Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Problem

Human beings can communicate with each other. We are able to exchange

knowledge, opinions, wishes, commands, thanks, promises, declaration

feelings. We can laugh to express amusement, happiness, or disrespect, we

can shriek to express anger, excitement, or fear, and so on. But our system of

communication before anything else is language. So, language is the main

factor to communicate with other people. Language is used in daily activities.

Without language people cannot interact to other people and difficult in

communication. By language people can get many information and

knowledge.

As a developing country Indonesia fairly and unceasingly needs to adopt

more science and technology from advanced country. This clearly implies that

communication has a very important role to help all people in the world do

interaction among themselves. To interact to each other, there many ways

that people can use, one of them is language. One of them languages that is

mostly used by people all over the world is English.

English is one of the languages used in communication almost all over the

world. It is used and its commonwealth all over the world. For instance: In

Singapore English is used as second language, in Austria it is used as first


language. Therefore, it has become more important in the world and it is

used almost all over the world in the international communication or

international conference. Most about science, technology and academy are

written in English. Moreover, computer now as one of the result of modern

technology development, which so many people use for getting information,

are programmed by using English. At this time English is more developed.

In Indonesia, English as a foreign language. It is taught from Junior High

school until university. In junior high school, English as compulsory subject.

Even though Indonesia starts to teach English from early. It does not give

guarantee that students of Indonesia can speak English well and fluently. In

learning English there are four language skills, namely listening, speaking,

reading and writing. Besides, to develop English language skill the learners

must master vocabulary because it is impossible to speak English without

mastering vocabulary. Vocabulary is a basic elements of language

components which are learnt in foreign language. Learning vocabulary is

important to make students easier in mastering four language skills. To make

the students easy in mastering the vocabulary, the teacher also should

master English vocabulary to know how to convey materials to the students.

For example the teacher use the teacher led activity using complete the

sentence in learning vocabulary. This technique can make the students feel

curious about the meaning of vocabulary. It means that teacher-led activity

using the complete sentence are able to motivate the students to improve
their master vocabulary. Based assumption above the writer think, a teacher

should find the best effective technique to teach English vocabulary. Media as

teaching aids are needed to help the students understanding and to increase

the effectiveness in communication between teacher and students in teaching

and learning process.

In learning vocabulary, the students often face difficulties problem. Usually

the problem which rise in teaching and learning vocabulary are the students

cannot understand the meaning of the words, the students have difficulty to

pronounce the words and the students cannot use the words to make a

sentence both oral or written form. The students who have enough

vocabulary will not find difficult to understand the meaning of words so that

they are easier to know the meaning of the test. But, for some students

learning English is very difficult because they are not understand the meaning

of words and the media which given for students not exact, it makes the

students bored. This is the reason that the writer applies technique to create

a new style of teaching. The technique that writer used is Teacher-Led activity

using complete the Sentence.

Teacher-Led activity using complete the sentence is useful activity which can

improve students’ vocabulary mastery. In this activity, the teacher uses cut up

words to make the students be easy in learning words. Using this activity

creates joyful learning for students, so the students feel enjoy in learning

process.
Based on the preliminary research at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung, the writer

found that students’ vocabulary mastery need to be improved. They found

difficulties in mastering vocabulary. The writer also found that the teacher had

never used Teacher Led Activities Using Complete Sentence in teaching

vocabulary. Teacher Led Activities Using Complete Sentence is one of the

techniques in teaching learning process. Therefore the writer purposes a

research entitles: The Influence of Teacher Led Activities Using Complete

Sentence towards Students’ Vocabulary at the Eighth Class at SMPN 23

Bandar Lampung in 2017/2018.

1.2 The Identification of Problem

Based on the background of the problem above the writer would like identify

the problems as follows :

1. The students find difficulties in learning vocabulary.

2. The students find difficulties to understand the meaning of word.

3. The students’ vocabulary mastery needs to be improved.

4. The teacher has never uses Teacher-Led Activity Using Complete the

sentence in teaching vocabulary.

1.3 The Limitation of problem

Based on identification of problem above, the writer limited the problems on

The Influence of Teacher – Led Activities Using Complete Sentence


Towards Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at the second semester of Eighth

class at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung 2017/2018.

1.4 The Formulation of Problem

Based on the identification and limitation of problem above, the writer

formulated the problem as follow:

1. Is there any influence of Teacher- Led Activities Using Complete

Sentence Towards Students’ Vocabulary Mastery.

2. Is the average score of students’ vocabulary mastery who learn

through teacher-led activity using complete the sentence higher

than students who learn vocabulary through translation technique?

1.5 The objective and Uses of Research

1.5.1 The objectives Of Research

1. To know and describe the influence of Teacher – Led Activities

Using Complete Sentence towards students vocabulary mastery.

2. To know and describe whether or not the average score of

students’ vocabulary mastery which taught through Teacher- Led

Activity Using Complete Sentence higher than which is taught

through translation technique.

1.5.2 The Uses of Research


1. To give information for the English teacher about the influence of

teacher-led activity using complete sentence towards students’

vocabulary mastery.

2. To motivate the students in improving vocabulary.

3. To give information for further study with different interest.

4. To give contribution for educational research development.

1.6 The Scopes of Research

1.6.1 The Subject of Research

The subject of research are the students at the second semester at

eighth class at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung.

1.6.2 The Object of The Research

The object of research is the students’ vocabulary mastery.

1.6.3 The Place of the Research

This research will be conducted at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung.

1.6.4 The Time of Research

This research will be conducted at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung in

2017/2018 academic year.


CHAPTER II

FRAME OF THEORIES, THINKING AND HYPHOTHESIS

2.1 Frame of theories

This chapter consist of some theories, thinking and hypothesis. The writer

review some basic theories that made easy to find out problem under

discussion. The theories are taken from resources such as some books and

articles.

2.1.1 The Concept of Language

People use language to make communication, to send suggestion and

interaction. To know what another want and willing, people use language.

Language has very important role in our life, because language is a tool for

communication. Human beings use language in expressing their idea, feeling,

and expectation to other people in interaction among them.

Language can be described as means of communication that the users of

language wants to do, to convey or to express of feeling and experience to

other people. People can also get such information by reading books,

magazines, newspaper, and so on. Moreover, language plays an important

role in our life.


Cameron (2001:241) stated that “language leads to learning though enabling

participation in the social world and the expressing and sharing of meanings”.

It means that language is a system for the expression of meaning; primary

function, interaction and communication, conveys message and consist of

sound and meaning. Language will make our life become easy. We can

communicate with other people in certain symbol as our needed. Harmer (

2001:25) stated “language is a social construct as much as it is a metal

ability.” It is very important to get what we are going to reach in social

interaction.

Based on the explanation above, it is clear that language is very important to

human life that functions as tool of communication. All interaction and

activities will run well through language. Language exist and develops within

people and culture and it is used a as a tool of communication among the

numbers of people in society.

2.1.2 The Concept of Vocabulary

Vocabulary is a component to support four skills in learning English and in

order to listen, speak, read, and write effectively. According to Hatch and

Brow (1995 : 01) “Vocabulary refers to a list or set or word that individual

speakers of a language might use.” Accordingly, vocabulary is the most

amounts of words that characterize a given language. Without this vocabulary

the learner would be unable to use and comprehend the target language.

Time and again, the writer have found strong connection ability of students’
vocabularies, how well they comprehend what they read, and how well they

perform in learning.

Hornby (1995) defines vocabulary as “the total number of words in a

language; vocabulary is a list of words with their meaning”. In additions, Burns

(1972) defines vocabulary as “the stock of words which is used by a person,

class or profession. According to Zimmerman cited and Coady and Huckin

(1998) “vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to the

typical language learning”. From the definition above, it can be concluded that

vocabulary is total number of words that are needed to communicate ideas

and express the speakers’ meaning. And also it is support four skills in

learning English. That is the reason why it is important to learn vocabulary.

Vocabulary is the basic knowledge in learning language. Vocabulary is very

important component of language. Ideas, information and thought of the

students are delivered by mastering vocabulary. It is also are able to help the

students in learning speaking, listening, reading and writing. By having

enough vocabulary there is no difficulty in comprehending and expressing

ideas. The students must master enough vocabulary to facilitate

communication in real situations.

Norberth and McCarthy (1997:106) state that “vocabulary is the key aspect of

learning a language.” It means that language and vocabulary how interrelated


because without vocabulary language is empty, while without language,

human being cannot express something and make a communication.

Vocabulary is a fundamental aspect in learning English process. Language

consist of vocabulary. Vocabulary is like brain in our body. It show how

important position of vocabulary in learning English. Cameron (2001: 95)

state that “vocabulary is the fundamental in using the foreign language as

discourse”. It means that vocabulary is basic element of language which will

make the language meaningful and vocabulary has been as a major resource

for language use.

Wilkins in Thornberry (2002:13) states that “Without vocabulary nothing can

be conveyed.” Concerning on the concept of vocabulary, it means that when

the students just mastering some vocabulary, the students cannot use

language well and they will find difficulty in using English for the purpose of

communication. They cannot speak and say something, they also cannot

express their idea and feeling. Vocabulary is very crucial for students in using

language. They can learn English easily by mastering vocabulary.

According to Richard and Rodgers (2003 : 37) “vocabulary was one of the

most important aspects of foreign learning”. It means that clear using

vocabulary is important in the language skill. Vocabulary is used as the

understanding between people who want to communicate to convey their


ideas, feeling, information, massage, etc. This is impossible to learn language

without words and without vocabulary.

Based on the statements the writer thought vocabulary is basic element in

learning language, it is essential humans to speak, because humans who

have a lot of vocabulary that would be easy to communicate in English.

Vocabulary is a list of words with their classes and meaning. Each class has

difference function to be used in arranging a sentence, so the students should

master all of classes of word if they want to master English both in oral or

written form. Vocabulary can helps the students to express what they think

and what they want to convey, so vocabulary is very important to be learned.

Teacher should be aware that learning vocabulary is not only to memorize the

words because it is impossible for students to communicate English well if

they do not understand the meaning of words. It should be taught in

meaningful context and practiced, to understand the meaning of words .

2.1.3 The Concept of Teaching and Learning Vocabulary

Learning English is more Effective if the learners are involved the process

actively. To make the students involved, the teacher must think of some

activities that are interesting for them, especially of teaching vocabulary.

Thornbury (2002: 75-76) “to make an interesting activity, the teacher should

consider some factors, the teachers have to teach a related set of words by

using these factors:


1. The level of leaners

2. The learners are likely familiar with words or no

3. The difficulty of items

4. Whether items are being learned for production (in speaking and writing)

or for recognition only ( in listening and reading)

It means that every student has different level and ability. So as a teacher we

must be creative to make the students are motivated in learning the

language. For example in teaching vocabulary the teachers might use game,

picture, video, and etcetera.

Teaching vocabulary is one component that must be taught to the students.

Studying vocabulary is not required to remember the words, but also many

things that should be understood. It was all done so that the learning process

more active and stimulating. Vocabulary also necessary in learning language,

because vocabulary is needs in all aspect of language. It means that, the

students should master adequate personal English vocabulary that converse

for communication in real life situation, in order to be able to communicate

English well. So, vocabulary is important part in learning a language. Scott

Thronbury (2002:30) gives the implication of teaching vocabulary, those are:

1. Learners need task and strategies to help them organize their mental

lexicon by building networks associations the more the better.

2. Teachers need to accept that the learning of new words involves a period

of ‘initial fuzziness’
3. Learners need to wean themselves off a reliance on direct translation from

their mother tongue

4. Words need to be presented in their typical context, so that learners get a

feel for their meaning, their register, their collocations, and their syntactic

environments.

5. Teaching should direct attention to the sound of new words, particularly

the way they are stressed.

6. Learners should aim to build a threshold vocabulary as quickly as

possible.

7. Learners need to be actively involved in the learning of words.

8. Learners need multiple exposures to words and they need to from

memory repeatedly.

9. Leaners need to make multiple decisions about words.

10. Memory of new words can be reinforced if they are used to explore

personality relevant meanings.

11. Not all the vocabulary that the learners need can be ‘taught’ : learners

need plentiful exposure to talk and text as well as training for directed

learning.

Based on the explanation, it is clearly stated that teaching vocabulary starting

from finding the difficulties of words. The strategies, the objectives and task

are also needed to help student in learning vocabulary. Properly, the students

were asked to not be dependent on online dictionaries or google translate in


their smartphone, and therefore the teachers have asked for more attention to

the preparation of a sentence in giving the lesson so that students more

easier to learn the lesson.

There are some indicators that should be achieved. In teaching learning

vocabulary Fearch (1964: 100) states that it is in fact, more accurate to view

vocabulary knowledge as a continuum between ability to make sense of a

word and ability to active the word automatically for productive purposes. He

also states that to fully know a foreign language word thus requires that the

learner :

1. Is able to recognize it in its spoken and written form

2. Is able to recall it

3. Is able to relate it to appropriate objects or concept (i.e. knows the full

meaning potential of the word and not just one specific meaning)

4. Can use it in appropriate grammatical forms

5. Is able to pronounce it in recognizable way

6. Can spell it correctly

7. Knows in what way it can combine with other words (i.e. in its correct

collocation)

8. Know the relation between the word and other words within a lexical set

(relations and hyponymy, antonym, etc)

9. Is aware of its connotation and associations


10. Can use it on the appropriate level of formality and it the appropriate

situation.

In other opinion Nation (1996:41) mentions some indicators in teaching

vocabulary those are :

1. Being able to say it with correct pronunciation including stress

2. Being able to write it with correct spelling

3. Being able to construct it using the right word parts in their appropriate

forms

4. Being able to produce the word to express the meaning “underdeveloped”.

5. Being able to produce the word in different context to express the range of

meanings of underdeveloped

6. Being able to produce synonym and opposites for underdeveloped

7. Being able to use the word correctly in an original sentence

8. Being able to produce words that commonly occur

9. Being able to decide to use or not use the word to suit the degree of

formality of the situation.

Based on the definition above, the writer assumes that the goal of teaching

vocabulary enable the students to remember, to recognize and also to

connect a concept verbally (speaking with an good emphasis), to write (be

able to write with good spelling and correct grammatical) and to determine the

relationship between one word and another word. Besides, it is enables the
students to express the meaning of the spoken word as well as able to use

according to certain places or situation.

2.1.4 The Concept of Language of Teacher- Led Activity Using

Complete the Sentence

The objective of teaching vocabulary in the class is the students are able to

use a language as communication tool and they use it both oral and written.

There are kinds of technique in teaching vocabulary. As a teacher, they must

be able to use and apply some technique in teaching their students. Teacher

led activity using complete the sentence is one of techniques in teaching

vocabulary. By using this technique, it is expected that students will be

interested in learning vocabulary and may develop their vocabulary rapidly.

According Jones,”in the following activities, however a teacher has a more

central (a traditional) role, as before, the students work mainly in pair or small

group”. The students are given some cut up words. They listen to sentences

where word (or words) has been left out, and suggest which word from their

selection best completes each gap.

Teacher led activity is an activity that teacher do in front the class, in which

the teacher reads aloud the sentences and the students have to listen eagerly

to each sentence to complete each gap. The activity also can motivate the

students in learning process, because it is interesting and challenge for them

to search which word is matching to complete each gap.


In this activity, they can work alone or in pairs. First the teacher gives them

some cut-up words. They listen to the sentences where a word (or words) has

been left out, and suggest which word (or words) from their selection best

complete each gap. For example, the teacher read out the sentence “Smile

every one and look at the….!” The students who thinks (o) he has missing

word, holds it up and says it loudly. If it is correct, the word is turned face

down. This helps the teacher to see how many words each students has left.

If it is incorrect the teacher can ask other students to suggest the missing

words. And it is continued until all 20 sentences has been completed

successfully.

It seems that in this activity the students concentration will be increased

because students have to listen eagerly to each sentence. It will be more

effectively if they learned vocabulary in full sentence / complete sentence. It is

supported by the statements from Bambang Setiyadi (2006: 49) “vocabulary

is acquired more easily and naturally if they use it in full sentence, rather than

memorizing the word list. It implies that through complete the sentence the

teacher can increase the students’ vocabulary.

2.1.4.1 The Procedure of Teaching Learning Vocabulary Through

Teacher-Led Activity Using Complete the Sentence

The procedure of teaching learning vocabulary through teacher-led activity

using complete the sentence to Jones (1993 : 13)


1. Copy and cut up the words. The first 20 words are words that are missing

from the sentences, while the remaining words are distractors.

2. The students work alone or in pairs. The words are divided up amongst

each student/pair. Make sure that everyone has at least one correct word

and depending on the number of students in the class, one distractor. All

the words are place face up on the table or desk.

3. Read out the sentences, one at a time. If necessary, read each sentence

more than once. Make sure you clearly indicate (by asking a sound, etc.)

where the missing word is in each sentence.

4. The students who thinks (s) he has the missing word, holds it up and says

it loud. If correct, the word is turned face down.

5. If incorrect the teacher can ask other students to suggest the missing

words. (They may be able to guess it even if it is not one off their words).

Further help can be given, e.g. it starts with the letter p. again, if the

teacher is close enough to the students (s) he may be able to point to a

student/pair and says it is one of your words.

6. Continue until all 20 sentences have been completed successfully.

2.1.4.2 The Strengths and The Weakness of Teaching Vocabulary

Through Teacher-Led activity Using Complete the Sentence

2.1.4.2.1 The Strength of Teaching Vocabulary Through Teacher-Led

activity Using Complete the Sentence


According to Jones (1993: 13) the strength of using this activity :

1. This exercise simple and there is 100 per cent increase in concentration

by doing this way.

2. Students can be interesting to listen the teacher says when the teacher

read the sentence.

3. Leading the students to more active and enthusiastic

4. It create fun and enjoyment

2.1.4.1.2 The Weakness of Teaching Vocabulary through Teacher- led

Activity Using Complete the sentence

Based on Jones (1993: 13) the weakness of teaching of teaching vocabulary

through Teacher-Led activity using complete the sentence are:

1. The situation of class is crowded.

2. The students should be able to create their high concentration.

2.2 Previous Study

The writer took one previous study as the guideline to implement the

research. It is written by Ningsih who analyzed the effectiveness of using

Teacher – led activity using complete the sentence towards students’

vocabulary mastery. It was conducted at SMP Utama 3 Bandar Lampung for

academic year 2015/2016. The objective of this research is this study was

conducted as an attempt to find out the effect of using Teacher Led Activity

Using complete the sentence on students vocabulary mastery, she use

experimental design. This study was conducted with two randomized group
namely experimental group by using teacher led activity using complete the

sentence, and control group by using translation technique. It means that

teaching vocabulary using Teacher-Led activity using complete the sentence

was effective to improve students’ vocabulary mastery.

2.3 The Frame of Thinking

Teacher-Led Activity using complete the sentence practice also used to

improve the students’ vocabulary because this technique encourages

students to use context to guess the meaning of new word. Technique is a

kind of way that teacher use in teaching, the purpose of using this technique

is to make students more interest in learning vocabulary.

Based the theory in this chapter, the writer assumes that teacher-led activity

using complete the sentence is suitable for teaching vocabulary, it can make

students interest to study vocabulary, because by using complete the

sentence the students will not bored in studying the materials that the teacher

delivered. To describe the influence of Teacher-led activity using complete

the sentence towards students’ vocabulary mastery, see the following

diagram.

Diagram of describing Influence Of Teacher-Led Activity using

Complete The Sentence towards Students’ Vocabulary Mastery.


Teacher Led Activity Using Students’ Vocabulary
Complete The Sentence Mastery

Characteristic : Indicator :

1. Students complete the gaps 1. Students are able to know


with the words that have the words’ meaning (or
provided meanings)
2. Students hold the words to 2. The students are able to
turn facedown, and fill the know any connotations the
gaps with the appropriate words might have
words

2.4 The Hypothesis

Based on the theories and the statements above, the writer would like to

make the hypothesis as follows :

1. There is significant influence of teacher-led activity using complete

sentence towards students vocabulary.

2. The average score of students vocabulary mastery who learn through

teacher-led activity using complete sentence in higher than students who

learn through translation technique.


CHAPTER III

THE METHOD OF RESEARCH AND DATA ANALYSIS

3.1 The Method Of Research

This research is quantitative research. According to Mackey

(2005:363) Quantitative research is research which variable are

manipulated to test hypothesis and in which there is usually

quantification of data and numeric analysis. Nunan (1992: 24) state

that experiments are carried out in order to explore the strength of

relationship between variables. The subject of the research was taken

from two classes. The first class as experimental class which is taught

through Teacher -Led Activities Using Complete Sentence, and the

second class as control class which is taught through translation

technique.

3.2 The Variable of Research

The research consist of two variables, namely independent variable

and dependent variable. They are as follow:

1. The independent variable is Teacher-Led Activities Using Complete

Sentence (X)

2. The dependent variable is student vocabulary mastery (Y)

3.2.1 The Operational Definition of Variables


The operational definition of variable was two describe the characteristic of

the variable that was investigated, they are:

1. Teaching Vocabulary by Using Complete Sentence means that the

writer applied Complete Sentence in teaching vocabulary.

2. The students’ vocabulary mastery is the total number of vocabulary

that is mastered or known by the students. It is indicated by the score

achieved from the test given.

3.3 The Population, Sample, and Sampling Technique

3.3.1 The Population

Burke (2000: 158) population is the set of all elements. It is that large group to

which the researcher wants to generalize his or her sample result. In line with

Burke Arikunto (2002: 108) says that population is all individuals of that

group. While Sutrisno Hadi (1983: 70) says that population is a number of

individuals, which have at least one similar characteristic. Therefore from the

statement above, it can be concluded that population is a number of

individuals that have at least one characteristic in common and to which a

researcher wants to generalize his or her sample result. In this research, the

writer took the population from eighth grade of SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung in

2017/2018 which consisted of 9 classes and with total number of the students

are 288.

Table 1
Population of Students of the Eighth Grade of SMPN 23 Bandar

Lampung in 2017/2018

No. Class Gender Total

Male Female

1 VIII A 14 18 32

2 VIII B 12 20 32

3 VIII C 18 14 32

4 VIII D 18 14 32

5 VIII E 17 16 33

6 VIII F 16 16 32

7 VIII G 16 16 32

8 VIII H 14 17 31

9 VIII I 16 16 32

TOTAL 141 147 288

Source: The Data of SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung 2017/2018.


3.3.2 The Sample

Burke (2002: 158) says that “sample that it is a set of elements taken from a

larger population according to certain rules”. From the statement above it can

be concluded the sample of the research are two classes as the sample of

the research were one class as the experimental class (VIII H) which was

taught through teacher led activity using complete sentence and other class

as control class (VIII I) which was taught through translation technique.

3.3.3 The Sampling Technique of the Research

According to Setiyadi (2006: 42) states “Group sample do when the

population has different classes in the population is determined. Taking the

individual as a sample can be performed using a random sampling or

systematic “. Therefore in conducting the research, the writer took the sample

from the population randomly by taking the lottery to determine the classes

which will be used as the sample of the research.

3.4 Data Collecting Technique

There are few common methods of gathering quantitative information, those

are : questionnaires, structured interview, test, structured observation,

inventories, rating scales and unobtrusive measures (Mcmillan 2001 : 180 –

181), in this research the writer used a test to got the data. According to

Brown (2001 : 384) test is a method of measuring a persons’ ability or

knowledge in given domain. Furthermore, Heaton (1975 : 52 – 58) said there


are three kinds of test, namely multiple choice test, matching item test, sets

test (associated words). To got the data of the students’ vocabulary mastery

the writer used multiple choice test, which consisted of 50 items in five

options that is A,B,C,D or E. The correct answer has score 2.0. Therefore, the

score range from 0 – 100.

3.5 The Procedure of Research

Before doing the research, the writer did preliminary research to know the

situation and condition of the students, the teacher, and the school where the

research has done. Firstly, the writer asked permission to the headmaster,

after the headmaster allowed the writer to do the research, the writer met with

the English teacher and did interview. Finally, the writer determined the

subject that would took as the sample of research. Furthermore, in

conducting the research, the writer followed the following steps:

1. Doing preliminary research

2. Determining the subject of the research, the students of eighth grade

at SMPN 23 Bandar Lampung 2017/2018.

3. Determining the samples of the research by used random sapling

technique.

4. Dividing the sample into two classes, the first class was as

experimental class and the second was as control class.

5. Preparing the lesson plan, materials, and students’ worksheet.


6. Performing the teaching vocabulary by used teacher-led activity by

using complete sentence in experiment class, and used translation

technique in control class.

7. Giving test in experiment class and control class.

8. Analyzing the data.

9. Testing the hypothesis and made the conclusion.

10. Reported the result of the research.

3.6 Validity of the Test

Brown