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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ARCHITECTURAL


ENGINEERING

CVEN 214: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS


Chapter 2: Strain
Dr Mohammed Elshafie

Fall, 2017
Example 1.12
The rigid bar AB supported by a steel rod AC having a diameter of 20 mm and an
aluminum block having a cross sectional area of 1800 mm2. The 18-mm-diameter
pins at A and C are subjected to single shear. If the failure stress for the steel and
aluminum is (σ st ) fail = 680 MPa
a & (σ al ) fail = 70 MPa respectively, and the failure
shear stress for each pin is τ fail = 900 MPa , determine the largest load P that can
be applied to the bar. Apply a factor of safety of F.S. = 2.
Solution: Example 1.12
The allowable stresses are

(σ st ) fail
(σ st )allow = 680
= = 340 MPa
F .S . 2
(σ al ) fail 70
(σ al )allow = = = 35 MPa
F .S . 2
τ fail 900
τ allow = = = 450 MPa
F .S . 2

There are three unknowns and we apply the equations of equilibrium,

+ ∑ M B = 0; P(1.25) − FAC (2 ) = 0 (1)


+ ∑ M A = 0; FB (2 ) − P(0.75) = 0 (2)
Solution: Example 1.12

We will now determine each value of P that creates the allowable stress in the rod,
block, and pins, respectively.

For rod AC, ( )[ ]


FAC = (σ st )allow ( AAC ) = 340 106 π (0.01) = 106.8 kN
2

Using Eq. 1, P=
(106.8)(2 )
= 171 kN
1.25
For block B, ( )[ ( )]
FB = (σ al )allow AB = 35 106 1800 10 −6 = 63.0 kN

Using Eq. 2, P=
(63.0 )(2 )
= 168 kN
0.75
Solution: Example 1.12

For pin A or C, =
V F=
AC τ =
allow A 450 ( )  ( )  114.5 kN
10 6 
π 0.009 =
2

Using Eq. 1, P = (114.5)(2 ) = 183 kN


1.25
When P reaches its smallest value (168 kN), it develops the allowable normal
stress in the aluminium block. Hence,

P = 168 kN (Ans)
Strain-Introduction
Stability and Deformations of a body depend on the intensity of
the external forces applied on the body as well as the load
carrying capacity of the body

Applied Internal Internal


External Load Loading Stresses Deformations

Determine Using
Equilibrium
Equations
Strain (deformation) terms

• Deformation of the material is the change in


geometry when stress is applied
• Strain is the deformation per unit length
• Deflection is a term to describe the magnitude
to which a structural element bends under a
load
Deformation
• When a force is applied to a body, the internally
generated stress will change the body’s shape and size.
• These changes are deformation.

Note the before and after


positions of 3 line segments
where the material is
subjected to tension.
Normal & Shear Strain
1. Normal Strain
• The elongation / contraction of a line segment per unit of length is
referred to as normal strain.
∆s '−∆s
ε avg =
• Average normal strain is defined as ∆s
If the normal strain is known, then the approximate final length is
∆s ' ≈ (1 + ε )∆s

+ε line elongate
-ε line contracts

Units
Normal strain is a dimensionless quantity since it is a ratio of two lengths
Normal Strain

2P P
σ =
=
P 2A A P
σ= = normal stress σ =
A A
δ δ
ε= = normal strain ε=
L 2δ δ
L ε
= =
2L L
Shear Strain

• Change in angle between 2 line segments that


were perpendicular to one another refers to shear
strain .
π
γ nt = − lim θ '
2 B → A along n
C → A along t

θ<90 +shear strain


θ>90 -shear strain
Shear Strain
Cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform into a rhomboid. The
corresponding shear strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle between
the sides

A
B

Note: Normal Strain tends to change the volume or Size of a material


While Shear Strain tends to change the Shape of a material
Example 2.3
The plate is deformed into the dashed shape. If, in this deformed shape, horizontal lines on
the plate remain horizontal and do not change their length, determine (a) the average
normal strain along the side AB, and (b) the average shear strain in the plate relative to the
x and y axes.
Solution:
Part (a)
Line AB, coincident with the y axis, becomes line after deformation, thus the length of
this line is

AB' = (250 − 2)2 + 32 = 248.018 mm

The average normal strain for AB is therefore

AB'− AB 248.018 − 250


(ε AB )avg =
AB
=
250
( )
= −7.93 10 −3 mm/mm (Ans)

The negative sign indicates the strain causes a contraction of AB.


Solution:
Part (b)
As noted, the once 90° angle BAC between the sides of the plate, referenced from the
x, y axes, changes to θ’ due to the displacement of B to B’.

Since θ ' γ xy
γ xy = π2 −then is the angle shown in the figure. Thus,

 3 
γ xy −1
= tan   = 0.0121 rad (Ans)
 250 − 2 
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 2.2 (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE 2.2 (CONTINUED)
Law of Cosines