T_hnk_
Pal_
A_OM
Computer Program[or
Afro_
B_g_,
,_
_na_c _d
Q Q
Jdan_ E. Cm:_e __
William 17. _1
\
<.,kg,_ b.._ :'
'c
A_.ALa _ n _ ........ __
1
11/. 1 ,7i 1
"\%
\
NASA
Technical
Paper
1946
AVRADCOM
Technical
80C21
Computer Program for
1981
Aerodynamic and Blading
Design of Multistage
AxialFlow Compressors
Janr's E. (:rouse
l.r_'a,_ Hc',_earch (;¢'_1I¢'r
(:lc_'ela,ct. Ohto
l_rc)pld_i(), l.aboratorv
.'!¢,.,11)(;().11 He'_rar_h a,d l'rch,oh_k,_, i.aboratortex
! .¢'_'1.'_*]_r'._'lll"_'h ("¢'_tl,°l
( ?h'_ .Ha,d. ()ht()
Contents
Page
Summary ............................................................................................................................ I
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... I
Appendix
ASymbols ...................................................................................................................... !5
BInput Parameters for Compressor Design Program ................................................................ 16
Cl_velopment of Equations of Motion into Form Used in Computer Pro m .............................. 27
DConic Coordipates of Blade Centerline Path ....................................................................... 32
References ........................................................................................................................... 38
itt
performance advantages over other compressor
Summary types, bti_ the good potential performance is not
A code for computing the aerodynamic design of a easily attained The problem aed challenge to the
multistage axiaii'low compressor and, if desired, the designer is to model the actual tlows well enough to
associated blading geometry input for internal flow adequately predict aerodynamic performance.
analysis codes is presented. The aerodynamic Progress is continually being made with codes for
solution gives velocity diagrams on selected corr_,puting the complex tiareedimensionai flows in
streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. turbomachinery. However, it is extremely difficult to
Blading is defined from stacked blade elements design mechani?ally acceptable turbomachinery
associated with the selected streamlines. The blade blading by using the direct approach 0.e., specifying
element inlet and outlet angles are established inviscid blade surface velocities and computing the
through empirizal !ncidence and deviation angle blade geometry). Consequently, the mt_re detailed
adjustments to the relative flow angles of the velocity codes are generally used in the analysis mode; that is,
the flow field is calculated for a fixed geometry. The
diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed
of two segments tangentially joined at a transition current procedure is to establish blading geometry
point. The local blade angle variation of each with simpler design codes and then to use the more
segment can be specified with a fourthdegree detailed analysis codes in blade rows where
troublesome flow conditions are likely to exist, in
polynomial function of path distance. Blade element
thickness also can be specified with fourthdegree this way prototype designs can often be adjusted
before hardware is built and tested.
polynomial functions of path distance from the
maximum thickness point. The time and effort needed to get acceptable
Steady axisymmetric flow js assumed; so the configurations can be reduced if the design code can
aerodynamic problem can be reduced to solving the be made to yield a good initial solution and if the
t_vodimensional flow field in the meridional plane. design and analysis codes can be made more
Because the equations of motion as developed herein compatible with one another. This compatibility can
are only applicable for calculation st;_tions outside be achieved _1) if the output from a design code can
the blade rows, stations at the blade edges, but not be directly used by flow and mechanical analy,_ls
inside the blade rows. are used. The streamline codes and 12) if corrective adjustments indicated by
curvature method is used for the iterative the analysis codes can effectively be made in _he
aerodyn_ullic solution. If a blade design is desired, design code. With _hese objectives in mind a
the blade elements are defined and stacked within the composite aerodynamic and b'.ade design code for
aerodynamic solution iteration. Thus the design axialflow compressors has been developed. Ihe code
velocity diagrams can be located at the blade edges. and its capabilities are the subjects of this report.
l'he program input includes the annulus profile, The aerodynamic solution assumes stead,,'.
the _s'e_ all compressor mass flow, the pressure ratio, axisymmetric flow and uses a streamline curvature
method for calculation stations outside _he blade
and the rotalive speed. A number of parameters are
rows. rhe program is structured so th_.t the empirical
input to specify and control the blade row
aerodynan_ics and geometry. Fhere are numerous correlations (such as those for loss, de_,iation angle,
options : controlling the way information is input and incidence angle) can readily be changed when the
need or desire exists. The method of descrioing
and for specifying the amount of output. The output
from the aerodynamic solution has an o_,erall blade blading is a compromise betv, een the vast amount of
row' and compressor performance summary followed input needed for completely general blade elements
and the restrictions of simple ,,hapes. A blade
by blade element parameters for the individual blade
rows. if desired, blade coordinates in the streamwise element is defined on a conic surface with thickness
direction for internal flow analysis codes and/or :applied to a centerline that is composed of two
coordinates on plane se_.tions through blades for segments tangentially joined at a transition point.
fabrication drawings can be printed and punched. The blade angle function of each segment can be
defined with a fourthdegree polynoniial. Thickness
is prescribed by first specifying a maximum thickness
value and location. The distribution of thickness in
Introduction
each direclion from the maximum thickness location
l'he (txia[qlo'_ com_ressor i_ u_ed for aircraft is then pre_,c_ibcd _ith a t_ourthdegree polynomial.
enginc,', because it h.'._s di,_tinct configura(ion and Finally each pol._nornial coefficient is defined across
blade element_with a thirddegreepolynomial deviation angles, the layout and stacking of blade
functionof annulus
height. elements, and the realig_ment ,ff the dements,
The terminal cat_ulatiot_ phase performs the final
calculations and generates the output. Massaveraged
Compressor Design Procedures parameters for the individual and cumulative
compressor blade rows are computed and printed
The discussion of the compresso, design first. Then tabulated values of aerodynamic and
procedures is organized according to usage in the btading parameters along the station lines are
computer program; so for better orientation an computed and printed Finally blade section
operational overview of the program is given first ct_cwdinates and other sectto:, mechanical properties
(table i). Phe computer program can be divided into can be computed and printed if desired.
three major phases of calculation: (i) the input and The program is discussed in greater detail in the
initialization phase, (2) the iteration phase, and (3) following subsections.
the terminal calculation phase. In the input and
initialization phase the input data are read and
Input u_adInitbdizution
interpreted, the calculation stations are located with
estimated values for the blade edges, and streamlines The basic computational plane is the meriodional
are located on the basis of annulus area. Estimates of (rz) plane of a cylindrical coordinate system. A
stagnation temperature and pressure and ax;ai and graphic view of an example compressor
tangential velocity components are also made, for all configuration is shown in figure 1. The hub and tip
calculation points in the flow field. casing walls are fixed input. Calculation stations are
The iteration phase includes both the flow field located at the blade row leading and trailing edges
and the blade design iterations. In the flow field and at other annular It_:ations for the purpose of
iteration the equations of motion are satisfied in the locating streamlines. The input data can be classified
meridional {rz) plane for stations that are lines into two groups: general information and calculation
across the flow annulus. At the stations the equations station and blade row information. The input
of motion and overall flow continuity are satisfied parameters and options, along with the input data
with fixed values of streamline slope and curvature format, are described in appendix B. (All
for a complete computational pass across the mathematical symbols are defined in appendix A.)
annulus. After the overall flow continuity condition Additional advice on how to set up the input is given
at a calculation station is satisfied, the internal in the section User Information.
streamline intersections with the station lines are
updated by solving for the locations that give General Information
specified fractions of overall station weight flow. At
the completion of a pass through all the calculation All the general information is read in first
stations in the annulus, the new streamline locations Included are the following:
are curve fit for new streamline slope and curvature
values. (I) Compressor rotational spt_d
To insure proper location of the blade t_dge (2) Inlet flow rate
stations, most of the blade design iteration is made (3) Desired compressor pressure ratio
concurrent with the flow field iteration. This (4) Gas molecular weight
operation includes the calculation of incidence and (5) Number of streamlines
Blade edqe
Annular st,ltie, r_ x
I'ip ' \
 ,?" ". _tat0f
7 l ! " \,t
I I I '4
] I fl0w I I
i I i i i I + J" _tatof
i Uu_ L l I Z .......
i+"
I
AXIS ol r0tdhon
_a
c
tie
f iqure ,_  Reference _nd d_re(t_on nomenclature for prescr d:)ed bl,._ elen,_nl
V_ + _rVo) (2)
D=I V_ a(rl +r2)Vi
A velocity gradient procedure is used to construct
the axial velocity profile from the tip to the hub with
The loss parameter in the table is the stagnation state values, the streamline
characteristics, and the tangentia! component of
,ocos fl:_ (3) velocity held fixed. Since this inner loop of the
2o program is used many times, some effort was made
to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency for typical
streamline spacing. Reasonably good accuracy and
where _ is the loss coefficient.
stability were found to result from a rather simple
procedure. Let
P_,,  P2 (4)
P[ Pl
dVm , _ +bVm (8)
The rotor exit tangential velocity is calculated dl Vm
directly from the Euler equation
where
¢ T.,
H,  H 1= Cp dt= U2V_,  U Vo_ (5)
d In P d(rV#)
,2 (a 2 "_ 2bUlo_ a (11)
+ Rt dr  vo r dl
A twostep procedure is used in the program. First reference 2. Only a summary description is given
a, b, and V m values on the streamline j are used to herein. A blade element is laid out on a cone with a
aetermine a temporary Vm.j.I. The a and b values center axis coincident with the turbomachipe axis of
are slightly dependent on Vrn so Vmd÷ t is used to rotation. The angle and location of the cone are fixed
determine new a and _ values. The second step uses by the intersection of the streamline with the leading
the average of the old and new respective values of a and trailing.edge station lines of the blade (fig. 6).
and b to compute a final Vm. i + l value. This Vma + l The leading and trailingedge blatle angles ere
'alue will then be used as the current Vmd value for related to aerodynamic flow angles primarily through
:,e next l interval. two key correlation parametersincidence angle and
When Ivm values are set on all streamlines, flow de;'iation angle. The user has some options for the
continuity is checked by using dr ;ntegration of a specification of thes_ correlation parameters, as
piecewise cubic curve fit of p Vmr values at the already discussed in the section on data input.
streamlines. If the integrated weigh: flow is not Application of incidence and deviation angles to the
within 0.01 percent of its s.r_.citied value, the tip flow angles at the blade edges gives blade angles in
reference V m is adjvsteo and the V m profile is the local streamwis¢ direction. Corrections to
reconstructed. The method of adjusting the reference "cascade" deviation angle for a change in radius and
value of V m is shown graphically in figure 5. There axial velocity are made internally to the progn,.m.
are two solutions to the continuity equation in These corrections are presented in reference 4 to
compressible flowthe subsonic and supersonic relate deviation angle to a cascade section with
solutions. When a parabolic fit of trial solutions is equivalent circulation rather than with the same
used to get a new trim value of Vm, the lower or camber angle.
subsonic solution is always sought. The Vm Because the cone angle of the associated blade
adjustment between iterations usually is small; so element is usually a little different from these local
convergence normally is achieved in three or four streamwise blade angles, correctzons are made with
pa_es. current streamwise and radial direction derivatives.
Once convergence is achieved, the profile is back The blade element ieading and trailingedge angles
integrated to find the fraction of weight flow points are calculated frcm aerodynamic flow angles in
represented by the streamlines. These points are subroutine BLADE.
saved until the outer loop pass through a,'l the Blade element layout.There are several options
stations is completed for the purpose of relocating for controlling the blade element layout (see the
streamllines, IDEF (1ROW) parameter description in appendix B).
With all but one of these options a blade element is
Blade Design described by a prescribed thickness applied to a
prescribed centcrline (fig. 4). The centerline is treated
A blade is defined from stacked blade elements. as two segments that are joined at the reference
The I_rocedure for laying out blade elenlents and transition point. The rate of change of the local blade
stacking them for blade definition is given in detail in a;_gle with path distance, K=f(S) (fig. 4), is controlled
by a fourthdegree polynomial for each segment. The
coefficients for the polynomials are input, but they
are scaled in the program to match blade element
b aI_c'0q 'C . S:j_rs0ql( inlet and outlet angles. The fourthdegree polynomial
s_!ution_SOl u_,on
Uqwrapped comcal
:g"
o !t'_roue, h f,rsl / I _ \
R _ urlace,
C_ jJ \
aS
2 2
 bS 2  cS 3  dS 4 (12)
l_ Axis of rot3fion
The input coefficient_ are scaled to meet the leading
and trailingedge ellipses at the appropriate tangency
points. The control routine for the blade element Figure ?.  Locafion of blade sections for blade element
layout in t_e program is CONIC. stacking adjustments.
Blade element stacking.The rotating parts of
turbomachinery normally operate at high stress levels
because of high ¢:ntrifugai force. The high recomputed and adjusted if the stacking axis lean
centrifugal acceleration also causes stress from option is activated through the input data.
bending moments to be very sensitive to blade
element location. Thus it behooves the designer, Terminal Calculations and Output
first, to be reasonably accurate in the stacking
computation and, second, to try to minimize stresses The program output of an example two_tage
that can be easily reducednamely, those from the compressor is shown in table III. In general the
steadystate bending. The blade bending moments output is printed shortly after its computation so that
from aerodynamic forces can be counterbalanced by large arrays of data are not stored. Data are printed
centrifugal force moments with slight blade lean in from each of the major phases of
both the (rz) and (rO) planes. computationinput, iteration, and terminal. The
The reference line for stacking purposes is a radial first information (table III (a)) is the input data,
line through the hub stacking reference point (fig. 7). which are printed directly from input routines in very
The sections used for stacking alignment are planes nearly the order in which the input was read.
normal to this reference line in space. Such planes are The second major part of output (table IiI (b)),
used because their centers of area are essentially the from the iterative phase of coml_ utation, is printed to
centers of centrifugal force also. The stacking line is help the user monitor the solution. Although these
a line that can be leaned from the reference line at the data have little value once the solution is converged,
hub reference point. For alignment purposes the they are quite helpful in disclosing bad input and in
planes pass through the stacking line intersection of finding sources of problems when solutions arc not
blade elements (fig. 1). Blade sections are defined by achieved.
interpolation across blade elements. When the For computational stability a station aspect ratio,
section center of area does not match the stacking defined as (r trh)/(z/+l zt), is limited to 7 for
line, the corresponding blade element is translated streamline fits. When the limit is exceeded, particular
and rotated on its cone for the stacking adjustment. stations (according to the priorities set forth in the
Normally the adju:_tments decrease by about an order section User Information) are eliminated from the
of magnitude for successive passes through the curve fils used to locate streamlines. The first data
stacking procedure. For each pass the stacking axis shown from the iteration phase are a table of such
lean angles in both the (rz) and (r0) planes are calculation station information (table II (b_). On the
left is a list of calculationstationlocations used to Stacking
compute streamlines, along with the ,_:ociated oo+nt_ _
aspect ratios. On the right is the input list of _tation
locations and aspect ratios. When blade rows are
s::acked, ti_e blade edge s:ations are relocated, and
thus the station aspect ratios change. After the first
stacking on iteration 4, the station aspect rat!.s are
rechecked and changes in the station list are made if
H \ /.,_/_.L"
necessary.
Arrays of axial velocities throughout the flow field
for each iteration are the bulk of the output printed
from the iterative phase of computation. These data
are useful for observing solution stability since the Figure 8.  Coordinate system for blade section
solution convergence criterion is based on changes of output data.
axial velocity between successive iterations. Some
compressor overall parameters are shown above the
velocity arrays. Parameters included are the overall If the input options call for fabrication
values of input pressure (PR), current computed coordinates, they are printed after all the
pressure ratio (CPR), enthalpy increase (DHC), and aerodynamic output. The coordinates are printed in
ideal enthalpy increase (DHI). tabular form with four sections on a page, as shown
When the aerodynamic solution is converged, the in table Ill(c). The length coordinate L is a distance
overall parameters for individual bldde rows and the along the chord line, with the most forward point
overall cumulative values in the compressor are being zero (fig. 8). The pressure and suctionsurface
omputed and printed. Overall temperature and height values H a and Hs, respectively, are referenced
pressure values are calculated by mass averaging their from the chord line. Surface height values are given
equivalent enthalpy values. The cumulative forward for at least 20 roundvalue increments of L; also
axial thrust is the axial force exerted on the rotating surface coordinates are given for three specific values
shaft by aerodynamic forces from the hub inlet of Lthe blade trailing edge and the leading and
station of the first blade row to the local point. The trailingedge ellipse tangency points with the
thrust force shown for individual blade rows is the surfaces.
axial force on the shaft from the trailing edge of the A blade section's properties are shown above its
upstream blade to the trailing edge of this blade row. table of coordinates (table IlI(c)). The blade section
3ince the blade forces on stationary blade rows act on radial location, the L and H stacking point values,
the casing, the thrust value on the rotating shaft is and the section setting angle are given to locate and
simply the static pressure force on the tapered shaft orient the blade section. The blade section centerof
in the forward axial direction. Effects of cavities area coordinates, section area, minimum and
below the hub flow path are not included since maximum moments of inertia through the center
undetermined inforniation about seal locations and area, orientation angle of the maximum moment of
pressure differer, ces would be needed. The gas inertia with respect to the axial direction, section
bending moments are values for a single blade. The torsion constant, and twist stiffness are all useful
bending moments are referenced to the stacking axis information for design and stress analysis.
intersection with the flow path wall from which the After all the fabrication coordinates for a given
blades are attached. blade row are printed, the blade section coordinates
Sets of calcu'.ation station data for streamlines are presented in another orientation that may be
across the channel follow the overall data. For all more useful for further flow analysis. With a
stations, velocity components, streamline slope and stacking axis reference, coordinates for the same
curvature, and both stagnation and static values of blade sections ate given in the axial and tangential
temperature and pressure are given. For stations at directions.
blade row edges, additional information is computed
and printed. These parameters are (I) a complete
description of velocity triangles, (2) definition of User Information
blade elements, (3) relations between aerodynamic
arid blade angles. (4) aerodynamic performance Since earlier '+,ections of the repor: di;cuss the
parameters, (5) streamline choke area margin, (6) input, output, and main centers of program control,
local blade force intensity in pot:nds per radial inch this discu.3sion is directed at the user who is trying to
on a blade, and (7) blade edge direction derivatives get the program on his computer and to make it run
r dfldr efficiently. Some facts about the program as well as
10
some advice about the input are given.
curve fits of these intersections. The consequence of
The code, which is written in FORTR:kN, takes this procedure is that the number of iterations .nd
about 80,000 decimal words of computer stt_rage. the program convergence characteristics are
The call relation among the subroutines is shown dependent on the calculation station location
graphically in figure 9. Note _hat the tickmarks on
although the final solution, in general, is not very
the routine boxes in the figure mean that there are
dependent on the location of the calculation stations.
other call lines to the routine. These lines are shown
The user can reduce the number of iterations and
on the other part of the figure where the routine
hence the program running time with good placement
name is repeated. The program runn!ng time on
of catc_alation station_. The first calculation station
either _ Univac 1110 or an IBM 36067 is about 2
shouJd be placed upstream of the first blade row a
minutes for a singlestage compressor and about 5
distance at least equal to two or three annulus
minutes for a fivestage compressor. Several of the
heights. The best farupstream inlet condition is
key indices in COM/_ION/SCALAR; are described
straight axial flo_, with no wall curvature. Less
in the following tabulation.
iterations are usually needed for more widely spaced
calculation stations; however, enough iterations
Index Description should L'e used tc properly locate the streamlines.
Calculation station spacing can vary somewhat along
calculation station index after the annulus biat, as a general guideline, successive
preliminary calculations are station increments should not be changed more than
35 percent.
completed. The program is
dimensioned for 50 calculation stations When calculation stations are input close together,
and 20 blade rows, of which only 10 only some of them will be used for locating the
can be rotors. Each blade row accounts streamlines if the station aspect ratio is above 7.0.
for two calculation stationsone at This is done for program stability and convergence
the leading edge of the blade and the toward a solution. If the user does not specify which
other at the trailing edge. Rotors, stations to eliminate from the streamline location
stators, and anriu_ar calculation procedure, the program has logic to do so when the
stations can be put together in ar, y station aspect ratio exceeds 7.0. The priority of
combination with the following stations kept for streamline location is as follows: (1)
constraints: The number of stations blade row exit stations are always used, (2) blade row
cannot exceed 50. There must be at inlet stations are kept if the blade row aspect ratio is
least four annular stations ahead of the less than 7.0, and (3) an annular station is kept if
first blade row and at least three neither adjacent station is closer than the aspect ratio
tolerance.
annular stations behind the last blade
row. The user can also specify that particular annular
stations not be used for stream!ine definition through
IROTOR rotor index the alphanumeric station designation. The program
looks for ROTO ior rotor, STAT for stator, or
!ROW blade row index ANNU for regalar annular. Any other combinations
of letters, numbers, or symbols designates the station
J streamline index. Streamlines are as the extraannular type. All the computations that
numbered from one at the tip. are done for regular annular stations also are done
for the extraannular stations. The only difference is
K loss set index for subroutine INPUT that the new streamline locations at that station are
not used for the curve fit for streamline parameters.
When the new curve fit streamli.es are established,
As indicated in the table at least four annular stations
their intersections with the station line are found and
are expected upstream of the first blade row and at
the streamline parameters at that point are used in
least three downstream of the last blade row. the equationofmotion calculations.
Additional annular stations can be located between
qhe arrays of points that describe the hub and tip
blade rows but not within blade rows; that is, not
casing contours should extend at least from the
between the inlet and outlet stations of a given blade furthest upstream calculation station to the furthest
row.
dow,_stream one. There should be enough data
Streamline intersections of station liner are
points to adequately define the desired casing
determined by integrating velocity profiles at station contours with a spline curve fit.
lines to the specified mass flow frat dons. Streamline The input boundary layer blockage factors have an
slope and curvature are determined from streamwise
option. A displacement thickness from the wall can
11
be specified instead of blockage as a fraction of where
annulus height. This is done by using a negative
number the magnitude of ,,vhich is the value of
displacement thickness.
A total pressure profile can be input in place of
losses. Although the way to activate this option has
been discussed earlier, its full effects need to be or the fraction of passage height at the blade row
understood. This option is activated for a particular exit. Because these coefficients are stored into the
blade row by using zero or a negative number in locations of loss sets 4 and 5, those loss sets are
ILOSS (IROW). When the option is activated, an destroyed for the run even if read in
additional data card is required for that blade row When the pressure level is specified instead of
(fig. 12(a)). The first parameter PTT(IROW), or Pt losses for the last blade row of the compressor, there
in the equation, is the blade row tip (larger radius) is an overspecification of data because the inlet
total pressure in psia. The five other parameters are pressure and compressor pressure ratio are input too.
polynomial constants Pl to Ps; therefore a total in computation the pressure ratio predominates; so
pressure at some other radial location is
:Le pressure levels will be adjusted as necessary. Also
note that when the pressure level is input, the total
P=Pt(I.O+ PIR + P2R 2 +P3R 3 +P4 R4 + P5R 5) temperature profile must also be input (table I!).
PUT
FRATIO I
12
q
COORD
OUTV
DH
CONIC
(b)Subroutines
usedfor terminalcalculations.
Figure9.  Concluded.
I..1
Appendix A
Symbols
annulus area; also streamtube channel area U local blade velocity, ft / sec
A
polynomial constants for as a function of S // generalized variat_le in a differential
Ai
equat ion
o sonic velocity, ft/sec; also a coefficient in
velocity gradient equation; also a 1,," velociW, ft/sec
polynomial coefficient U generalized variable in a differential
b coefficient in velocity gradient equation; equation
also a polynomial coefficient W weight flow, Ib/sec
C constant Z axial distance, in.
Ci polynomial constants for conic radius as a angle of streamline with reference to axial
function of S direction, deg
c blade chord, in.; also a polynomial flow angle relative to meridional d_rection,
coefficient deg
specific heat function for constant 3' blade chord angle, deg
cp(t)
pressure, ft/sec 2 *R 5 deviation angle, deg
D blade element diffusion factor angular coordinate on blade element layout
cone, rad
D i.i= i, o, simpli fled nomenclat ure, D i=  (C, )/(I_R t
f t,::tion force, ft/sec 2 K blade angle relative to local conic ray, deg
H stagnation enthalpy, ft/sec 2 local angle of cak.ulation station line with
reference to radial direction, deg
Hp pressuresurface height, in.
p static density, slug/ft 3
Hs suctionsurface height, in.
o blade element .olidity, chord/tangential
h static enthalpy, ft/sec 2
spacing
i integer index; also incidence angle, deg
r time, sec
J imeger index loss coefficient
k curvature in curvilinear coordinate system,
ft  1 ; also an integer index Subscripts:
L distance along chord line, in. ca center of area
l distance along calculation station line, in. I calculation station index
M Math number i ideal value, as by an isentropic process
m streamline direction in meridional plane, J streamhne index
in.; also an integer index /e leading edge
streamline normal direction in meridional streamline direction in meridional plane;
m
plane, in. also m&ximum thickness
P stagnation pressure, Ib/ft2 streamline normal direction in meridionai
P static pressure, lb/ft 2 plane
R conic coordinate radius, in. o initial value
R i.i= 1.¢_ series coefficients for polynomial, sp stacking point
Rt/R=I +RIS+R2S 2 + R3S 3+... I transition point
Rrn radius of curvature in meridional plane, ft le trailing edge
_R gas constant, ft Ib/slug *R 0 circumferential direction
r radius from axis of rotation, in. 1 blade row inlel
S blade element path distance, in. 2 blade roy,' outlet
s entropy, ft/sec 2 *R
Superscript :
F stagnation temperatur¢, *R
( }' relative to rotor
t static temperature, *R; also blade elemen:
thickness, in. ( )" flow at sonic condition {M' : 1.0)
ORIGINAL PAGE IS
OF POOR QUALI'W
Appendix B
PR MOLE
R O T
{ TRY!
C PCO( 1 ) C PCO( 2 I
CPCO(4 )
FLOFRA(2
TO , . 2
p t) 2
'2
I P NTI P)
X T P ( 2 )
RTI p( 2 )
Xlt t'BI 2 )
R H I" B ( 3 t  _  R II U B N 1t I" 1t I
1{1t Ula, I 2 )
. . . / \..
o • * • \ ................
ol • • ..... •   *
16
(a_Annularstations.
(bl Rotors.
Ic) Statior_arybladerows.
AB This parameter completes the incidence TABLE option discussed above. To A,_
reference incidence to *he suction surface at the leading edge, the eight spaces of
the card for AA and AB must read
TABI.E SS
,...._¢_ __.v..._
AA AB
(If AB is anything other than E SS, ;he incidence angles will be referenced to the
leadingedge centerline.)
ACF(1,1 ROW), polynomial coefficients for linear coefficient of blade element centerline an_le FI0.4
ACF(2,1ROW), equation for front segment, _=_1+uS+bS2 +cS _+dS _ with
a = ACFI + ACF2.R + ACF3*R + ACF4*R _, where R = (rr r)/(r_  r_)
ACF(3,1ROW),
ACF(4.11_OW) fraction of passage height at blade leading edge
17
BL_F' (4, IR OWl
D CtF(4' 1ROW)
,DCtR (i , IR O_t
CCR ( 3, IR O W) CCR(4, IROW
ETE(3, IROW) ETE(4, IROW)
ETE( 2,IROW)I
ELE(3,1R OWl E L I':(4, IROW) ETE(I, IROW):
i ,
BTFI2, ' IR ow)l BTF(3, ]ROW) ;BT F(4, I ROW)
_TF(3,1R OW)[A T F(4, IROW) BT!F (1, 1 ROW)
D TIR (1, I R_O I\V) DTR (3, I Sq O %_:) DTR (4, IROW)
" TR (_,l R OW) CTR(4, I'ROW) DTR(i2,I ROW)
(cIIfIDEF(IROW) > O.
X ('I'T( 2 ) X t2u T ( 3
Xcl'r(lo)
X CI''F ( 2 )
• ° .........................
Figure 12.  Input data format of additional blade row information if needed by the o_ions.
Description Format
Parameter
ALIM(IROW) For a data set designated ROTOR, ALIM(IROW) is the minimum allowable
relative flow angle (deg) leaving the rotor hub. For a data set designated
STATOR, ALIM(IROW) is the maximum Mach number entering the stator at
the hub. The program will reduce the stage energy addition to satisfy these
conditions if a limit criterion has been reached during computation. If ao
aerodynamic limits have been reached in some other stages of a multistage
compressor, the program will try to pick up the energy loss of the limiting stage
in the stages free of aerodynamic limits. If all stages have reached some
aerodynamic limit, the overall compressor pressure ratio is degraded to get all
stages within the specified aerodynamic limits. The most efficient way to run the
program is to specify the stage energy addition levels so than aerodynamic limits
are not reached or at least not reached in a drastic fashion.
18
Parameter Description Format
ATF( 1.1 ROW), polynomial coefficients for first coefficient a of blade element thickness equation FIO.4
ATFt2.1ROWJ, forward of maximum thickness point
ATFO.IROW),
t tm { S
ATF(4,1 ROW) 5C
 = 3,.c+  a_, S_,  S  '_S 0 .i 2",
.... S o+/,  bS 2  cS 3  dS 4
with a=ATFI+ATF2.R+ATF3"R2+ATF4"R 3, where R is fraction of
passage height at blade leading edge and So is distance from maximum
thickness point to centerline intersection of edge ellipse (fig. 4)
BB deviation angle option for blade design purposes. Interpretable options are 2D, A4
3D, TABLE, CARTER, and MODIFY. Noninterpretable input is set to the
2D option. For the 2D and 3D eptions, deviation angles are determined by
procedures of reference 1 for the corresponding option. The CARTER and
MODIFY options are now the same in the program. They indicate the use of a
Carter's rule with a modification when the front and rear segments of a blade
element have different camber rates, The TABLE option means that the blade
deviation angles for the blade elements will be input in :abular form,
DEV(IROW,J), at the end of the data set.
hub blockage factor for each calculation station; fraction of the station annular F10.4
BH(I)
area to be allowed for hub annular surface boundary layer blockage. The hub
streamline will be displaced away from the physical wall a distance that gives the
specified annular fraction. Negative input values are used as the magnitude of
boundary layer displacement in inches.
rotor material density (Ib/in3). If a positive nonzero number is input, the blade FI0.4
BMATL(I ROTOR)
will be stacked so as to balance out gas bending morn.mrs with the ceatritugal
force moment for the material density. Because the hub stacking point stays
fixed, the tip location is moved if necessary.
19
Parameter DescripTion Format
_t
2¢ 2c ',a( ,s,,s,,s,,
= !,, S )
+ 2=S., bS2¢S3dS4
polynomial coefficients for cubic coefficient of blade element centerline angle FI0,4
CCF(I,IROW),
CCF(2,1ROW), equation for front segment, _ = Kt +aS + bS 2 + cS _ + dS 4
CCF(3,1ROW), with c = CCFI + CCF2*R + CCF3*R 2 + CCF4R 3. where
CCF(4,1ROW) R = (rt  r)/(rt  rh)fraction of passage height at blade leading edge
constants to define ratio of blade element chord to tip chord on projected FI0.4
CHORDA(IRO_'),
CHORDB(IROW), plane
CHORDC(IROW) C
...... ! + R.CHORDA(IROW) + R 2 *CHORDB(IROW)
Cttp
+ R ?' "CHORDC(IROW)
CHOKE(IROW) desired minimum value of (A/A')1.0, where A/A* is the ratio of local
streamtube area in the channel to the area required when M' = 1.0 within a
blade passage. If zero is input, no adiustment v,'ill be attempted within the
program. For input values greater than zero,incidence angle will be increased as
necessary up to a maximum of + 2.0* on the leading edge of the suction surface
in an attempt to give the specified choke margin at the covered channel entrance
if the minimum occurs a_ the channel inlet.
+ CPCO(5)*/,t + CPCO(6)" T $
.m
Format
Parameter Description
CRENGY desired cumulative energy addition fraction through particular rotor to total FI0.4
(IROTOR) energy addition of compressor, fhus the fractions are progressively larger
positive numbers through successive rotors. The last rotor must have
CRENGY = 1.0 to meet the input pressure ratio. If a value greater than 2.0 is
input, the value is interpreted as a rotor exit total temperature level in degrees
Rankine instead of the cumulative energy addition fraction. In the preexecution
phase of computation the input temperature is converted and used as an
appropriate energy addition value.
CTF(I,IROW), polynomial coefficients for cubic coefficient of blade element thickness 1:10.4
CTF(2,1ROW), equation forward of maximum thickness point
CTF(4,1ROW)
CTF(3,IROW), 2c
t I2c
m +a ( _/_o S_f_o
+ _ S \ !_bS 2 _cS3 _dS 4
2_/S o /
with c=CTFI+CTF2 "R+CTF3"R2+CTF4°R3' where R is fraction of
passage height at blade leading edge
DCF(I,IROW), polynomial coefficients for fourth degree coefficient of blade element centeriine FI0.4
DCF(2,IROW), angle equation for front segment, K= _t + aS+ bS 2 + cS 3 + dS'*
DCF(3,1ROW), with d= DCF1 + DCF2*R + DCF3*R 2 + DC F4*R3 , where
DCF(4,IROW) R = (rt r)/(rt rh)fraction of passage height at blade leading edge
DEV(IROW,J) deviation angle (deg) that can be sl'ecified by option. If the tabular option is FI0.4
used, a value is expected for each streamline staldng from the tip.
DFTAB(K,J,I) blade element diffusion factor (D factor) for which profile losses are )abulated. F8.4
Five values are input for each streamline; that is, K always has values from 1 to
5, J is the streamline index, and I is the loss set index. The maximum number of
sets is 5. Because Dfactor values normally fall between 0.3 and 0.7, values of
0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 for DFTAB on a streamline can be implied by leaving
the DFTAB values blank. As a consequence of this Ol:tion the DFTAB cannot
be exactly 0.0 when K = 1 if you do not want the implied values of DFTAB.
DLIM(IROW) aerodynamic Dfactor limit In a data set designated ROTOR this limit applies at F10.4
the tip streamline. For a STATOR data set the limit applies at tee hub. The
program operates with this limit criterion in the same way as it did with
ALIM(IROW).
21
Parameter Description Format
I)LOS(I_',J.I) profile loss parameter ,_, cos _; ;2o corresponding to DFTAB(K,J,) reference F8.4
arrays
DTF(I ,IROW), polynomial coefficient for fourth coefficient of blade element thickness equation FIO.4
DTF(2, !ROWL forward of maximum thickness point
D FF(3,1ROW),
DTF(.t,IROW) 2_'t= t _"_ +a (2 S) t,s',.s3ds 4
with d= DTFI + DTF2*R+ DTF3*R 2 + DTF4.R 3, whole R is fraction of
passage height at blade leading edge
DTR(I .IROW). same as above for rear segment with same R FI0.4
DTR(2,1ROW),
DTR(3,1ROW),
DTR(4,1ROW)
TABLE LE
EE EB
ETEiI,IROW), coefficients for trailingedge ellipse ratio of semimajor to semiminor axes minus 1
ETEi2,1ROW), b
ETE(3,1ROW), e .... 1 =ETEI +ETE2°R + ETE3°R 2 +ETE4*R 3
a
ETEi4,1ROW)
where R is fraction of passage height at blade traiEng edge
FIOFRA{I) cumulative weightflow sprit between streamlines starting from tip. NTUBES, F10.4
which is NSTRM1, values are read. Thus the first value is greater than zero and
succeeding values must increase to 1.0 in order for the last value to account for
the accumulation of flow for all streamtubes.
FI.O_ (1) ma_s flow (Ib sec) entering the fir.< calculation station FI0.4
Parameter Descript
ion Forrnat
,LOSS(I
ROW) designation of which profile loss set (I variable in DLOS(K,J,I)) to use with 15
particular blade row. If the input value of ILOSS(IROW) is less than or equal to
zero, a total pressure level is input in place of losses. The pressme is input with
the parameters shown in the first option of figure 12. These parameters are
stored into the locations of loss sets 4 and 5; so those loss sets are not available
for use with any blade row'.
INC(IROW,J) incidence angle (deg) that can be input by option. If the tabular option is used, a FI0.4
value is expected foi each streamline starting frc,m the tip.
NHUB number of points input to describe hub genmetric boundary (maximum of 40)
NTIP number of points input to describe tip geometric boundary (maximum of 40).
NXCUT number of sections across blade for which fabrication coordinates are desired. If I10
zero, the program will set the number of XCUT's on the basis of aspect ratio.
For all positive values the program will set appropriate locations to represent the
blade. Negative values of NXCUT(IROW) trigger an option to read cards for
the XCUT values. The number of values expected for a blade row is the absolute
value of NXCUT(IROW).
23
Parameter Description Format
COORD options, the program designs and stacks that particular blade row.
With the DESIGN option only velocity diagram information is printed, but the
blade leading and trailingedge locations are for the stacked blade. The
COORD option includes the printout of blade section properties and
coordinates for fabricatien.
A4
OPM additional output optio;_.s in effect if OP is DESIGN or COORD
!
Card column Additional output
7!
Offdesign punch
TSONIC punch
Blade element channel microfilm
M and O options
M and T options
A4
OPO Additional output options in effect when OP is COORD
PHI(IROW,J) ratio of inlet segment turning to outlet segment turning (ratio of FI0.4
(dK/dS) l/!(dK/dS)2 !) for a blade element. If input values are expected by use of
ihe tabular option, the data cards go with the optional cards at the end of the
data set for each blade rov¥. A vab_e is expected for each streamline beginning
from the t_p.
PRA(IROW), coefficients for polynomial equation to define profile behind blade row. Behind FI0.4
PRB(IROW), a rotor the pressure ratio profile is specified as
PRC(IROW),
P I.O+PRA,R,_PRB,R2+PRC,R3+PRD,R4+PRE,R 5
PRD(IROW),
PRE(IROW) Pt
where Pt is the stagnation pressure at the rotor exit tio and R=
(rt r)/(rt rh)a fraction of passage height. When LPRA(IROW)I> 100.0,
another option is activated. The input profile is for a temperature profile T/T t
instead of a pressure profile P/Pt. The data value of PRA(IROW) is extracted
from the input value by adding or subtracting 100's untit the remainder is in the
range of  100.0 to I00.0. At a stationary blade row the polynomial is for the
blade row exit tangential velocity profile in ft/see.
V0 = PRA/R 2 + PRB/R + PRC + PRD°R + PRE,R 2 where R = r/r t
PO(l,J) general stagnation pressure array in Ib'ft 2 wi*hin p;ogram. The I index is the F10.4
station index and J is the streamline index. Only (PO{I,J), J = I, NSTRM)
values are input; that is, the streamline value for the first calculation station.
The inpu', values are read in 'mits of psia.
When blade edge coordinates are input, some of the other PO(i,J) locations are F8.4
used for temporary storage of the input values of radius.
FI0.4
PR desired overall compressor pressure ratio
24
Parameter Description Format
PTT(IROW), coefficients that describe blade row exit profile when it is input as an option. FI0.4
PTC(1,IROW), PTT is the blade row exit pressure in psia at the tip (highest radius). The other
PTC(2,IROW), five values are polynomial coefficients for
PTC(3,IROW),
PTC(4,IROW), P= PTT*(I.0 + PTCI*R + PTC2*R 2 + PTC3*R 3 + PTC4*R 4 + PTC5.R 5
PTC(5,1ROW)
where R = (r t  r)/(r t  rh)fraction of passage height at blade row ex_:
RHUB(I) radius coordinates of a set of points that define geometric hub boundary Fl0.4
(maximum of 40)
RTIP(1) radius coordinates of set of points that define geometric tip boundary (maximum FI0.4
of 40)
SOLID(IROW) tip solidity of a blade row (ratio of chord to circumferential spacing) FI0.4
TALE(IROW), polynomial coefficients of ra:io of blade element leadingedge radius to chord, Fl0.4
TBLE(IROW), where tte/c = TALE + TBLE*R + TCLE*R 2 + TDLE*R 3
TCLE(IROW), where R (r t  r)/(rt  rh)fraction of passage height at blade leading edge
TDLE(_ROW)
TAMAX(IROW), polynomial coefficients of ratio of blade element maximum thickness to chord, F10.4
TBMAX(IROW), where tmax/c = TAMAX + TBMAX*R + TCMAX*R 2 + TDMAX*R a
TCMAX(IROW),
TDMAX(IROW)
TATE(IROW), polynomial coefficients of ratio of blade element trailingedge radius to chord, F10.4
TBTE(IROW), where tte/c=TATE + TBTE*R + TCTE*R 2 + TCTE*R 3
TCq E(IRO'U), where R (rt r)/(rt rh)fraction of passage height at blade trailing edge
TDTE('.I(OW)
TILT(IROW) angle of stacking axis tilt (deg) in circumferential direction (rO plane). The angle
is positive in the direction of rotor rotation. If ]TILT(IROW)[ > 100.0, a curved
stacking line is specified according to r rref = C(sin 3'  sin 7ref), and the code
of the TILT(IROW) is
For example: 12332.65 gives a hub angle of 23* and a tip angle c * 32.65 °.
TO(I ,J) general stagnation temperature array in program. Only (TO(I,J), J=l, FI0.4
NSTRM) values are input; that is the streamline value for the first calculation
station. The input values are in units of OR.
25
P;I._II¢ L_f I)cscrip! ion i,'ol'illal
f R ANStl Ri)_V..I IocaliOll of tl_ll!Silion poilll on l'ilildt" elt'illelll ct'ntt'rlille as fraclioil of blade, 1:10.4
+leltlc'llt chord. If inpul _,llues arc cxpt'cled bv i_se of lilt" labtilar opliOll, lilt"
dala caids go _iltl lilt" Ol+lional c_irds al the end of lh+ dala sol for ca_'h blade
io+++. A +alu+ is cxpeclcd for each slrqilmline beginning flonl lilt" lip.
V itt{l..ll leneral tangenliai ,'onlponclll of velocity ,irrav ill prollraill+ I)nl._ l%,'l'tt{I,J). t:!0.4
J I, NSI'RM) vahi.s arc inpul, Ihal is, lilt" slrcantlin¢ vahic for lhc firsl
calcnlaliOll sialioil, l'he {q!+lll x+allies bare nilils of fl _ec+
lil,'hen blade edge coordinales are iilpil_, _t'llle of Ihe oilier V ltl(I.J) Iocalions t:14.4
;ire nsed for lelnporary slorag+ of l lie axial c'oordinalfs of lh+ poinls.
XcLrr{IC) radial location of blade se_lion planes. Ib'helher or not dala cards are read l\_r FI0.4
values of Xt'[I Y(l(.') for a blade row is controlled by the value of NXCILI'I" tit').
Any XCLIT{IC, cards are read in an oulpui routine, therefore they must follow
all cards read in subroutine INPLIT: thai is, lhcy follow the ANNULAR card
t\w the last calculation station. I'hcre is no index identifying the data with a
particular blade row, _o the dala sets for the blade rows are expected in the
order that one would see i he blade rows in moving Ihrough i he compressor from
the inlet. Start the set of points for each blade r_,w on a new card. it is
preferable, but ilot necessary, to list the XCUI(IC) '.,w a blade row ill order
slatting front the lip.
XFtl!t](i) axial coordinales of set of points that define geometric hub boundary. [he axial FI0.4
ellelll of lilt" coordinates illusl al least reach the first ,:nd lasl calculation
slalions, lllt" hnb ¢oordiilales illUSl have lilt" san:e rcfel_'l,c+ oiigin as Olher
input axial coordinalcs, Ihal _s, casing, i+lad¢ edge, aild stacking lille
coordinates, l'h¢ ilUlllber Of points irlpUl should he 4sit .,;,4It
X IIP(I) axial coordnlales of set of points lhal define g¢olnelri¢ lip l, oundary (See FI0.4
X ! ! t t11(1) for addil ional ¢ollu;icn! _. )
ltlLlli(ll bhlde data set hubaxial cot+rdittal¢. When the data set is a blade rather than :in !:10.4
ANNIIi AR SlilliOn, ZlttlBti) is lilt" axial location of the bhide slacking line al
I tie hub.
/M AN(IRI)XV..I) Iocalion of niaxiinulll thickness poinl as frilClion of blade eienlenl chord. If inpul FIO.4
values are expecled by use of lhe labnhir oplions, Ihe dlilii caids go wiih Ihe
Oplioual cards ai Ihe end of the data sel for eal'h blade row. A vahie is expected
for each streamline beginning fronl tile tip with a leadingedge or Iransition
poinl refcrencc according IO ODlion [St_ :B). %l,'ith a Irallsilion point ref¢l'ence
Ihe _ahles inpul art (m  f). l"
. ... +7$::__"
ZTIP blade data set tipaxial coordinate. (.',lee ZHtIBIII for sitllilar additional FIO.4
COlllnlenls. )
20
Appendix C
dlt 8tt
= ,'In ¢o.%; + ,_) G'II) dl = 8ncos(,_ + X) * __msintt+ + X)
dl
d 8 ,In _'_ dm
therefore
dl= On dl +,tin dl
;) a i_ ds I
= i)n cost,+ +,X) + am sin(. + M (CI2) an = di ,'o.,,t. i x) tCl._}
When equation t('12)is applied It+ the other normal rite applicat ion o f equalions ((."12) throulith tC 15)
dc,i_ :ltixt's of O+lU;ttlOt tL" 10). tile follov,'inl,t rehltiotl to IL'IO) gi,_cs
dex.'lops:
i),v I
k,,,  ,ira Rm (t'l')
+
where R m is the meridiotlal plane streanliine radius
of curvature. Substituting equation (/,'17) into (('16)
_.t,_t iC,,1 h+le
yields the following form for the metidional veh_'ity
gr_tdient:
l "2 ds
+ R.,nt Cosl.,_ + X) tdl (CI8)
dp =dht ds (C19) tR t t
p
d dt .... = dt
"_'P= ( f_t
P )ct,(tk.lt dt t Ot t
cE(T) dT c eft) dt
+ T di t dl
f"t, ae
P
= LtR frt "eY_!
t
at
The variable (,cpit)/t) is not a direct function of path
distance; it is a functiop of temperature alone.
Therefore the partial derivative with respect to
! r c_e_Oat
in p tp= _ f t , distance must be zero. Thus the derivative of the
integral can be expressed in ',erms of gradients at the
hmits so that
P =exp[ I T
dt = '.....
d'] t T di t di
Equation (CI9) used as a derivative with path
distance can be written as
1 dH ! dh (C23)
= r dt t dt
ds 1 dh I dp (C21)
d! t dt Üt dl
29
ds ! dh _ dP ! dH ! dh so equation (C26) can be written as
,_?= t 3/ F d1 + _aT  / d_
! Dh
.... +V.V=0 (C27)
ds 1 dH tR dP i dH I dP a 2 Dt
(C24)
dl = r a  P ,ti = _" a1 ,'01" di
+ Vrnkm + Vnkn =0
V_ t dH (Rt dP
+ R,,, cos(o,+ X) _ _T + _ _
Outside the blade rows the flow is assumed to be
axisymmetric and steady. Also, because there is no
A rearrangement with all the state property terms velocity component normal to the streamline, the
together gives equation reduces to
V m 8h 1 8(r Vm)
dVm Tt]dH _ dlnP d(rV O) a2_8m+ r am " + Vmkm = 0 (C28)
v., di = (, Y "d/ r at
+ t_t di....I:#...........
H=h+ V_t + v2
# (C29)
(C25)  2
ldo
_ Dt + _" I'= 0 (C26) + r o_
0 = #(r Ve) _ Or I,'0 
am 8m 3m
However.
Rearrangemen: gi_'es
I Do I Dh
3l"e V 0 Or V0
o Dt a 2 Dt ....= .........r 8m =  r sin _ (C31)
8m
3o
Substituting equation (C34) into (('33) gives
Substituting
equation
(C31)into(C30)gives
_M 2  1_
da 1 ac_ sin(o_ + h)
/=0.1 11"pl lOiM 1
an dl _=os(ot+ )0 am :os(a + X)
31
Appendix D
be found by integrating the differential equation for cos _ = 1  _ + 4_  6_+ 8_'" " (D3)
that component
(D2)
cos,,i !, +! !2s+[ !3s"+I ],s3 +... (04)
The problem is that a trigonometric function of a
polynomial is not readily integratable in closed form.
However, the eunction can be expanded in series
form and integrated term by term. Of course the
series is infinite but it is convergent within the range
, S 3 S 4
of our application. In the following presentation
enough development is given to show the form of the
+! _T+!i4¥...
series. Upon application in the program a tolerance is
used so that no more terms than necessary are When terms of similar coefficients are combined, the
calculated. following form evolves:
+bsin_t  S3
3 + a22 S55 a4!4 S77
a3 S6 as Sa '_
+bcos_t a_S't + 3! 6 5! 8"'"
a2 S7 a4 S 9
+ b2
T cos _, (  $5
T + 2 7 4! 9 '"
+ h2
_.sinx t ( a S6
_ a3
3! SS
8 "'" )
32
+ b3 .
_fs_n,,,, ( S¢
.:_ a'
2 S_...
_ )
+ b_(
_:COS_:t t/ s_
_.V' • •)
3!
+ _._,:os,,, _...
a4 c _ S Io
+bcos,,, I c So a:cS
6 +i_ s + (a_2 4! / 10
+bsinxt act + 2 3! / 9 +
ad 2 S 12 a6d SI3
2 2 6! 13
,,,,,:s,,
3!(2) 14 +  ,,,)s,,]
+ ._] 15 J
33
b2
_ sin _t ( d $9
9 a2d
2 Sll
11 + a4d
4! Sl3
i3 ad2 2 $14
14 a6d
6! S15
15
_ b4 {
_.. cos Kt\aaffS 14 +... )
+ b5
_COS_t ( diT
st5 + • • • )
+csinK r S4
 _+ a22 S6
6 a4!4 S88 + "'" )
+ccosK t $5
a_+ a3!3 S77 a5!_¢ S99 +''" )
+ c2
_cos _, (  ST7a2S9
+ Y _ + "" )
cZ
+_sin_t ( a_+...
SS )
+ccosr t S8
d_+_ a2d S10+
lO a4d
4! S12
12 + ad2 2 S13
13 ° ° "/
+_sinK (s,lo2s13 )
t d I1 2 dj3 + "'"
34
+ C2 //
_ cos Kt_ad S12
_ +. • •)
+ d sin x t $5 + a2
 5 2 $7
7 a4
4! $99 + " " "I
d2
+_cosKt ( 9$9 +''" )
_abcdsin_t I 2 12 bs,3
2 13 + (a3
_! 2 i4 + 2bS'515
3!(23
d2
+abc_sinKr (  ]3
SlS + a2
3! Slif+"
17 " ")
cosKt ( o,,o )
"2 I6+""
35
Theconicangularcoordinate
canbeexpressed
as The convers!on from equation (D6) to (D8) begins
as
 et = s sin K
0 ffdS (D7)
R.__
t = Rt
where both sin K and R can be expressed as infinite,
but convergent for our purposes, polynomials of S. R Rt+czS+c2(S2/2)+c3(S3/3)+...
Since a polynomial in the denominator is an
undesirable form to integrate, the polynomial for R
was converted to a polynomial in the numerator of 1
the form shown in equation (DS).
1 +(c I/Rt)S+(c2/Rt)S 2 + (c3/Rt)S 3 +...
e  _t = s _dS
sin ,¢
0
IDISD2S2D3S3...
1 I s0 R
=R_. R t sinKdS where
where
Rt
_ =I + RIS+R2S 2+R3S 3+... (D8) Dz = Cl C2 C3
Rt,D2= _ t " D3=,etc.3R t
2R
36
TableVI summarizes
the preceding division.
The coefficients for equation (D8) are generated in 1 f s0 RR t sin_
e_t=Rtt
subroutine RCOEF. The coding for the procedure is
somewhat complex, but in general not much
computation is required to satisfy a tolerance  Rt ,)o (1 +RIS+R2 $2 +R3S 3 +...)
criterion of 1.0E08.
The conversion of sin ,_, where ×(,4 +A2S+A3S 2 + A4S 3 +...)
= I[AIS+A2+RIAIs 2
Rt 2
Cosine series Sine series
+ A3 +RIA2 +R2AI $3
sin rt cos rt 3
 cos Kt  sin K t
l
bin Kt COS Kt
+A4+RIA3+R2A2+R3AI $4+...l
4 )
cos K, sin Kt
37
References
1. Johnsen, Irving A.; and Bullock, Robert O. eds.: Aerodynamic (GER66FPD321PTI, General Electric Co.; NASA
Design of AxialFlow Compressors. NASA SP36, 1965. Contract NAS37617.) NASA CR54581, 1967.
2. Crouse, James E.: Computer Program for Definition of 5. Katsanis, Theodore: FORTRAN Program for Calculating
Transonic AxiabFIow Compressor Blade Rows. NASA TN Transonic Velocities on a BladetoBlade Stream Surface of a
D7345, 1974. Turbomachine. NASA TN D5427, 1969.
3. Schwenk, Francis C.; Lewis, George W.; and Hartmann, 6. Katsapis, Theodore; and McNaUy, William D.: Revised
Melvin J.: A Preliminary Analysis of the Magnitude of FORTRAN Program for Calculating Velocities and
Shock Losses in Transonic Compressors. NACA RM Streamlines on HubShroud Midchaanel Stream Surface on
F57A30, 1957. an Axial, Radial, or MixedFlow Turbomachine or Annular
Duct. lUser's Manual. NASA TN D8430, 1977.
4. Seyler, D.R.; and Smith, L. H., Jr.: Single State Expe,Jmemal
Evaluation cf High Mach Number Compressor Rotor 7. Vavra, Michael H.: AcreThermodynamics and Flow in Turbo
Blading. Part lDesign of Rotor Blading. machines. John Wiley & Sons, Inc,, 1960.
Program c ont,_ol
Read and interpret data Outer loop: Overall blade row performance
At calculation stations on streamlines at calculation
Locate calculation stations
Set co_:fficients of equation station:
of nl oti v. Gene ral
At each station for each streamline,
If blade desit2n option, Set State properties (teanper
estimate stagnation temperature
!ncidence mad deviation ature and pressure)
and pressure and axial and tan
gential velocities angles, compute new blade Velocity di,o,grams
edge loc:tlion, ant] reset Stremnline information
calculation station location Bl2de rows
38
_J
J_
rml
t_
_q
_i _ _J_
t_M
_q
i
±
t _
^
A _
r_
t_ _ _ _
_q
J_
39
_n
u.
. • L.u
ZI w
,IL 0 c::,
IZ
g :
0 H
z
o,
c_
bJ _ •
c:_ ua
_ g g o
Z_.
M
_4 o
u_ 12
u.J o
_._ _m_m_n_mmmu_ mm
o
Z
M
Ill
m_k_J
9[Z
_M
oo_oooooo_ooooo_oooo_ooooooo_o_oo
XZLU
,1[,...1:[:
°__°_°_.__°°_=_
oo
2=
<
L_
i
u
4!
E
o_
ggggg'''ggg=== ggggggdg=gg r,
,¢
u.
o o
_oooooooooo
_ooo_oooooo
ooooooo_oo_
ooooooooooo
o _u
_U o o
0 ooooooooooo
_ooo_oooo_o oo_oooooooo
gggggoggggg ggggdgggggg
tJ
W.
o
o
o°
o
_ ¢_ooooo_o_o_
N _ ooo_oooooo
,_ o
u. ........... 0
I o_ooooooo_o
z m
uJ
g _
,, o :_
_n
c_ooooooo_oo
z° _ og3gogooggo
g 0 o
o c_ c_ oooc_oo o_ o
o oo_ooooo _o
m _
_n
o
_n
uJ
c_ o
. g
r_
oooc_ooooooo : _.. o
_oo_ooooooo
oooc_ooo_ooo
I
_z
c_ c_ c:, • o o o
oo_ooooooo_
M
P
o_ooooooooo ooo_oo_oooo
oo_oo_o_o_
u_ _oo_ooo_ooo c_
=ooo_= i _o o oooooo_o _j .
L, L,
C_ c
42
H
7_ L_
o 6_
c_ 0
o o
u_ o WJ C_
6w o
w
m0
ma
u.
u.
o
o
_ o
o
_ o ,g o
0 o
7,
0
z u_ _
L_
!
H
o
m m
m m
b_
Q _
<
v_
V_ u_
u_
3
_ O
: _, o
: " c:_ m
LJ _ _
0 Ln
. u •
I
:%:
N
_U • ,,_Z
I"
L
M
4._
_ ooo
_ _ ooo
w _ z L _o
o z,,_la,
_,._Z oooo '._"I o'oooo
no _ emm _ _ o
Z _r _ Uc.Jooo 3[ ][_ _ Uo ooc>
._ ,,* c_, o o
lm
u O_ TM
_° _ _°°°
I 1
• . _ r,
2[
2:
UJ
_Z _0
a_ o Z=
LU_ • o
I._ O
_ o
][: ..*
,I[
E_
Luz
¢Jq;
I" UZ
2[ I_ I el
11 0 :_
_ _ _o
0 _ Z _ .J
u. o w
l ;
Z U_
u _Z_ ,_Z _
_ o_ooooooooo
0_
Zu_ in
,<
4_
0
_°o _ ooo
O0
_5
oooo
_ . Z Z
_ _o
ru _ u
Y _z
....... g _
_ _ _ ; ggggg
_o _
XU_ _ _ _ _
46
g
_Q
Z_
=
u
g
o
_O °
u._ o
XU
_0
U.JZ
¢:o ¢.,_
t CJ t..
i.q_
= =._g
,.,z = _ == =
=: _ =_ ,._.,=
t
Z .= _t_ °¢
,_ .,= u..
o.
= _,
Z Q
,,zZ r_
:_ Lu
_ LU _._ X_
,(
_U
C:)
O¢,n
_ua u_ _Z
_,<_
¢_ .,=¢
4"7
t_ c)
_Z_'; o _ E_
o_
O C)
9[
' _ Z o
c_
L'I
,,1[ o
_ g _uJ
Z 
k_
_
Z_ _z
@Z
_z
o
"" 0
,1
z
..%
4g
o
Z_
X_
=c_ (3
U_ Z
8_
_0 ooo_ooooooo
_ ooooooooooo
_ ooooooooooo
_JZ
_o
0
L_ L_ _ 0 _ "_
.]
_m
_ N
I z ;E I_"
._LU
ZL_ _1
U_
U Z
a_
_0
W
L_
U
_ o
0 0
0 _ 0
_ m m
_ 5 ,._ L,J
S!
u
o
o _ o
uJ o
¢,j
Z: _J
Z _
0 _ _ _ o° z u_ _
'< l_ rj
0 CD
Z _
< o z 2
[.., ,_ Z _
_ u.J
el.
l.j_ o
0o _
u_
_J ,
X_
oo___o_ _
GO
r
U.
53
. oo
o
L.) o
Z,o
c=P r_
t_
ag
c_
,o
•( c:;
_r ,s"
_4
cI,
_,..
..°
,a
t,
r_
• __'_a___
u
!
s_
_r_
,1
r,.
_6
_,_._,_ ,_._,_,_.,_,_,_,',_ t,_r,*'._,'_ "_'_','a
_,_ _,,_ # ,_ ,_,_ ,,_ e, .,e ,e ._,e ,,_r_ _a "_ '_ _ _'_ _'_ _ _ _'_ '_
•_ ....... .; ...... _
_ o_ I __o _
2 N __ __l_ _N__
_q
L,) _ ,e
= ,'w
o
t., ,.e
a_ _,_ ,_ _ .., _,_ _ _ ,$, ,,_ ,_ _ _',a _ _ t_ _" _ _ _p N _" _'_" _ _'_
w_ _d
.4
u_
L
_.)
o
e_
r_
0
o
r_
w_
o
a. (_1
O_ m
{M
]E
r_
,$
_, _
,(
...............................
".,9
u_ oa ,,,o __ _ _ _ ,a" e_ _ c"1 _ _ _ ea _ oO _'_ o ,a" o _ _ o_ _ o'_
_q
.d o
_E
0
,<
Qc
,a"
,_ ,a"
m
o
_Q _ _o__ _o_
0,
o.
Z_ _ _o___ _
ir •
• ._ ." . . ._ . ._ ............ _ . . .
! ,.1"
61
• _N__o__ _
o
nt ......................... _o*
i o
o
U
io
r_
_ ___
mm_mmmmm_m_mmmmmmm_m_
_ o
.el
_ _ _._ _ ,._ ,.._ ,._ _ _. i_. _. _ ,,o _._ o ¢_ c_ .,_ o • _ _ _ _._ ._ ..o _ o
_ _._ ...............................
H _
63
_ _ oo
(..)0_ o'. o
•¢uJ ,$"
a_:C
_.W Q ,4 _E ............
gYd_
"_ :t; ,0 _o
u_ #::) v ,$" ¢_
L
,mr
_ _N_NN_NNNNN
OoOooOOOOOO
w_ _oooooooooo
_N
O_ .... _0
_ _ •
NN_
< _ _
_ _ _ . _o
_ a ...........
O_
IIIIIIIIIIlll
64
ooooooo_oo_
.._ ,_ _r.e_._p,_r_+p_.p_.r+.r ,,.
x _
_ gJ u_ ...........
_ ff ............ .
I,.v'_ I I I I
 m
Z Z
Z m_ _mm_m_m_mmm _: _ a _m_mmmmmmm
mmm_mm_mu" _ _r_mmmm_mmm_
2: .I _n ...........
c_ _ _ ...........
_ _mm_m_mmm_m
_nmm_mm_mm
4"t_NOo_
........... r_ _o_eO
..,1£3 00o000o00oo_o
IIIIitll_tlll I I I I I I i I i I I + I
6_
ooooo_ooo_o
M _
_2 ...........
I s
Z
g _ .............
_ _.N NN,_NN_NN_N
<
Iii1_1111111t
66
uJ _
Lu_ ..........
u_oooooooooo
÷Z .;:_ ...........
+ _0._
i ÷
÷
÷ ,
oooooooc_oo b
+_
+
•0 ._ ".,,J+m o, r,. l'r. '_ O0 P*,.I ',:P "I '+P r, ,_"
ooooooooooo
+ ;._ bo (D 0o000oooooo
_ ooooooooooo
3 _
CJ
÷ ._1 ...........
I Z _
0 "
ooooooooooo
+_
b_ m_ _mm_mm_mmmm
mu ...........
C_
<
_ E
÷ .I_1
÷
z_m ........... +_
Ilg
,.o ,m ...........
_oo__. .o ............
2:0L_ ...........
lllI;lllll
Z
+..++,.) in ...........
.¢C
uJ
0¢ •
I, ¢D _ _I _"+ + ,."+ ,,o P.,. I0 o" +..+_
6?
z_
w_ _ o__
_ _N_ _
ooooo_o_o_o
Oo _ooo_ooom
oooooomoo_o
._ ooo_ooo_ooo
_ ooomooo_oo_
a_ ...........
oooo_oooooo
_ oo_ om_oooo
o
_oom_ooooo
_ _ ...........
ud
• . _¢:Q
_ _ _NN_
_z
68
O_w _ ooooooooo
W_ _o_ooooo_o_
_ ........... ,_,,
o
I
_ E
_ a
_ 6 .W
_ m_mmm_m_mm_
mmmmmmm_mm_
69
?0
u',
2 _
_ o_ooooooo
Ov_ ooooooooo_o ud_t
OZ:_I ur_ =¢= ,¢, cr* o _ ,,o _r_ o
o_ooooo_o
Z
,.,.,= =,=0,=,=,=,oo_,oo
_ _ . . • ;..;_ ',_  . .
0 t
....:
L_
<
o_
0
_o ..........
Qc
C_
_a
G.
_E ............
_ mm_mmmm_mm_
?2
+ Z '
+ .
+
+ .
Z
* c),n_ oQoovmcsooooc_
+
0
+
_ E _N_ __
ao_o_oooaQo
v _% oooooo_oooo
_ Ou_ ...........
•*_.N............
+ Z ,_ u,J
+_en
+
g _v_
...a
I ,4._
_ "'_ _"_ N _ c:' _ _ e'_ o_ o" _
.,¢. =:_
+o
',_
_o
: _ ...........
Illll
Ilg
___ _ .............
w
"/4
E _ __N_NO
_v 1
.d
I1)
u _ < ,
I
<
: ^
_ Z_m ...........
mmmmmmmm,nm_
XO_ .............
÷
÷
;d .............
?6
Z
I, UJ _ ...........
_, a..C'. + ..........
XOM .............
UJ
_8
p..._ ............
7 = "
?9
3
; _) uJ ...........
w
aid
,¢
CJ
e=(._ ...........
aou ...........
_n ...........
8O
_ z0 3
o _
I
0 _mmmm_mm_
81
0
r.J
,.J
l"'
112
0
L)
I
,J
,<
E"
: °
{,
_ ..... _ , ._ ......
84
==
.uJ .u_
.=. ;;;?,:;:::::: =
o
¢:
rJ
0
_ ........ = ........
X X
[...,
8_
lttlll
. _ i+111
_Z
IIIllll
<_
t.
_ _ _ ._gggggggggg_..; IIIllll
u'_
86
IC
,.1
87
_ _ .......................
I ;=
*..t
<
F,
i,
_ ......
=o ;==;;_
 2" .... . .................
god_dd=dgggdggogdg££=gg
_Z
88
=3
0
{J
,J
[.,
@9
0
L)
I
................ ;_ ................
6 _
X X
IIIIII
_ iiiiii
_ _ .............. lllllll
IIIIIII
o
l::
4,*
0 IIIIIII ; _ IIIIII I
X
!
,Z,
.I _ IIIIII llllll
a_
<
_N _ ggggddggdgggg
iiiiiii
llllll I
.ua
,_ ,.,_ _ ..............
I I I I _ _ i I,,11.._ I I I I I t _ uI,._
g " g
~_.
_ N
............... _ ...............
91
X
_ tllll
6
I%1
m_ ..............
,,,,
??? ..........
• _ _× '"'' o o
92
Z_
5
X
I
<
m= = ...... _: ....
I T?????? ......
mm
_ _ o_o_oo_ . .
_°N oooooooooo .....
93
_Z_ooo _ ._ _ _r_ _ _ _o _ __ _o_ _ _jo_ _ _ _
0
LJ
<
...... _ _: ...................................
_4
• _o_ ............ _. ................ _.._ ......... 
_.× ......
_ 2
OZ
_===_ o=_ ........ _'_=_=_=_== ..............
_J
#. _g .....
0 = _< _gggg g ..........................................
u
I
<c
[..
.......... __ ._ ._ ._ ._ ...... _ , .
_ + _ .........................................
< m
9_
f
U3_Z_
M o_
m M Io_
_;.x^_
_Z
==
0
u
! _Z
,..1
IzI
<
[.., = _ ;_ = oo: ................................... :=°
..............
= _ .._ ._ .._ ............ _ .
=o = =1 ................................... T°I°
o _z_ 0 o N_oo_ooooooooo_oooooo_ooooo_o_ooooooo_N
+ = ..........................................
_., Z o_o_oo_ooooo_o_ooo_o_ooooo_oo_oo_o_
_ 0 _o_o_oo_oo_oooooo_oooooooooooo_oo__
oooo_oo_oo_ooo_ooooo_ _ _ _ _
......... ;i
.... • _,u_ _ _. v, L_ ,:, ,.. ,_, • 0 _ __¢'c'
.o_;= ,,=,......
=...
I',
¢ :0 o ¢'.
e= ¢., , ....
9"I
iiitlt I
• iiiiii
zX
I
??????? ......
2
'._.._._._ o_ _N ......
• ._..._ ....._o
i ltO_k'_l IN PU T OPTIONS
0 to Sin. 2/e

TABLE V,  CHARACTERISTICS OF EMI_RICAL
ON DEN_ ATOR
a 2
Maeh Mm Mm  1 Additive
number in factor
mertdtonsl
plane,
Mm
.90
.95 • 90"_5 .0975 .0377 , I ::52
• 97 .9409 .(1591 .055.1 .1145
I00
I
¢_i @.i
I,.
r.
.?.
'2
• o'. ,
4_
i"
,l
 "_ _" ,_" 4 "_ 4"_ '
Iii
I01