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Invention Journal of Research Technology in Engineering & Management (IJRTEM)

ISSN: 2455-3689
www.ijrtem.com Volume 1 Issue 5 ǁ July. 2016 ǁ PP 42-49

Psychological Factors of Mobile Phone Users and Social Media Networks on


Individual Health
Mohammad Hatem Khalaf Al-Bashabsheh
(Communication and Media Management / Girne American University, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC))

Abstract : Mobile devices in this modern generation such as cell phones has become the most used instrument in the people’s daily
activities including browsing Internet and sending e-mails. In this work, the mobile technology is suggested to help the higher
educational students, studies, check their emails, self-testing themselves, following news, search for jobs, the help of new learning
environment to learn course subjects easily, collaborative learning opportunity, and remaindering the learning activities
automatically (Homework and announcement, exam, self-test, chat, etc.). This application will also have the ability to send a voice
call to their teachers and attend conferences through internet, even by video calls. Basically, some methods have been suggested to
settle this application according to the available new technology. The preliminary outcomes of the conducted experiment
demonstrated the possibility of applying mobile devices within the various help of the students at Girne American University and for
the young people and scientific. In this work, survey is prepared as two forms, one for personnel information and the second for the
use and benefits of using smart phones in higher education.

Keywords: Psychology, Smart Phone, higher education, Internet Addiction, Positive Media

I. Introduction
The unbelievable spread of social media, computers, smart mobiles, plasma TVs and the internet, all these medias surprised all the
world. All these studies confirmed the internet addiction disorder (IAD), these caused disorder, momentary trembling movements,
repulsion and worry in some addicts (Anderson et al., 2003, and Argo et al., 2009). Many researchers considered the IAD to a
dependence on an addictive substance, some included it among other pathological behavior as gambling (Doherty et al., 2003). In
brief, some humans use broadcast and web media as a mental and emotional retreat and refuge. Addicts are related to their scr eens;
their minds trapped for hours to the exclusion of the arena round them. Addicts forget loved ones, work, stories, social relationships
and themselves. This is an addictive obsession that's human-based and display-deep. Mind-altering media functions is also located in
video games, iPods, YouTube and other evolving communications applications. Almost always, these bad features of media and
behavior are being greatly mentioned concurrently with the dialogue of the priceless contributions media makes as a primary supply
for positive behavioral change (vartanova, 2013, and Rutledge, 2010).

Telemedicine, tele therapy and telehealth are yielding new information and better understanding that will lead to improved services
to the public. The value of positive psychology has been validated (Rutledge, 2009). Positive media messages are helping to improve
public understanding of major social and medical consequences of issues affecting the public such as body weight, diet and lack of
exercise, high cholesterol, and hypertension to highlight only a few (Livingstone, 2009). Increased public awareness and
understanding through media is leading us to positive behavioral changes. Media psychology applied to major social issues can be a
force for good. In addition, the growth of new Internet applications in commercial areas such as online buying and banking ar e
positively contributing to the world's economy at an astonishing rate (Gorham, 2010). The media psychologists by the combination
of understanding the behavior, knowledge and emotions with the equality of understanding the media technology. As much as
described the psychology as an endless study and concentrate at the whole system, also as a continual with no end including
technology, content producer, content perception and finally the response of user as shown in Figure 1 (Rutledge, 2010).

Technology
Development

User Response Content


Producer

Content
Perceptions
Figure 1: Continual Loop of Psychological Media (Rutledge, 2010)

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Psychological Factors of Mobile Phone…

II. Technology Development


Nowadays, the technology the widely increasing and spreading all over the world, it has the most important role and the effective
support by the developed programs. Granters and their agencies militate in order to discover and invent better response for old and
the newer challenges in order to launch in all over the world. Moreover, the technology and its innovations hold all promises of
producing newer solutions in order to be benefit for all people, no matter rich or poor. This appears from the analytical studies on
smart mobiles as mobile-banking in using the biometrics for cash transfer, central of global developments (CGDs) are helping in
order to reshape the integration of the technology and its developments (Gelba et al., 2016).

Content Producer
Content producer in social media, where audience have the most active and effective situation in producing and sharing the contents.
The concept of user-generated content (UGC) describes this turn, From the analysis of findings, three motives are identified for
content production (Matikainen, 2015):
(1) development of Web ideology and self-desire to be involved in the development of the Internet and to develop oneself
accordingly;
(2) self-expression: people especially the young, want to act independently and freely on the Web and to share information about
their lives; and
(3) community people want to belong to online communities and to interact with one another.

Content Perception
Even as acknowledging that the media can have many positive roles, 5 aspects of media that have raised challenge:
1. The portrayal of violence in children‟s media;
2. Promoting, in particular when it is directed at children;
3. The portrayal of crime;
4. Portrayals of mental health problem; and
5. Representations of ethnic diversity and conflict between ethnic corporations.
Traditionally a substantial majority of psychological study on the media has worried TV. Extra lately there has been a surge of
research in keeping with considerations related to the results of violent video games, and exposure to the internet (Bastian et al.,
2013).
Subject of the Study : In this study, the main subject is the impact of the psychological media as smart phones on the individual as
the students at the Girne American University (GAU) and its use as a benefit in their higher educations. The Forms are prepar ed and
attached in Appendix I and II.
III. Methodology
According to the spotted facts, cross sectional adjectival particularity study was used. The population, however, included in TRNC
use social media networking in their lives as for students and for working individual. Beneficial techniques were used in order to
sample the effects of smart phones, effect of psychological media on MSc and PHD students at Girne American University (GAU) in
the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC) who were interviewed in the selected university. Questionnaire forms were prepared
as in Appendix A and B. The researcher noticed and wrote notes about the response which is given by the students at the selected
university and then were reproduced. Unanimity was reached the required concerning the period for the interaction between the
researcher and the raconteur for reciprocal benefits. The writing for this study was structured interview and the particular substance
topics derived from the interview were sophisticated for the content analysis including Figures.

Scope : The scope of this work is to understand and investigate how a particular media as smart phones affect the psychology of
people especially higher educational students at Girne American University, how they think and relate it, how it affects values and
their beliefs and how it shapes leisure and study time. Finally, trying to understand how one mode of communication as the smart
phones affect the student‟s behavior differently than another.

Related Research : Thirlaway and Benton (1992) discovered that as little as one hour regarding exercise weekly was connected with
lowered depression symptoms within sufferers. Krout (2002) broadened this theory with his interpersonal seclusion speculation,
proposing in which prolonged diamond within sedentary behaviors, for example Television viewing or even PC make use of, not
merely removes the user from social conversation, but also results in the actual breakdown associated with social help or
conversation systems which usually may lead to elevated risk of emotional ill health. Anderson et al., (2003) proved that violent
television films, video games and music exposes that music increased the probability of the attacker and the violent behavior in both
levels as intermediate and the long-term context.

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Psychological Factors of Mobile Phone…

Moreover, provided a converging testimonies about violent media in the childhood offensive future in the life with wrongdoing
presumption disadvantages. Finally, concluded that many children spend an overstated time using the violent media and this affects
them in a worse situation than the parental-mediation interventions. Shah, (2003) biased a large percent of the general public
believes that the news media, and the vast majority of these members consider the path of bias to be towards them possess
viewpoints. Examined how person factors such as strength of partisanship or extent of political involvement heighten bias
perceptions, however little awareness has been paid to interpersonal factors such because the ideological similarity or dissimilarity of
private communication networks. Results of a countrywide survey exhibit that perceptions of media bias have been unrelated to the
overall quantity of dialogue however were positively related to conversations with ideologically like-minded individuals.
Additionally, the effect of conversations with identical others was enhanced among republicans than amongst democrats, a finding
constant with contemporary work on information self-protection of media bias claims.

Wise et al. (2006) mirrored these types of outcomes once they discovered that among one and several hours regarding exercise each
week was of the lowered odds of depression. Argo et al., (2009) proved to the culture the impact of the nonprofit alliance of
civilization media fund (AOCME) as it has and could have an effect on different culture in order to understand and intergroup
relations. Moreover, explained its features, its impact on attitudes and a presentation of its impact on the intergroup attitudes as the
introductory finding which reconnoiter. Rutledge, (2009) discussed the qualitative analysis of division 46 member responses to the
question: “What Comes to Mind When You Think of Media psychology?” and examined the division 46 website to see if the website
reflects the members‟ responses. Rutledge, (2010) described the media psychologists by the combination of understanding the
behavior, knowledge and emotions with the equality of understanding the media technology.

As much as described the psychology as an endless study and concentrate at the whole system, also as a continual with no end
including technology, content producer, content perception and finally the response of user. Doherty et al., (2011) described three
classes of psychological impacts: direct; indirect and psychosocial. Responses include providing psychological interventions in the
wake of acute impacts and reducing the vulnerabilities contributing to their severity; promoting emotional resiliency and
empowerment in the context of indirect impacts; and acting at systems and policy levels to address broad psychosocial impacts.

The challenge of climate change calls for increased ecological literacy, a widened ethical responsibility, investigations into a range
of psychological and social adaptations, and an allocation of resources and training to improve psychologists‟ competency in
addressing climate change related impacts. Ono et al. (2011) found out that the amount of face-to-face social discussion had been
favorably correlated in order to enhanced personal mental wellbeing. Vartanova, (2013) explained the mass media as it became one
of the definitive institutions in modern society, as much as, the media factories became the integral part of the repose. Moreover,
they became the economic source and psychological well-being for the people so that the process of mass communication and by
media companies, this level of media became the reason of making homo mediates.

Overview of Social Media : Defining social media, it can be defined as the electronic telecommunication as websites through which
users can create communities in order to share pictures, documents, chat, and other contents as videos. This media is started since
2004, where it widely spread in some years ago. Moreover, sometimes it is described as household item, where people are makin g
profiles in Facebook showing that they got more and more connected than before. According to this research study, more than 82%
of adults and especially university students use social networking sites. Moreover, this study explored that most used social media is
the Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram.

While, Facebook users are not considered as only abundant users as much as considerably active users and engaged more than 72%
visit Facebook at least one hour per day, even some users cannot wait till they go to their homes, they use their 3G internet in order
to visit their accounts in Facebook, some of them which is almost 45% visit their accounts more than one time per day.

This study noticed that this usage of social media is increased more and more from the mobile usage of this social networking sites.
The reason of this increase is that the huge spread of the smart phones and tablets in the popularity, so that most of the users of these
social medias rely on their mobiles in order to access their favorite sites. Taking into consideration that in the last year which is
2015, more than 300 million Facebook users were just mobile users ignoring the personnel computers (PCs) and laptops. According
to this research study, more than 86% found in the age range of 17 – 35 years old just Facebook users as shown in Figure 2.

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Psychological Factors of Mobile Phone…

Figure 2: Facebook Users (Percentage)

Figure 2 shows that Facebook users is becoming extent increasing in the life of young and adults, also it is so important to
understand its disadvantages of this increase. While, the adults even in their works are using Facebook at least one hour per day
according to this study.

Motivation for the Use of Social Media : General speaking, it is so doubtless that social media is substantially famous and mostly
popular. Lately, researchers in neuropsychological explained the reason that people are more connected with this social media and
the number is increasing rapidly by: self-revelation one could entice in with the social media‟s activities by essential reward system
of the brain, exactly as the method of powerful primary rewards. As a result, people are motivated in order to use Facebook by two
important and main reasons:

firstly, self-presentation, and secondly belonging reason, these reasons are helpful by satisfying people‟s individual as the need for
worth and integrity. In this research study, it is found that most students as MSc and PHD are using social media in order to stay in
touch with their families and friends as a special case, the foreign students available in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus
(TRNC) at the Girne American University (GAU), also for making new friends from other countries, to read posted comments and to
search for romantic partner. The study explored the use of Facebook between GAU students as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Facebook Users (PHD and MSc Students)

Also, this research spilled the concentration on the use of Facebook according to the different in age groups as shown in Figure 4.

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Psychological Factors of Mobile Phone…

Figure 4: Facebook Users (BSc) Students with Age Group 18-24

Figure 3 and 4 explain the students with middle age and the adults use Facebook in order to connect with others according to their
common interests, hobbies, posted comments, and communicate with their families and friends outside the countries. While students
younger than 30 years old, this group maintained their connections with families, friends who stayed in their countries, and
searching for romantic partner. Also, this research study discovered that, Facebook minimum daily use is found that it varies
according to the age groups as: the ages between 17 – 24 years old, are using Facebook minimum 4 hours per day, while 25 – 30 are
using it minimum 5 hours per day, 31-39 minimum 3 hours per day, and 40-45 minimum 1 hour per day as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Facebook Minimum Daily Use

Effect of Social Media: Valuation of Current Research : According to this research, the disadvantages of connecting social
media on its user as: melancholy, disquiet, irresistible urge, seclusion, and self-centeredness. The particular flourish use of social
networking by teenagers raises worries regarding these kinds of possible negative effects of their make use of (Kalpidou et al., 2011).
In the event that social media use can be connected to unfavorable final results, researchers need to commit more attention to
understanding aspects associated with unfavorable mental wellness benefits and ways to assuage these benefits (Lou et al., 2012).

Theories on How Social Media Affects Health : The actual materials review upward up to now displays which teenagers operate at
a vulnerable precipice: being a population, young adults are at a higher chance of creating emotional health problems as they

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experience growing the adult years (Grant & Potenza, 2010). These same young adults are the liveliest customers regardin g social
media marketing, with a specific connection with emotional health issues (Drouin et al., 2012; Rothberg et al., 2010). This
precarious scenario calls for more knowing: realizing that social media marketing and also mental wellness are related is merely the
leaping off stage. Comprehending how and why social networking might be influencing younger grownup mental health happens in
order to lighting up the actual connections with play between teenagers, their conditions, their health, and the part of social media
(Anxiety UK, 2012).

Several theories that might help explain why social media marketing exhibits an association to emotional health will now end up
being discussed. Although several theories produce a stimulating viewpoint on how social networking might be influencing
emotional health within the young adult population, do not require provide definitive evidence that social networking make use of
creates a decrease in mental wellness (Rosen et al., 2013). The objective of this kind of discussion is a look around the achievable
factors behind the link among social networking and emotional wellness (Davila, 2012). The dialogue regarding theoretical
perspectives is split directly into two areas: personal hypotheses as well as social ideas (De Wit et al., 2010). Individual ideas aim to
take into account just how social media impacts people because of person actions as well as personality traits, disregarding social
medias results around the individual‟s sociable associations (Sanchez et al., 2008). The next set of ideas could be classified since
social ideas, or even ideas that appear to be at exactly how social networking use affects people while they bring up to one another as
well as their larger atmosphere (Zarate, 2010). Both of these theoretical viewpoints usually are not mutually unique; chances are
which a combination of these kinds of hypotheses influence the relationship among emotional health and social media marketing
used in adults (Burt & Masten, 2010).

Dislodged Behavior Theory : One indisputable fact that might clarify the way the sedentary behaviors encouraged simply by social
media marketing affect emotional wellbeing are displacement. Individuals who spend more time inside non-active behaviors like
social media marketing utilize, have a shorter period regarding face-to-face interpersonal interaction and exercise, as both versions
have been shown to end up being defensive against psychological issues. Based on displacement principle, it is not the actual social
media make use of all alone which includes unhealthy outcomes about psychological health, but alternatively the absence of other
activities (Martinsen, 2008; Teychenne et al., 2008). Not surprisingly, several studies have identified a good inverse organization
among inactive conduct and exercise (Sugiyama et al., 2007; Sugiyama et al., 2008). These studies as well as their conclusions
recognize which inactive conduct can without a doubt displace exercise and exercise, as well as the benefits that can be enjoyed by
such activity. Despite the fact that It is a fact which exercising will help stave off certain physical ailments, latest studies have
centered on the opportunity part regarding physical activity inside the reduction and also treatments for depression symptoms and
depressive signs. Furthermore, too little physical exercise is associated with each life time Depressive disorders and also life time
comorbid nervousness and also depression symptoms (Strine et al., 2008).

Numerous scientific study has hypothesized that exercise minimizes chance of depressive disorders by means of physiological path
ways. As an example, workout may possibly activate endorphin secretion, that minimizes discomfort as well as produces a euphoric
feeling (Paluska & Schwenk, 2000). Another theory with regards to why exercise is useful in fighting mental disease shows that
exercise may possibly reduce the signs of emotional illness as opposed to the illness itself. For example, several depressive symptoms
are usually somatic in nature e.g. disrupted rest, general exhaustion, reduced urge for food; therefore, enhancements in depressive
symptoms may well mirror the general advantages of physical exercise as opposed to the workout having any direct impact on th e
actual depressive disorders alone.

Regardless of the trigger, workout is extensively recorded to reinforce mental wellness (Paluska & Schwenk, 2000). The risks
regarding changing activities together with any sort of non-active behavior, including social media marketing utilize, should be
considered just as one element whenever discussing the consequences regarding social media marketing use on emotional wellness
(Wise et al., 2006). Face-to-face interpersonal interaction furthermore plays a part in displaced behavior theory. Just like exercise, it
cuts down on the potential risk of building emotional medical issues so helping alleviate psychological health problems in wh ich
previously can be found (Ono et al., 2011). The particular displaced behavior principle is adamant that inactive actions including
social media make use of could be displacing this kind of face-to-face discussion and the advantages it includes. The interpersonal
drawback theory is a system regarding detailing the actual association among increasing sedentary actions as well as raising chance
of depression symptoms (Krout, 2000; Lewinsohn, 1974).

This particular theory suggests how the with greater regularity people view TV or perhaps make use of the computer/internet, the
actual further they get rid of by themselves from interpersonal conversation, which often raises their own chance of depression
symptoms (Wright et al., 2013, and Nielson Media Research, 2000).

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IV. Conclusion
So many factors to determine the exposure to the radio frequency (RF) and the energy transmitted from the mobile when user uses
mobile phone. These factors depend and varies according to the design of the phone, the output peak power when it is transmitting
the RF energy of the phone, the duty cycle during transmitting energy, the power level at which the mobile phone is operating at any
given moment which is controlled by two items as: the network, and the distance of the phone to the user‟s body. Smartphones can
also transmit data using Bluetooth or Wi-Fi transmitters that are built into them. These typically operate at much lower power levels
than the transmitter used to communicate with the phone system. This particular overview of the research around the link among
social media utilize as well as degraded psychological wellbeing demonstrates the value of the topic: the possibility dangerous
outcomes around social media marketing utilize have profound effects with regard to young adults. Since earlier mentioned, the
actual emotional health conditions developed in younger the adult years can easily trouble someone in their life-span. The value of
ongoing study and also pursuit with this matter cannot be over-stated.

Remember that this particular study cannot cover every concept that could explain exactly how social networking use attaches in
order to psychological health. For instance, there exists a developing entire body associated with study on the topic of online bullying
and also the results this particular exercise is wearing the self-image associated with teenagers. Given that teenagers tend to be
highly influenced by colleagues, this kind of on the internet intimidation might have an impact on psychological health. Similarly,
the body image of young adults, specifically ladies and women, seems to be affected by means of usage of online press. The
particular shortcoming of this dissertation, and the current research in particular, lies in not being able to analyze almost all factors
which could contribute to the relationship between social networking utilize as well as psychological wellness concurrently. Social
networking studies a comparatively new matter; most of the present materials is exploratory. In the intricate nature with thi s
connection, it really is challenging to deal with the link carefully although handling regarding confounding factors.

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