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A Study on the Perception of Pre-Medical Students in UP Diliman on

Doctors to the Barrios (DTTB) Program

in partial fulfillment

of the requirements in the course

English 10: College English – The Research Paper

Prepared by

Aries P. Austria

Prepared for

Prof. Thomas David F. Chaves

University of the Philippines Diliman

1st Semester, AY 2017-2018


Abstract

The purpose of this study is to look at the different factors affecting the perception of selected pre-
medical students in UP Diliman and their primary considerations in joining the Doctors to the
Barrios (DTTB) program. By conducting a self-administered online survey, the researcher was
able to measure the level of familiarity of the students and their primary sources of information
about the program. Using a five-point Likert scale, the perception of students on the DTTB
program was measured and compared. The study found out that, among the various aspects of the
program, the students have a general positive outlook only on the personal and job satisfaction
while having a neutral to negative stance on the remaining aspects.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ i

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1

Background of the Study ............................................................................................................. 1

Research Questions ..................................................................................................................... 2

Research Objectives .................................................................................................................... 2

Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 3

Limitations of the Study .............................................................................................................. 3

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...................................................................................... 4

METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................................... 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ..................................................................................................... 9

Profile of Respondents ................................................................................................................ 9

Perception on DTTB Program................................................................................................... 11

CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................... 17

RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................................. 18

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 19

APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................... 21

Survey Questionnaire ................................................................................................................ 21


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Distribution of Degree Programs among Selected UP Diliman Students ....................... 9


Figure 2: Sex Distribution of Selected UP Diliman Students ....................................................... 10
Figure 3: Permanent Residences of Selected UP Diliman Students ............................................. 10
Figure 4: Level of Familiarity about the DTTB Program ............................................................. 11
Figure 5: Primary Sources of Information about the DTTB Program .......................................... 12
Figure 6: Primary Reasons for Joining the DTTB Program ......................................................... 12
Figure 7: Perception of Selected UP Diliman Students on the DTTB Program using 5-point
Likert Scale ................................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 8: Response Distribution of Respondents with Regards to Joining the DTTB Program .. 14
Figure 9: Deciding Factors in Joining the DTTB Program........................................................... 15

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Calculation of Sample Size among the three selected degree programs in UP Diliman .. 8
Table 2: Relationship between gender and decision to join DTTB using fisher exact test .......... 16
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


The Philippines, with a growing population of 104 million based on the United Nations
Population Division, sets its record as the 13th world’s largest population in 2017. With the upward
trend of population growth, it is expected that more Filipino people will seek health assistance and
services from various health-providing institutions. However, problems on the maldistribution of
doctors across the country continue to pose threat on the adequacy and quality of health services
delivered, particularly to the underserved areas in the municipalities.

According to Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (73-76), the country
has only 1.11 doctors for every 1,000 population -- far from the ideal ratio set by the World Health
Organization (WHO) which is 2.3 doctors for every 1,000 population. The problem on the number
of doctors in the country is not simply a national problem, but rather a global problem as it is
evident in the increasing number of doctors migrating to other countries to augment the shortages
of doctors abroad.

For the past decades, several policies and programs were formulated by the government to
rectify the problem on doctor maldistribution in the country. One of the major steps made by the
government was its passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 which devolves the function
of health services from the national level to the local level. Through this Code, LGUs were granted
autonomy and responsibility in the management of health services including the budget allocation,
recruitment, and salary of health professionals. However, due to the discretionary power granted
to the LGUs, not all doctors across the country receive the same amount of salary and benefits as
prescribed under R.A. 7305 or the Magna Carta of Public Health Workers. In addition, local
politics exacerbates the position of health as a priority program of the local chief executive which
results in low morale and benefits for the doctors (Leonardia et al 2: Chua).

In 1993, few years after health services were devolved to the local government, the Doctors
to the Barrios (DTTB) Program was launched by DOH to encourage doctors to work in far-flung
areas. Because of decentralization, LGUs took the responsibility of enticing medical students to
work in remote and underserved areas in the municipalities through incentives and benefits

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(Leonardia, et al 2). As of this writing, the DTTB is one of the few deployment programs offered
by DOH for medical students who need to fulfill their prescribed 2-year return service as part of
the agreement in their medical scholarships.

As DTTB volunteers, they are entitled to receive good salaries ranging from P25,000 to
P60,000 per month depending on the financial capacity of the LGU, benefits mandated under the
Magna Carta of Public Health Workers, representation allowance, and opportunity for post-
graduate studies (Chua; Calleja). After the DTTB volunteers accomplished their prescribed years
of return service, they may opt to remain in their assigned LGU and later be absorbed as a
Municipal Health Officer (MHO).

Despite the incentives and efforts made by the LGU to encourage medical students, there
are still several who are not convinced to embark their journey in remote areas as manifested in
the 2016 report of DOH which reveals that only 70% of the total slots allotted for DTTB program
was filled up while the 30% remained vacant (Geronimo). In addition, the study conducted by
Leonardia, et al., (2) showed that out of the 452 DTTBs who participated in the program between
1993 and 2011, only 81 (18%) chose to remain in the program and be absorbed as MHOs. In a
nutshell, Geronimo categorized the various factors affecting the susceptibility of the program into
three namely, the problem on devolution, migration, and population growth.

Research Questions
This study seeks to answer the following research questions:

1. How do pre-medical students in UP Diliman perceive the Doctors to the Barrios (DTTB)
Program?
2. What are the factors affecting the decision of UP Diliman students in joining the Doctors
to the Barrios (DTTB) Program?

Research Objectives
This study aims to achieve the following research objectives:

1. To identify the level of familiarity of pre-medical students on DTTB


2. To identify the different sources as to where or whom pre-medical students came across
DTTB
3. To determine the deciding factors of pre-medical students in joining DTTB

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Significance of the Study
Being able to identify the variety of factors affecting the students in joining the DTTB
program is imperative as it allows the policy makers in evaluating the appropriateness of the
provisions of its program. As the severe maldistribution of doctors in the country continues to
exist, it is necessary to assess the perception of students about the DTTB program and the possible
factors that impede them from possibly joining that program.

The findings from this study will aid in matching the primary considerations of the students
and the deciding factors in joining the program. In addition, this study is significant in measuring
the level of familiarity of the students and their primary sources of information regarding the
DTTB program.

Limitations of the Study


This paper is limited only to identifying the possible factors affecting the decision of UP
Diliman students in joining the DTTB program. The respondents are only limited to students of
BS Biology, BS Chemistry, and BS MBB. The main reason for choosing this target population is
that these are classified as pre-medical degree programs. However, since not all respondents from
these programs are pursuing medicine, their predisposition might affect their responses and level
of familiarity about the program, hence, contributing to the limitations of this study.

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Every nation, regardless of its economic status, ensures that it puts high premium on
providing quality health services to the public. In the Philippines, the Department of Health (DOH)
which serves as the lead agency in developing national plans, policies, and guidelines on health
has been consistent to be one of the top 10 executive departments with largest budget allocation,
as reflected in the past General Appropriations Act (GAAs). The DOH coordinates with the local
government units (LGUs) and private sector to perform its function of providing direct health
services to the communities and individuals (Rey: Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems
and Policies 15).

Through the passage of Local Government Code of 1991, local government units were
given autonomy and responsibility to handle their own local health services but shall be under the
supervision of DOH through the Center for Health Development (CHDs). Under the said law,
LGUs are mandated to provide general tertiary and secondary hospital care while cities and
municipalities are to provide primary health care. The creation of rural health units, however, is
under the jurisdiction of every municipality to improve accessibility in such areas. LGUs play
significant role in ensuring that all national health programs of DOH will trickle down at the
community level (Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies 15).

It was during the first few years of the implementation of the Local Government Code
when former DOH Secretary Dr. Juan Flavier gave attention to the poor living condition of rural
areas in the country that didn’t have any doctor in at least 10 years. In his book Doctor to the
Barrios, Flavier narrated his experiences working under the Philippine Rural Reconstruction
Movement (PRRM) where he was deployed as a doctor in different barrios. This was the moment
where he became exposed to the reality on the poor health care services, facilities, and equipment
of the barrios which exacerbated the situation whenever people get sick there. According to the
1970 statistics, only 26% of all cases resulting in death in rural areas during that time have been
seen by a physician and only 32% of all births are attended to by a licensed midwife or doctor
(133). In addition, the lack of knowledge in proper waste disposal and sanitation worsen the
condition of people in the barrios resulting in polluted and unsafe water sources. Although these
statistical reports were recorded in 1970, these are not far from the status of rural communities in
the country today.

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Working in the PRRM for eight years, Flavier became immersed to the barrio communities
where his organization addressed problems on poverty, diseases, illiteracy, and civic inertia. These
experiences led him to the idea of establishing a deployment program that would address the
limited supply of rural health workers in the rural communities. Because of this plight, Project 271
which is now known as Doctors to the Barrios (DTTB) Program was launched in 1993 with the
aim of sending doctors to low-income municipalities, particularly fifth- and sixth-class
municipalities. The project was named 271 because this is the number of towns identified to be
doctorless for over 10 years (Chua).

Since the function of health services are devolved to the local level including its fiscal
administration, DOH coordinates with the LGUs in the deployment of DTTB volunteers to the
identified remote areas. Ideally, the DTTB volunteer shall receive good salaries and full benefits
as stated under the Magna Carta of Public Health Workers, and priority access to a Master’s degree
or clinical residency programs. However, it has been observed that the status of health as a priority
program of the local chief executives vary across LGUs, thus, resulting in an inequality in the
benefits and support received by DTTB volunteers. This in turn demoralize the DTTB volunteers
to work in their assigned local unit. Whilst the devolution of health services made it more
accessible at the grassroots level, local politics and corruption exacerbated the disparity among
LGUs in fulfilling their financial obligations on the provision on health services, thus, resulting in
a fragmented health sector at the local level (Leonardia et al. 1: Chua: Lakshminarayanan).

With the increasing population in the Philippines, it becomes more challenging for the
national and local government to have wider accessibility of public health services across the
country. Although there is now a relatively close gap on the number of health facilities between
public and private institutions, the perceived major issue in the health sector is more focused on
the severe maldistribution of its human resources and lack of supply of doctors (Asia Pacific
Observatory on Health Systems and Policies 64-87: Cabral 4: Cabato).

According to DOH Secretary Paulyn Rosell-Ubial, as cited by Cabato, the country is only
producing 2,600 doctors every year which leads to a shortage of about 15,000 doctors. The ideal
ratio of doctor-patient is 1 to 1.5 doctors for every 1,000 population, however, in the Philippines,
we only have a national average of 3.5 doctors for every 10,000 population and ratio of 3 doctors
for every 100,000 population in terms of areas served by public doctors (Cabato: Geronimo:

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Elemia). Because of this scarcity, 6 out of 10 Filipino people die without ever seeing a doctor
(Geronimo: Joint Foreign Chambers 3).

Among the active medical practitioners in the country, there are only less than 20% of them
who work in the public health sector which caters 70% of health care needs of the populace. It is
even aggravated by the fact that majority of these practitioners are congested in urban areas and
only a minority are in rural and depressed areas (Cabral 4). Another factor that might be considered
as to why there is a decreasing number of doctors in the country is because more doctors are
migrating abroad to seek for higher compensation packages and work opportunities.

In a study conducted by Leonardia et al. (3), they found out that there is a decreasing
number of DTTB volunteers from 1993 to 2009 who choose to remain in the program and become
a Municipal Health Officer (MHO) after the two-year return service elapsed. In addition, they have
identified major factors affecting the retention of DTTB volunteers namely, lack of support from
the LGU, concerns on compensation packages, family issues, and career advancement
opportunities.

Despite these problems, a study by Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and
Policies (74) revealed that in terms of information technology, a majority of DTTB volunteers
have access to computers in their assigned rural health units and at least half of them have access
to basic internet. However, almost half of those with internet pay from their own pockets rather
than from the local government budget. It also revealed that there are very few rural health units
that invest in the procurement and installation of electronic medical records.

For the past years, despite the dwindling number of doctors who remain in the country,
DOH continues to give its full effort of providing accessible health care services to the public by
deploying more physicians, nurses, midwives, and other health professionals to underserved
communities. In 2015, the deployment of health professionals was expanded by including dentists
and medical technologists (DOH Annual Report 7). As part of strengthening the campaign on
incentivizing our doctors, Senate Bill 1157 or “An Act Establishing a Medical Scholarship
Program to Ensure the Availability of Doctors in Every Province Nationwide” was filed by Sen.
Juan Edgardo Sonny Angara in 2016, however, as of this date, the bill remains pending (Romero).

There are also several agencies that coordinated with each other to address the problems
on doctors’ supply in the country. In May 2017, a joint memorandum circular was released by the

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Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Department of Budget and Management (DBM)
to provide full tuition subsidy for medical students in the State Universities and Colleges (SUCs)
through Cash Grants. This memorandum circular was released in response to the continuing lack
of supply of doctors in the country due to high cost of medical education, migration, and brain
drain. This circular identifies the list of partner institutions where medical students can avail the
said subsidy and the qualifications for application.

The problem on health services should not only be focused on its accessibility based on the
distribution of health professionals across the country but rather, the problem on quality and
effectiveness of services should also be considered by addressing the capacity and skills of health
workers through adequate training. With this, we can guarantee the responsiveness of health
workers at times of catastrophes (Cabral 4: Alliance for Improving Health Outcomes, Inc. 5). In
terms of decentralizing health sector, Lakshminarayanan (104) mentioned that for the health
services to be efficient, effective, and equitable, decentralization should not be viewed as all-or-
nothing phenomenon, but rather be viewed as means to balance authority and responsibility
between the central and local level. Given the slow development of health services at the local
level, there should be a thorough analysis to determine the processes and functions that should be
decentralized and those that should be centralized.

In addition, Ubial, as cited by Cabato suggested that there should be a paradigm shift in
our school systems to attract more aspiring doctors to enter workforce in the public health sector.
She also emphasized the need to focus on medical school candidates from various sectors such as
indigenous peoples and scholars from far-flung areas who will aid in meeting the target number of
doctors in the country.

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METHODOLOGY

In this study, the researcher used qualitative methodology in identifying the possible factors
affecting the behavior of selected pre-medical students in UP Diliman through a self-administered
online survey. In doing the survey, a 5-point Likert scale was included to measure the degree in
which the respondents agree or disagree with the statements pertaining to DTTB. The statements
in the Likert scale were adapted and modified from the study of Leonardia et al.

In identifying the target population, the researcher selected undergraduate students from
the College of Science in UP Diliman under the following degree programs: BS Biology, BS
Chemistry, and BS Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (MBB). In calculating for the sample
size in each program, the Lynch et al. formula was applied with 95% level of confidence and 0.10
sampling error (see Table 1). Based on the calculations, it shows that the ideal sample size for BS
Biology students is 69 while for BS Chemistry is 65 and for BS MBB is 60. However, due to the
very low response rate of selected respondents, a contingency plan was employed to achieve at
least 30% of the original sample size for each degree program. With this, the researcher was able
to obtain 22 respondents from BS Biology, 21 for BS Chemistry, and 20 for BS MBB.

In conducting the survey, snowball sampling was used to gather sufficient number of
respondents in the selected degree programs. The analysis of data collected involved the use of
central tendency to describe the differences of responses among several variables. Since the sample
size for all programs is larger than 30, inferential statistics were also employed.

Table 1: Calculation of Sample Size among the three selected degree programs in UP Diliman

College of Population Z (level of Sampling Original Contingent Proportion to


Science (1st confidence) Error Sample Sample Size the Original
(Degree Semester, Size Sample Size
Programs) AY ’17-’18)
BS Biology 235 1.96 0.10 69 22 32%
BS Chemistry 197 1.96 0.10 65 21 32%
BS MBB 155 1.96 0.10 60 20 33%
194 63 97%

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section of the paper presents a detailed discussion of the findings based on the
conducted self-administered online survey among selected UP Diliman students. It also aims to
illustrate the emerging themes of the overall responses of the selected students.

Profile of Respondents
A total of 63 respondents were surveyed in UP Diliman -- 22 are BS Biology students, 21
are BS Chemistry students, and 20 are BS MBB students, as shown in Figure 1. It shows that BS
Biology students have the highest number of respondents followed by BS Chemistry students and
the third is BS MBB students. The distribution among selected degree programs was relatively
proportional based on the original sample size per institute, as discussed in the methodology.

20 22
32% 35%

21
33%

BS Biology BS Chemistry BS MBB

Figure 1: Distribution of Degree Programs among Selected UP


Diliman Students

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Figure 2 illustrates the sex distribution of the 63 respondents in which 27 (43%) are males
and 36 (57%) are females. The average age of respondents is 18.92 and the age range is from 17
to 21 years old. On the aspect of permanent residences, it shows that 30 (48%) among the
respondents are from NCR, while 25 (40%) are from Luzon region and the remaining 6 (9%) and
2 (3%) are from Visayas and Mindanao region, respectively (see Figure 3).

27
36 43%
57%

Male Female

Figure 2: Sex Distribution of Selected UP Diliman Students

2
6 3%
9%

30
48%
25
40%

NCR Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Figure 3: Permanent Residences of Selected UP Diliman Students

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Perception on DTTB Program
Based on the survey, it reveals that 27 (43%) of the respondents are not familiar with the
DTTB Program while only 32 (51%) are familiar and 4 (6%) are very familiar with it (see Figure
4). The high number of respondents who are not familiar with the program suggests that there are
still many students in UP Diliman who have never came across the DTTB program. This high level
of unfamiliarity might affect the students’ responses on the succeeding questions as they have
limited knowledge about the program.

4; 6%

27; 43%

32; 51%

Not Familiar Familiar Very familiar

Figure 4: Level of Familiarity about the DTTB Program

The 36 respondents who answered familiar and very familiar with the program were asked
to rank their primary sources of information. The majority mentioned school/university
community (i.e., faculty and students, etc.) with 17 responses. It was followed by family and
friends with 13 responses, social media sites (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.) with 8
responses and lastly, printed materials (i.e., newspapers, journals, magazine, etc.) with only 2
responses (see Figure 5).

11
18 17

16

14 13

12

10
8
8

4
2
2

0
School/university Social media sites Printed materials Family and friends
community

Figure 5: Primary Sources of Information about the DTTB Program

The next figure (see Figure 6) presents the primary reasons of respondents in joining the
DTTB program. By adapting and modifying the research instrument of Leonardia et al., (6), the
results depict that the primary reason of the respondents is the opportunity to serve. It was then
followed by both fulfilment and meaning in life, and interest in public health and community
medicine. The least reasons of the respondents are opportunity to become MHO and good salary
and benefits.

Opportunity to become MHO 1

Good salary and benefits 1

Master’s degree and career opportunities 5

Fulfilment and meaning in life 12

For experience and adventure 7

Interest in public health and community medicine 12

Opportunity to serve 25

Return service 9

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 6: Primary Reasons for Joining the DTTB Program

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Figure 7, on the other hand, summarizes the 15 questions which measure the perception of
respondents on the DTTB Program. The set of questions which were also adapted from the study
of Leonardia et al. (4-8) were merged into five (5) categories namely, personal satisfaction (Q1-
Q3), job satisfaction (Q4-Q6), work environment (Q7-Q9), living condition (Q10-Q12), and salary
and benefits (Q13-Q15). As exhibited in the next figure (see Figure 7), it appears that majority of
the respondents have a relatively positive to neutral outlook on the DTTB Program.

90 83 81
80 76
70
70 65 64
60 53 51 49 51 49 49
50 43
40 33
29
30
18
20 14 15 13
11 10
6 8
10 3
1
0
Personal Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Work Environment Living Condition Salary and Benefits
(Q1-Q3) (Q4-Q6) (Q7-Q9) (Q10-Q12) (Q13-Q15)

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Figure 7: Perception of Selected UP Diliman Students on the DTTB Program using 5-point Likert Scale

In Figure 7, it can be observed that for the categories personal satisfaction and job
satisfaction, majority of the students have a positive outlook as evident in the number of responses
for ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree.’ However, for the categories work environment, living condition,
and salary and benefits, majority of the respondents have a neutral perception. It also demonstrates
a remarkable number of responses in ‘agree’ and ‘disagree’ which may reveal the overall
differences in perception of respondents toward the last three categories.

Although the national government has long been reorganizing the compensation packages
of DTTB volunteers to become more competitive with those in the private sector (Chua; Calleja),
the survey shows that there are still many respondents who perceive the salary and benefits of
DTTB as uncompetitive as against the private sector.

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In terms of the work environment, living condition, and salary and benefits, it can be
observed that many respondents have a neutral perception on these matters. In addition, a notable
response rate for ‘agree’ and ‘disagree’ can be seen on these factors which may show differing
perceptions of the respondents. The neutral to negative stance on these aspects may imply that the
respondents’ perception are not as firm as compared to the personal and job satisfaction. Hence,
the respondents reveal to be reluctant on whether they would affirm on the forgoing statements or
not.

The uncertainty on the responses for the three aspects can be attributed to the issues on
rampant killings of barrio doctors who are often mistaken as communists (Carillo: Chua). In
addition, the issues on incapacity of LGUs to comply with the minimum salary for rural health
doctors may have an implication on the perception of respondents on the salary and benefits aspect
of the program (Chua).

In Figure 8, the respondents were asked about their decision to join the DTTB program
assuming that it is on a voluntary basis. Based on the survey, it reveals that 31 (49%) of the selected
UP Diliman students are willing to join the program while 28 (45%) are not willing and only 4
(6%) are still undecided. Although the response for ‘yes’ is the highest, it is striking that the
response for ‘no’ is the second highest with only a difference of 4%. This result can be attributed
to the low familiarity of the 43% of the total respondents which might have affected their overall
judgement on the program. In addition, the respondents’ predisposition on their career tracks might
have also contributed to their decision in joining the program.

4; 6%

31; 49%
28; 45%

Yes No Undecided

Figure 8: Response Distribution of Respondents with Regards to


Joining the DTTB Program

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For the next figure (see Figure 9), it exhibits the major deciding factors among the
respondents in joining the DTTB Program. Based on the responses, it clearly shows that personal
satisfaction is the main deciding factor among the students and then followed by job satisfaction.
The other remaining deciding factors are living condition, salary and benefits, and the last is work
environment. By comparing the contents of Figure 7 and 9, it is recognizable that job satisfaction
and personal satisfaction have the most positive responses. At the same time, these two are viewed
as the top primary deciding factors of the respondents.

Salary and Benefits 8

Living Condition 10

Work Environment 6

Job Satisfaction 22

Personal Satisfaction 23

0 5 10 15 20 25

Figure 9: Deciding Factors in Joining the DTTB Program

In the last part of the discussion, inferential statistics was applied to look at the possible
relationship between gender (male and female) and the decision of respondents in joining the
DTTB program (yes, no, or undecided). Among the various statistical tests, the researcher used
the fisher exact test since it is the most suitable in comparing categorical variables whose values
in the data set are less than 5 (see Table 2). This analysis is only limited on measuring the
significance of relationship between the gender of respondents and their decision whether to join
in the DTTB program or not. Indicated below is the null and alternative hypothesis.

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Hypothesis:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between gender and the decision of respondents to
join DTTB program

Ha: There is a significant relationship between gender and the decision of respondents to
join DTTB program

By using a 0.05 level of significance, the resulting p-value is 0.0184, therefore we reject
the null hypothesis at p < 0.05. In other words, the decision of the respondents whether to join or
not in the DTTB program is dependent on their gender (i.e., male or female). This can be attributed
to the high response rate of females who are willing to join the program with 74% than with males
who only have 26% of the responses, as illustrated in Table 2. It is also remarkable that among the
respondents, there are many females who confirm their participation in the program than males.

Table 2: Relationship between gender and decision to join DTTB using fisher exact test

Male Female Total


Yes 8 (26%) 23 (74%) 31
No 2 (50%) 2 (50%) 4
Undecided 17 (61%) 11 (39%) 28
27 36 63
Result: p-value is 0.0184. Reject the null hypothesis at p < 0.05

Furthermore, this section presents various factors that influence the decision of respondents
in joining the DTTB program. Whilst there is high level of familiarity among the respondents, it
should be noted that the difference in their scores from those with low level of familiarity is
relatively small. In the same manner, this small difference is observed between the number of
respondents willing to join the program and those that are not willing to join.

In addition, the perception of respondents in terms of the five categories reveal that in
general, many still have a positive outlook on the DTTB program particularly on the personal and
job satisfaction. Likewise, these two perceptions are reflected on the respondents’ primary
deciding factors. Lastly, the decision of respondents whether to join the program or not can have
a significant relationship with their gender.

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CONCLUSIONS

The findings of this study reveal that there are indeed a variety of factors affecting the
perception of selected UP Diliman students in joining the DTTB program. Among these factors,
the personal satisfaction and job satisfaction ranked highest for both the deciding factors and
perception of the students. On the other hand, the remaining three factors (i.e., work environment,
living condition, and salary and benefits) exhibit a relatively neutral stance among the students. In
deciding whether to join the program or not, the study uncovers the significant association between
gender and the decision of respondents.

The study also shows that, although there are more respondents who are familiar and are
willing to be part of the program, its difference from those who are not familiar and are not willing
to be part of the program is relatively small. In terms of primary source of information, the study
found out that the university/school community is the commonly source of information of students.
This demonstrates that the university/school community plays a significant role in disseminating
information about DTTB program among UP Diliman students.

In conclusion, this paper presents the importance of looking at the various factors affecting
the decision of students whether to join the DTTB program or not. By doing this, it would be easier
for the researchers and policy makers to identify the critical aspects impeding the students from
taking part in the program and to recalibrate these aspects to become more attractive and
competitive.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

This paper recommends that the sample size of the target population be larger to establish
statistically significant findings. Additionally, it would be recommended to not only limit the
survey among students of College of Science but rather diversify it across other colleges. For those
respondents who are not familiar with the program, it would be beneficial if the research instrument
includes a short narrative introducing the program to them.

At the larger context of this study, it is recommended that the policy makers evaluate the
DTTB program to ensure if its provisions remain appropriate to their prospect doctors. Since the
major dispute of the program dwells on the working environment, living conditions, and
compensation packages, it is recommended that the national government, through its coordination
with the LGUs, establish rigid rules on providing safety to the rural doctors, better medical facility
and equipment, and a standardized salary that is competitive with the private sector. These reforms
will only be achieved if the LGUs put premium on health as their priority program. Lastly, the
national government, particularly DOH, should strictly monitor the compliance of LGUs in its
implementation of the Magna Carta of Public Health Workers.

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REFERENCES

Alliance for Improving Health Outcomes, Inc. “The Philippine Health System at glance.” 1:1
(2017). Web. 11 Sept 2017

Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. The Philippine Health System Review.
World Health Organization, 2011.

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Cabral, Esperanza. “The Philippine Health Agenda for 2016-2022.” Philippine Journal of
Internal Medicine. 54:2 (2016): 1-11. Web. 11 Sept 2017

Calleja, Niña. “PH no shortage of doctors, health secretary claims.” Inquirer, 14 Feb 2014,
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/577991/ph-has-no-shortage-of-doctors-health-secretary-claims
Carillo, Lovely. “CHO urged to secure safety of doctors in the barrios.” The Mindanao Daily
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Chua, Yvonne. “Physicians of the people.” iReport. Philippine Center for Investigative
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Department of Health. Annual Report 2015. Health Policy Development and Planning Bureau-
Department of Health San Lazaro Compound, 2016

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2017. Web. 11 Sept 2017

Flavier, Juan. Doctor to the Barrios. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1970.
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2016, http://www.rappler.com/nation/152912-doh-deployment-program-stopgap-measure
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Paper. Dec 2010. Web. 11 Sept 2017

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APPENDIX

Survey Questionnaire

Dear fellow student! I am Aries Austria, an undergraduate student from the University of the Philippines –
Diliman. As part of our class requirements in the course English 10 (College English-The Research Paper),
I am conducting a research on the perception of pre-medical students in UP Diliman on Doctors to the
Barrios (DTTB) Program of the Department of Health (DOH). With this, I am humbly asking for your
cooperation to answer this short survey which will only take about 2 to 3 minutes. The obtained information
will be strictly confidential. Thank you!

Name (Optional):
Sex: Male Female Degree Program (do not abbreviate):
Age: Permanent Residence:

1. How familiar are you with the Doctors to the Barrios (DTTB) Program of the Department of
Health? If your answer is familiar or very familiar, please proceed to item 2, otherwise, proceed
to item 3.
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Very Familiar
2. To whom or where did you know about the said program? Please rank your answer from 1 to 4.
___ Family and friends
___ School/university community (i.e., faculty, fellow students, etc.)
___ Social media sites (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.)
___ Printed materials (i.e., newspapers, journals, magazines, etc.)
3. If you are to join the DTTB program, what are your possible reasons? Please rank your answer
from 1 to 8.
___ Mandatory return service
___ Opportunity to serve
___ Interest in public health and community medicine
___ I want experience and adventure
___ Fulfilment and meaning in life
___ Master’s degree and career opportunities
___ Good salary and benefits
___ Opportunity to be absorbed as a Municipal Health Officer (MHO)

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4. To what extent do you agree with the following statements assuming you join the DTTB
program? Please choose the answer that best describes your perception for each statement.

Statements Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


Agree (4) (3) (2) Disagree
(5) (1)
I will find fulfilment in serving the community to which I will be
assigned as DTTB
I will find support from my family in my journey as DTTB
I will find satisfaction and appreciation of my work
I will find my work in DTTB Program as meaningful and
stimulating
I will gain sufficient opportunities to develop my career
I will receive satisfactory support and recognition from the
municipal government
I will have the flexibility to balance my work and personal life
I will have a manageable workload as DTTB
I will have sufficient supplies and equipment needed to do my
job well and safely
I will have a safe community that is far from any insurgencies,
political instability, and the like
I will have a comfortable accommodation
I will have safe and efficient transportation to work
I will have a fair salary
I will have a fair benefit package
I will have a fair representation allowance and travelling
allowance
*Adapted and modified from study of Leonardia et al., (2012)

5. If the DTTB is made on a voluntary basis, would you still join the program?
 Yes
 No
 Undecided
6. Based on your previous answer, what are the deciding factors that affect you from joining the
program? Please rank your answer from 1 to 5.
___ Personal satisfaction
___ Job satisfaction and career development
___ Work environment
___ Living and community conditions
___ Salary, benefits, and incentives

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