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Sexual Orientation and Academic Performance:

An Assessment

Midterm Requirement





As college students, it is not easy to survive the life

there always bearing in their minds the statement of “Survival of

the fittest.” And yes, it is really true and they should learn

how to stand on their own and no one will help them except

themselves alone. Whenever students are in college, they will

never know what will happen to them and who are really their

friends and enemies. It is like a competition fighting with

everyone to be on top. In college, students are trying to mold in

order for them to be ready outside, together with others, in the

world of professionals. They are trying to compete just to have

the job they want or need. According to Cook (2003), the most

dramatic “normative age-graded” change during the late adolescent

years is the transition from high school to college. It is one of

the predictable, scheduled or planned changes in an adolescent’s

life. Many students may not realize how different university or

college can be from their previous schooling.

According to Melissa J. Bell, in educational institutions,

success is measured by academic performance, or how well a

student meets standards set out by local government and the

institution itself. As career competition grows ever fiercer in

the working world, the importance of students doing well in

school has caught the attention of parents, legislators and

government education departments alike. Academic performance

refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope

with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their

teachers. Academic performance is the ability to study and

remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge

verbally or down on paper.

The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority

for educators. It is meant for making a difference locally,

regionally, nationally and globally. Educators, trainers, and

researchers have long been interested in exploring variables

contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners.

These variables are inside and outside school that affect

students’ quality of academic achievement. These factors may be

termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and

peer factors (Crosnoe, Johnson & Elder, 2004).The formal

investigation about the role of these demographic factors rooted

back in 17th century (Mann, 1985). Generally these factors

include age, gender, geographical belongingness, ethnicity,

marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), parents’ education

level, parental profession, language, income and religious

affiliations. These are usually discussed under the umbrella of

demography (Ballatine, 1993). In a broader context demography is

referred to as a way to explore the nature and effects of

demographic variables in the biological and social context.

Unfortunately, defining and measuring the quality of education is

not a simple issue and the complexity of this process increases

due to the changing values of quality attributes associated with

the different stakeholders’ view point (Blevins, 2009; Parri,


There are many instances in our life that we say we give up

just because of some reasons. For instance, we have these

difficult home works or projects, terror professors, living the

independent life and many more. But you have this viewpoint that

you should continue your journey in college life no matter what

happens.Being a college student, you have these some factors that

really affect your academic performance. These factors somehow

mold students to surpass their adventure in college.There are

various factors that can influence a student in their academic

performance whether it is negative or positive. A student must

learn to devote their time and effort and exercise diligence and

patience while studying. Parents and their family have a very

strong influence that affects heavily their performance. The

student’s personality and strength in dealing with situations

like when they are facing difficulty in school in many activities

gives them the strength and courage to persevere if their

emotions are stable. Students are likely to develop inner

discipline to handle such situations mostly if they are supported

strongly by their parents or guardian will reflect in their

studies. Students should learn how to aim high, develop their

goals and objective and value their studies.

Lovely P. Sison (2008), Students’ Conditions, Social-

Personal Adjustment and Trait Patterns Relative to Academic

Performance, Unpublished Master's Thesis,

PamantasanngLungosdngMaynila, Intramuros Manila, states some

noticeable changes whether sudden or gradual which include

changes in mood, eating and sleeping habits, substance use,

increased isolation, peer pressure, identity crisis and feeling

helpless or hopeless. In the long run, such symptoms, as well as

the pressure of life’s demands, if not handled properly, can lead

to poor adjustment to university and ultimately, to experiencing

crisis situation, low self-esteem, suicidal thoughts or severe

anxiety or depression, to the point that everyday activities

become difficult to accomplish and academic was affected.

In this study, the researchers are trying to find out that

sexual orientation of an individual somehow affects his academic

performance in school. Some college students, whatever their

sexual orientation is, strive for their success in college. They

will do everything just to finish their studies and to have a

good and stable job in the future. According to Tom Head, a

person's sexual orientation is defined by the gender to which he

or she is sexually attracted.Someone who is attracted primarily

or exclusively to members of the same gender is characterized as

gay or homosexual, though the latter word has largely fallen out
of use.Someone who is attracted primarily or exclusively to

members of the opposite gender is characterized as straight or

heterosexual and lastly, someone who has strong, viable

attraction for people of both genders is characterized as


The researchers firmly believe that at the end of this

study, they will show who are those some college students of San

BedaCollege Manila, with their respective sexual orientation,

excel in their respective class. They will try to show the

relevance of sexual orientation of an individual and his academic

performance in school. Students should never learn to

underestimate the abilities of other people because each and

every one of them has their own capabilities and uniqueness

within themselves. No matter what gender you have, the mere fact

that you are a student, you have the responsibility to really

strive and give your best in your studies. Yes, sometimes

students have the right to complain whenever they are down and

trying to give up. College life is really a roller coaster ride.

Theywill never expect what will happen to them the next day. As

long as they give their 100% in studying and they truly believe

in themselves, then impossibilities have no room in their


This study seeks to identify factors that add to the

likelihood of LGBT students being academically persistent. It

will look at the academic and nonacademic factors, and the

interplay between the two, that may influence academic

persistence and performance. Additionally, this study will

identify the educational experiences of LGBT students in higher

education to provide administration, faculty members and staff of

how the campus and classroom climate affect the academic success

of LGBT students. Finally, it will explore future research and

program implementation needed in creating an educational

environment that may address the issues of LGBT students.

Overall, the study will attempt to answer the following


1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Sexual Orientation

1.4 Hobbies/Interests
1.5 GPA Last Semester

2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents about

his/her sexual orientation in terms of:

2.1 Peer relations

2.2 Academic achievement

2.3 Mental health

2.4 Victimization or bullying

2.5 Gender identity/ expression

3. What are the study habits of the respondents?

4. What is the sexual orientation of the respondents?

5. As perceived by the respondents, are there possible effects of

sexual orientation to the academic performance of the


6. To what extent does sexual orientation affects the academic

performance of the respondents in terms of:

6.1 Societal acceptance

6.2 Gender inequality

6.3 Negative parental reaction

6.4 Religious condemnation

7. What are the problems and recommendation enumerated by the

respondents about social orientation?


The general trends of 1) Acknowledgement of educators that

all identifiable groups of students need academic support unique

to their personalities and situation, 2) the increasing number of

students declaring their homosexuality and 3) the increasing

victimization of gays and lesbians, result in the interest in

meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered


Through the assessment of the effects of homosexuality in

the academic performance of the students, the researchers may be

able to determine how they cope up with their university life,

what interferes with their academic success and what can be done

about it.

There is a clear deficiency in research, data, and

literature concerning the experiences of LGBT students in higher

education. Because of the need to address the underlying

principles of heterosexist values in college institutions, the

result of this study would be timely and relevant to the existing

conditions. Thus, the following groups will benefit from this

1.) It will help the Guidance Counselors gain genuine

information about the behavioral patterns of students

in these situations, their adjustments to their

environment and its effect to their academic

performance. Moreover, the Counselors would be able to

determine the appropriate Guidance Programs to the said


2.) The Faculty members, they would have an insight of

what homosexual students go through in facing the

struggles of college life and will have a better

understanding of their situation.

3.) The study is likewise significant to School

Administrators in designing programs and policies that

will further enhance the students’ learning experience.

It is important that schools implement different types of

programs catering to various individuals with different sexual

orientation that will help them feel included and respected and

will prohibit discrimination against specific groups.

The purpose of this study was to determine and investigate

the issues that LGBT students in institutions of higher education

face and to establish how these obstacles makes an impact on

these students’ educational experiences and academic performance.

This research will also attempt to illuminate strategies and

programs that may create a more impactful experience for current

sexual minority students in higher education which will improve

their personal, academic and professional development. Data from

this research may be used in the future to improve best practice

for academic performance of sexual minority students in college

and will open possible avenues of research concerning this



Sexual minority - Those who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual

or who have sexual contact with persons of the same or both sexes

—are part of every community and come from all walks of life.

They are diverse, representing all races, ethnicities,

socioeconomic statuses, and parts of the country.


Homosexual - A person who is primarily and/or exclusively

attracted to members of what they identify as their own sex or


Homophobia - Thoughts, feelings, or actions based on far,

dislike, judgment, or hatred of lesbians, gays and bisexuals.

Homophobia has roots in sexism and can include prejudice,

discrimination, harassment, and acts of violence.


Academic performance - It refers to how well a student is

accomplishing his or her tasks and studies,



LGBT - This acronym refers to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and



Academic Persistence - The "desire and action of a student to

stay within the system of higher education from beginning through

degree completion"

Source: Seidman (2005) (p.14)

Bisexual - A person who is emotionally, physically, and/or

sexually attracted to more than one gender. Also called “bi”.



Transgender - of, relating to, or being a person (as a

transsexual or transvestite) who identifies with or expresses a

gender identity that differs from the one which corresponds to

the person's sex at birth



Lesbian - a term most widely used in the English language to

describe sexual and romantic desire between females.



Heterosexual - refers to people whose sexual and romantic

feelings are mostly for the opposite gender: Men who are

attracted to women, and women who are attracted to men.


Gay – relating to, or used by homosexuals. A person who is

attracted to the same sex.


Discrimination - the process by which two stimuli differing in

some aspect are responded to differently



The survey was conducted between August 2013 and October

2013 at San Beda College-Manila. The sample consisted of two
hundred Psychology Major, sophomore and junior students.

The study investigated the student’s conditions, in terms of

age, tertiary level, department major, hobbies and factors that
affected or influenced ones academic performance. The respondents
of the study are from the College of Arts and Sciences. Two
hundred Second Year and Third Year duly registered students from
the Department of Psychology enrolled for the First Semester of
school year 2013-2014 at San Beda College-Manila. This study is
focused on the assessment of the respondents’ social orientation
and their academic performance.

A set of questions made by researchers was carefully

designed for the purpose to analyze the effect of ones sexual
orientation on their academic performance. All two hundred
questionnaires were added up to compute the final tally of the
subjects. The information gathered is used to determine the
effects of social orientation on the respondents.

This study does not cover the general Second Year and Third
Year students of San Beda College-Manila, as the respondents are
randomly chosen to be the subject of the study.


This chapter presents related literature and writing of

different researchers, both of which have significant bearing or

relation to the problem under investigation.


As young people go through the transition to adulthood, they

began to explore sexual and emotional intimacy. Puberty

increases sexual feelings in early adolescence, and this process

varies among individuals (McDermott, 2010).The developmental

changes that occur are complex, particularly with the onset of

puberty. LGBT youth face the same challenges as their

heterosexual peers, but also stigma that may contribute to the

identified disparities in health status between sexual- and

gender-minority youth and heterosexual youth (McIntyre, 1992).

There has been substantial research on attitudes towards

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) students on

campuses of higher education. Documents on campus climate and

general feelings about LGBT have begun with more regularity.

Sexual minority students face specific challenges of identity

development that the researchers believe impacts their

educational experiences and possibilities of academic success.

While much of the research thus far has focused on attitudes and

experiences of heterosexual individuals toward sexual minority

college students, very little focuses on LGBT students’ personal

and academic experiences in higher education. There is even less

data and review of LGBT students’ resiliency and academic

persistence (Driver, 2008).

The researchers identified homosexuality and how it differs

from all other connotations directly attributed to it. Human

sexuality is an objective reality that is not confined only to

one’s genital or reproductive expressions. It encompasses the

totality of the person because it is anchored in the

psychological foundations of the affective life’s development, in

relations others and a sense of desire. It has two important

features: affection for the other and procreation (Anatrella,

2013). Homosexual youth belong to a group whose membership is not

defined by race, religion, national origin, socio-economic status

or other background characteristic used to delineate other

cultural groups. The identifier for this group is one's sexual

orientation (McIntyre 1992). On the other hand, homosexuality

represents a more or less exclusive sexual attraction towards a

person of the same sex. It corresponds to a sexual tendency that

arises during the early stages of the person’s affective

development. Its development stems not from a genetic

configuration, as this has not been proven up to now, but from an

unresolved psychological conflict during the person’s early

sexual stages (Anatrella, 2013).

The terms "sex” (that is, sexual identity) and “gender" were

being used interchangeably. Those espousing anti-life ideas,

however, do not equate the two and say that "sex" is assigned at

birth, but that "gender" is how a person perceives himself or

herself. This nuance does nothing more than to sow more confusion

by making one’s sexual tendency determining of his sexual

identity (Anatrella, 2013). And, Sexual orientation is one’s

sexual exposure that is acquired as a result of historical

(socio-cultural) processes and is not something imposed with

one’s birth. As opposed to sexual experience, it tends to

eroticize relationships with the same sex.

Academic performance refers on how students deal with their

studies and they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to

them by their professors (Ahmed and Bruinsma, 2006). The academic

performance of students is affected by the daily choices and

decisions of individuals.
In the study conducted by Espinosa in 2009 he discussed the

relationship of academic –concept performance and self-concept of

students. Various definitions of self-concept was presented in

his study. One would give us as, a self-concept of a person is

shaped and built through one’s own experiences and influences of

others (McInery, Donson, Yeung & Nelson, 2000; Chu 2002; Henson

and Lorbelt, 2002). Another is, self-concept is totality of a

complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs

attitudes and opinions that each person holds to be true about

his or her personal existence (Huit, 2004). And another

significant definition is, life is being aware of itself,

person’s perception of himself or herself that is formed through

experiences with the environment and influenced especially by

environment reinforcements and significant others (Mcinery,

Dawson, Yeung, Nelson, 2005, Bruinsma 2006; Chu 2002). From all

this definitions, the researchers can deduce that there is a

resemblance between self-concept and self-identity. Thus, the

decisions and actions of certain individuals is heavily

influenced by his own personal beliefs, experiences and

influences of others. . Upon interpreting the results of the

materials gathered and based on his study, Espinosa found out

that there is a significant relationship between academic

performance and self-concept.



Magnus Hirschfield brought forward in society over a hundred

years ago the issues of discrimination against homosexuals (Fone,

2000). Hirschfield as considered to be the father of Gay rights

movements abroad established The Scientific Humanitarian

Committee in1897, whose main purpose was advocating for the

rights of LGBT individuals. The organization supported and

campaigned for the rights of LGBT persons for over three decades

until it was forced to end its advocacy activities as a result of

policies against homosexuals and those who supported them. The

father of contemporary Gay rights movement, Harry Hay during the

beginning of 1950’s together with his fellow advocates began a

discussion about homosexuality and the need for a community that

LGBT individuals could join and could claim as their own

(Abcarian 1990; Fone 2000). The subsequently founded the

Mattachine Society in 1951 with a mission statement illustrating

the need for community as well as the desire to educate the

greater society about the needs of homosexuals.

Contemporary Gay rights advocates continue to try to gain

equality for LGBT individuals in the United States and in various

countries in all social and political arenas as well as for LGBT

students at all levels of education (Cuomo, 2007). Meanwhile,

LGBT groups in the Philippines have always pushed forward the

agenda of equality and respect from mainstream society and have

been clamoring for due diligence from the government specifically

for the passage of laws that will protect the rights of all

people regardless of sexual orientation and gender identity. LGBT

groups have held on to the dream and promise of living a life

with dignity and respect free from discrimination and violence in

the Philippines (Philippine National LGBT Conference, 2011).

Also, in the jurisprudence of the Philippines, in one of the

most recently promulgated decisions of the Supreme Court dated

April 8, 2010, it upheld the rights of the LGBT with respect to

their endeavor to participate in the 2010 national elections. It

can be deduced that COMELEC violated the rights of the LGBT when

they refused to recognize the same as a political party- list

solely based on moral grounds. The Ang Ladlad party-list, praying

that they may be allowed to participate in the 2010 national

elections, elevated the case to the Supreme Court. The highest

court of the land reversed the decision of the COMELEC and

allowed the Ang Ladlad party-list to join the said election.

Supreme Court reiterated the constitutional safeguard granted by

the law, specifically, art. 3 sec. 5 which speaks about the “non-

establishment clause”. The reversal of the decision was also

grounded on the fact that the COMELEC failed to establish that

allowing Ang Ladlad party-list to join the said elections would

be detrimental to the society.

The LGBT community is not exempted from the exercise of its

constitutionally vested rights on the basis of their sexual

orientation. Laws of general application should apply with equal

force to LGBTs, and they deserve to participate in the party-list

system on the same basis as other marginalized and under-

represented sectors. Discrimination based on sexual orientation

is not tolerated ---not by our own laws nor by any international

laws to which we adhere. (ANG LADLAD LGBT PARTY vs. COMMISSION ON

ELECTIONS, G.R. No. 190582, April 8, 2010)

Significant progress in the different aspects of LGBT

people’s lives in the Philippines have been attained through the

passion and commitment of LGBT groups. However, acceptance is

till yet to be achieved despite of the growing tolerance towards

the LGBT people due to the dominant patriarchal and heterosexist

ideologies ingrained in the society, and the legal, cultural and

religious taboos. These beliefs have made it more challenging for

LGBT groups to fully realize the equality agenda (Philippine

National LGBT Conference, 2011).

Along with the fight to create equal legal and legal

institutional opportunities for sexual minority individuals, Gay

rights advocates still endeavor to fight homophobia and violence

in everyday society including schools. Gay students are still the

subject of violent verbal and physical attacks. Unfortunately,

the physical and verbal abuse of sexual minorities continues to

be ignored by many educational institutions and instructors

(Smith, 1998). Stead and alarming violence against members of the

LGBT communities continues to be pervasive in the Philippines.

Hate crimes, by their very nature, are based primarily on the

victim’s membership to a specific group, which is often

negatively stereotyped; in this case the group is a perceived

sexual identity (Craig & Waldo, 1996). Joseph Holandes Ubalde,

writer for—the online news portal of TV5,

reported that for the first half of 20111 alone, as of June 17,

the Philippine LGBT Hate Crime Watch documented 28 killings

within the gay community. Based on the group’s study, victims of

hate crimes endure gruesome deaths like being stabbed multiple

times, raped, tortured, suffocated, dismembered, or being burned

alive. Without a law in the country explicitly dealing with hate

crimes, most killings and reported violence against LGBT’s are

simply reported generically as murders, homicides or physical

injury, simply because of the reason that these victims belong to

a minority group. Despite the greater sense of freedom and

comfort that sexual minorities enjoy today, violence and

homophobia continue to be grave issues for many LGBT individuals,

including youth and students in their academic environments

(Driver, 2008).


Identity development is a social process influenced largely

by people’s interaction with others. Thus, understanding the

development of college students requires examining their

experiences from social constructionist perspective. Recent

studies on the gender identity development made by Edwards and

Jones 2008 have concluded that there have been noticeable

influences on the ways in which students experience college –

namely, in the decisions they make about friendships, how they

choose to spend their time outside class, the choices they make

about careers and majors, and how they engage in sexual and

romantic relationships (Harper & Harris, 2009).

The formation of a cohesive sense of identity is a corner

stone of human development throughout the entire lifespan.

Raising awareness of self-identity have been faced with many

difficulties by those who belongs to the lgbt group. A central

weakness is perceived in identifying gays as a static state,

associating them with poor psychosocial well-being. Sexual

minorities often experience wide range of social stress

associated with demoralization, guilt, rejection, stigmatization

and lack of support. It is, therefore, not surprising that there

is a large degree of variability in the adjustment of LGBT groups

as well as their perception of themselves and their behavior.

In 1979, Cass proposed a stage model of homosexuality

identity formation. Beginning the stages is Identity Confusion.

This occurs when individuals develop awareness that homosexuals

is relevant to themselves and their behavior. With this, an

inconsistency is formed between the knowledge of self-perception

of an individual’s behavior, compared to that of the heterosexual

self-image and the perception of others that the individual is a

heterosexual. This stage results to a battle within oneself. This

internal conflict when reevaluated and resulted to affective

disturbance causes an Identity Comparison, the second stage of

the Cass model. It involves coping with the social alienation

that occurs as the individual become aware that others perceive

them as a heterosexual, while perceiving himself and his actions

to be possibly homosexual.

The third stage of Identity Tolerance is associated with an

increasing commitment to homosexual self-perception. The

acceptance of homosexual identity tend to occur during the next

stage which is Identity Acceptance. Individuals begin to increase

contact other homosexuals, thereby allowing themselves to

evaluate their sexual preference more positively. Identity Pride,

stage five involves addressing the incongruity between the

positive self-perception as homosexual and the society’s negative

perception to homosexuality. The last stage of Identity Synthesis

occurs as the individual experiences positive interaction with

non-homosexuals. Homosexual identity becomes only one facet of

the self, rather than the only defining factor. This allows

individuals to be comfortable in themselves and the environment

that they are situated in (Halpin & Allen, 2004).

There is a significant relationship between the stage of gay

identity formation and the psychosocial dependent variables of

happiness-sadness, satisfaction with life and self-esteem, and

loneliness. These variables also contribute as pertinent factors

in an individuals’ transition to the college life. A student’s

intellectual maturity is simultaneously opened to new

possibilities and disciplined to apply particular tools for

thinking and analysis. When students enter college without the

sense that their intellect is a work in progress, they often

become confused and frustrated by the demands made on them to

think, reason, critique, analyze, reflect, ponder, posit and

value (Conley, 2006).

Attitude toward Sexual Minorities and Homosexuality in Higher

One of the primary missions of higher education institutions

is to produce and disseminate knowledge. With the understanding

that institutional climate has a profound effect on the academic

community’s ability to excel in research and scholarship, these

academic communities expend a great deal of effort in fostering

an environment where this mission is nurtured. The climate on

college campuses not only affects the creation of knowledge, but

also a significant impact on members of the academic community

who, in turn, contribute to the creation of campus environment

(Rankin, 2003).

LGBT students often remain closeted because of the hostile

climate they experience on college campuses. Research documented

on LGBT students’ experiences presents unwelcoming, threatening,

and unsafe campus environments (Longerbeam, Inkelas, Johnson, &

Lee, 2007).Lisa Bernstein on her research in assessing the status

of LGBT students on campus accounted studies that suggest high

rates of discrimination and harassment on campus; that classroom

environment has an impact on students’ coming-out experiences;

and that developing an individual sexual identity id often linked

to becoming politically active in support of gender and sexuality

issues. In Toward Acceptance edited by Nancy Evans and Vernon

Wall, a book discussing how to facilitate an LGBT awareness

workshop, address violence against LGBT students, provides a

recommendation of further attention to students’ negative college

experiences to see whether some students may be more or less

targeted for discrimination or harassment and how such an

environment affects students’ academic and emotional functioning.

They advocate studies needed on affirmative factors that may

contribute a campus climate that is supportive and positive for

LGBT students.

It was published in the Daily Cougar Newspaper of the

University of Houston by Marc Anderson on 2011 when the Texas

Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) decided to not allow

students the option of indicating their sexual preference on the

state’s common college application form which in turn requires

the homosexuals to stay in their closets. The Boards’ motives

were not disclosed to the public, but one can infer that it is

for equality and protection against discrimination purposes.

Sexual orientation is still a personal matter just as religious

affiliation and political beliefs are. As such, these

characteristics have no bearing on a person’s GPA or testing

skills, and should not influence decisions concerning college

acceptance. The sad truth of the today’s society comes in, that

homosexuals would encounter different repressions and

discriminations against the world for they are considered as the

plague of the society, without looking on what they can

contribute to the society just like any heterosexual individual.

The Texas Common Application form has the potential to become an

unbiased means of determining college admissions based solely on

scholastic merit. The refusal to consider sexual preference was a

step in the right direction, but as long as extraneous details

are included, the existing system will undercut its stated

purpose of promoting excellence above all else (Anderson, 2011).

In addition to the less than supportive campus climates,

peers, faculty and administrative staff, LGBT students also often

find their educational experience to be less fulfilling than

their heterosexual peers. Sexual minority students, aside from

being distracted from their academic endeavors due to worry about

unsupportive environments and harassment, suffer from lack of

representation amongst faculty and staff as well as within the

curriculum they engage with (Sanlo, 2004).

Sexual minority students have a difficult time finding their

niche within the college setting; they often lack a visible

community of peers, supportive faculty and staff, and an

accepting educational and community climate. For sexual

minorities, the task of integrating within the higher educational

context provides even larger challenges than their heterosexual

peers face (Driver, 2008). Waldo (1998) found that “LGBT students

indicated that they feel less accepted and respected on campus

than their heterosexual counterparts” (p.767) and suggested

therefore “that encountering hostility on campus may lead to

decrements in academic satisfaction” (p.767). Therefore as one

would assume, LGBT students in college would face lower rates of

academic persistence. The lack of visibility of the sexual

minority population at many institutions of higher education in

combination with the outright prejudice that sexual minorities

face within the larger community has left many LGBT students

anonymous and lacking in proper academic and personal services

(Driver, 2008). As a consequence of these factors, many LGBT

students belonging to the sexual minority groups experience a

less fulfilling educational experience, and potentially a failure

to be academically retained.

The issues of LGBT students are extremely transitional as

they enter institutions of higher education. These issues are

often left unaddressed creating a heightened risk not only for

serious mental and physical ailments but also for less successful

academic experiences when compared to their heterosexual peers

(Driver, 2008). Sexual prejudice, bullying and other forms of

victimization in their environment cause many LGBT youth to do

worse in school. While not every LGBT student is hampered by

their sexual identity –some rely on resilience skills to succeed

in school--LGBT identity negatively affects performance in many

students. While institutions provide generic school safety

measures, that do not specifically address LGBT issues thus, it

does not protect LGBT students (Kim, 2009).


This chapter presents various theories on which the research

is anchored. Figure 1 will serve as an outline of this chapter.








Schlossberg’s theory of marginality and mattering

Through her theoretical model, Schlossberg (1989) sought to

explain how students conceptualize feeling valued or marginalized

within their college environment. Drawing on prior research that

indicated involvement influenced student satisfaction,

Schlossberg explored why students who were involved were

considered successful. Schlossberg studied involvement within the

constructs of marginality and mattering. Marginality is a

sentiment that can manifest when transition or change occurs in

one’s life, such as going away to college for the first time.

Once confident in his/her place in life, an individual in a new

environment will often be unsure of where he/she fits in and may

not feel needed or valued. If unable to develop connections and

relationships within the new environment, this feeling of

marginality can also be a long-term sentiment.

To build upon her theory of mattering, Schlossberg looked to

literature from Rosenberg (1981), which found that adolescents

who felt they mattered were less likely to engage in delinquent

behavior. From this, Schlossberg created four dimensions of

mattering – attention, importance, ego-extension, and dependence

and found that all four dimensions were important components of

feeling connected. Later, Schlossberg added a fifth dimension

that impacted mattering – appreciation. She was able to apply

these constructs in three aspects of the participants’ lives –

close relationships, work, and activities.

In the preliminary dimension, attention, students understand

that other people notice them. As they move into the importance

dimension, students begin to understand that they are cared

about. The dimension of ego-extension results when students

perceive others to be proud of them; there is some sense their

contributions matter to a greater good. In the fourth dimension,

dependence, students understand that others rely on them to

accomplish individual and shared goals. Appreciation is

understood as external recognition of a student’s positive

contributions. Schlossberg contends simply defining the

feelings of marginality and mattering is not sufficient and

articulates the importance of creating opportunities that reduce

marginality and cultivate a feeling of mattering. She explains

that it is important to listen to student voices, in both what

they are saying, as well as the underlying message. All students

have an inherent need to belong, and student affairs

professionals are charged with creating opportunities and spaces

for to make this happen.

LGBT self-identity is developed in college.

Student development theory suggests that sexual identity

formation is a developmental task of the college years. The

process of developing an LGB identity; is psychological, social

and age related (D’Augelli, 1991). The theory shows that during

college years, one’s sexual identity and preference is being

developed and might be greatly influenced by:

Psychological - it can be considered as an internal factor

which affects one’s attitude and perception in life. Also,

one’s psychological state must be in a good condition in

order to render a just and sound judgment especially with

respect to their preference on their sexuality.

Age – this can be associated with one’s level of maturity.

College years are said to be a transition period from

adolescence to adulthood; and thus, many college students

may face issues with regards to their sexuality or sexual

preference. In the Philippine context where college seems be

the “freedom” period for the students, most of them grabs

this opportunity to truly express who they really are and

what they really want.

Social – Social perception is of the things in which most

people are concerned of. Someone’s decision in life is

greatly influenced by this external factor because he is

concerned on how other people will look onto him and what

are they going to say. It is inherent that people are

concerned about this because of the societal condition in

which they belong.

Collegial institutions may also greatly influence one’s decision

and outlook in life. The college is tasked to, as the students’

second home, guide the students in the best way possible.

Maslow: Sense of Security and belongingness

What motivates one’s attitude and behavior? According to

psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order

achieve certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a

hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human

Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality.

This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill

basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.

This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The

lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs,

while the more complex needs are located at the top of the

pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical

requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and

warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can

move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and

In relation to the theory of Maslow, it is said that a level

of need must first be satisfied before one may be able to move

from the other. It can be true that, a homosexual should have to

secure first his/her safety in terms of his body, morality,

health and others in order for him/her to move to the next stage

of Maslow’s hierarchy. He/she, must focus first on

himself/herself before interacting to others. Once this level has

been accomplished, this allows him/her to seek for sense of

belongingness to his/her friends and family. Societal observation

will prove that decent homosexuals are more acceptable in the

society rather than the loud ones. Self-esteem will actually come

in when the he/she gained the respect of other, boosted his/her

confidence in the public and achieve something, either

academically or extra-curricular.

In lieu of the LGBT sector of San Beda College, being

marginalized and misrepresented, their rights and needs are not

often regarded.

Strange and Banning’s environmental theories

Strange and Banning (2001) are viewed as experts on

constructing and managing the impact of environments on student

development. They outlined three aspects of the environment that

influence student development: organized environments,

aggregate/collective environments, and constructed environments.

Related to organized environments, Strange and Banning

(2001) proposed there are seven structures that characterize the

dimensions of an organization. These included complexity,

centralization, formalization, stratification, production,

efficiency, routinization, and morale. These structures fall

within a range of extremes, from dynamic to static. Dynamic

organizations are highly complex and flexible in design, respond

easily to change, have low levels of centralization, and

emphasize quality. Static organizations have low complexity and

are highly centralized, formal, quantity-focused, and efficient.

Organizations are deliberately constructed and reconstructed to

seek specific goals, affecting the overall design of the

environment and its functions. This impacts one’s attraction to,

function in, and satisfaction with an organization.

In terms of aggregate environment, people have individual

characteristics that interact with other aspects of their

environment (Strange & Banning, 2001). This includes

environmental differentiation, environmental consistency, and

person-environment congruence. Environmental differentiation is

the degree of homogeneity within a group, or its breadth of

character. A focused environment will be highly differentiated

with primarily one type dominating group membership. In addition,

the group identity is distinguishable to outsiders. This

reinforces the patterns of the organization. Alternatively, a

diffuse environment is undifferentiated with a diverse

membership. Its membership is difficult to characterize as it is

accommodating to a variety of behaviors.

Environmental consistency includes the characteristics of

member type within a group. This can be understood as a

consistent or inconsistent environment. A consistent environment

has individuals of similar type. Within the organization there

are similar rewards and demands among membership. An inconsistent

environment has individuals of divergent types and provides

differing rewards and demands to members (Strange & Banning,


The degree of fit between an individual and his or her

surroundings creates person environment congruence. This predicts

an individual’s attraction toward, stability in, and

Satisfaction with a given environment. Congruence occurs as

a result of one’s own beliefs being aligned with those of the

environment. There is person-organization compatibility. If there

is incongruence, there are three methods of resolution: change

environment, change self, or leave the environment.


LGBT students’
experiences as sexual
minority group
Academic performance
-acceptance & tolerance
-Daily class work
-victimization and bullying
-Midterm examination

-Final examination

Co-curricular activities
Sexual identity of LGBT
Educational experience
students -Games and Sports
Extraneous variables
--campus and classroom
-comprehensive resources -Music, dance, drama
climate -College admnistration and faculty
and diverse services
-Clubs and Organizations
-programs integrating LGBT
studentsvisibility -Interschool
-Attitude competitions
of peers
-ralationship between
-Teacher’s performance



In this chapter, the researchers will discuss how they

conducted the study including how many participants were included

in the study and how are they sampled. In this section, the

researchers will also detail and discuss the test questionnaires

we asked the participants to answer.

Instruments/techniques used

Questionnaires were provided to second Year and third Year

students from the Department of Psychology. The questionnaires

were provided to them personally within the jurisdiction of San

Beda College, Manila. Some of subjects’ identities were kept

anonymous and all recorded information was kept confidential. All

the respondents filled in questionnaires. The researchers used

the questionnaires because the population was literate and large

and time for collecting data was limited. Questionnaires were

used because they are the main method of data collection

(Sarantakos, 1997).

The survey questionnaire was used as the main data-gathering

instrument for this study. The questionnaire was divided into two

main sections: a profile and the survey proper. The profile

contains socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents

such as name (optional), age, gender, civil status, GPA last

semester, their year level, the department where they belong and

their hobbies/interests. The survey proper explored the factors

affecting the academic performance of students and their sexual

preference, if they are male, female, or if they belong to those

preferences under the acronym of LGBT. But the issue about sexual

preference is quite sensitive because some are not ready to show

who they really are or somehow, they are shy to “come out from

their closet”. So the researchers tried to ask implied questions

relating to their true sexual preference in order not to offend


Questionnaire-Checklist. The questionnaire-checklist is the

main instruments used in the gathering data. It was employed

primarily to come up with the perception of respondents

concerning the subject matter Good(2009), a questionnaire is a

list of planned, written questions related to a particular topic,

with space provided for indicating the response to each

questions, intended for submission to a number of persons for

reply; commonly used in normative survey studies and in the

measurement of attitudes and opinions.

Interview. The Interview technique will also be used to

complement the gathering of data for the study. Interview provide

information which may be confidential that may not ordinarily be

given in writing. The interview according to Vockell (2000) is a

technique in which the researcher stimulates the respondents to

give the needed information for the study.

Sampling Procedure
This research was conducted using questionnaires that

included queries which aim to know those factors affecting the

academic performance of the students, particularly the 2nd Year

and 3rd Year students from the Department of Psychology. The

intention also of this study is to let the researchers

distinguish who are those students who really excel in class,

knowing their sexual preference (Male, Female or those who are

under the acronym of LGBT). This type of questioning allowed for

the privacy of the subjects who self-identified as Lesbian, Gay,

Bisexual, Transgender or other so as to allow for more personal

disclosure. The purpose of the data collection in this case was

to “understand the meaning of the identified phenomena to

subjects” (Cowan, 2007, p. 172). The questions were meant to be

probing so as to elicit further questioning and description of

the phenomena to the identified participants (Cowan, 2007). The

data collection truly helped to deeply understand and to help

moreover the students to be aware and on how to improve their

performance at school.

a. Procedure

A letter to carry out the research was made by the

researchers addressed to the Department Chair of the College of

Psychology in order for the researchers to carry out the study.

The said researchers also prepared a letter to the respondents

stating the procedures on how to answer the questionnaires and

the confidentiality of all the information obtained by them. The

researchers got documents such as students’ lists and numbers and

records. The researchers administered the questionnaires with the

help of the President of the Department of Psychology to

distribute the surveys to respondents. This data was collected

using questionnaires, and documentary analysis.

b. Data Analysis

Data from questionnaires was compiled, sorted, edited,

classified and coded into a coding sheet and analyzed. This study

was conducted to know the relationship between factors affecting

the performance of the students in school and their sexual


c. Ethical Consideration

Students’ admission points and academic performance are

property of the said school. The researchers therefore sought

permission from the Department Chair of Psychology to conduct the

research. The researchers also assured respondents that the study

was strictly academic and that utmost confidentiality would be

observed. The data used in this study was anonymously coded and

cannot therefore be traced back to individual students.

Treatment of the Data

The responses of the respondents to the questionnaire

checklist were carefully tallied, tabulated and organized

including those derive from interviews. The data presented,

analyzed and interpreted with the used of weighted mean,

frequency counts, percentage and ranking system.

The presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data

will be based on the weighted mean as shown by the scale ranges

as follows(Calderon, 1993)

1. For percentage computation is:

% = f/n x 100

% = percentage

f = number of respondents for every item

N = total number of respondents

2. For weighted mean:

WM = ---------

WM = stands for weighted mean

F = stands for frequencies
W = stands for weighted
TWF = stands for weighted frequency
N = total number of respondents
The table of equivalent which is the basis of the
interpretation of the data will be :(Tan 2006)
Weight Scale Verbal Interpretation

4.50 above 5 Strongly agree

3.50-4.49 4 agree
2.50-3.49 3 Moderately agree
1.50-2.49 2 Disagree
below 1.50 1 Strongly Disagree

Chapter 3

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

This chapter presented, analyzed and interpreted all the data gathered in this study. Presentation
was done through the use of tables and graphs and interpretations and analysis were thereafter made.

1. This section contains the description of the respondents’ background, the dependent variable and the
verification of the hypotheses General information comprised data on the gender of the respondents,
age, grade point average, and year level.

Table 1.1. Shows the gender profile of the respondents.

Table 1.1

Gender Profile

Gender Frequency Percentage

Male 53 42%

Female 73 58%

Total 126 100%

The table illustrates the gender profile of the respondents, illustrating that
out 126 respondents, the female students had the highest representation of 58%
and 42% were male. However, the highest 73 number of female respondents does
not necessarily mean that there might have been some form of bias in the selection
of respondents by the researchers.

Table 1.2. Shows the age profile of the respondents.

Table 1.2

Age Profile

Age Frequency Percentage

17 21 17%

18 68 54%

19 23 18%

20 14 11%

Total 126 100%

Table 1.2 illustrates that out of the 126 respondents 17% of which were minors and 83%
were adults. This could be that majority of the respondents were capable of acting with
discernment and clear judgment.

Table 1.3. Shows the grade point average profile of the respondents.

Table 1.3 Grade Point Average Frequency Percentage

1.00 – 1.25 3 2%
Grade Point Average
Profile 1.26 – 1.50 21 17%

1.51 – 1.75 44 35%

1.76 – 2.00 32 25%

2.01 – 2.25 13 10%

2.26 – 2.50 6 5%

2.51 – 2.75 1 1%

2.76 – 3.00 5 4%

None of the Above 1 1%

Total 126 100%

Table 1.3 illustrates that majority (54%) of the respondents belongs to the college dean’s list.
This reflects that most of the respondents have done well in their academic performance last

Table 1.4. Shows the year level profile of the respondents.

Table 1.4

Year Level Profile

Year Level Frequency Percentage

Second Year 60 48%

Third Year 66 52%

Total 126 100%

Table 1.4 indicates most of the respondents were third year students, comprising 52% of the
total surveyed population. However, this does not imply any form of bias in the representation of
the chosen population.

2. This section covers the internal, external and all other factors that may affect the academic
performance of the respondents in relation to their sexual preference.

Table 2.1. Shows the external factors affecting the respondents’ academic performance.

Table 2.1
External Factors



Family 51 27% 1 88
Societal acceptance 44 23% 2 110
figures above
shows Peers 43 23% 2 129 that
among other
Media 25 13% 4 100
external factors,
“Family” Religious beliefs 22 12% 5 30 was
chosen as Sexual orientation 5 3% 6 51
the most

TOTAL 190 100% 2.7

influential. This may be due to the culture inherent to the respondents.

3. This section refers to the problems and issues faced by the respondents as well as their
suggested solutions.

Table 3.1. Shows level of awareness of respondents in terms of Peer Relations



5 33 165
4 60 240
A.) I always feel the need of
3 29 23 87
friends in my life
2 3 6
1 1 1

Total 126 100 499 4.0 U 1

5 28 140

4 58 46 232

B.) I choose my friends 27.

3 35 105
carefully. 8
2 2 4
1 3 3

Total 126 100 484 3.8 U 2

5 18 90
4 47 188
C.) I am easily influenced by 28.
3 36 108
my friends. 6
2 21 42
1 4 4
Total 126 100 432 3.4 SO 5

5 25 125

4 63 50 252

D.) I want to be in a group 21.

3 27 81
sharing the same interests. 4
2 7 14
1 4 4

Total 126 100 476 3.8 U 2

5 19 95
E.) I do not want to be
rejected whenever I want to 4 66 264
be in a group.
3 30 90
2 8 16
1 3 3

Total 126 100 468 3.7 U 4

Table 3.1. Shows that “needing friends in life” was the most influential external factor compared to
others. This is because friends are the company whom the students get to spend more time with in

Table 3.2. Displays the consciousness of the respondents in relation to Academic Achievement

A.) I always want to be in top in 5 11 8.73 55


4 53 42.1 212

3 43 34.1 129

2 17 13.5 34

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 432 3.4 SO 3

B.) I always compare my results in 5 10 7.94 50

exams or quizzes to others

4 48 38.1 192

3 48 38.1 144

2 12 9.52 24

1 8 6.35 8

Total 126 100 418 3.3 SO 5

C.) I am competitive in terms of my 5 18 14.3 90

academic performance in school

4 50 39.7 200

3 36 28.6 108

2 20 15.9 40

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 440 3.5 SO 1

D.) I always make sure that I will get 5 14 11.1 70

high grades in my exams and
4 51 40.5 204
3 50 39.7 150

2 10 7.94 20

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 445 3.5 U 1

E.) I exercise time management in 5 12 9.52 60

studying in order for me to excel in
4 51 40.5 204

3 40 31.7 120

2 20 15.9 40

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 427 3.4 SO 3

Table 3.2. Shows that being competitive pushes the students to achieve higher results. This is because
the students see education as competition and a challenge themselves to be on top.
Table 3.3. Displays the level of awareness of respondents on Mental Health

5 14 11.1 70

4 48 38.1 192

XA.) I seek help in terms of dealing

with my feelings. 3 37 29.4 111

2 21 16.7 42

1 6 4.76 6

Total 126 100 421 3.3 SO 5

B.) I am a sensitive person and 5 19 15.1 95

easily get hurt by what others say
about me which is not good.
4 49 38.9 196

3 35 27.8 105

2 18 14.3 36

1 5 3.97 5

Total 126 100 437 3.5 SO 4

C.) I practice discipline in terms of 5 21 16.7 105

my study habits.

4 52 41.3 208

3 36 28.6 108

2 13 10.3 26

1 4 3.17 4

Total 126 100 451 3.6 U 3

D.) I always make sure that I allow 5 25 19.8 125

time in my schedule for whatever
causes me to relax.
4 61 48.4 244
3 32 25.4 96

2 4 3.17 8

1 4 3.17 4

Total 126 100 477 3.8 U 1

E.) I challenge myself to learn 5 30 23.8 150

something new---maybe a new skill,
sport, etc.
4 52 41.3 208

3 26 20.6 78

2 13 10.3 26

1 5 3.97 5

Total 126 100 467 3.7 U 2

Table 3.3. The table shows that students find it more effective to perform better in school when a time
for relaxation was given. This is because when strained, there would be less focus for studying.

Table 3.4. Illustrates the perception of respondents when it comes to Victimization or Bullying

XA.) I was once a victim of bullying. 5 15 11.9 75

4 37 29.4 148

3 32 25.4 96

2 28 22.2 56

1 14 11.1 14

Total 126 100 389 3.1 SO 4

B.) I take that experience (being 5 14 11.1 70

bullied) as my motivation in life.

4 47 37.3 188

3 29 23 87

2 25 19.8 50

1 11 8.73 11

Total 126 100 406 3.2 SO 3

C.) I am not affected by what the 5 25 19.8 125

bullies have done to me.

4 39 31 156

3 25 19.8 75

2 25 19.8 50

1 12 9.52 12

Total 126 100 418 3.3 SO 2

D.) I am easily discouraged in life 5 10 7.94 50

whenever someone bullied me. 4 33 26.2 132

3 29 23 87

2 29 23 58

1 25 19.8 25

Total 126 100 352 2.8 SO 5

E.) I feel pity whenever I see 5 28 22.2 140

someone being bullied.

4 46 36.5 184

3 38 30.2 114

2 7 5.56 14

1 7 5.56 7

Total 126 100 459 3.6 U 1

Table 3.4. Displays that there are more students that show sympathy towards others. This is because it is
inherent to the respondents to express compassion.
Table 3.5. Displays the level of awareness of the respondents in terms of gender identity or expression.

5 48 38.1 240
4 48 38.1 192

XA.) I am confident of who I am in

terms of my sexual orientation. 3 21 16.7 63

2 6 4.76 12

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 510 4.0 U 2

B.) I can easily express what I want 5 37 29.4 185

to say to other people through my
actions in relation to my sexual
orientation. 4 51 40.5 204

3 30 23.8 90

2 5 3.97 10

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 492 3.9 U 3

C.) I respect other people whatever 5 46 36.5 230

sexual orientation they chose (male,
female, gay, lesbian, transgender,
bisexual, etc.) 4 57 45.2 228

3 19 15.1 57

2 2 1.59 4

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 521 4.1 U 1

D.) I am not afraid of what people 5 34 27 170
think about me

4 56 44.4 224

3 27 21.4 81

2 8 6.35 16

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 492 3.9 U 3

E.) I feel discouraged whenever 5 13 10.3 65

people judge me.

4 48 38.1 192

3 40 31.7 120

2 14 11.1 28

1 11 8.73 11

Total 126 100 416 3.3 SO 5

Table 3.5. Majority showed that they were more open to other sexual orientation. This is because people
belonging to the third gender are now more accepted compared before.
4. This section refers to study habits of the respondents

Table 4.1. Illustrates the goals and attitudes of the respondents toward their studies


Goals and Attitude

1. I get enough sleep at night so I 5 9 7.14 45

am attentive during school.

4 53 42.1 212

3 42 33.3 126

2 21 16.7 42

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 426 3.38 S 6

2. I believe I am responsible for how 5 24 19 120

I do in school.

4 64 50.8 256

3 30 23.8 90

2 7 5.56 14

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 481 3.82 4

3. I have a positive attitude towards 5 21 16.8 105

school and learning.

4 63 50.4 252

3 36 28.6 108

2 5 3.97 10

1 0 0 0
Total 125 99.7 475 3.8 5

4. I have established goals 5 28 22.2 140

concerning school.

4 66 52.4 264

3 25 19.8 75

2 7 5.56 14

1 0 0 0

Total 126 100 493 3.91 3

5. I know exactly what I have to do 5 22 19.1 110

to achieve those goals.

4 68 59.1 272

3 21 16.7 63

2 2 1.59 4

1 2 1.59 2

Total 115 98.1 451 3.92 1

6. I am working to fulfill those goals. 5 32 25.4 160

4 61 48.4 244

3 27 21.4 81

2 3 2.38 6

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 494 3.92 1

Table 4.1. Displays that the respondents are driven to pursue their goals in order for them to reach their
aspirations and whatever they want in life.

Table 4.2. Explains the best place or means to study.


7. I study in a room with few 5 22 17.6 110


4 44 35.2 176

3 42 33.3 126

2 15 11.9 30

1 2 1.59 2

Total 125 99.6 444 3.55 3

8. I study at a table or desk so I’m 5 17 13.5 85

not too comfy.

4 39 31 156

3 35 27.8 105

2 25 19.8 50

1 10 7.94 10

Total 126 100 406 3.22 4

9. I make good use of the library 5 18 14.3 90

when applicable.

4 58 46 232

3 33 26.2 99

2 15 11.9 30
1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 453 3.6 2

10. I have a dictionary and use it. 5 29 23.2 145

4 47 37.6 188

3 31 24.6 93

2 18 14.3 36

1 0 0 0

Total 125 99.7 462 3.7 1

Table 4.2. Displays that the best mean to better understand the respondents’ school work is by using a
dictionary. This is because using dictionary does not only help the respondents to know the meaning of a
particular word, but it also helps them to spell it correctly and enhance their vocabulary.

Table 4.3. Illustrates the ability of the respondents on how they manage their time in studying.


11 I have prioritized my activities so 5 25 19.8 125

schoolwork comes first.

4 45 35.7 180

3 44 34.9 132
2 10 7.94 20

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 459 3.64 5

12. I schedule time each day to 5 18 14.3 90


4 49 38.9 196

3 29 23 87

2 24 19 48

1 6 4.76 6

Total 126 100 427 3.39 6

13. I hand in all assignments, 5 28 22.2 140

papers, and projects on time.

4 59 46.8 236

3 31 24.6 93

2 5 3.97 10

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 482 3.83 4

14. I attend school regularly. 5 33 26.2 165

4 59 46.8 236

3 29 23 87

2 4 3.17 8

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 497 3.94 1

15. I keep up and don’t get behind. 5 27 21.4 135

4 67 53.2 268

3 26 20.6 78

2 5 3.97 10

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 492 3.9 2

16. I use my time effectively when I 5 29 23 145


4 58 46 232

3 32 25.4 96

2 6 4.76 12

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 486 3.86 3

Table 4.3. Displays that the respondents attend their school regularly. This is because they do not want to
be left behind in their class discussions and miss the class.
Table 4.4. Displays the process on how the students take their notes.


17. I have an organized 5 26 20.6 130


4 48 38.1 192

3 33 26.2 99

2 10 7.94 20

1 9 7.14 9

Total 126 100 450 3.57 5

18. I take notes selectively by 5 31 24.6 155

getting down important ideas.

4 54 42.9 216

3 35 27.8 105

2 5 3.97 10

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 487 3.87 2

19. I use a format that works for 5 31 24.6 155

each class/text/lecture.

4 55 43.7 220

3 32 25.4 96

2 7 5.56 14
1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 486 3.86 3

20. I use abbreviations and symbols 5 20 15.9 100

to write faster.

4 57 45.2 228

3 36 28.6 108

2 9 7.14 18

1 4 3.17 4

Total 126 100 458 3.63 4

21. I copy examples, formulas, 5 36 28.6 180

diagrams, notes from the board.

4 55 43.7 220

3 31 24.6 93

2 3 2.38 6

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 500 3.97 1

Table 4.4. Illustrates that the best process among the others, according to the respondents is to copy
what are those illustrated from the board. This is because notes taken from what is written from the
board is the most effective way on how you will remember the things that was discussed.
Table 4.5. Displays the respondents’ attitude towards studying.


22. I know what real studying 5 32 25.6 160


4 62 49.6 248

3 27 21.4 81

2 4 3.17 8

1 0 0 0

Total 125 99.8 497 3.98 1

23. I review my notes daily, so I 5 10 7.94 50

won’t have to cram.

4 38 30.2 152

3 56 44.4 168

2 19 15.1 38

1 3 2.38 3

Total 126 100 411 3.26 2

Table 4.5. Illustrates the maturity of the respondents when it comes to appreciating the real essence of
studying for them. This is because when they know what their priorities are, it is only easy for them to
achieve what they want.
Table 4.6. Shows the ways on how
the respondents memorize their

5 33 26.4 165

24. I strive to understand material

before memorizing. 4 68 54.4 272

3 21 16.7 63

2 2 1.59 4

1 1 0.79 1

Total 125 99.8 505 4.04 1

25. I use specific memory 5 32 25.4 160

techniques to memorize for a test.

4 70 55.6 280

3 19 15.1 57

2 3 2.38 6

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 505 4.01 2

26. I usually remember material 5 25 20 125

when taking a test.

4 62 49.6 248

3 30 23.8 90

2 6 4.76 12
1 2 1.59 2

Total 125 99.8 477 3.82 3

27. I am prepared for the test, so I 5 18 14.4 90

don’t waste energy on anxiety.

4 63 50.4 252

3 38 30.2 114

2 5 3.97 10

1 1 0.79 1

Total 125 99.7 467 3.74 4

Table 4.6. Displays that the most effective way is to understand first the lesson before memorizing it.
Compared to not understanding it at all, there is less effort to memorize when they deeply grasp the

5. This section illustrates the

Table 5.1. Shows the gender the respondents find most attractive and comfortable to be with.

XSexual Orientation



F %

Who do you find the 5 4 93 74 28 22 126 100

most attractive?

Who do you feel you 30 24 61 49 33 27 124 100

are most likely to form
0 0
a strong emotional
bond with?

Who do you feel the 40 32 49 39 37 29 126 100

most comfortable 0 0
around? (What makes
you feel the best
when you're around

Who would you prefer 5 4 106 84 15 12 126 100

to be in a relationship

What do you fantasize 6 5 102 82 17 14 125 101

about? (i.e.
0 0
daydreams of erotic

Which of the following 28 22 76 60 22 17 126 99

best describes you

Table 5.1. Shows that more respondents attracted to opposite sex. The reason for this is, relationship
with the opposite sex is more accepted in the society.

6. This section shows the possible effects of sexual orientation to the academic performance of the


I perform well in school when I 5 33 26.2 165

freely express my sexuality

4 54 42.9 216

3 29 23 87

2 8 6.35 16
1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 486 3.86 U 1

I hesitate participating in any school 5 3 2.38 15

related activity because of my sexual
4 44 34.9 176

3 15 11.9 45

2 18 14.3 36

1 46 36.5 46

Total 126 100 318 2.52 SO 5

I avoid exposing myself to attention 5 4 3.17 20

during class because of my sexual
4 31 24.6 124

3 26 20.6 78

2 17 13.5 34

1 48 38.1 48

Total 126 100 304 2.41 SE 7

I feel a disparity of treatment by my 5 7 5.56 35

teachers/professors between me
and my classmates by reason of my
sexual preference 4 44 34.9 176

3 17 13.5 51

2 17 13.5 34

1 41 32.5 41

Total 126 100 337 2.67 SO 4

Considering my sexual orientation, I 5 11 8.73 55

have certain advantages in class
over my classmates and friends 4 40 31.7 160

3 35 27.8 105

2 20 15.9 40

1 20 15.9 20

Total 126 100 380 3.02 SO 2

I feel anxious on going to school 5 9 7.14 45

without my parents knowing my
sexual orientation
4 39 31 156

3 27 21.4 81

2 24 19 48

1 27 21.4 27

Total 126 100 357 2.83 SO 3


I dread my parents’ reaction 5 2 1.59 10

regarding my sexual orientation thus
making me concentrate less in
school 4 26 20.6 104

3 32 25.4 96

2 16 12.7 32

1 50 39.7 50
Total 126 100 292 2.32 SE 9

I feel burdened with my studies due 5 8 6.35 40

to my parents’ rejection over my
sexual preference
4 35 27.8 140

3 19 15.1 57

2 14 11.1 28

1 50 39.7 50

Total 126 100 315 2.5 SO 6

Table 6.1. Shows that when the respondents were comfortable with their own sexual orientation, they
perform better in school. This is because they are more confident and true to themselves that they are
empowered when it comes to their performance in school.

7. This section shows the impact of sexual orientation to the academic performance of the respondents.

Table 7.1. Illustrates the perception of the students in terms of Societal Acceptance


Goals and Attitude

1.) I am more comfortable studying 5 39 31 195

with my friends knowing my sexual
4 52 41.3 208

3 26 20.6 78

2 4 3.17 8

1 5 3.97 5

Total 126 100 494 3.92 S 3

2.) I have fairly number of friends 5 31 24.6 155
who helps me in achieving
4 64 50.8 256

3 24 19 72

2 6 4.76 12

1 1 0.79 1

Total 126 100 496 3.94 2

3.) My family, generally accepts my 5 39 31 195

life choices and supports my
4 57 45.2 228

3 22 17.5 66

2 6 4.76 12

1 2 1.59 2

Total 126 100 503 3.99 1

Table 7.1. Displays that the respondents gave importance to their families when it comes to making
decisions in life. This is because families support whatever choices the respondents have in life.

Table 7.2. Indicates the mindfulness of the respondents when it comes to General Inequality

5 7 5.56 35

4 50 39.7 200

X1.) In class, I feel that my

professors have a sexual preference. 3 42 33.3 126
2 22 17.5 44

1 5 3.97 5

Total 126 100 410 3.25 1

2.) I believe that my sexual 5 3 2.4 15

orientation overpowers other
4 45 36 180

3 41 32.5 123

2 19 15.1 38

1 17 13.5 17

Total 125 99.5 373 2.98 2

3.) My sexual orientation makes me 5 5 3.97 25

feel inferior in class.

4 41 32.5 164

3 30 23.8 90

2 20 15.9 40

1 30 23.8 30

Total 126 100 349 2.77 3

Table 7.2. Demonstrates that the respondents felt that the professors were biased because the latter are
more likely to favor the former based on their sexual orientation.

Table 7.3. Illustrates the awareness of the respondents in terms of Negative Parental Reaction
X1.) I feel that my parents will not 5 5 3.97 25
support my sexual preference so I
have to hide it from them.
4 46 36.5 184

3 20 15.9 60

2 13 10.3 26

1 42 33.3 42

Total 126 100 337 2.67 1

2.) Hiding my sexual orientation from 5 6 4.76 30

parents stress me out.

4 37 29.4 148

3 27 21.4 81

2 15 11.9 30

1 41 32.5 41

Total 126 100 330 2.62 2

3.) My parents tell me to change my 5 2 1.59 10

sexual preference and so I am
distracted in class.
4 36 28.6 144

3 18 14.3 54

2 14 11.1 28

1 56 44.4 56

Total 126 100 292 2.32 3

Table 7.3. Shows that the respondents may have had trouble telling their parents their true sexual
orientation this may be because parents would like to protect them from a judgmental society.
Table 7.4. Displays the perception of respondents toward Religious Condemnation

X1.) My religion despises other 5 3 2.38 15

sexual orientation and so I have to
4 40 31.7 160

3 28 22.2 84

2 16 12.7 32

1 39 31 39

Total 126 100 330 2.62 2

2.) My religion has nothing to do 5 39 31 195

with my distraction in class.

4 45 35.7 180

3 22 17.5 66

2 4 3.17 8

1 16 12.7 16

Total 126 100 465 3.69 1

3.) My religion stops me from telling 5 5 3.97 25

my parents my sexual orientation

4 41 32.5 164

3 21 16.7 63

2 14 11.1 28

1 45 35.7 45

Total 126 100 325 2.58 3

Table 7.4. Explains that religion does not affect the respondents because one’s religion does not matter
in excelling in class.

8.This section provides the problems and issues of the respondent and their given solutions on how they
will solve such issues.

Table 8.1. Supplies the disputes that the respondents are facing right now



LOVE 3 10

Table 8.1.
Majority of
the respondents experienced family problems. It is likely that this is due to the fact that it is the family
that is the closest to the respondents that may have a direct impact to the latter.

Table 8.2. Illustrates the most probable solutions to the given problems above mentioned.




PRAY 7 1

Table 8.2. Shows that prayer was the top possible action that the respondents may have done to
overcome their problems and issues in life. This is because the highest supernatural being has the
biggest influence on the respondents.