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THE CURIOUS LORE OF

IOUS

STONSS

Being A Description of Their Sentiments and Folk

Lore, Superstitions, Symbolism, Mysticism, Use

in Medicine, Talismans, Protection, Astral, Prevention, Zodical, Reli-

gion, and Divination, Crystal Gazing,

Birthstones, Lucky Stones and

and Planetary

BY

GEORGE FREDERICKJ^UNZ

A.M., PH.D., D.SC.

WITH 86 ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR, DOUBLETONE AND LINE

HALCYON HOUSE : NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1913, BV J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

First Printing,

November, 1913

Sixth Fourth Third Second Printing, Printing, Printing, Printing, May, 1915

Fifth Printing,

April, 1917

December, March, 1922 1930

December, 1926

HALCYON HOUSE EDITION, APRIL,

Seventh Printing, April, 1938

HALCYON HOUSE editions are published and

distributed by Blue Ribbon Books, Inc.,

386 Fourth Avenue, New York City

BLUEPRINTEDRIBBONAND

BOOKS, BOUND INC., BY THE 386 FOURTH CORNWALL AVE.,

PRESS,

NEW YORK CITY

INC*,

FOR

Printed in the United States of America

\VITH HEARTFELT APPRECIATION 1 OFTHE NOBLE SPIRIT THAT CON-

CEIVED ANDFOUNDED THE MORGAN-TIFFANY COLLECTIONOF GEMS

AND THE MORGAN-BEMENT COLLECTIONS OPMINERALS AND METEOR*

ITES OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY, AND THE

MORGAN COLLECTION OP THE MUSEB D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE OF

PARIS, AND WHOSE KINDLY ADVICE AND ENCOURAGEMENT HAVE

DONE SO MUCH FOR THE PRECIOUS STONE ART, THIS VOLUME

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF THE LATE

J. PIERPONT MORGAN

Ikefate

love of precious stones is deeply implanted in sunset clouds, only last for a short time, and are subject

to continual change, but the sheen and coloration of

foliage, and even the blue of the sky and the glory of the

in sought their not durability. only in their All coloring the fair and colors brilliancy of flowers but also and

the human heart, and the cause of this must be

precious stones are the same to-day as they were thou- ideas may seem strange enough to us now, and yet when

fancies that have gathered around them. Many of these

we analyze themwe find that theyhave their roots either

more especially to explain some of the curious ideas and

used at different times and among different peoples, and

the various ways in which precious stones have been

in some intrinsic quality of the stones or else in an in- trologers of the olden time; nevertheless, the possession

of a necklace or a ring adorned with brilliant diamonds,

any of the fanciful notions of the physicians and as-

edge of cause and effect may prevent us from accepting

superstitions connectedwith gems. Our scientific knowl-

fair pearls, warm, glowing rubies, or celestial-hued

sapphires will to-day make a woman's heart beat faster

sands of years ago and will be for thousands of years

to come. In a world of change, this permanence has a

charm of its own that was early appreciated.

The object of this book is to indicate and illustrate

stinctive appreciation of their symbolical significance.

Through manifold transformations this symbolism has

persisted to the present day.

The same thing may be said in regard to the various

vi

PREFACE

and bring a blush of pleasure to her cheek.

Life will

seem better worth living to her; and, indeed, this is no

delusion, for life is what our thought makes it, and joy

is born of gratified desire.

Hence nothing that con-

tributes to increasing the sum of innocent pleasures

innocent should be and disdained justifiable ; and than surely that no inspired pleasure by can the bemore posses-

sion of beautiful natural objects.

The author, who possesses what is believed to be the in Chicago. Othertypes aredrawnfromthe Morgan Col-

lection exhibited at the Paris Expositions of 1889 and

1900, which, with additions, is now in Morgan Hall, in the

1893, and now in the Field Museum of Natural History

stones exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in

of the types exist in the collection of folk-lore precious

been gathering during the past twenty-five years. Many

obtained many references from material which he has

most comprehensive private library on this subject, has

American Museum of Natural History, New York City.

Other prominent references are the collection of pre-

cious stones in the California Midwinter Memorial

Museum, in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco; the

Tiffany collection of precious stones, exhibited at the and precious stones exhibited" at the Jamestown Ex-

in Portland, Oregon, in 1905 ; and the collection of gems

Morgan; the collection exhibited at the exposition held

d'Histoire Naturelle, in Paris, by the late J. Pierpont

American Exposition, and presented to the Musee

in Washington; the collection exhibited at the Pan-

Atlanta Exposition of 1894, now in the National Museum

position, 1907. All of these collections, either entirely

orvery largely, havebeen formedby the author.

Some references to sentiment connected with precious

PREFACE

vii

edition, entitled! "Natal Stones, Sentiments and Super-

stitions Associated with Precious Stones,' 7 compiled by

the writer, who has examinednearly all the principal col-

lectionsintheUnited States, Europe,Mexico, Canada,and

AsiaticRussia.

For courtesies, information and illustrations, I am in-

debted to the following, to whommy thanks are due:

Prof. Taw Sein Ko, Superintendent of the Archaeo-

logical Dr. G. 0. Survey, Clerc, ofBurma; President Dr. of the T. Wada, Societe of Ouralienne Tokyo, Japan; des

Amis des Sciences Naturelles, Ekaterinebourg, Russia;

Dr. Charles Braddock, late MedicalInspector tothe King

of Siam ; Sir Charles Hercules Reed, Curator of Archae- Belucci, of the University of Perugia; Dr. Peter Jessen,

Librarian of the Kunstgewerbe Museum, of Berlin ; Miss

Belle DaCosta Green; Dr. Frederick Hirth, Chinese Pro-

fessor, Columbia University, New York; Dr. Clark

Museum of St. Germain-en-Laye, France ; Prof. Giuseppe

don ; Dr. SalomonReinach, Director of the Archaeological

British Museum, London; A. W. Feavearyear, Esq., Lon-

ology, and Dr. Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Egyptologist,

"Wissler, and Dr. Oliver Curator C. of Farrington, Archaeology, Curator Dr. L. of P. Geology Gratacap, and

Mineralogy, Curator of Mineralogy, Field Museum American of Natural Museum History, of Chicago; Natural

History; Dr. Berthold Laufer, Oriental Archaeologist,

Hereward Carrington, Esq., Psychist, New York; Dr. W.

HayesWard, ArchaeologistandBabylonian Scholar; Mrs.

Henry Draper, New York; H. W. Kent, Esq., Metro-

politan Museum of Art, NewYork City; Consul General

Moser, Colombo, Ceylon; W.W. Blake, Mexico City, who

has done so much to encourage Mexican archaeological

pioneer investigation; of mineralogical the late A. archaeology; Damour, of the Paris, late Dr. the A. great B.

viii

PREFACE

Meyer, of Dresden, who, more than anyone else, proved

that the Nephritfrage or the jade question was to be

solved by chemical and mineralogical investigation; the

late Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohan Tagore, of Calcutta;

SEPTEMBER, and Dr. A. 1913. M. Lythgoe, Egyptologist, Metropolitan

Museum of Art.

G. F. K.

CHAPTER

Contents?

I. SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIR SOURCES

II. ON THE USB OF PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES AS

TALISMANS AND AMULETS

III. ON THE TALISMANIC USE OP SPECIAL STONES

PAGE

1

19

51

IV. ON THE USE OF ENGRAVED AND CARVED GEMS AS TALISMANS 115

ON OMINOUS AND LUMINOUS STONES XL ON THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS

V.

VI.

ON CRYSTAL BALLS AND CRYSTAL GAZING

VII. RELIGIOUS USES OF PRECIOUS STONES, PAGAN, HEBREW, AND

VIII.

CHRISTIAN

ON THE HIGH-PRIEST'S BREASTPLATE

IX. BIRTH-STONES

X.

PLANETARY AND ASTRAL INFLUENCES OF PRECIOUS STONES

STONES

143

176

225

275

307 367

338

illustration*

COLOR PLATES

PHENOMENAL GEMS (GEMS EXHIBITING PHENOMENA)

MAHARAJA RUNJIT SINGH, WITH PEARLS AND GEMS

CARDINAL FARLEY'S RING, SAPPHIRE WITH DIAMONDS

GEMS FROM THE MORGAN-TlFFANY COLLECTION

SELF-PRINTS OF DIAMONDS, SHOWING PHOSPHORESCENCE

CROSS, ATTACHED AS PENDANT TO THE CROWN OF THE GOTHIC KING

Frontispiece.

RECCESviNTHTrs (649-672 A.D.)

DOUBLETONES

ROCK-CRYSTAL ROCK-CRYSTAL AMULET PLACQUE, SET ANCIENT IN SILVER MEXICAN

CHALCEDONY NECKLACES NECKLACES FROM FROM VOTIVE EGYPT. EGYPT CHARM FIRST FROM CENTURY MEXICO

AFRICAN AGATE CHARMS

AMBER ORNAMENTS

MOSAICS OF TURQUOISE AND ENAMELLED CARNELIAN BEADS

CURIOUS ALTAR OF POWALAWA INDIANS OF ARIZONA

KABYLE JEWELRY

JASPER PENDANT

PIECE OF NATURAL LOADSTONE FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES ANCIENT BABYLONIAN CYLINDER IMPRESSION, BEARING FIGURES OF THE Moss AGATE MOCHA STONES, HINDOOSTAN DB. DEE'S SHEW STONE

EYE AGATE, SHOWING A NUMBER OF CIRCULAR MARKINGS

BALL GLASS OF BALL, JET, PERFORATED PERFORATED AND AND MOUNTED MOUNTED IN IN METAL METAL

ROCK-CRYSTAL BALL PENETRATED BY CRYSTALS OF RUTILE

AGATES USED AS VOTIVE CHARMS AND SET IN RINGS

TURQUOISE ARAGONITE NECKLACE, PENDANT THIBET

OBSIDIAN MASK, FROM THE FAYOUM, EGYPT

PHOENICIAN SCARAB, WITH ENGRAVED SCORPION

GOD NEBO AND A WORSHIPPER, AND SYMBOLS OF SUN AND

A SMALL JADE CELT ENGRAVED WITH GNOSTIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE

FOURTH CENTURY

PAGB

40

104

292 106

168

16

16

32 50 22

26

54

60

68 92 60

92 92

100

112

128

128

128

136

172 152 180 188 180

180

xii

ILLUSTRATIONS

OBSIDIAN MIRROR, WITH NATIVE TEXTILE STRING

BOCK-CRYSTAL SPHERES AND NATURAL CROSS METHOD OF GRINDINGCRYSTALBALLSANDOTHERHARDSTONE OBJECTS

ROCK-CRYSTAL CRYSTAL BALL, SPHERES SUPPORTED WITH BY JAPANESE BRONZE DRAGON MOUNTINGS ROCK-CRYSTAL BALLS

BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS AND PERSIAN BEADS

IN GERMANYAND FRANCE

JAPANESE CRYSTAL METHOD BALLS OF CHIPPING, GRINDING AND POLISHING ROCK-

ROCK-CRYSTAL SPHERE WITH THREE-FIGURE MOUNTING

"PHANTOM CRYSTAL" OF QUARTZ (ROCK-CRYSTAL)

AN SCULPTURED AMBER INSCRIBED HEART-SHAPED JADE SCARAB MOUNTAIN AMULET OF THE WEIGHING TYPE KNOWN 640 AS LBS A HEART-SCARAB STATUE FRONTISPIECE JOHANN OF BRAUN, A MAORI OF AMSTERDAM, THE WARRIOR, "VESTITUS BY 1680 SIGURD SACERDOTUM NEANDROSS HEBILEORUM," OF

BABYLONIAN AXE HEAD

MANI MALA, OR CHAIN OF GEMS

VOTIVE ADZE OF JADEITB FROM MEXICO

JADEITE CELTS

STAUROLITE CRYSTALS (FAIRY STONES)

SILVER SPECIMENS CROSS OF WITH CHIASTOLITE QUARTZ (LAPIS CAT'S~EYE CRUCIFER)

FACSIMILE OF THE BETROTHAL RING OF THE VIRGIN IN THE CATHEDRAL

OF PERUGIA

Moss AGATES

THE FIGURES OF THE PLANETS WITH THEIR SIGNIFICANT STONES

THE ZODIACAL STONES WITH THEIR SIGNS

NECKLACES (FIRST CENTURY, A.D., AND ANCIENT PERSIAN)

NECKLACES STATUETTE KNOWN (1) CARNELIAN AS THAT BEADS; OF SAINTE (2) ONYX FOY, IN BEADS THE ABBEY-CHURCH

AT CONQUES, DEPT. AVEYRON, FRANCE

INSCRIPTION ON A SMALL PIECE OF LIMESTONE, IN CURSIVE EGYPTIAN

WRITING AN ANCIENT PRESCRIPTION

FACSIMILE PAGE OF ITALIAN VELLUM MANUSCRIPT TREATISE OF THE

VIRTUES OF GEMS

188

196

204

212

216

218

218

230 220 228 244 232

230 236

252

260

264

272

274

286

228

286 312 342

328

330

346 358

366

370

378

ILLUSTRATIONS

xiii

LINE CUTS IN TEXT

TITLE PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE POETICAL TREATISE ON TITLE PAGE OF ONE OF THE EARLIEST TREATISES ON PRECIOUS STONES

PRECIOUS STONES BY MARBODUS, BISHOP OF RENNES, PRINTED

IN FRIBURG, 1531

TITLE PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE GREEK TREATISE BY ST.

EPIPHANIUS ON THE GEMS OF THE BREASTPLATE, WITH A LATIN VER-

SION

PUBLISHED IN ENGLAND

PEARLDEALER THE TREE THAT EXUDESAMBER

AN AIR-SHIP OF 1709

15

16

17

42

53

56

A PRACTICAL TEST OF THE VIRTUES OF THE BLOODSTONE TO PREVENT

NOSE-BLEED

CARNELIAN SEAL,WORNBYNAPOLEON I, NAPOLEON III, AND THE PRINCE

IMPERIAL

SPECIMEN MUSEUM, PAGE PARIS OF ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT OF FOURTEENTH

OBSIDIAN MIRROR, FROM OAXACA, MEXICO. Now IN TROCADERO

ROCK-CRYSTAL SKULL, ANCIENT MEXICAN

ENGRAVED HELIOTROPE

ANTIQUE ENGRAVED JADE RED CELTCONVERTED JASPER INTO A GNOSTIC TALISMAN

GNOSTIC GEMS

MONOGRAM OF THE NAME OF CHRISTENGRAVEDONANONYXGEM

Two THE "ORPHANUSJEWEL" GOLD RINGSSETWITHENGRAVEDONYX IN THE GERMAN IMPERIAL GEMS CROWN

TITLE PAGE OF ROBERT BOYLE'S WORK ON THE ORIGIN AND VIRTUES

OF GEMS

TITLE PAGE OF A GSOUP OF TREATISES BY VABIOUS AUTHORS, COL-

LECTED AND EDITED BY CONRAD GESNER AT ZURICH IN 1565

THEHEBREW HIGH-PRIEST ATTIRED WITH HIS VESTMENTS

THE BREASTPLATE UNFOLDED, I, II; EPHOD WITH BREASTPLATE FOLDED

60 99 64

77

100

124

124 127 129 147

136 138

169

258

279

xiv

ILLUSTRATIONS

TITLE PAGE OF THE EDITION OP MARBODUS ON PRECIOUS STONES, PUB-

LISHED IN COLOGNE, 1539

CARNELIAN, CAPRICORN; ENGRAVED IN THE CENTRE WITH THE A SIX-RATED ZODIACAL STAR, SIGNS, THE TAURUS, FORM OF LEO ONE AND OF

THESE RATS DENOTING ACOMET

290

322

Ctmouglore of Sreciotttf Atones?

i

atrt l^efr

JpROM the earliest times in man's history gems and

w

precious stones have been held in great esteem.

They have been found in the monuments of prehistoric properties.

The magi, the wise men, the seers, the astrologers of

the ages gone by found much in the matter of gems that

we have nearly come to forgetting. "With them each gem

cance beyond the mere suggestion of their intrinsic

liant things from Nature's jewel casket with a signifi-

of the Incas, or of the Montezumas invested these bril-

peoples, and not alone the civilization of the Pharaohs,

these possessed early certain sages planetary were firm attractions believers in peculiar the influence to itself, of

certain affinities with the various virtues, and a zodiacal

concordance with the seasons of the year. Moreover,

gems in one's nativity, that the evil in the world could

be kept from contaminating a child properly protected

by wearing the appropriate talismanic, natal, and

zodiacal gems. Indeed, folklorists are wont to wonder

whether the custom of wearing gems in jewelry did not

originate in the talismanic idea instead of in the idea of

mere additional adornment.

The influence exerted by precious stones was assumed

in medieval times without question, but when the spirit

of investigation was aroused in the Eenaissance period,

an effort was made to find a reason of some sort for the

2

THE CUKIOUS LORE OP PRECIOUS STONES

traditional beliefs. Strange as it may seem to us, there tion as to howprecious stones became endowedwith their

expended was devoted to finding some plausible explana- laws of nature. We even observe this tendency at work

in our own time. As regards visual impressions, for in- printed on the retina.

a definite outline and character to the indefinite image

child does not really see an animal, but his fear has given

formed to his mind into the form of a wild animal. The

corner, the indistinct outline of this mass may be trans-

lighted room and sees a bundle of clothes lying in a

stance, if a child of lively imagination enters a half-

as something that occurs outside of, or in spite of, the

unaccountable happening as a miracle; that is to say,

will When always the be existence a tendency of miracles to regard is acknowledged, every singular there and

was little disposition to doubt that the influence existed ;

this was taken for granted, and all the mental effort

strange and mystic virtues, and how these virtues acted

in modifying the character, health, or fortunes of the

wearer.

the The acknowledged writer has laws always of sought nature. to investigate Still, when anything we con- think that there may be something in the old beliefs,

found strange the and slightest apparently evidence unaccountable of anything which transcending has been

brought to his notice, but he can truly say he has never

sider the marvellous secrets that have been revealed to

us by science and the yet more wonderful things that

tion, will be but revealed very different to us in from the future, what a we crass are tempted scepticism to

some residuum of fact, susceptible indeed of explana-

supposes it to be. Above all, the results of the investi-

gations now pursued in relation to the group of phe-

SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIE SOUECES

3

nomena embraced under the designation of telepathy,

the subconscious influence of one mind over an absent or

distant mind, and the wireless transmission of power

inwireless telegraphy andtelephony, maygo far to make

us hesitate before condemning as utterly preposterous

many of the tales of enchantment and magical influence.

If the unconscious will of one individual can affect the

thoughts and feelings of another individual at a great

distance and without the intervention of any known

means of communication, as is confidently asserted by

many competent investigators in the domain of tele-

pathy, their claims being supported by many strange

happenings, perhaps the result of coincidence, but pos-

sibly due to the operation of some unknown law, does

this not give a color of verityto the statements regarding

the that much ancient the that gemhe magicians is mysterious is wearing and their produces in the spells? effects certain attributed results, this to

Auto-suggestion, may also afford an explanation of

precious stones, for if the wearer be firmly convinced or emanations from the material body of the stone. three hundred young girls, and at her trial she confessed

garian woman was accused of having murdered two or

belief in magic arts. A few hundred years ago, a Hun-

All this may serve to explain the persistence of the

as powerfully as though they were caused by vibrations

influence, and the effects will manifest themselves just

that her object was to use the blood of her victims to

renew her youth and beauty, for the blood of innocent

virgins was supposed to have wonderful properties. In

some parts of England to-day there is a superstitious

upon his very organism. He will really experience the

conviction will impress itself upon his thought andhence

belief that an article of clothing worn by a person, or

4

THE CURIOUS LOEE OF PRECIOUS STONES

anything lie has habitually used, absorbs a portion of

his individuality. Therefore, it sometimes happens that

a handkerchief, for instance, will be stolen and pinned

down beneath the waters of a stream on a toad, the pins

marking the name of the enemy, the belief being that as

this cloth wastes away, so will the body of him who had

worn posed it. a wax Inmedievalandlatertimesthis figure rudely resembling the wasthecommon person against

this practice figure of or the allowed sorcerers, it to although melt away they before frequently a slow com- fire.

whom the spell was directed, and then thrust pins into

The enchantment of the sorcerer was supposed to have

caused some essence of the personality to enter into the

image, and therefore the living and breathing being felt

sympathetically the effects of the ill-treatment inflicted

upon tices its of old-time counterfeit. sorcery is illustrated by the fact that

The persistence of the most cruel and unnatural prac-

onlya few years ago, in the island of Cuba, three women

were condemned to death for murdering a white baby (papa-kings and mama-queens) require from time to

timeahuman sacrifice to appease their serpent-god. One

strange case is related where a stupefying potion, in-

ducing a state of apparent death, was secretly adminis-

tered to a sick man. When the attending physician pro-

Voodoo priests and priestesses, papalois and mamalois

civilized Hayti similar crimes are committed. Here the

things happen in Cuba, it is not surprising that in half-

twenty years 7 imprisonment as accomplices. When snch

Four other women were sentenced to from fourteen to

so as to use the heart and blood as a cure for diseases.

nounced him dead, he was duly interred ; but, two days

after, the grave was found open and the body had dis-

appeared. TheVoodooworshippershad carried theman

SUPERSTITIONS AND THEIB SOURCES

5

away so as to revive him and then sacrifice him at their

fearful rites. "theyeven take offence if an injury be done to them, and

become rough and pale." The sickness of the pearl has

been a theme for centuries, and in many cases is only

fancied. It is but a subterfuge or deception for a lady court physician to RudolphII of Germany, regarding the

power inherent in certain precious stones,2 embodies the

ideas on this subject held by many of the enlightened

minds of that period.

In a poem addressed to Marguerite de Valois, "La

Marguerite des Marguerites," as she was called, by

Jean de la Taille de Bondaroy, 1 we read of the diamond

that it caine from gold and from the sun.

But we are

told that not only are precious stones endowed with life,

they also are subject to disease, old age, and death;

this to remark sickness, that her her friends pearls arenaturally have sickened led ; by to referring believe that to

at one time her pearls were fine, perfect ones, when in

reality they may never have been so.

The opinion given in 1609, by Anselmus De Boot,

The supernatural and acting cause is God, the good angel and the 1 Jean de la Taille de Bondaroy, "Le Blason de la Marguerite/'

to them, is more especially pleasing to the spirit of evil, who transforms

Paris, 1574.

of angels in gems, to repose trust in them, or to ascribe undue powers

However, as we may not affirm anything positive touching the presence

guard men from dangers or procure some special grace for them.

the preservation of men, are enabled to enter precious stones and to

ministers, good and bad angels, who, by special grace of God and for

evil one; the good by the will of God, and the evil by His permission.

.

What God can do by Himself, He could do also by means of

2 Be Boot, "Gemmarum et lapidum historia," lib. i, cap. 25, Lug.

6

THE CURIOUS LORE OF PRECIOUS STONES

should himself ask into of an God angel alone. of light, steals into the substance of the little

gem, and works such wonders by it that some people do not place

their trust in Grod but in a gem, and seek to obtain from it what they

Thus it is perhaps the spirit of evil which

exercises its power on us through the turquoise, teaching us, little by

little, that safety is not to be sought from God but from a gem*

In the next chapter of his work, De Boot, while ex-

tolling the remedial power of a certain group of stones,

insists upon the falsity of many of the superstitions

regarding these objects. 3

of this That power gems in or the stones, carnelian, when applied the hematite, to the and body, the exert jasper, an all action of

upon it, is so well proven by the experience of many persons, that

any one who doubts this must be called over-bold.

We have proof

which when applied, check

.

.

However, it is very

necessary to observe that many virtues not possessed by gems are

falsely ascribed to them.

Paracelsus, the gifted and