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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Islington College

BA4006NI

Submitted By: Submitted To:

Student Name: Susan Bista Miss. Samjhana Gorkhali

BA (Hons) Business Administration Lecturer, BBA Faculty

Student Number: 170062 Islington College

Group: L1B1 London Metropolitian

Date: 19th January, 2018

Word count: 2907

I confirm that this work is my own work. I have acknowledged each use of the words or
ideas of another person, either written or oral.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Table of content

Page

Acknowledgement 3

Introduction 4
ABC Ltd.
Sampling and survey
6
Reports 6-15

-Gender, Transport and Convenience 6-7


-Customer service 8-9
- Prices and quality of products 10-11
-Statistics, Correlation and regression 12-16
Nepal Tourism
Introduction
17
General trend and prediction 18-20
Accuracy of trend 21-24
Bibliography 25

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Acknowledgement

I would like to acknowledge Miss. Samjhana Gorkhali, Lecturer for her assistance and expertise
in helping me to complete this project. Without time and trust she provided this project
wouldn’t have been completed.

Sincerely,

Susan Bista
BA (Hons)
Islington College

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Introduction
ABC Ltd. sells computers and other electronic products. In order to improve their services, they
sought to conduct a customer service & satisfaction survey. 150 questionnaires were sent to
respondents and 100 replies were received. The data has been entered into a spreadsheet and
saved with a file name “ABC_Ltd.xls”.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Sampling and Survey


Random Sampling:

(Occupy theory) Advantages: This Sample includes selection of data from the group of population is one
great advantage of this kind of survey method. Random sampling can provide feedback from a person
which is really utilizing a service. It is easy to calculate the sampling errors in this type of method.

(Occupy theory)Disadvantages: Biased Results is one of the major disadvantages of random sampling.
An assessor cannot spread the questionnaires to every specific group of people which leads to twisted
information gathering, rendering the information not valuable for controlling trends all through the
whole population. It is more laborious and time consuming.

Postal Survey:

(mytutor)Advantages: Postal survey questionnaire is not as time consuming as an interview.


Questionnaires can be designed quickly and easy for the respondent to answer. By posting it you can
send it to anywhere desire.

(mytutor)Disadvantages: The response rate affects the reliability of survey, as people don’t see
important and therefore do not respond and who do respond may only show a partial representative
and don’t have the time to complete. Alongside this, unlike an interview, if the respondent doesn't
understand the question or what needs to be answer they cannot confer with you as you want.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Gender Percentage
Male 48.00%
Female 52.00%
Grand Total 100.00%
Table 1: Gender of respondents

Grand
Types of Transport Male Female Total
Public transport 14 10 24
walk 14 16 30
Drive my own car 20 26 46
Grand Total 48 52 100
Table 2: Mode of Transport uses by different Gender

Relationship between Transport and Gender

30
r
e 25
s
N 20
p
o Male
o 15
. Female
n
10
d
O
e 5
f
n
t 0
Public transport walk Drive my own car
s
Types of Transport

Graph 1: Relationship between Transport and Gender

Drive my own Grand


CONVENIENCE Public transport walk car Total
Extremely convenient 3 14 18 35
Very convenient 9 6 13 28
Moderately convenient 2 3 5 10
Slightly convenient 5 5 6 16
Not at all convenient 5 2 4 11
Grand Total 24 30 46 100
Table 3: Convenience of the store

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Report:
Above tables are drawn from the respondent reviews conducted by ABC Ltd.

The table number 1 shows the percentage of male respondents to the survey is 48%
where female respondent is 52% out of the total 100%. This implies that the female
customers’ visits store more than that of male and they are also more responsible to
store. And it concludes that the store should focus more on providing services to female
to increase their number in same ratio and also on male to increase their number.

The table number 2 shows the relation between transportation and gender. From this
table we can analyze that the male and female uses different types of transportation.
We can see the 14% of male population uses public transportation and walks where as
20% of them drive their own car. And in case of female 10% of them uses public
transport, 16% of them walks and 26% of them drive their own car. The graph 1 shows
the relationship between transport and gender the number of respondent driving their
own car are higher with the total 46% and using public transport lowest with 24% of total
and 30% of comes walking. This statistics shows that most of the respondents have
their own car which includes more female in numbers and few people use public
transport.

The table number 3 shows the relationship between convenience of the store and mode
of transportation. From the above table 73% of the total people have positively rated the
store which includes 35% of people rating extremely convenient 28% very convenient
and 10% moderately convenient and rest 17% had rated negative which includes 16%
slightly convenient and 11% not at all convenient. Here 18% of people who drives their
own car have rated extremely convenient and 17% have rated very convenient. This
implies store is very convenient to visit by car rather than using public transport or
walking to store. Thus we can conclude that store needs to open branches in several
places so that it would become easy for people who use public transport or come
walking.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Customer Service

Extremely Very Moderately Slightly Not at all Grand


WAITING TIME helpful helpful helpful helpful helpful Total
Extremely long 1 1 3 1 5 11
Very long 4 1 2 2 6 15
Moderately
long 1 3 3 6 13
Slightly long 5 5 7 4 14 35
Not at all long 4 1 2 12 7 26
Grand Total 14 9 17 22 38 100
Table 4: The waiting time and helpfulness of the customer service

Opinion Differences on Waiting Time


Extremely long
11%

Not at all long Very long


26% 15%

Slightly long Moderately


35% long
13%

Graph 2: opinion differences on waiting time

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

The waiting time and helpfulness of the customer service


The table 4 shows the relationship between waiting time and customer service. From
the table 4 we can see that 74% of people have positively rated the store on their
waiting time and rest 26% have negatively rated the. This overall statement implies that
the waiting time of store is moderately long. On other hand the customer service has
been negatively rated with 60% and 40% of people have positively rated the statement
from 100%.The Graph 2 represents the people’s opinion on the waiting time of the store
where most of the people have rated slightly long with 35%.

From the above table we conclude that customers service has been neglected in the
store and customers also has to wait for a long time in store, so the customers problems
has to be understood and they should be solved. They should be bias towards
customers and keep them as 1st priority.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Prices and quality of products

Slightly About the somewhat Much Grand


PRICE Much better better same worse worse Total
More reasonable 9 9 5 2 2 27
Slightly reasonable 9 8 5 8 30
About the same 5 9 2 3 19
Somewhat less
reasonable 4 5 1 1 2 13
Much less reasonable 3 3 1 3 1 11
Grand Total 30 34 12 16 8 100
Table 5: The respondents’ views on price and quality of products

Much less Customer's view on prices


reasonable
11%

Somewhat less More


reasonable reasonable
13% 27%

About the
same Slightly
19% reasonable
30%

Graph 3: Customer’s view on prices

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

The respondents’ views on price and quality of products


From the above table we can conclude that the price of products of store is quite
reasonable than other stores. About 76% of the people have positively rated the store
where as rest 24% had negative comments about store. This statement is also clearly
shown in the Graph 3 where “More Reasonable” and “Slightly Reasonable” has covered
more than half portion of graph. In other hand quality of product is also positively rated
with overall 76%.

So the store should look for those 14% of people who has bad impression about the
store and they should work for their convenience.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression

Descriptive Statistics

Mean 137.3016

Standard Error 6.628171317

Median 130.235

Mode 159.27

Standard Deviation 66.28171317

Sample Variance 4393.2655

Kurtosis 0.163684928

Skewness 0.425361365

Range 314.38

Minimum 1.73

Maximum 316.11

Sum 13730.16

Count 100

Largest(1) 316.11

Smallest(1) 1.73

Confidence Level(95.0%) 13.15172954

Table 6: Descriptive statistics

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Measure of center
(Gorkhali)The measure of center is the value at the center or middle of the data set.
This value attempts to describe the set of data which is also called measure of central
tendency. There are three ways to measure center: Mean, Median and Mode. The
mean is commonly used as best measure of center, but sometimes the median is
preferred. The arithmetic average represents the most appropriate measure of central
tendency for continuous-type data. It is obtained by adding all the data and dividing by
its sum. The median of a set of scores represents the middle value when the scores are
arranged as an array in order of increasing or decreasing magnitude.

Measure of Spread
(Guillemette)It describes the variability in data set i.e. sample or population. It is also
called measure of dispersion. It measures how well mean represents the data set and if
spread is large then mean is not good representative of data set. Different ways to
measure spread are Range, Quartile range and Standard deviation. We know that
mean always goes with standard deviation and median with Quartile range. QR is the
best measure when outlier/skewness is present and standard deviation is best measure
when data is symmetrical

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Respondents’ income distribution

500-1000
Total 0-500
4%
14%

2500-3000
6%
2000-2500 1000-1500
8% 41%
1500-2000
27%

Graph 4: Grouped income data

Mean 1435.8861
Standard Deviation 568.1242184
Table 7: Frequency table

From the above graph 4 we can forecast respondents’ income distribution visiting to the
store. Income has been divided into six groups from 0-3000 with each having difference
of 500 including respondents from 4%, 14%, 41%, 27%, 8% to 6% respectively.
Respondents having salary between 1000-1500 visits the store most. The above data
implies that store is mostly visited by people having average salary range i.e. 1000-
2000 and not so often by people with more and less income amount. The average
income of the respondents of the store is 1433.80 .And salary are within one standard
deviation i.e. 573 of the mean.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Linear relationship between the respondents’ ’’Income” and “Expenditure”

Respondent between income and expenditure


350.00
Income = 0.104(expenditure) - 12.03
R² = 0.7946
E 300.00
x
p 250.00
e
n 200.00
Series1
d
i 150.00 Linear (Series1)
t
u 100.00
r
e 50.00

0.00
0.00 500.00 1000.00 1500.00 2000.00 2500.00 3000.00 3500.00
Income

Graph 5: Relationship between respondents’ income and expenditure

Income Expenditure
Income 1
Expenditure 0.891416346 1
Table 8: Correlation

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Linear relationship between the respondents’ ’’Income” and


“Expenditure”

(scribd)Regression analysis is used to predict the value of a dependent variable which


explains about the impact of changes in an independent variable on dependent variable.
From linear regression model the only independent variable is “X” income. Relationship
between “X” and “Y” is expenditure described by a linear function. The above graph
shows positive regression model.

Correlation is used to measure linear relationship between two variables. The value of
rank correlation coefficient is+0.89, which is nearer to + 1which is high degree of correlation
between Income and Expenditure.
From the data and graph dependent variable(y) and independent variable(x) is. The
regression equation is Income = 0.104(expenditure) - 12.03. Here -12.03 is estimated
average value of Y when the value of X is zero. And 0.104 measures the estimated
change in the average value of Y as a result of a one unit change in X.

(Gorkhali)The coefficient of determination R-squared is the portion of the total variation


in the dependent variable that is explained by variation in the independent variable.
Here R2 =0.79 which indicates the difference in income is explained by difference in
expenditure.

(scribd)Predictions made from within the original data range and predictions from
outside the original data range are to be regarded with suspicion as we cannot tell
whether the relationship between the two variables holds outside the original range. The
regression line is measured by standard error of regression, which is used to measure
the reliability of regression. A small variation indicates that the estimating regression is
adequate.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Part-2
Introduction
Nepal is a small Himalayan kingdom, located between two big nations India and china.
This country is nestled among the highest peak of the world, Mt. Everest, and many
other natural resources .A majority of the international tourists come to Nepal for
holiday, trekking and mountaineering since it is one of the richest countries in the world
in the in term of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude
variation. It is one of the world's best places to explore as religious, culture and natural
resources. And questionnaire based on the data on “Nepal’s Monthly Number of
Tourists 2004 Q1 to 2014 Q4. A time series analysis has been done for further
prediction and annual increase/decrease in number of tourists

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Nepal Tourism Data


300000
N
u
250000
m
b
e 200000
r
150000 Series1
o
f 100000

t 50000
o
u
0
r

2014 Q3
2001 Q1
2001 Q4
2002 Q3
2003 Q2
2004 Q1
2004 Q4
2005 Q3
2006 Q2
2007 Q1
2007 Q4
2008 Q3
2009 Q2
2010 Q1
2010 Q4
2011 Q3
2012 Q2
2013 Q1
2013 Q4
i
s
t
Quarter Years

Graph 6: Original data of Nepal Tourism

The above Graph 6 show the data of Nepal tourism from year 2001 to year 2014 and
each year is divided into four quarters i.e. Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 respectively.

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Nepal Tourism Data


NO. OF TOUTIST = 2914.6(no. of period) + 47795
300000
R² = 0.928

250000
N
T
u
o 200000
m ACTUAL DATA
u
b
r
e 150000
i CENTERED MOVING AVERAGE
r
s
100000
t Linear (CENTERED MOVING
o AVERAGE)
s
f 50000

0
2003 Q2
2001 Q1
2001 Q4
2002 Q3

2004 Q1
2004 Q4
2005 Q3
2006 Q2
2007 Q1
2007 Q4
2008 Q3
2009 Q2
2010 Q1
2010 Q4
2011 Q3
2012 Q2
2013 Q1
2013 Q4
2014 Q3
Years in quarter

Graph 7: Graph of original data with central moving average

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Report:
(Gorkhali)The above graph 7 represents the Nepal Tourism data with central moving
average. The blue line represents the actual data and red scattered line represents
centered moving average. The centered moving average provides us the data from
which we can calculate the trend. The centered moving averages are fairly close to a
straight line so we can use regression techniques to find the equation of trend line. Over
the past 14 years, the Tourism Board has experienced a slight growth in number of
visitors per quarter. We can use this trend to develop a forecast for future
quarters. However, this forecast will not include the seasonal variance. The slope of the
trend line of 2914.6 indicates that the board has experienced an average growth of
about 2914.6 tourists per quarter.

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PERIOD NUMBER Nepal Tourist Data Actual data SEASONAL VARIANCE


1 2001 Q1 115843
2 2001 Q2 80458
3 2001 Q3 74821 0.88901959
4 2001 Q4 90115 1.197529593
5 2002 Q1 66659 0.941260363
6 2002 Q2 58358 0.845667004
7 2002 Q3 61466 0.881899931
8 2002 Q4 88985 1.238551903
9 2003 Q1 73301 0.97280206
10 2003 Q2 68906 0.850327869
11 2003 Q3 78953 0.884786068
12 2003 Q4 116972 1.226952744
13 2004 Q1 110909 1.139791715
14 2004 Q2 80109 0.825010138
15 2004 Q3 83518 0.908575897
16 2004 Q4 110761 1.28119605
17 2005 Q1 75690 0.869352982
18 2005 Q2 71563 0.783839734
19 2005 Q3 96972 1.012133452
20 2005 Q4 131173 1.342513842
21 2006 Q1 91370 0.942105663
22 2006 Q2 71063 0.739058821
23 2006 Q3 91695 0.912013726
24 2006 Q4 129798 1.182862357
25 2007 Q1 127848 1.077882099
26 2007 Q2 108112 0.84949049
27 2007 Q3 125672 0.941464671
28 2007 Q4 165073 1.23710189
29 2008 Q1 142323 1.101153587
30 2008 Q2 93234 0.739976606
31 2008 Q3 107060 0.87602141
32 2008 Q4 157660 1.304699081
33 2009 Q1 119462 0.966396913
34 2009 Q2 105123 0.833005474
35 2009 Q3 117377 0.897363097
36 2009 Q4 167994 1.245422861
37 2010 Q1 145967 1.045947916
38 2010 Q2 111314 0.756817855
39 2010 Q3 148511 0.968845129
40 2010 Q4 197075 1.224442881
41 2011 Q1 166526 0.981772973

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

42 2011 Q2 152068 0.851339701


43 2011 Q3 177092 0.935747664
44 2011 Q4 240529 1.219972421
45 2012 Q1 208111 1.033963483
46 2012 Q2 173743 0.861277332
47 2012 Q3 188342 0.940604789
48 2012 Q4 232896 1.167092829
49 2013 Q1 203807 1.021485288
50 2013 Q2 172585 0.865007506
51 2013 Q3 189244 0.940025234
52 2013 Q4 231980 1.127065072
53 2014 Q1 219119 1.070618148
54 2014 Q2 193342 0.97049493
55 2014 Q3 159201
56 2014 Q4 218456
57 2015 Q1 216634.748
58 2015 Q2 179666.9999
59 2015 Q3 202657.6728
60 2015 Q4 273977.8845

Table 9: Seasonal Variance Data

PREDICTING THE
TREND
FORECASTED
QUARTER NUMBER CALCULATION TREND VALUE
2015 Q1 57 2914.6*57+47795 213927.2 216634.748
2015 Q2 58 2914.6*58+47796 216841.8 179666.9999
2015 Q3 59 2914.6*59+47797 219756.4 202657.6728
2015 Q4 60 2914.6*60+47798 222671 273977.8845
Table 10: Trend Forecast

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Nepal Tourism Data


300000
N
o
. 250000

o 200000
f

T 150000
o
u
100000
r
i
s 50000
t
s
0
2001 Q4

2009 Q2
2001 Q1

2002 Q3
2003 Q2
2004 Q1
2004 Q4
2005 Q3
2006 Q2
2007 Q1
2007 Q4
2008 Q3

2010 Q1
2010 Q4
2011 Q3
2012 Q2
2013 Q1
2013 Q4
2014 Q3
2015 Q2
Years in Quarter

Graph 8: Actual data with forecasted value

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Susan Bista Understanding Business Information

Prediction
We know that the seasonal variance is actual data divided by centered moving average,
which is used to analyzing the seasonal trends in a short time period series. It is used
by the producers in scheduling their production plans (homework1).

From table 10 we can observe the quarterly forecast for every seasonal effect by
multiplying each forecast based on the trend by the seasonal variance appropriate for
its quarter and quarterly forecast is shown in above table.

On graph 8 we can observe the quarterly forecasted value in dotted line from 2015 Q1
to 2015 Q4.

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Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/33726445/Regression

Gorkhali, S. (n.d.). classroom. Retrieved from https://classroom.google.com/u/1/c/OTE5NjU0NjQzOFpa

Guillemette, J. (n.d.). youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNCNyJW5Mys

homework1. (n.d.). Retrieved from homework1.com: https://homework1.com/statistics-homework-


help/uses-of-seasonal-variations/

mytutor. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 wednesday, 2018, from mytutor.co.uk:


https://www.mytutor.co.uk/answers/7759/GCSE/Sociology/What-are-the-advantages-and-
disadvantages-of-using-postal-questionnaires-as-a-research-method

Occupy theory. (n.d.). Retrieved january wednesday, 2018, from Occupytheory.org:


https://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-random-sampling/

scribd. (n.d.). Retrieved from scribd.com: https://www.scribd.com/document/33726445/Regression

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