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Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

COURSE CODE: CVE 321

COURSE TITLE: THEORY OF STRUCTURES II

Week two: ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES


BY VIRTUAL WORK AND ENERGY METHODS

(STRAIN ENERGY)

CVE 321 | THEORY OF STRUCTURES II 1


Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

STRAIN ENERGY

Strain Energy is the foundation of most method of analysing statically indeterminate


structures. Most energy methods are based on the conservation of energy principle
which states that the work done by all the external forces acting on a structure (Ue) is
transformed into internal work or strain energy (Ui) which is developed when the
structure deforms. If the material’s elastic limit is not exceeded, the elastic strain
energy will retain the structure to its undeformed state when the loads are removed.
The conservation of energy principle can be stated mathematically as

Ue = U i ............................................. eqn 1.0

Expressions for strain energy for different types of loading commonly encountered
in structural Analysis are:

i. Strain Energy due to Axial force/Direct load


ii. Strain Energy due to Bending
iii. Strain Energy due to Torsion
iv. Strain Energy due to Shear

Strain Energy due to Axial force

Consider a bar with the following properties;


Length L, cross-sectional area A, modulus of
Elasticity E.

When an axial force F is applied gradually to the


A
L bar in Fig. 1.0, it will strain the material such that
the external work done by F will be converted into
strain energy, which is stored in the bar. Provided
the material is linearly elastic, Hooke’s law is
valid, σ= Eε
δL
Normal Stress σ =
F

Final Strain ε =

E = σ/ε = x =

Final deflection is δ =

CVE 321 | THEORY OF STRUCTURES II 2


Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

Strain Energy stored (U) = Work done

= Average Force x distance moved

= F/2 x δL

U = F/2 x

U = ................................................Eqn 2.0

In a frame structure, containing many bars, Total strain energy due to direct stress,
V = ΣF2L/2AE

Strain Energy due to shear

This is similar to that of direct stress. It is given as

U = .............................................Eqn 3.0

Where Q = gradually applied shear force


A = Area over which shear force acts
G = Modulus of Rigidity

Strain Energy due to Bending

Consider an Element of a Beam of length L,


δx subjected to an applied moment M, radius
M of curvature R.
M
The work of a moment is defined by the
product of the magnitude of the moment M
and the angle dθ through which it rotates,
θ that is dUe = Mdθ. If the total angle of
rotation is θ radians, the work becomes:
R

Ue = ∫ θ.
Figure 2.0

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Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

As in the case of force, if the moment is applied gradually to a structure having


linear elastic response from zero to M, the work is then

Ue =

Recall the equation M/I = f/y = E/R

δx = Rθ (where R is in radian)

θ = δx/R

:. θ =

Strain Energy stored = Workdone

U =

= 2x =

(For an elemental Part)

Therefore the total strain Energy due to bending in a beam of Length L will be:

V = ∫ .......................................Eqn 4.0

Strain Energy due to Torsion

V = ∫ .........................................Eqn 5.0

Where T = gradually applied Torque


J = Second moment of area about polar axis
G = Modulus of rigidity

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Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

Worked Example (To be solved in class)

Determine the displacement δ at the point where the force P is applied to the cantilever beam
shown below using strain energy method.
P

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Analysis of Indeterminate Structures Week 2

NOTE: Generally, strain energy is used to determine the deflection by


equating the work done by the load to the internal strain energy stored up in the
material by the structure. This particular approach is only adequate when one load is
in the structure, if more than one load were applied, there would be an unknown
displacement under each load and yet it is possible to write only one “work”
equation for the beam. Furthermore, only the displacement under the force can be
obtained since the external work depends upon both the force and its corresponding
displacement. For multiple loads, more powerful method such as the Principle of
Virtual work is required.

CVE 321 | THEORY OF STRUCTURES II 6