regulations,
EnEV, ....

Exploitation Dedicated Companies Appointed Politicans,


lighting experts lighting experts national lobbyists
delegates

83 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 CEN TC169 Light and Lighting

 WG1 – Terms and definitions  WG7 – Photometry

 WG2 – Lighting of work places  WG8 – Exposure to incoherent


radiations
 WG3 – Emergency lighting
 WG9 – Energy requirements for
 WG4 – Sports lighting lighting in buildings

 WG5 – Road lighting  WG10 – Characterisation of


optical materials
 WG6 – Tunnel lighting

84 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 A CEN working group (WG10) is


looking into producing a standard(s)
with respect to the performance of
materials

85 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 A CEN working group (WG10) is


looking into producing a standard(s)
with respect to the performance of
materials

 The current work will cover


- Untreated base materials, including
- Aluminium
- Steel
- Plastic
- Glass

- Surface treated materials, including


- Polished materials
- Anodized materials
- Vacuum metallized materials
- Painted materials
- Multilayer systems

86 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 It involves measurement methods and


performance criteria

- Diffuse reflectance
- Specular reflectance
- Colour
- Durability with respect to
- Temperature
- Humidity
- UV-exposure
- Abrasion
- Scratch resistance

87 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 A material will be given a reflectance


class (1 – 10) based upon total
reflectance

88 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
European standards

 Additional data will be provided by the


manufacturer based upon durability
tests

89 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Trends in materials

 Use less materials


 Use finished materials
 Use efficient materials
 Reduce range of materials
 Recycle materials
 Blend with efficient light sources

90 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD
Optical Design and Standards
Trends in materials

 Use less materials


 Use finished materials
 Use efficient materials
 Reduce range of materials
 Recycle materials
 Blend with efficient light sources

Thank-you

91 Optical Design and Standards · Peter Thorns · 13-Apr-2010 20th April 2010 © ZLD