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Computer Network

 A collection of computing devices that are connected in various ways in order to


communicate and share resources
 A set of connected computers

Types of Networks
LAN
 A network that connects a relatively small number of machines in a relatively close
geographical area
WAN
 A network that connects two or more local-area networks over a potentially large
geographic distance

Topologies
 A techniques of connecting computers

Types of Network / Topologies’


o Ring topology A configuration that connects all nodes in a closed loop on
which messages travel in one direction
o Star topology A configuration that centers around one node to which all others
are connected and through which all messages are sent
o Bus topology All nodes are connected to a single communication line that
carries messages in both directions

Network Protocols
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol
TCP software breaks messages into packets, hands them off to the IP software for
delivery, and then orders and reassembles the packets at their destination
IP stands for Internet Protocol
IP software deals with the routing of packets through the maze of interconnected
networks to their final destination
Network Addresses
Hostname
 A unique identification that specifies a particular computer on the Internet
For example
o matisse.csc.villanova.edu
o condor.develocorp.com

Network software
 translates a hostname into its corresponding IP address
For example
o 205.39.145.18

Domain Name System


Hostname consists of the computer name followed by the domain name
csc.villanova.edu is the domain name
A domain name is separated into two or more sections that specify the organization, and
possibly a subset of an organization, of which the computer is a part
Two organizations can have a computer named the same thing because the domain name
makes it clear which one is being referred to

The 3R’s
1. Reduce. Purchase products that require less packaging or to limit the waste you are
producing.
2. Reuse. Use a travel mug or reusable water bottle and avoid single-use bags.
3. Recycle. Paper, plastic, glass, magazines, electronics, and more can be processed into
new products while using fewer natural resources and less energy. This is the 3 R’s
mantra.
Networking Operating System
A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating system system that is designed
primarily to support workstation, personal computer, and, in some instances, older terminal that
are connected on a local area network (LAN).

Network Policy
A network security policy, or NSP, is a generic document that outlines rules for computer
network access, determines how policies are enforced and lays out some of the basic
architecture of the company security/ network security environment.

Peer to Peer Network


A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is group of computers, each of which acts as a node for sharing
files within the group. Instead of having a central server to act as a shared drive, each computer
acts as the server for the files stored upon it.

Domain Name Servers


 Domain Name Servers (DNS) are the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. They
maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP)
addresses.

 This is necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember,
computers or machines, access websites based on IP addresses.

 Information from all the domain name servers across the Internet are gathered together
and housed at the Central Registry. Host companies and Internet Service Providers
interact with the Central Registry on a regular schedule to get updated DNS information.

 When you type in a web address, e.g., www.jimsbikes.com, your Internet Service
Provider views the DNS associated with the domain name, translates it into a machine
friendly IP address (for example 216.168.224.70 is the IP for jimsbikes.com) and directs
your Internet connection to the correct website.