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С.С. Барбашёва Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов
С.С. Барбашёва
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов
стоматологического факультета
ENGLISH
"
FOR
DENTISTS

Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Самарский государственный медицинский университет» Министерства Здравоохранения Российской Федерации Кафедра иностранных и латинского языков

Бекишева Е.В., Барбашёва С.С.

ENGLISH FOR DENTISTS

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ФАКУЛЬТЕТА

СТОМАТОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО

Самара 2015

1

УДК 616.31=20 (075.8)

Составители:

Бекишева Елена Владимировна, зав. кафедрой иностранных и латинского языков ГБОУ ВПО СамГМУ, профессор, доктор филологических наук

Барбашева Светлана Сергеевна, доцент кафедры иностранных и латинского языков ГБОУ ВПО СамГМУ, кандидат педагогических наук.

English for Dentists. Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов стоматологического факультета - Самара: Издательство «Криптен-Волга», 2015.- 184с.

Пособие составлено на основе оригинальных текстов, подобранных из различных англоязычных источников по стоматологии, а именно статей из научных и научно- популярных журналов, изданных в Великобритании и США. Кроме того, данное пособие содержит необходимый лексический материал, включающий стоматологическую терминологию, и сведения по грамматике английского языка. Учебный материал пособия соответствует требованиям ФГОС ВПО по направлению подготовки «Стоматология», включает задания для аудиторной и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов при изучении английского языка.

Учебно-методическое пособие утверждено ЦКМС ГБОУ ВПО СамГМУ Минздрава России (протокол №6 от 17.06.2015)

Рецензенты:

М.М. Халиков, зав.кафедрой иностранных языков Сам ГУПС, доктор филологическихнаук, профессор А.Н. Морозова, зав.кафедрой английского языка и методики преподавания иностранного языка ПГСГА, доктор филологических наук, профессор

УДК 616.31=20 (075.8)

ISBN 978-5-9904839-2-7

Бекишева Е.В.

Барбашёва С.С.

профессор УДК 616.31=20 (075.8) ISBN 978-5-9904839-2-7 Бекишева Е.В. Барбашёва С.С. 2

2

Введение

Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов стоматологического факультета, продолжающих изучать английский язык в медицинском вузе, в рамках базовой дисциплины «Иностранный язык». Материал пособия представлен в виде двух больших тематических разделов, которые, в свою очередь, имеют подразделы. Первый раздел состоит из 11 подразделов и включает тексты, посвященные анатомии зуба, а также заболеваниям зубов. Во втором разделе 7 подразделов, где представлены статьи, затрагивающие вопросы стоматологического образования в Великобритании и США. Все разделы имеют единообразную структуру и состоят из заданий для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы по освоению дисциплины. В каждый раздел входит:

1) оригинальный текст стоматологической направленности; 2) серия разнообразных тренировочных упражнений на активизацию освоения изученного лексического материала; 3) грамматический блок, содержащий в себе грамматические правила и тренировочные упражнения, направленные на закрепление изученного материала. В пособии представлен блок дополнительных оригинальных текстов для чтения стоматологической направленности, а также идиоматические выражения по данной специальности. Цели пособия:

1) расширить словарный запас студентов за счет овладения ими современной терминологией, широко используемой в современной стоматологии; 2) активизировать грамматические умения и навыки, полученные на ранних этапах, в результате выполнения разнообразных тренировочных упражнений; 3) подготовить студентов к чтению оригинальной литературы по стоматологии; 4) развитие коммуникативных навыков.

3

Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие является дополнением к учебнику Английский язык. English in dentistry: учебник для студентов стоматологических факультетов медицинских вузов. Содержание учебного материала соответствует ООП высшего образования по направлению подготовки «Стоматология» и рабочей программе по дисциплине «Английский язык».

4

PART I. TEETH ANATOMY AND DENTAL DISEASES

Unit 1 Teeth Anatomy

1.1

Teeth Anatomy (Part 1)

 

7

1.2Teeth Anatomy (Part 2) Grammar: Present Simple / Continuous

11

Unit 2 Dental Eruption

 

2.1 Dental

Eruption

( Part

1)

16

2.2 Dental

Eruption

( Part 2)

20

Grammar:Past Simple / Continuous

Unit 3 Sensitive Teeth

 

3.1The Cause of Sensitive Teeth

 

24

3.2

The Potential risk of teeth sensitivity

29

Grammar:Future Simple / Continuous

Unit 4 Dental Plaque

 

4.1 The Cause of Dental Plaque

 

34

4.2 How to check for plaque

38

Grammar: Present Perfect

 

Unit 5 Tooth Decay

 

5.1 The Cause of Tooth Decay

 

42

5.2 The Stages of Tooth Decay

46

Grammar: Past Perfect

 

Unit 6 Dental Calculus

6.1 How Dental Calculus is created

51

6.2 How to check calculus

 

54

Grammar: Future Perfect

 

Unit 7 Gum Disease

 

7.1 Gingivitis

 

59

7.2 The First Signs of Gum Disease

64

Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous

Unit 8 Tooth Abscess

 

8.1 The Cause of Tooth Abscess

 

69

8.2 The Types of Tooth Abscess

73

Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous

Unit 9 The Types of Tooth Discoloration

9.1 Yellow Teeth

 

78

9.2 Stained and Discolored Teeth

 

81

Grammar: Passive Voice.

 

Unit 10 Cosmetic Dentistry procedures

 

10.1 Tooth Whitening, Bonding, Porcelain Veneers

86

10.2 Enamel Shaping, Gingivoplasty, Dental Implants, Micro-abrasion

92

Grammar: Reported Speech

5

Unit11 Bad Breath

11.1 Halitosis

98

11.2 Halitosis Treatment

104

Grammar: Revision

 

PART II. CAREERS IN DENTISTRY

Unit 1 The Dentist

 

1.1 Job Description

110

1.2 How to become a Dentist

116

Grammar: Modal verbs

Unit 2 The Dental Hygienist

2.1 The Dental Hygienist's role in a dental office

121

2.2 How to become a dental hygienist

126

Grammar: Comparatives and superlatives

Unit 3 The Dental Assistant

3.1 Job Description

129

3.2 How to become a Dental Assistant

133

Grammar: Conditionals

Unit 4 The Laboratory Technician

4.1 Job Description

136

4.2 How

to become a Laboratory Technician

142

Grammar: Infinitive or -ing forms

Unit 5 Dental Specialties

5.1 Orthodontist, Endodontist, Oral Pathologist, Oral surgeon

146

5.2 Orthodontist, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontist

150

Grammar: Complex Subject

Unit 6 How to find a Good Dentist

6.1 Step1-3

155

6.2 Step4-5

160

Grammar: Complex Object

Unit 7 Dental Insurance

7.1 Dental Insurance Plan

165

7.2 Dental Financing

171

Grammar: Test

Dental Idioms

176

Additional Texts

177

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PART I. TEETH ANATOMY AND DENTAL DISEASES

Unit 1.1 Teeth Anatomy

(Part 1) of anatomy dedicated

of human

tooth structures. Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth.

Dental

anatomy is

a

field

to

the

study

The teeth are a group of hard organs found in the oral cavity. We use teeth to masticate (or chew) food into tiny pieces. They also provide shape to the mouth and face and are important components in producing speech.

A tooth can be divided into two main parts: the crown and root. Found above the gum line, the crown is the enlarged region of the tooth involved in chewing.

Like an actual crown, the crown of a tooth has many ridges on its top surface to aid

in the chewing of food. Below the gum line is the region of the tooth called the

root, which anchors the tooth into a bony socket known as an alveolus.

Roots are tapered structures resembling the roots of plants, and each tooth

may have between one to three roots. The exterior surface of the root is covered in

a bone-like mixture of calcium and collagen fibers known as cementum.

Cementum provides grip for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the root to the surrounding alveolus.

1. Fill in the correct word.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Bone-like, oral, embryonic, gum, exterior, complex

mixture

line

cavity

surface

7

process

2. Match the terms with the definitions.

1. Root

a a hole or a space inside something

2. b something artificial that is put intobody in a medical operation

Crown

3. c the part of the tooth that is visible

Implant

4. d the portion of a tooth that is covered by cementum

Cavity

5. e the part of the inside of a tooth

Pulp

3. Complete the sentences using like or as. Like is usedfor similarities. e.g. He works like a slave. (He isn't a slave.) As is used to say what sb or smth really is. e.g. He works as a teacher. (He is a teacher.)

1. He works

a waiter at a restaurant.

mine.

2. Joan bought a dress

3. Sometimes Mike behaves

4. Helen wants to find a job

5.

6.

7. I'm much better

a child.

a secretary.

He swims

She sings

a fish.

anangel.

you can see. me.

8. sister is not at all

My

9. daughter is just

My

my sister. an office

10. I use one of the bedrooms

11.I hope to qualify

12. We're late for the train. We'll have to run

13. I'm your friend and,

14. You don't like confrontations, me.

15. I want to join the air force a pilot.

a surgeon.

the wind.

a friend, I advise you to think again.

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4.Complete this table.

Noun

Verb

Adjective

bone

 

erupt

surface

 

divide

 

large

 

chew

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present Continuous.

1.I

English exercises twice a week. ( write)

2. My

friend

 

his homework in the afternoon as a rule.

( do)

3. My sister

her homework now. ( do)

4. Don't shout! The baby

. (

sleep)

5. The baby always

after dinner. ( sleep)

you

 

6. What

you

now? ( read)

7.What

books

for your literature lessons? (

read)

8.What

your mother usually for lunch? ( cook)

9 .

she

a cake now? (cook)

10 .

(You,

see) that man over there? —Which man? The man in the brown

jacket? —

No, I

( talk) about the man who

( wear) the blue

9

shirt.

Oh,

that

man!—

( not think)

so. —

I

2. Correct the verbs that are wrong.

1. Do you understand how this works?

(You,

know)

him?

— (not know,) him either.

No,

I

2. I am not understanding her because she is speaking too fast.

3. What's the matter? Why do you cry?

4. Hurry up! Ann and Sally wait us.

5. I like this soup, it's tasting delicious.

6.You are looking a bit worried.

7. I am sorry but I am not agree with you.

8. I am study at Medical University.

9. I never drinking coffee.

10. He is at home. He doesn't work today.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present Continuous. A: Can I help you, sir?

B:

A: I see. What kind of things (2) (she/like)?

Yes, please. I (1)

(look) for a birthday present for my wife.

B: Oh,

she

(3)

(enjoy) reading books on interior decorating and

she(4)

(love) listening to Latin music.

A: How about this book then? It (5) (have) over a hundred

of different ways to decorate your home and lots of pictures, too.

B: I (6) show me? A: Well,

excellent choice. Your wife will enjoy it very much.

B: How much is it? A: It (8) (cost) £25. They're on special offer.

pages

(not/know) about that. Is there anything else you could

sir.

I

(7)

(believe) this set of CD's with Latin bands is an

10

B: Okay, then. I just (9) because I (10)

(hope) she won't play the music too loud (hate) Latin music!

Unit 1.2 Teeth Anatomy

(Part 2)

Each tooth is an organ consisting of three layers: the pulp, dentin, and enamel.

^ The pulp of the tooth is a vascular region of soft connective tissues in the middle of the tooth. Tiny blood vessels and nerve fibers enter the pulp through small holes in the tip of the roots to support the hard outer structures. Stem cells known as odontoblasts form the dentin of the tooth at the edge of the pulp.

^ Surrounding the pulp is the dentin, a tough, mineralized layer of tissue. Dentin is much harder than the pulp due to the presence of collagen fibers and hydroxylapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that is one of the strongest materials found in nature. The structure of the dentin layer is very porous, allowing nutrients and materials produced in the pulp to spread through the tooth.

^ The enamel - the white, outer layer of the crown - forms an extremely hard, nonporous cap over the dentin. Enamel is the hardest substance in the body and is made almost exclusively of hydroxylapatite.

Teeth are classified into four major groups: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

^ Incisors are chisel-shaped teeth found in the front of the mouth and have a flat apical surface for cutting food into smaller bits.

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• Canine teeth, also known as cuspids, are sharply pointed, cone-shaped teeth that are used for ripping tough material like meat. They flank the incisors on both sides.

^ Premolars (bicuspids) and molars are large, flat-surfaced teeth found in the back of the mouth. Peaks and valleys on the flat apical surface of premolars and molars are used for chewing and grinding food into tiny pieces.

1. Fill in the correct word.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Connective, nerve, blood, stem, mineralized, hard

fibers

vessels

cells

substance

tissue

layer

2. Fill in the correct preposition where it is necessary.

1. She resembles

her mother.

2. All students were involved

making costumes and scenery.

3.The eruption of volcano covered the states

4. It never entered

5. A mixture consists

my head.

water and flour.

fine layer of ash.

6. 5 divides

30 6 times.

7. He is known

a talented artist.

12

3.

Study the notes.

Here is the most common order of adjectives in English.

Opinion

Nice

Size

big

Shape

round

Age

old

Colour

blue

Origin

French

Material

glass

Purpose or type

fruit

Variation us possible when we focus on a particular feature, for example we can say:

A round black shape ( normal order) or

A black round shape (focus on colour).

Some of the following are in the wrong order. Tick those which are correct and rewrite the others in the correct order.

big delicious cake

2. a round large ball

3. a big fat opera Italian singer

4. a discolored crooked tooth

5. a thin porcelain natural colour veneer

6.lower, wide, flat molars

7. long, sharp canine

8. white, tough, shiny outer surface of the tooth.

1. a birthday

4. Match up the following containers with the contents.

Cream, plasters, solution, injection, ointment, lozenges, tape, soap, gauze swabs

1. a tube of

.

2.

3. a bottle of .

a jar of

.

6. a tin of

7. a packet

8. a bar

of .

4. a vial of .

9. a roll of

.

5. an ampule

10. a box

13

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present

Continuous.

Dear Mum and Dad,

(be)

lovely and warm. Grandpa's new house (3) (look) fantastic. He

(be)

(4) (build) a new fence around the garden at the moment. That (5)

all for now as we (6) . (go) fishing in a minute.

(I) (have) a wonderful time here with Grandpa. The weather (2)

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present

Continuous.

1. The river

(flow) very fast today — faster than

usual.

2. You

(always complain) that waiters are rude.

3. You

number of people without job

4.Robert is a vegetarian. He

5 .

6.Holidays abroad

7. Are you in a hurry? — No, I

8. The neighbours forever

during the night.

9. My sister

(always

borrow) money!

That's

worrying because the

(increase). (eat, not) meat.

(you, cook) your own dinner every day?

(become) increasingly popular. (walk) quickly because I'm cold.

(slam) doors and

(shout)

(take) part in the competitions almost every weekend.

(not/use) it a lot and I

10. You can borrow my dictionary. I

(not / need) it

now.

11.

Her new perfume

(smell) like spring flowers.

12.

Peter

(meet) his girlfriend tonight.

13.

Have you seen Mary's new haircut? It

(look) great.

14

14. Did you put sugar in the coffee? It

15. You haven't said a word. What

16. My mother.

17. My brother

(taste) bitter. .(think) about?

(listen) to her favourite radio program right now. (not/enjoy) going to the cinema.

3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Зуб состоит из коронки, одного или нескольких корней и шейки.
2. Врач измеряет сейчас давление пациенту.

3. Кого Вы ищете? Я ищу дежурную медсестру.

4. В норме у человека имеется 28-32 постоянных зуба.

5. Зубы человека образуют зубные ряды: верхний и нижний.Каждый зубной ряд состоит из 16 зубов.

6. Сердце взрослого человека делает 60-72 удара в минуту. 7. Терапевт хочет продолжить курс лечения. 8. Сердце нагнетает кровь в сосуды.

9. У детей молочные зубы начинают прорезаться в возрасте от 3 месяцев. 10.Врач занят, он выписывает пациента. 11.Частота пульса зависит от физического напряжения.

12. Сейчас проходит вакцинация. 13. Сколько операций в день делает обычно хирург? 14. Основную массу зуба составляет дентин - вещество сходное с костью, но более твердое.

15.Все постоянные резцы и клыки имеют по одному корню.

15

Unit 2.1 Dental Eruption

(Part 1)

Most people have two sets of teeth during their life: a set of primary or "baby" teeth and the permanent or "adult" teeth. Besides helping children chew and pronounce words, the primary teeth hold a place in the jaws for the permanent teeth, which begin to push through the gums as the primary teeth are shed.

While most children have 20 primary teeth—10 in each of the upper and lower jaws—these teeth eventually are replaced by 32 permanent teeth, 16 in each jaw.

The first permanent molars usually erupt between ages 6 and 7 years. For that reason, they often are called the "six-year molars." They are among the "extra" permanent teeth in that they don't replace an existing primary tooth. These important teeth sometimes are mistaken for primary teeth. However, they are permanent and must be cared for properly if they are to last throughout the child's lifetime. The six-year molars also help determine the shape of the lower face and affect the position and health of other permanent teeth. Most children have 28 of their permanent teeth by age 13 years. These include four central incisors, four lateral incisors, eight premolars, four canines and eight molars.

1. Fill in the correct word.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Primary, lower, permanent, central, set, extremely

of teeth

hard

jaw

incisors

teeth

molars

16

2.

Match the adjectives in column A with their opposites in column B

Column A

Column B

Permanent

interior

Lower

soft

Tiny

temporary

Hard

upper

Flat-surfaced

large

Exterior

convex

3. Match the words to the definitions.

Apron, disposable gloves, eye protection, mask, sharp box

1. This protects your mouth and nose.

2.

This protects your clothes. You tie it around your waist.

3.

This container makes it easy and safe to dispose of needles.

4.

You wear these to protect your hands from patient's blood.

5.

This helps you to protect your eyes.

4.

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.

1.

The clock hangs on the wall, .

the table. (above/under/on)

2.

He has played Hamlet .

the stage many times. (on/in/next to)

3.

The bank is .

the post-office and the beauty salon. (behind/at/between)

4.

The ball has rolled .

the bed. (on/under/above)

17

5. Bob

and

Jane

were

/behind/opposite)

sitting

in

the

cafe

each

6. The gym is .

my college. (next to/on/between)

7. The monument is

8. The office address is

the right. (in/at/on)

the top of the page. (in/at/above)

9. He spends all his life

work. (in/at/on)

10.The kettle is boiling

the kitchen. (in/at/on)

other.

(in

front

of

GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1.Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Continuous. How did it happen? 1. How did Alice hurt herself? (play soccer) She hurt herself while she was playing soccer

2. How did Martin burn himself? (iron his clothes)

3. How did Helen cut herself? (slice onions)

4. How did Jennifer meet her husband? (fix a flat tire)

5. How did Marvin break his arm? (skate)

6. How did you lose your wallet? (ride my bicycle)

7. How did Jeff meet his wife? (sunbath at the beach)

8. How did Bob get a black eye? (fight with his brother)

9. How did your children burn themselves? (make breakfast)

18

10. How did Martha fall? (dance)

2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.

As I

(do) my homework last night I

(hear) a strange noise

which

(come) from the garden.

When I

(go)

out to

see

what

(happen), I only (find) my cat chasing a rat.

 

2.

In

1972,

Tim

Carlisle

(see)

Elvis

in

the

concert,

while

he

(travel) in the USA.

 

3.

It

(snow)

heavily

on

that

cold

and

dark

night

when

George

Bailey

4. She

5.

6.

and

7. He

trees in the forest outside.

(leave) his office and

(begin) his long journey.

,

(tidy) her room when suddenly the bell

(watch) TV when the earthquake

(feed) the

ducks, a

small

boy

(ring).

Jasper

As

(strike). (rush) up to

Mary

her

(grab) her arm.

(be) unable to sleep because the wind

(whistle) through the

8.

I

 

(walk) through the park with my dog.

9.

Sharon

(come) across Mary as I (not/see)

the

car

coming

towards

her

because

she

(look) in the other

direction.

 

10.The

old

lady

onto

the

bus

when

she

(fall)

and

(get) (break) her leg.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous or

Past Simple.

1.

Paul: 1)

(you/have) a new car

John?

John: Yes. I 2)

(buy) it last week. I 3)

(go) for a

drive now. 4)

( you/want) to

come?

19

2. Sheila:

What 1)

(you/do) this afternoon?

Diana: I 2)

(go) to the supermarket.

3)

(you/need) anything?

Sheila: Could you get me two cartons of milk and a kilo of sugar, please?

3.Tonia: 1)

(you/know) where my blue jacket is, Mum?

Mum: 2)

(it/not be) in your wardrobe? I (see) it yesterday in the

upper shelf.

Unit 2.2 Dental Eruption

(Part 2)

The last of the permanent teeth to appear are called "third molars," or "wisdom teeth." They usually begin to erupt—pushing their way through the gums—between ages 17 and 21 years. Because they are so far back in the mouth, third molars often are not needed for chewing and are difficult to keep clean. Your dentist may recommend their removal to prevent potential complications when third molars are erupted. Heredity and other factors may influence the approximate ages at which children's primary teeth shed and their permanent teeth emerge. Thorough brushing and flossing help to remove food particles and plaque (a sticky film of bacteria) from the smooth surfaces of teeth. But toothbrush bristles cannot reach into the pits and fissures (depressions and grooves) of the chewing surfaces to remove food and plaque. Dental sealants protect these vulnerable areas by sealing out debris and plaque bacteria. A sealant is a plastic material that usually is applied to the chewing surfaces of the back teeth—premolars and molars—where decay occurs most often. The plastic resin bonds into the pits and fissures of the chewing surfaces of back teeth. The sealant acts as a barrier, protecting enamel from plaque and acids.

20

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word. Wisdom, approximate, smooth, vulnerable, plastic, dental, heredity, plaque

material

 

sealants

are

a

.

.

factors

.ag e

bacteria

teeth

surfac e

2.Match the terms with the definitions.

1. Plaque

a process of becoming bad

2. Acid

b substance used to stop air entering smth

3. Decay

4. Sealant

c crack in smth

d substance that destroy things it touches

5. Fissure

3. Use the word in capitals to form a word that fits in each space.

e substance encourages growth of harmful bacteria

1

gun is banned in Singapore.

CHEW

2.

While going abroad, take

measures to avoid illnesses.

PREVENT

3.Follow the doctor's

and you'll feel better.

4. The vaccine may be given as

against influenza

5. Plaque

is a painless procedure.

21

RECOMMEND

PROTECT

REMOVE

4.

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.

In, out, off , from, up, along, down, past, around, opposite, across, through, over

1. How far is it .th e city centre to the airport?

2. Put the batteries .

the camera.

3. Somebody looked .o f the window

4. The ward is

the lift.

to, off ,

5.The first person to swim

th

e English Channel was Mathew Webb, in 1875.

6. A few children ran .

and .

the stairs.

7. Look! The plane's flown .th e bridge.

8. I forgot my key, so I had to walk .

the house and climb .

a window.

9. Excuse me, how can I get .th e station? Go .

10. She broke her leg when she fell .

the stairs.

this street, .th e hotel.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Last night, while I was doing my homework, Angela (call). She said she (call) me from her biology classroom. I asked her if she (wait) for the class, but she said that the professor was at the front of the hall lecturing while she (talk) to me. I couldn't believe she (make) a phone call during the lecture. I asked what was going on.

22

She said her biology professor was so boring that several of the students (sleep) actually in class. Some of the students (talk) about their plans for the weekend and the student next to her (draw) a picture of a horse. When Angela (tell) me she was not satisfied with the class, I (mention) that my biology professor was quite good and (suggest) that she switch to my class. While we were talking, I (hear) her professor , "Miss, are you making a phone call?" Suddenly, the line went dead. I (hang) up the phone and went to the kitchen to make dinner. As I (cut) vegetables for a salad, the phone rang once again. It (be) Angela, but this time she wasn't sitting in class.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past

Simple or Past Continuous.

1. Fleming was studying influenza when he (discover) penicillin.

2. When I came into the room the children (cry).

3. He (work) high up on a ladder when he fell.

4. Today I (work) a night shift.

5. My doctor (prescribe) me antibiotics when I was ill.

6. When I came the students already (write) a test.

7. This car (belong) to you?

8. It was chaos at the airport last night. Thousands of people (wait) their flights.

9. You (see) that girl over there? 10.Who (make) that awful noise? I can't stand it.

3. Translate this joke.

Однажды утром в лондонском автобусе ехал в школу мальчик.

(have a bad

смотрели

cold) и шмыгал на

него

носом

Он был

так

(sniff) все время

(shake)

очень простужен

и Рядом с мальчиком сидел пожилой джентльмен. Он спросил мальчика:

громко, что все пассажиры

качали

головами.

«У

тебя есть носовой платок (handkerchief)?»

23

- «Но я же не могу дать его вам. Мама говорит, что невежливо просить у кого- либо носовой платок. Вы должны пользоваться своим собственным».

- ответил мальчик.

- «Да, у меня в кармане

есть чистый носовой платок»,

Unit 3.1 Sensitive Teeth

The Causes of Sensitive Teeth

Sensitive Teeth problem or dentinal hypersensitivity is called the condition when a cold or hot, sweet or sour stimuli in the mouth or even regular brushing causes an intense pain to some teeth. The most usual causes of a tooth sensitivity problem are:

^ Exposed root areas due to receding gums or periodontal disease.

^ Dentin exposure caused by vigorous brushing with a hard bristled toothbrush or incorrect way of brushing teeth.

^ Worm out enamel because of teeth grinding.

^ Enamel erosion caused by chemical agents or acidic diet.

^ Tooth decay, due to the lesions of the enamel surface. Sensitivity can occur following routine dental procedures like teeth cleaning, root planning or tooth restoration. Teeth sensitivity caused by dental procedures is temporary, usually disappearing in 4 or 6 weeks.

^ Teeth whitening, as a result of high abrasivity or/and chemical action of the whitening products' active ingredients on the tooth tissue. Teeth sensitivity during bleaching process has become a very common problem due to the wide spread use of at home whitening products. What causes the pain in Tooth Sensitivity?

^ Sensitive teeth have become one of the most common teeth problems as people keep their original teeth longer. Gums are receding by age exposing

24

the tooth below the gumline where dentin is covered by cementum that is much softer than the enamel of the tooth crown.

^ The dentin contains a network of micro-tubules which run the full width of the dentin, from the pulp in the center of the tooth up to the outer edge below the enamel. If a tooth area loses its protective layer of the enamel or cementum, the dentin (and also the pulp via the tubules) becomes exposed to the outside oral environment.

^ Nerve cells of the pulp extending inside these tubules can be stimulated by external heat, cold or touch applied from the outside.

^ The external simulation is thought to produce movement of the fluids within the tubules and tension of the nerve, making the teeth sensitive to hot and cold, and causing a strong pain signal to be sent by the nerve. Potential risks of Teeth Sensitivity.

^ Whatever the sensitive teeth causes, the real problem is not the pain itself but its consequences. People who suffer from sensitive teeth problems, due to the pain caused during brushing, usually start avoiding their regular oral hygiene. Gradually this may lead to much more serious dental problems as tooth decay and gum disease.

^ Tooth sensitivity can also be a sign of tooth decay or cavities or a sign of a broken tooth or cracked filling.

^ If you have problem with sensitive teeth, consult your dentist to identify the root cause of the problem and advise you on the proper.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word.

Receding, outer, bleaching, acidic, enamel, high, incorrect, dentin, teeth, root, protective, strong

25

planning

abrasivity

gums

process

erosion

edge

way

pain

grinding

layer

diet

exposure

2.

Underline the correct word.

1.

Carla is on a strict/ serious diet.

2.

Doctors help sick/ ill people.

3.

The new manager worked hard to improve/ provide working conditions.

4.

Traffic fumes / acids pollute the air in cities.

5.

Child abuse occurs/ takes place in all classes of society.

3.

Fill in the correct particle.

Run into: to meet sb by chance Run out of: to finish; to have no more Run after: to chase Run over: to hit sb/sth with a car,etc

1.

A car almost ran

my dog.

2.

The ball rolled down the hill and children ran

.

.

it.

3.

While we were driving to Paris, the car ran .

petrol.

4.

Guess what! I

Bill yesterday.

4.

Fill in the correct prepositions.

 

To, from, for, by, about, of

1. Make sure you keep all medicine away children.

2. Due his need adventure he forgot the risk of parachuting.

3. His injury prevented him the playing in the match.

4. Detectives are still looking

the escaped prisoner.

26

5. Teeth sensitivity was caused

dental procedures.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1.Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple or Future Continuous.

1. I promise I (call) you as soon as I have any news.

2. This time tomorrow Tom (fly) over the Atlantic on his way to Boston.

3. Those bags look heavy. I (carry) one of them for you.

4. Alex and Eva are getting married next Saturday. All the guests (wear) white

clothes.

5. The week after the wedding they (enjoy) the sun in the Maldives.

6. The sky is a bit cloudy. It (rain) do you think?

7. If you look at this map you (see) where the islands are.

8. You should have no problem finding the musician. He (carry) a guitar.

2. Make sentences, as in the example:

* miss the train * make some tea * change it * crash * shout at us * take some photos * play in the snow * fall off * sell his house * make a cake

1. She can't stop the car! She is going to crash

2. They are late.

They

3. The headmaster looks angry!

He

4. Jim has got his camera.

He

5. Mick's putting up a "For Sale" sign.

He

6. The car has got a flat tyre.

He

7. Mum's looking at a recipe.

27

She

8. Look! The ladder is broken.

Oh no, he

9. They're putting their hats and gloves on.

They 10. Kevin's putting the kettle on. He

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct FUTURE forms:

(Will / Going to /Present

Continuous / Simple Present)

1.

A: What

you

(do) when you grow up?

B:

I

(be) an acrobat in a circus.

2. I haven't

seen

him

a

(recognize) him.

long

for

time

but

I

think

I

3.

A: I need some money to buy a present for my friend.

B:

I

(give) you some.

4.

I got the plane tickets. I

 

(fly) on Sunday.

5.

A: Have you got any plans for the summer?

B:

Yes, we

(go) to Italy

in June.

6.

Don't play with those matches; you

burn yourself.

7.

A: Whose is that night dress?

B

: It's mine. I (wear) it at John's graduation party.

8.

A: Why did you call your grandma?

 

B:

I

(visit) her at the weekend.

9.If your passport isn't valid any more, you

month.

10.A: What are you doing with that brush?

B: I

(paint) my room.

11.A: Why are you wearing your coat?

B:

I

(go) out.

28

(not / be able to) go abroad this

12.I don't know the meaning of this word so I (look) it up in the dictionary. 13. Look out! You (hurt) yourself with that knife. 14.A: I've got a terrible headache.

B: Have you? Wait there and I

15.Mother: Your face is dirty.

(get) an aspirin for you.

Child : All right. I

16.A: What time the next bus (arrive)? B: 13 minutes later.

(wash) it.

17 you

(open) the door for me, please?

18.We're early. The film .(start) at 2:30. Why don't we go and have something to drink? 19.He (call) the police as soon as he gets home. 20.A: What you (do) with that dress? B: I (shorten) the skirt.

Unit 3.2 Sensitive Teeth

The Potential risk of teeth sensitivity.

As a remedy for sensitive teeth you should:

^ Maintain good oral hygiene. Keep your gums healthy to prevent gums recession.

^ Use a soft bristled toothbrush.

^ Brush correctly without using excessive force. Horizontal movements of the toothbrush can cause abrasions of the enamel or cementum along the gum line.

^ Avoid very acidic foods and drinks to prevent teeth erosion.

29

^ Use a low abrasivity toothpaste. Whitening and anti-tartar toothpastes are usual causes of tooth sensitivity. Treatment for Sensitive Teeth problems. A sensitivity toothpaste, is the simplest way to fight a tooth sensitivity problem. Sensitivity toothpastes contain special ingredients as strontium or potassium which are de-sensitising agents. Strontium chloride works by blocking the dentin microtubules that enable cold and heat sensations to reach the tooth's nerve. Potassium citrate and Potassium nitrate work in a different way by blocking the mechanism of pain transmission between nerve cells. For many years Sensodyne was considered as the best toothpaste for sensitive teeth treatment. Today, you can find in the market many sensitivity toothpaste brands. Due to the different way of action of the active ingredients between brands, the best sensitivity toothpastes for each person can be identified only after trial. When testing a toothpastes for sensitive teeth, you must have in mind that most of the sensitivity toothpastes do not show results immediately but only after being used for a period of at least two weeks.

Dentist prescribed fluoride gels or high fluoride level toothpastes, work by enhancing the enamel remineralisation, 'closing' the dentine microtubules. Fluoride varnishes may be applied on sensitive teeth by your dentist in more severe cases of teeth sensitivity. If none of these proves to be a successful sensitive teeth treatment, the last solution is tooth bonding that covers the exposed surfaces and closes the pores of the dentin.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word.

Cracked, fluoride, successful, toothpaste, nerve, maintain, pain, heat

hygiene

30

cells

brands

treatment

varnishes

filling

transmission

sensation

2.

Match the numbers to the letters.

1.

advise

a) right

2.

pain

b)difficulty

3.

cause

c)serious

4.

correct

d)show

5.

problem

e)inform

6.

severe

f)reason

7.

expose

g) ache

3.

Fill in the correct word.

apply - applicant - applicable -

The offer is only

We receive hundreds ofjob each year.

Do the same rules

He was one of 30 for the manager is job.

application.

to booking for double rooms.

to part-time workers?

4. Match the idioms with their definitions.

1. Tooth and nail - rather old

2. Long in the tooth - to fight and struggle for smth

3. To get one's teeth into smth - to work with energy

4. To lie through one's teeth - to lie greatly

Fill in the gasps.

1. is getting a bit

He

to play football

2. wants a job he can

3. He fought

He

.

to get these plans accepted.

31

4.

The witness seemed to

GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple or Future Continuous 1. The tourists (go) sight-seeing in the country all next week.

2. I soon (tell) you what to do next.

3. They (be) here at exactly 7 p.m. tomorrow.

4. You (have) a prize if you come first in the examination.

5. We still (sail) through the Red Sea when you arrive at Cairo.

6. Where you (stay) this time next year?

7. Your shoes (be) ready in fifteen minutes.

8. He (sleep) when you come this afternoon.

9. It still (rain) when we leave.

10. They (attend) a meeting between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. today.

11. This rule soon (put) into effect.

12. You (come) to tea with us this afternoon?

13. The travellers (cross) the desert this time tomorrow.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms. 1. Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us? Marcus: He (wait) for us when our train arrives. I am sure he (stand) on the platform when we pull into the station. Sandra: And then what? Marcus: We (pick) Michele up at work and go out to dinner.

2.Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry (watch) TV, Sam (make) drinks, Beth (dance) by herself, and Thad (complain) about his day at work. Robin: Maybe, this time they won't be doing the same things.

32

Ted: I am absolutely sure they (do) the same things; they always do the same things.

3. Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who (wash) all of those?

Jack: I promise I (do) them when I get home from work. Florence: Thanks. Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks of sparkling clean dishes (sit) in the cabinets.

4. Doug: If you need to contact me next week, I (stay) at the Hoffman Hotel.

Nancy: I (call) you if there are any problems. Doug: This is the first time I have ever been away from the kids.

Nancy: Don't worry, they (be) be fine.

5. Samantha: Just think, next week at this time, I (lie) on a tropical beach in Maui

drinking Mai Tais and eating pineapple. Darren: While you are luxuriating on the beach, I (stress) out over this marketing project. How are you going to enjoy yourself knowing that I am working so hard? Samantha: I 'll manage somehow. Darren: You're terrible. Can't you take me with you? Samantha: No. But I (send) you a postcard of a beautiful, white sand beach. Darren: Great, that (make) me feel much better.

3. Translate these sentences from Russian into English. 1. Мы не должны опаздывать. Они будут беспокоиться. 2.Мы завтра пойдём в кино. Я буду сидеть рядом с тобой. 3.Нам нужно вернуться в 10 часов. Мама будет ждать нас. 4.ТыможешьвстретитьСандру?- Да, но как я ее узнаю? На ней будет красное пальто. 5.Не звони ему с 9до 11часов, он будет делать ежедневный обход пациентов.

33

б.Подождите минуту, я выпишу Вам рецепт. 7.Завтра в это время доктор Романов будет в операционной. операцию. 8. Приходите завтра в 12 часов, я буду ждать.

9. Ты не будешь проходить мимо аптеки? Мне нужно лекарство.

10. Завтра утром конференции.

Он будет делать

его

не

будет в отделении,

он

будет

делать доклад

на

Unit 4.1 Dental Plaque

The Cause of Dental Plaque Dental Plaque is a sticky, soft and colorless film of bacteria that constantly builds up on the surfaces of teeth and gums. Not removing tooth plaque bacteria from the mouth regularly, can lead to tooth decay and dental cavities (caries) or periodontal problems (such as gingivitis and periodontitis). What causes dental plaque on teeth? Dental plaque is comprised of colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms mixed with bacteria by-products, dead cells and food residuals. Tooth plaque formation starts immediately after a tooth is cleaned. The microorganisms of dental plaque are all naturally present in the oral cavity, and are normally harmless. Failure to remove dental plaque by regular tooth brushing allows its build up in a thick layer. As it matures, different types of microorganisms appear. At the lower layers of plaque, nearest the tooth surface, the composition of dental plaque changes in favour of anaerobic bacteria.

34

Their anaerobic respiration is producing acids which consequently lead to : - demineralization of the adjacent tooth surface, and dental caries, -irritation of the gums around the teeth (gum inflammation), leading to gingivitis (red, swollen, bleeding gums), periodontal disease and tooth loss, -tooth plaque build up can also become mineralized and form calculus. The main health problems of the oral cavity can be related to the accumulation of dental plaque on teeth. Dental plaque removal is essential for maintaining good oral health. It's easy to prevent plaque build up with proper care. Follow these tips on how to remove plaque from teeth -Brush thoroughly at least twice a day, with a fluoride toothpaste, to remove plaque from your teeth -Use dental floss daily to remove plaque from between your teeth and under your gum line, where your tooth brush may not reach -Check your teeth with disclosing tablets to ensure removing tooth plaque. -Control your diet. Limit sugary or starchy foods, especially sticky snacks -Ask your dentist or dental hygienist if your plaque removal techniques are ok. -Visit your dentist regularly for professional cleanings and dental examinations You must know that some treatments are not always covered by dental insurance plans. Learn how to check the terms and choose a dental insurance plan that will provide the best coverage for you and your family.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct preposition.

favour of, to be essential

, to be comprised

, to be covered

, to

be mixed 2. Cross out one odd word in each line. Calm unhappy miserable depressed

35

Sticky

soft

mild

gentle

Excited

joyful

moody

delighted

Frightened

relaxed

scared

uneasy

3. Fill in the correct word.

Thick, bleeding, dental, removal, tooth, disclosing, oral.

cavity

tablets

surface

care

layer

floss

gums

techniques

3. Fill in the correct preposition.

Cover for: to do the work that someone does, because they are not there Cover over: to put sth on top of sth Cover up: to make efforts to hide a mistake

1. The government is trying to cover

2. Who's covering

3. We covered a hole in the roof.

the full extent of the scandal.

you while you're away?

1. Tick

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Yes or No, then make sentences about yourself using the present

perfect simple, as in the example. Have you ever had measles? No, I have not. I have never had measles.

Medical Survey Have you ever

36

Yes

No

had the flu? had toothache? had measles? had a tropical disease? broken a bone? had a serious burn? twisted your ankle?

2. Rewrite these sentences in the Present Perfect.

1. The pupils are writing a dictation. - The pupils have already written a dictation.

2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem.

3. I am learning a poem.

4. She is telling them an interesting story.

5. Kate is sweeping the floor.

6. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him.

7. I am eating my breakfast.

8. The children are putting on their coats.

9. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party.

10. She is opening a box of chocolates.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect.

1.

A: I

B: I

(not/see) you for ages! Where

(you/be)?

(return) from Malta three weeks ago.

2.

A:

(you/ever/read) this book?

 

B:

No,

I

(not/read)

that

one,

but

I

(read)

the

author's

previous novel last year. I

3. A:

B:Yes, I

4. A:

(not/like) it much.

(you/speak) to Pam about your missing blouse yet?

(speak) to her five minutes ago she

(you/book) your holiday yet?

(not/see) it anywhere.

37

B: No,

I

(not/decide) where to go. Last year

(go) to Spain

and

(have) a great time, so maybe I'll go there again.

Unit 4.2 Dental plaque

How to check for plaque - Plaque disclosing tablets Patients often believe that they brush correctly and deny to accept that they fail in tooth plaque removal, even if their dentist tells them about dental plaque accumulation when examining their teeth. Plaque on teeth is usually colorless and therefore can be difficult to see it and remove it during brushing. Dental disclosing tablets and solutions stain the plaque build up on your teeth, allowing you to see how thoroughly you are brushing and flossing your teeth. They stain the bacteria making it easier to see where you have to brush again to remove dental plaque. Disclosing tablets and solutions are available without prescription from most pharmacies and they work by dyeing tooth plaque. The active ingredients of disclosing products are usually dyes also used as food colourings. Erythrosine is the most common dental plaque dye in disclosing tablets and solutions. How to use disclosing tablets? - Use the disclosing tablets or solution after brushing and flossing, following package instructions. -Put some dental disclosing solution in your mouth or chew a disclosing tablet and allow it to mix with your saliva. Swish the mixture around in your mouth for about 30 seconds and then spit it out.

38

-Gently rinse your mouth with water, and examine your teeth for plaque colored by the dye. Because the dye stains all bacteria the tongue and gums

also may get

-Check for stained (not properly cleaned) areas, usually the inside of the back teeth and behind the front teeth. Clean the stained areas to complete dental plaque removal. Next time you brush your teeth pay special attention to these areas. -Use disclosing products regularly until you find no more areas of stained dental plaque after you brush and floss. Recheck after some weeks.

dyed.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word.

Active, dye, package, pay, back, make

easy

ingredients

attention

teeth

stains

instructions

2. Underline the correct word.

1. Do you believe/ think in ghosts?

2.

The rain avoided/ prevented us from having a picnic in the park.

3.

This book tells/says you all you need to know about the buying the house.

4.

Tim was (a) alone man/ lonely man who lived all by himself in a small cottage.

5.

She looked/saw at me and smiled.

3.

Fill in the correct particle(s).

Put down: to write, to make a note Put in: to fit or install sth Put off: to cancel a meeting or an appointment

39

Put up: to offer, to show a particular level of skill

1. I'm having a party next Saturday - put

in your diary.

2. The team put

3. She put him

4. We put the central heating

a splendid performance.

with the excuse that she had too much work to do.

when we moved.

4. Fill in the correct word.

Exam- examine-

examination-examiner

1. The papers are sent to external

2. When do you take your final

3. The books

4. Careful

?

how attitudes have changed since the war.

of the ruins revealed an even earlier temple.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Complete the sentence with a verb from the box in the Present Perfect.

do

stop

rise

get

lose

arrive

change

leave

a Half an hour ago it was raining and now it isn't. It has stopped raining

b John is at school. His homework is at home.

at home.

c Ten minutes ago you ordered a pizza by phone. The doorbell is now ringing:

Great! My pizza

Last year the school had 540 pupils. This year there are 600. The number of pupils

d

by 600.

e

You can't find your revision notes.

 

notes.

40

f You're doing an experiment. You did the same experiment last week and the

week before. This is the third time g Philip Jones goes to your school. Last year he went to a different school. schools.

h Last year your school work was easy. Now it's not. The school work

more difficult this year.

2.

Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense, Present Perfect or Past Simple.

a.

Carlos (come) to London at Christmas. When he (arrive), he

 

(go) to stay with some friends. He

(not/return) from London

 

yet, and he thinks he is going to stay there until the autumn.

 

b.

A I am looking for Susan. you (see) her?

B I

(see) her yesterday, but not today.

you

(look) in

the coffee bar?

 

c.

A

John, you know I

(borrow) your bicycle last night. Well, I am afraid

I

(lose) it.

B

That is awful! Where

you

(go)? What time

it

 

(happen)?

 

A

Well, I

(leave) your house at 8.00, (go) home and

(chain) it

outside my house. Someone must have taken it during the night. I already (phone) the police, and they are coming soon.

3.

Underline the correct form.

 

The world famous author of the Harry Potter books, JK Rowling, was born in 1965

in

England. She a studies/studied/has studied French at Exeter University and then

b

works/worked/has worked as a bilingual secretary. When she was 26 she c

moves/moved/has moved to Portugal where she d teaches/taught/has taught

41

English and e works/has worked/worked on a story about a wizard. She f returns/returned/has returned to the UK and g lives/lived/has lived in Scotland since then. For a while she h teaches/taught/has taught French but since the first Harry Potter book was published she i makes/made/has made her living from writing. In fact, she is at the top of the best sellers lists and j is/was/has been for several years. JK Rowling says she k enjoys/enjoyed/has enjoyed writing stories since she was a child and it is only now, after many years of hard work, that she l achieves/achieved/has achieved success.

Unit 5.1 Tooth Decay

The Cause of Tooth Decay Tooth Decay or Cavities or Dental Caries is one of the most common human diseases. Main cause of dental caries is the loss of minerals from the tooth enamel due to the action of acids produced by dental plaque. Cavities are most likely to develop in pits on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth, and near the gum line or at the unprotected root if it is exposed by gum recession. If left untreated the tooth decay can destroy the tooth through the enamel, to the dentin and down to the pulp of the tooth. Factors as nutrition habits, quality of oral hygiene, dry mouth problems, presence of fluoride in water or toothpaste and heredity play a significant role in how susceptible your teeth may be to tooth decay. The Cause of Tooth Decay Dentists use the term 'acid attack' to summarize the cause of tooth decay. After having a meal, snack or drink, the bacteria of the dental plaque start to convert sugar and carbohydrates of foods into acids. The normal mouth pH of 6.2 to 7.0 starts to drop to acidic values. If the mouth environment becomes too acidic (pH below 5,5-6,0), the acids start to dissolve the mineral (calcium and phosphate) of the tooth's surface creating microscopic lesion on tooth enamel (demineralization),

42

weakening its structure. Streptococcus mutants is the most destructive bacterial strain in the mouth as it attaches easily to teeth and produces a lot of acid. Other common but less destructive acid - producing bacteria are lactobacillus and actinomyces. After all the sugars are consumed by the bacteria, acid production eventually stops and the tooth has a chance to repair itself (remineralization) helped by the minerals of saliva and toothpaste's fluoride. If dental plaque is not removed regularly, or if sugar is consumed too often, then the remineralization periods are not enough to repair the damage. Eventually a small cavity appears on the tooth enamel. The continuous exposure of the tooth to acidy is what causes tooth decay. Tooth decay can then penetrate through the protective enamel down to the softer, vulnerable dentine and continue to the soft tooth pulp and the sensitive nerves within it. Although the metabolic activity of plaque bacteria in our mouth is what actually causes dental caries, the underlying causes of tooth decay are in most cases the poor oral hygiene and high sugar consumption.

Symptoms - How to check for Dental Caries - Diagnosis. Early caries may have no symptoms. Tooth decay begins with a small patch of demineralized enamel at the tooth surface, often hidden from sight in the fissures or in between the teeth. At this phase tooth decay can be visually only by your dentist. When the decay has progressed deeper in the enamel, the teeth may be sensitive to foods or to hot and cold temperatures. The dentist will examine the teeth for damaged by probing teeth with a special instrument called explorer. Later, when the cavity has reached the pulp, the acute pain or swelling will be a clear sign of dental caries. The best way to spot dental caries and treat them before they become serious cavities is by visiting your dentist regularly for check-ups.

43

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word.

Chewing,

destructive, metabolic

gum,

back,

nutrition,

significant,

unprotected,

acidic,

microscopic,

 

habits

teeth

surface

root

.

recession

.

activity

.

values

.

role

.

lesions

.

bacteria

2.

Choose the correct item.

1. It's clear/clean that the drug does benefic some patients.

2.

Keep those medicines out of reach/rich of the children.

3.

Young children have a particularly acute/accurate sense of smell.

4.

The patient had a painful lesion/harm on his skin.

5.

The doctor was examining /noticing a patient.

3.

Fill in the correct word. treat - treatment - treatable

1. The best

for a cold is to rest and drink lot of fluids.

2.

Certain forms of ulcer are

with drugs.

3.

It was difficult to

patients because of a shortage of medicine.

4.

Read and translate these words. Knee, ankle, finger, ear, arm, head, hand, wrist, foot, shoulder, elbow, leg. Which of the items can you break, sprain, hurt or cut?

break

sprain

hurt

44

cut

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Join the sentences below using the word(s) in brackets and the Past Perfect.

Ann called for a taxi. She packed her suitcase. (after)

Ann calledfor a taxi after she had packed her suitcase.

1. We arrived at the harbour. The boat left. (by the time, already) 2.Thomas entered the stadium. The football match started, (when, already) 3. I didn't start reading my book. I did all the washing-up. (until) 4.She went to sleep. Her brother came round to see her. (when) 5. The burglar left with the painting. The police arrived.(before) 6. The mechanic fixed the car. The customer returned to the garage, (already, when)

2.

Match the items in column A to those in column B. Then say which actions

A

happened first and which second in each sentence. B

1.

After he had finished his homework,

a. when his receptionist called to

2.

They went to bed

cancel it.

3.

Rosie had just set off for her doctor's

b. she heard the phone ring

appointment

c. he went for a walk on the beach.

4.

As soon as she had finished

d. after the burglars had left.

vacuuming the carpet,

e. as soon as their guests had left.

5.

The police arrived at the house

45

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or the Past Perfect.

1. Henry (return) home by the time Rachel phoned.

2. She (not/go) to bed until she had taken a shower.

3. After Jim (water) the plants, it started to rain.

4. As soon as the plane had landed, the captain (turn off) the seat-belt sign.

5. By the time Vicky woke up, the children (already/make) breakfast.

6. Michelle (wash) the dishes after everyone had gone home.

7. Diana (never/see) an elephant before she went to Africa.

8. Don and Ellen had just finished eating when the doorbell (ring).

9. He didn't read the newspaper until he (take) the dog for a walk.

10. By the time Martin completed his report, everyone

(go) home.

ll.She

(not/want) to watch the film as she had seen it before.

12.We

(lock) the door as soon as everyone had left.

13.Tom

(already/have) dinner at his friend's house, so she didn't need to cook

for him.

14. Anne took Simon to the doctor's because he

Unit 5.2 Tooth Decay.

(cut) his finger.

The Stages of Tooth Decay. The pictures of tooth decay below, provide an explanation of the destructive process of teeth decay, from the initial stages acid attack up to the total decay of tooth tissues. 1. The first indication of tooth decay are white spots on the enamel caused by the loss of calcium. Acids have started to dissolve and weaken the tooth enamel (demineralization). At this stage the tooth can remineralize and fix the weakened area itself the help of minerals in saliva and fluoride.

46

2.

If the demineralization process outruns the natural remineralization process,

the lesion grows. Over time, the tooth enamel begins to break down beneath the surface while the surface remains intact. Once the decay continues and breaks through the surface of the enamel, the damage is permanent.

3. Left untreated, the decay will continue to dentine. When enough of the sub -

surface collapses, forming a cavity. The decay must be cleaned out and the cavity filled by a dentist.

4. The living part of the tooth, the pulp, becomes damaged. The bacteria invade

and infect the pulp of the tooth. The blood vessels and nerves may die due to the infection. Root canal therapy is required to repair the tooth.

5. The infection can then spread to from a tooth abscess (collection of pus)

around the root tip. As the infection inside the tooth's root canal builds up, the

bone around it gets infected. The tooth pain is consistent, especially during the night.

6. If the infection is not stopped on time and a root canal therapy is not carried

out by the dentist, the tooth might be lost or need to be extracted. Types of tooth decay. Coronal cavities is the most common form in all ages. Coronal cavities are cavities of the visible part of the tooth (crown), usually on chewing surfaces or between teeth. Root caries is more common in older adult as they are more likely to have receding gums that leave part of the tooth root exposed. Recurrent caries is decay that forms beneath or around existing dental fillings or crowns. Bacteria and food particles can get tooth and the dental fillings if a filling hasn't been placed properly or if the filling is cracked. Baby bottle tooth decay, a very destructive form of dental caries is common in children who use fall asleep with a bottle of milk or other sweet liquid in the mouth. Caries may be acute or chronic, depending on how fast they progress in destroying the enamel. In children and young adult acute decay can create a cavity in a few months while in older adults with chronic caries the process of tooth decay can last for years.

47

VOCABULARY

1. Fill in the correct word.

EXERCISES

Destructive, initial, first, weakened, living, blood, root, visible

part

part

process

stages

vessel

area

indication

canal therapy

2. Fill in the table with worlds from the list below.

What

is

the

How

did

it

Result

Solution

problem?

 

happen?

1.

I've

cut

my

Using a knife

 

it' is bleeding

A plaster

finger

2.

3.

it' is swollen; rest, playing football; I am confused; special cream, I twisted my ankle, it is painful; running for a bus; ice pack; I hit it on the side of desk; I can not walk easily; I burnt my hand; I've got a bruise; taking something out of a hot over; I've got a concussion; plaster and rest.

3. Fill in the correct word.

Weak - weakness - weaken - weakly -

weakling

Julia was by her long illness Do not be such a ! She has a for chocolate She smiled

You must be

in the head if you believe that.

48

4. Fill in the correct particle. Build in : to make smth so that is a permanent part of a wall, etc. Build into : to put part together to form smth; to create Build on : to add smth Build up : to develop or increase gradually

1. Let's build this country

2. The new wing was built

3. This exercise will build

4. We have wardrobes build

a great nation to the hospital your strength

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Perfect.

1. By two o'clock the teacher (to examine) all the students.

2. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home.

3. My friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the exams successfully.

4. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to remember what (to

happen) to him.

5. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home.

6. During the holidays my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his

childhood.

7. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin).

8. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from

grandfather

49

2. Put the verbs Continuous.

1.Lisa was having a cup of coffee at a cafe when someone on her mobile phone.

in brackets

into the Past simple, Past Perfect tor Past

(call) her

2.After they

(play) tennis, they had

some juice.

3.Jim

(plant) flowers when we arrived.

4.Mike and Gary won the first prize because they

5. By 3 pm Steve

6.He (fix) his bicycle when I saw him.

(catch) the biggest fish.

(already/fall) asleep.

3. Open the brackets using Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple; Present Continuous, Past Continuous; Present Perfect, Past Perfect. 1. My friend ( like) pies. He (to eat) pies every day. When I (to meet) him in the street yesterday, he (to eat) a pie. He (tell) me that he ( buy) that pie at the corner of the street. Look at my friend now! He (eat) a pie again.

2. Tomorrow Nick (not go) to the cinema with us because he ( go) to the cinema

yesterday. He already ( be) to the cinema this week. He ( stay) at home and ( play) a computer game.

3. My father ( work) in an office. It ( be) Sunday now. He (not work), he ( read) at

home. 4. I (not see) you for a while! You (be) busy at work? - I ( have) an awful week, you ( know).

5. What he (do) at ten o'clock last night? - He (not do) anything really. He just (

look) at some magazines.

6. We (have) rather a difficult time at the moment. - I ( be) sorry to hear that.

7. Something awful (happen). Her little daughter ( swallow) a coin.

8. She ( ask) me if I (to see) her backpack which she (buy) in Spain.

9. After the boys ( do) all the work, they ( go) to the garden. 10. She (leave ) the house by the time he (phone) her.

50

Unit 6.1 Dental Calculus or Dental Tartar

How dental calculus is created Dental Calculus or Dental Tartar is a yellow or brown layer of mineral deposits on the teeth surface created by hardened dental plaque. Besides the cosmetic problem, dental plaque that is accumulated on calculus causes inflammation of gums, and can lead to gum recession and gum disease. Dental tartar is too hard to be remove by normal toothbrushing or by flossing. Only professional teeth cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove it. Dentists use special instruments to remove tartar (above and below gumline) in a procedure called tooth scaling. How dental calculus is created

^ The bacteria of dental plaque produce acids that cause the loss of calcium from the tooth enamel (demineralization).

^ Calcium, phosphorus and other minerals from saliva form crystals and harden the plaque structure. The main ingredient of this compound is calcium phosphate. It is a hard insoluble material that bonds to the tooth enamel along the gum line.

^ Tartar's calcium deposits on teeth, make the surface of the tooth rough providing an ideal medium for further accumulation and growth of dental plaque.

^ The repeating new cycles of acid production, calcium loss and calcium phosphate composition results to the build-up of new dental calculus layers on teeth. Types of dental calculus.

^ Calculus above the gum margin (supra-gingival calculus) is the most common. This form of tartar is less harmful as it is visible and can be identified easily allowing us to visit our dentist early.

^ The below the gums type (sub-gingival calculus) is more dangerous as it forms pockets between teeth and gums, harboring plaque under the gum

51

margin and preventing it from being brushed off. As it is hidden, we might be unaware of its existence until suddenly some serious dental problem as periodontitis reveals it.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct preposition.

To be accumulated

result

2. Match the term with the definition.

,

to prevent

, to be removed

,

to bond

sth, to

1. Tartar

a removal of plaque and calculus from the surface of teeth

2.

Inflammation b the hard smooth outer surface of your teeth

3.

Floss c a hard substance that forms on your teeth

4.

Enamel d swelling or pain in part of your body

5.

Scalling

e type of thin thread used for cleaning between teeth

3.

Fill in the correct word.

Prevent-

preventive-prevention

1.

While travelling abroad, take measures to avoid illness.

2.

The rules are intended to

accidents.

3.

Education new drivers is important for

of accidents.

4.

His back injury may

him from playing in tomorrow's game.

5.

You know what they say, is better than cure.

4.

Fill in the correct particle.

Result from: to occur as a result Result in: to cause sth; to have sth as a result

1. The incident resulted his being dismissed from his job.

2.

The injury resulted

the fall.

52

3.

Improved technology has resulted. bigger and better harvest.

4. We are still dealing the problems resulting

5. Our efforts resulted

success.

errors made in past.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect.

1. By 9 o'clock, we (finish)

our homework.

2. They (leave)

3. We (go)

the classroom by the end of the hour.

home by next week.

4.

She (return) from the excursion by 6 o'clock.

5.

(buy / he) the new house by October?

6.

The sun (not / rise)

by 4 o'clock.

7.

(you/do) the shopping by 3 o'clock?

2.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Continuous or Future Perfect.

1.

This time next month

I

(ski) in the Alps.

2.

Sue

(finish) her Master's degree by next year.

3. I

(work)

in the garden on Sunday as usual.

4.I

(attend) a meeting in Glasgow on Monday, so I won't be at the reception.

5.

I

(read) the whole book by the end of the

week.

6

(you/finish) the timetable by the end of the day?

 

3.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms.

1.

Janet has just bought an old house, and for the next year or so she 1)

(fix)

it up soon. The first thing she 2) (do) is have the roof repaired, and then she hopes she 3) (be able) to live there. She is afraid she 4) (not/finish) by next Christmas, but she hopes she 5) (invite) her friends to come and celebrate with her anyway.

53

2. By the end of the year Sally 1) thirty years. She hopes that she 2)

years. After she retires, she imagines that she 3)

time, and she believes she 4) time she is seventy years old.

(work) for the same company for (be able) retire after two more (travel) most of the

(visit) at least fifty countries by the

Unit 6.2 Dental calculus

How to check for calculus / tartar. Instead of dental plaque that is an almost invisible thin layer, supra-gingival tartar deposit are easier to detect.

^ Look for yellowish and rough areas along the gumline and between teeth.

^ Usually tartar stars to accumulate on the lingual (inside) surface of the bottom front teeth (incisors) and on the outside of the upper, anterior molars.

^ But be aware that the most harmful sub-gingival (below the gums) dental calculus is very hard to detect without a visit to the dentist. How to Prevent Tartar Buildup.

^ Proper brushing and flossing are necessary to reduce plaque and tartar buildup.

^ Regular dental cleaning visits to the dentist should also be scheduled.

^ Preventive tooth scaling once a year is recommended if you teeth tend to accumulate tartar.

^ Use Tartar Control toothpastes.

Tartar Control Toothpastes.

^ Tartar Control toothpastes can help in reducing new tartar build-up but they can't remove the already formed tartar.

^ The special ingredient of Tartar Control toothpastes are the pyrophosphates.

54

^ Pyrophosphates as Tetra sodium Pyrophosphate (TSPP) are water-softening agents that bond to the calcium phosphate in the saliva, creating a soluble compound that is dissolved by water and washed away during brushing.

^ By this way calcium phosphate is removed from the saliva and it can't create calcium deposits on teeth forming new tartar.

^ Most of the tartar control toothpastes also contain fluoride and antibacterial agents to fight the root cause of the problem, the bacteria of dental plaque. While tartar control toothpastes can significantly reduce tartar buildup on teeth above the gumline, they show only minimal results on preventing dental calculus formation below the gumline.

^ A tartar control toothpastes, in some cases, may cause sensitivity to hot and/or cold in some teeth or irritation to the soft tissues of the mouth.

^ Those who are prone to canker sores formation should avoid toothpastes with high levels of sodium-based compounds, like the sodium pyrophosphate contained in tartar control toothpastes.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct preposition.

Prone

reducing, instead .,loo k

, to be dissolved

water, sensitivity yellowish

sth, tend

2. Match the numbers to the letters.

1 reveal

a now

2. find out

b

decent

3. ideas

c take away

4. proper

d painful

5. currently

e beliefs

6. sore

f show

7. remove

g discover

55

,

3. Fill in the correct particle.

Provide against: to make plans in order to deal with a bad situation that might

happen

Provide for: to give someone the things they need

1. Without work, how can I provide my children?

2. Health insurance will provide

3. He didn't provide

Loss of income if you become ill.

his wife and children in his will.

4. Fill in the correct word.

Prevent, dissolve, remove, reduce, accumulate

1. Fat tends to

around the hips and thighs.

2

the tablet in water.

 

3.

Giving up smoking significantly

(s) your risk of heart disease.

4

the old wallpaper and fill in holes in the walls.

5.

Nobody can

us getting married.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Read the following predictions and reasons for life in the future and decide which are optimistic and which pessimistic. Then, expand these

ideas into complete sentences by joining them with because, as or since. Finally, using the ideas and appropriate linking words, give a short speech on how life will be different by the year 2050.

Ж Pollution levels in cities decrease - scientists invent environmentally- friendly cars

Ж There be no more rainforests - we cut them all down

Ж People live in cities under the sea - normal cities become too crowded

Ж People live longer - scientists find cures for many diseases

Ж We go on holiday to other planets - space travel improve

Ж We do more creative jobs - computers do the most boring jobs

Ж More poor people - there be fewer jobs

Ж Crime increase - more people without work

56

e.g.

scientists will have invented environmentally-friendly

be no more rainforests. Furthermore, people

By the year 2050 pollution levels in cities will have decreased because

cars. However, there will

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms.

1. Margaret: Do you think everything will be finished when I get back from the

store?

Jerry: Don't worry. By the time you get back, I (pick) up the living room and

(finish) washing the dishes. Everything will be perfect when your parents arrive.

Margaret: I hope so. They (arrive) around 6 o'clock.

Jerry: Everything (be) spotless by the time they get here.

2. Nick: I just have two more courses before I graduate from university. By this

time next year, I (graduate) , and I will already be looking for a job.

Stacey: Does that scare you? Are you worried about the future?

Nick: Not really. I (go) to a career counselor and get some advice on how to find a

good job.

Stacey: That's a good idea.

Nick: I am also going to do an internship so that when I leave school, I (complete,

not only) over 13 business courses, but I (work, also) in the real world.

3. Stan: Did you hear that Christine (take) a vacation in South America this

winter?

Fred: I can't believe how often she goes abroad. Where exactly does she want to

go?

Stan: She (visit) Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.

Fred: At this rate, she (visit) every country in the world by the time she's 50.

4. Judy: How long have you been in Miami?

57

Elaine: I have only been here for a couple of weeks. Judy: How long do you plan on staying? Elaine: I love Miami, so I (stay) here for an extended period of time. When I go back home, I (be) here for more than three months. Judy: Wow, that's quite a vacation! You (see, definitely) just about everything there is to see in Miami by then.

5. Jane: I can't believe how late we are! By the time we get to the dinner, everyone

(finish, already) eating. Jack: It's your own fault. You took way too long in the bathroom. Jane: I couldn't get my hair to look right. Jack: Who cares? By the time we get there, everyone (left) . Nobody (see, even) your hair.

3. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.

1.Мы закончим эту работу к Зчасам, а затем пойдем 2.Я надеюсь, мы сдадим все экзамены к 20 июня.

3. Сейчас у меня короткая стрижка, но к концу лета волосы отрастут.

в парк.

4. дома

этому времени.

5.Все анализы будут готовы к понедельнику.

6. Я думаю, что закончу свою научную работу

7. Завтра он будет работать весь день, а вечером мы вместе пойдем в бассейн, потому что, я думаю, он закончит свою работу к тому времени.

8. Это очень сложный раздел анатомии, материал к завтрашнему семинару.

9. В следующей лекции профессор будет рассказывать строении сердца человека.

в 7часов,

ей? Я

Катя будет

если

я

перезвоню

думаю,

она придет

к

к концу года.

и,

я

думаю,

я

не

выучу

весь

этот

об

анатомическом

58

10. Нас

Мы конференции. Конференция закончится только к 5 часам.

будет завтра

не

в институте.

будем выступать с докладом

Unit 7.1Gum disease

на

Gingivitis or periodontal disease Gum disease, (gingivitis or periodontal disease), starts as an inflammation of the gums that if left untreated affect and gradually destroy the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontal tissues, which include the gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the two main stages of gum disease. Without proper treatment of gum disease, the teeth will finally become loose, fall out or have to be removed by a dentist. General health risks caused by Periodontal Diseases Over the recent years there is increasing evidence to support the fact that dental problems like periodontal diseases can cause serious health problems. As stated by the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal disease is a bacterial infection, and all infections cause concern. Periodontal bacteria can enter the blood stream and travel to major organs and begin new infections. Research is suggesting that periodontal disease may:

• Contribute to the development of heart disease, a leading cause of death.

• Increase the risk of stroke.

• Increase a woman's risk of having a preterm, low birth weight baby.

• Pose a serious threat to people whose health is compromised by diabetes, respiratory diseases, of osteoporosis. If you value your oral health as well as your overall health, a periodontal evaluation is s good idea that might prove especially important.

59

The cause for periodontal disease

• The accumulation of dental plaque and tartar is usually what causes gingivitis,

and it's almost always the result of inadequate brushing and flossing.

• If poor oral hygiene promotes the overgrowth of bacterial plaque, changes in the

composition of the plaque occur. The bacterial balance shifts over to gram negative anaerobic bacteria, which are responsible for inflammatory diseases.

• The bacteria also invade the crevices between the gum and tooth (sulcus) and

infect the periodontal tissues. These bacterial form dental plaque and tartar release toxins that stimulate the body's immune system to over produce powerful infection-fighting called cytokines.

Gingivitis symptoms-First sings of Gum Disease Many people visit their dentist with serious periodontal disease because they are not aware of what gum disease looks like early stages. There are some early sings of gum disease that help us to detect it and fight it before it becomes a serious problem:

• Bleeding gums during brushing or glossing;

• Red, tender or swollen gums;

• Loss of attachment between teeth and gums- pocket creation;

• Receding gums that make teeth look longer than normal;

• Sensitive teeth or pain on chewing;

• Persistent bad breath or bad taste in the mouth;

• Increased mobility of teeth;

• Pus coming from between your teeth and gums (abscess).

60

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word

Main, blood, recent, inadequate, major, immune, connective, infected.

years

organ

stream

tissue

stage

brushing

factors

cells

Match the opposites 1 Increase

2.

a minor

2 Negative

b narrow

3 Major

c right

4 Include

d low

5 Incorrect

e decrease

6 High

f minor

7 Outside

g mild

8 Temporary

h exclude

9 Wide

i inside

10 Severe

j permanent

3. Complete this table. Write all possible forms you can think of.

noun

verb

adjective

harm

 

lead

nature

61

include

care

nervous

4. Study note Trauma - an emotional shock producing a lasting harmful effect Wound - an injury to a part of the body by a weapon with cutting or tearing of the flesh Harm- physical, mental or moral injury caused by actions or by an event Damage - physical harm that is done to smth or a part of the body Breakage - something that someone breaks Injury - a physical harm to a person or an animal caused by an accident or an attack Fill in the gaps 1. Motorcyclists without helmet run the risk of serious

2. The fire caused so much to the house that owners had to rebuild it

3. I think that it will be hard for Andy to recover from the of witnessing

such a terrible accident at such young age

4. The soldier had a deep bullet in his leg.

5. Luckily, the collapsed roof did no serious to the little give who had been

hiding under the bed

6. These fragile items are insured against

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1.Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Continuous. 1) She (work) here for five years. 2) I (study) for all day.

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3) You (eat) a lot recently. 4) We (live) in London for six months. 5) He (play) football, so he's tired. 6) They (learn) English for two years. 7) I (cook) so I'm really hot. 8) She (go) to the cinema every weekend for many years. 9) It (rain), the pavement is wet. 10) You (sleep) for twelve hours.

2.Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.

1. I (paint) this room for five days now. It's a never-ending job.

2. How long (you/know) Mike?

3. I (have) this watch for twenty years. It's as accurate as it was the day I bought it.

4. I (never/be) to Sweden.

5. How long (you/live) in this house?

6. Hi, John. Sorry I'm late. I hope you (not/wait) long.

7. So, Michael, what (you/do)

8. It (rain) for all day today.

9. This strategy seems to be good. Sales of our products (increase) for some time. 10. The manager (visit) our branch office three time so far this year.

since I last saw you?

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple and Past Continuous.

1. How long (live) in Canada?- I (study) here for more than three years.

2. I (have) the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a new

one.

3. What (you, do) when the accident occurred? - I (try) to change a light bulb that

had burnt out.

4. I (love) chocolate since I was a child. You might even call me a "chocoholic."

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5.Sebastian (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not) there. She (study) at the library for her final examination in French.

6. Matt and Sarah (have) some difficulties in their relationship lately, so they (go)

to a marriage counselor. I hope they work everything out.

7. John (work) for the government since he graduated from Harvard University.

Until recently, he (enjoy) his work, but now he is talking about retiring. 8.When I (walk) into the busy office, the secretary (talk) on the phone with a customer, several clerks (work, busily) at their desks, and two managers (discuss, quietly) methods to improve customer service.

9. Lately, I (think) about changing my career because I (become) dissatisfied with

the conditions at my company. 10.The Titanic (cross) the Atlantic when it (strike) an iceberg.

Unit 7.2 Gum Disease

The stages of Periodontal Disease

Gingivitis

1. The dental plaque produced toxins that irritate the gum tissue. Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums characterized by redness, swelling, and sometimes bleeding during brushing.

2. The gums start receding and bleeding, loosening their attachment to the

tooth and exposing previously covered enamel or part of the tooth root. At this early stage of gum disease, damage can be reversed with proper dental hygiene, since the teeth are still firmly planted in their sockets without any bone or connective tissue damage.

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Periodontitis

3. Plaque bacteria start to penetrate between the teeth and gums. The environment becomes suitable for the establishment of anaerobic bacteria under the receding gums. Gingival pockets are formed below the gumline.

4. The surrounding connective tissues and alveolar bone become infected. Bacterial toxins and the body's enzymes fighting the infection start to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place.

At this stage, the supporting bone and fibers that hold the teeth in place are irreversibly damaged. Proper dental treatment and improved dental hygiene can usually help prevent further damage. Advance Periodontitis

5. As the periodontal disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and alveolar bone are destroyed. Ultimately all the supporting structures of the tooth may be lost.

6. The tooth gradually loosens and, if periodontitis is left untreated, the tooth will eventually be lost (fall out or have to be removed a dentist).

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word.

Early, bad, pocket, look, bleeding, further, supporting, become

breath

creation

signs

bone

like

gums

damage

infected

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2. Complete the crossword

ACROSS

©Th e whole physical structure of a person including the head, arms and legs.

© T h e soft part on each side of your face below your

©Existing or being produced in large amounts.

©Th e part of your body between your hand and your arm.

© A large room in a hospital with beds for people to stay in.

© A long loose piece of clothing that a doctor wears in a hospital.

@ T h e condition of your body, whether or not you are ill. ©Th e organ in your body that helps to control your blood supply. ©Th e organ in your chest that pumps blood around your body.

eyes.

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© A serious disease affecting your stomach and intestines. It is caused by drinking water

or eating food infected with bacteria.

DOWN

© The process of cutting into someone's body for medical reasons.

© A sign that someone has an illness.

©Unable to see.

©Th e part in the middle of your leg, where it bends.

© A doctor who is trained to perform operations involving cutting.

© A break or crack in a bone.

©An y of the hard white objects inside your mouth that you use for biting and for chewing food.

© T h e bones of the head.

3. Fill the correct particle. Break down : to stop working Break into : to enter the place by force Break out : to begin suddenly Break up : to stop for holidays

1. World war II broke in 1939

2. School is going to break

for Christmas on the 22nd of December

3. My car broke so I took it to the garage

4. Burglars broke my house last night and stole all my jewellery

4. Fill in the correct word. Infect - infection - infectious - infected

1. Flu is highly

2. People with the virus may feel perfectly well, but they can still others

3. Clean the wound so it does not get

4. Disease and were spread through poor sanitary conditions.

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GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1.Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Present Perfect and Present

Perfect Continuous forms.

1. The arterial pressure (not reduce) yet.

2. The temperature 38,7 C ( persist) for 3 days.

3. The scientists ( not identify) a new virus yet.

4. Scientists (try) to find the vaccine for this virus for 6 month.

5. The new patient (have) diabetes since childhood.

6. She (take) sleeping pills for a week.

7. This patient (be) unconscious for several minutes.

8. The doctor already (give) me all the information I need.

9. She (suffer) from flu since Monday.

10.He just (finish) his course of antibiotics and doesn't need it any more.

2. Write questions from the words in brackets.

1. (How long/ you/ live here)?

2. (How many pages/ you /read)?

3. (What / you /do at 5 p.m.)?

4. (He / translate the article already)?

5. (How long /you /wait )?

6. (What /you/ do /for all this time)?

7. (Where/ you/ be / all the morning)?

8. (How long /you/ learn English)?

3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1.Она соблюдает диету уже несколько месяцев.

2.Врач уже выписал мне лекарство.

3 .Операция длится уже 2 часа.

4. Он работает хирургом в уже 15 лет.

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5. У вас была когда-нибудь аллергия на лекарства? 6. Пациент принимает это лекарство уже 5 дней. 7.Хирург уже закончил операцию. 8. Он никогда не жаловался на боль в груди. 9.Артериальное давление резко повысилось. 10.Я обращаюсь к этому стоматологу уже 7 лет.

Unit 8.1 Tooth abscess

The Cause of tooth abscess A dental abscess can cause serious health complications, if left untreated. If you suspect that you might have an abscessed tooth, see your dentist right away. A tooth abscess will not heal itself - it requires treatment.

An abscess is actually a result of the immune system's effort to contain an infection and prevent it from spreading to other areas. The body sends white blood cells to the area of the infection to fight the bacteria. During this process pus forms, which is an accumulation of fluid, living and dead white blood cells, liquefied dead tissue and live and dead bacteria. If the pus is collected in a small, contained space with no way for pus to drain, it forms a pocket of infected liquid that is called an abscess. In the mouth, abscesses form around the root tips of a tooth or in the gum tissue surrounding the teeth. As pus is accumulated, the pressure increases and the abscessed tooth often becomes increasingly more painful.

Sometimes the infection spreads even more causing a swollen face or forming a visible bump on the gum overlying the root (gumboil). The swollen area can rupture, allowing the pus to drain in the mouth. Once the abscess ruptures, the pain often decreases significantly, but the infection remains and dental treatment is still necessary.

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As a tooth abscess develops, the infection can spread into the ligaments that secure the tooth to the jawbone and the jawbone itself. The bacteria and the immune system's response cause rapid destruction of connective tissues around the tooth and into the jawbone, and bone loss may occur. This causes teeth to become loose and may lead to tooth loss. You must know that some treatments are not always covered by dental insurance plans. Learn how to check the terms and choose a dental insurance plan that will provide the best coverage for you and your family.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.

Health, developing, white, infected, swollen, visible, rapid, immune,

contained.

decrease,

.

blood cell

complication

.

fluid

.

face

.

bump

.

abscess

system's response

.

destruction

.

space

.

significantly

2.

Cross out one word in each line.

Abscess: cold, warm, hot Tooth: temporary, constant, permanent Dentition: elementary, milk, primary Occlusion: abnormal, deep, small

3. Fill in the correct derivatives of the word in bold.

1. Your eyes were

(swell) from crying.

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2. Pneumonia is one of the common

3. Clean the wound so it doesn't get

4. Scientists have already

between smoking and cancer.

(complicate) of the. (infection).

(accumulation) enough evidence to show a clear link

5.

There has been a

(vision) change in his attitude.

4.

Study notes.

A compound noun consists of two or three words that function like one word. There are very many compound nouns in English.

Tooth decay

is an example of a compound noun, when two nouns combine

together.

Match numbers to the letters.

1. heart

a card

2. junk

b

ache

3. blood