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Struct Idealization - Booms

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3,

20.3.1, 20.3.2, 20.3.3, 20.3.5

Structural Idealization

stringers

1

longerons

Structural Idealization – Local vs

flanges

Global Effects

stringers

twists

• the different components are used to resist the local loads:

− skins take shear loads due to torsion and some

bending loads (tension or compression) due to bending

− stringers take tension or compression loads due to

bending

− spars take bending and shear loads 2

Structural Idealization – Local vs Global

Effects

• for pure torsion, the rate of

twist (and the resulting

after

stresses) are inversely

proportional to J: the greater

the value of J the lower the

stresses and angle of

before rotation

• from the previous lecture:

4 A2

Jc =

ds

∫ t

valid for a closed section; A is the enclosed area of the airfoil. It can be seen that

the contribution of the stringers to J is negligible (sum of hiti3/3) if they are open

and very small if they are closed (because their enclosed area is very small

compared to the enclosed area of the airfoil

• therefore, the shear stresses in the stringers, being inversely proportional to

their individual J are negligible compared to the shear stresses in the skin 3

Structural Idealization – Local vs Global

A Effects

A

after

y

A

before

σz

upper skin

stringer upper flange y σz

stringer web σz

stringer lower flange x

stringer upper flange

stringer web

stringer lower flange

lower skin very small deviation from constant stress

View A-A

• for bending, whether it is caused by shear or moment, a bending stress

distribution develops across the depth of the wing

• locally, over a single stringer, the stress varies very little from the top of the

stringer to the bottom of the stringer

4

• therefore, to a first approx’n, the stringer stress can be assumed constant with y

Structural Idealization – Local vs Global

A Effects

A

after

A

before

y

variation of direct stress across their thickness and can

also be assumed to be under normal stress σzskin that is

constant with y

5

Structural Idealization – Local vs Global

Effects

• to summarize:

− skins carry shear stress from torsion or shear

and (some) normal stress from bending; the

normal stress is assumed to not vary through the

thickness of the skin

− stringers carry normal stress from bending; the

normal stress is constant for each stringer

6

Structural Idealization – Simplified

model

• because the stringer (and flange) dimensions are

very small relative to the overall dimensions of the

wing cross-section, the neutral axis of the stringers is

very close to the neutral axis of the adjacent skin

• we can therefore assume that the two coincide

• then…

7

Structural Idealization – Simplified

model

called “booms” (or “flanges”) which carry only normal

stresses

8

Structural Idealization – Simplified

model

most

− skin is allowed to carry normal stresses common

in practice

− skin is not allowed to carry normal stresses

• in the first case, the skin thickness is unchanged and

normal stresses are carried by booms and skin according

to their respective stiffnesses (for direct stresses only!)

areas are adjusted to include the area of the skin and all

9

normal stresses are carried by the booms

Determination of boom area - Skins

• skin of thickness tD carrying (linear) normal stress

distribution

b b

x

σ1

σ1

σ2 t=0

σ2

t=tD

duced in our idealization (hence σ1 and σ2 on the booms)

• a linear distribution of stress with extreme values σ1 and

σ2 is given (for x defined as shown) by:

σ1 − σ 2

σ ( x) = σ 2 + x (7.1)

10

b

Determination of boom area - Skins

b b

dx

x

σ1 2 σ1 2

σ2 t=0

σ1 − σ 2 Area B1 σ2

σ (x) = σ 2 + x t=tD Area B2

b

structure produces the same moment

• taking moments about point 2 (in the real structure):

σ −σ 2

b b

b2 b2

M 2 = ∫ σ ( x)tD xdx = ∫ σ 2 + 1 x t D xdx = σ 2t D + (σ 1 − σ 2 ) tD (7.2)

0 0 b 2 3

• this should be equal to the moment caused about

point 2 in the idealized structure:

M 2 = σ 1 B1b (7.3)

11

Determination of boom area - Skins

b b

dx

x

σ1 2 σ1 2

σ2 t=0

Area B1 σ2

t=tD Area B2

tD b σ 2

B1 = 2 + (7.4)

6 σ1

• require now also that the total force created in the two

cases is the same:

σ −σ

b b

∫ σ ( x )tD

dx = B σ

1 1

+ B σ ⇒

2 ∫

2

σ + x t dx = B σ + B σ

2

1 2

D 1 1 2 2

(7.5)

0 0

b

• carrying out the integration and substituting for B1 from (7.4):

tD b σ1 (7.6)

B2 = 2+ 12

6 σ2

Determination of boom area - Skins

b b

dx

x

σ1 2 σ1 2

σ2 t=0

Area B1 σ2

t=tD Area B2

t b σ tD b σ1

B1 = D 2 + 2 B2 = 2+

6 σ1 6 σ2

• interestingly, the model says that B1, which has higher stress

(σ1> σ2) is smaller than B2

• for the model to work, one needs to know the ratio σ1/ σ2

− if the skin is under pure tension or compression, σ1= σ2

− if the skin is under pure bending (about an axis perpendicular to x)

then σ1= -σ2

13

− what if the skin is under both bending and axial loads as above?

Determination of boom area - Skins

b b

dx

x

σ1 2 σ1 2

σ2 t=0

Area B1 σ2

t=tD Area B2

• for the case for which the skin can be modeled as a beam:

b

y

x

σ1

P σ2

M t=tD

P, M known

14

Determination of boom area - Skins

b • the applied stress on the skin is

y

given by

σ1=?

P Mx1 P Mx1

σ= + = + (7.7)

x1 A I yy tDb t Db3

P 12

σ2=?

M • then σ1=σ(x1=-b/2) and

σ2=σ(x1=+b/2); therefore:

P Mb P 6M

σ1 = − = − (7.8)

tD b tDb 3 tDb tDb 2

σ1 and σ2 change as P and M 2

change; therefore, B1 and B2 12

P Mb P 6M

change as loading changes; so the σ2 = + = + (7.9)

solution for B1 and B2 depends on t Db t D b3 t D b t D b 2

2

loading! 12

15

Determination of boom area – Stringers

and flanges

• as already mentioned (a) the difference between the

neutral axis of the stringers and that of the skin is

neglected (b) any variation of stress along the stringer

cross-section is neglected (normal stress on a stringer

is constant)

• then, each stringer (or flange) can be represented by

a boom of equal area at the mid-skin at that location

area As

another boom location (preserve symmetry, equiv loads..)

Example: boom areas for wingbox in

pure bending

600 mm

each (orange) flange has

600 mm

an area of 300 mm2

2mm

1.5mm

400 200mm

mm 2.5mm 2mm

3mm

1

2

3

Determine the areas of the x

6 booms when the applied

load is a moment about the

x axis 6

4

5 17

Example: boom areas for wingbox in

pure bending

1 600 mm

2 600 mm • Consider first, the contri-

3 bution of the skins to the boom

200 2

150 areas

M 1.5 100 x

• Since this is pure bending

2.5 2 under moment M, the normal

stress anywhere around the

3 4 wingbox is given by

6

5 My

σ=

I xx

M (200)

• therefore, σ1 =

I xx from which: σσ 1

=

200

150

2

M (150)

σ2 = σ 2 150

I xx =

M (100) σ 3 100

σ3 =

I xx σ1 σ 2 σ 3

= = = −1

M (200) σ6 σ5 σ4

σ 6= − 18

I xx

Example: boom areas for wingbox in

pure bending

σ 1 200 tD b σ 2

1 600 mm = B1 = 2 +

2 600 mm

σ 2 150 6 σ1

3 σ 2 150

200 2 =

150 σ 3 100

M 1.5 100 x tD b σ1

σ1 σ 2 σ 3 B2 = 2+

= = = −1 6 σ2

2.5 2 σ6 σ5 σ4

3 4

6

5

use the subscript “s” to denote the skin contribution

2(600) 150 3(400)

B1s = 2+ + (2 − 1) = 750

6 200 6

1.5(600) 100 2(600) 200 2.5(300)

B2 s = 2 + + 2+ + (2 − 1) = 1191.7 (units are mm2)

6 150 6 150 6

1.5(600) 150 2(200)

B3 s = 2+ + (2 − 1) = 591.7

6 100 6 19

Example: boom areas for wingbox in

pure bending

1 600 mm

600 mm • now consider the

2 contribution of the flanges

2mm 3 to the boom areas

1.5mm • each flange has area

400 200mm

2mm 300 mm2

mm 2.5mm

B1f=300

3mm 4

B2f=300+300=600

5

6 B3f=300

B2 = B2 s + B2 f = 1191.7 + 600 = 1791.7 mm 2

B3 = B3s + B3 f = 591.7 + 300 = 891.7mm2

20

B1 respectively

Effect of booms in stress calculations

1

2

3 • suppose that, for a given loading, the

x boom areas have been calculated

6

5

4 • to proceed with the analysis, the

effect of the booms on different quantities such as

moments of inertia must be determined

• for example, determining the neutral axis location,

requires that eq (2.0) is satisfied

∫ σ dA = 0

A

z

(pure bending, no net

axial force)

• note that the area A is the area that carries normal stresses

and, thus, the calculated neutral axis location is for the boom

area (i.e. do not include in the calculation of the neutral axis,

Ixx, etc., the skin if it is already included in the booms) 21

My

Booms in bending

1 • we are interested in the normal stresses

2

3

Mx • the bending equation (2.5) from before,

x

I xx M y − I xy M x I yy M x − I xy M y (2.5)

σz = x+ y

6

5

4

I xx I yy − I xy2 I xx I yy − I xy 2

cross-section that carries normal stresses

the areas that carry normal stresses

• the moments of inertia use only areas that carry

normal stresses and

• the x,y coordinates where stresses are evaluated refer to

a coordinate system at the centroid of the areas that carry

22

normal stresses

Booms in bending

• in the extreme case where all the skin has been divided

into boom areas, the normal stresses are only the stresses in

the booms and there are no normal stresses in-between

23

booms

yref Booms in bending

4h 4h

A __ A7 h + 2 A6 h + 3 A5h + A2 h + 2 Ah 19

y= = h

2A 12 A 6

3A __

2 A 4h + 2 A4h + 3 A8h + A8h

x= = 4h

12 A

7h 5h 3h

xna moments of inertia include only

Steiner terms:

A y

2A xref I xx = ∑ yi 2 Ai

3A

I yy = ∑ xi 2 Ai

x

I xy = ∑ xi yi Ai

• therefore: 2 2 2 2

19 19 19 19

I xx = A 7 − h 2 + 2 A 6 − h 2 + 3 A 5 − h 2 + A − 2 h 2 + ...

6 6 6 6 then proceed

I yy = A ( 4h ) + 3 A ( 4 h ) + A ( 4h ) + 3 A ( 4h ) = 128 Ah

2 2 2 2 2

with eq (2.5)

19 19 19 19

I xy = − A 7 − 4h 2 + 3 A 5 − 4 h 2 − A − 2 4 h2 + 3 A 4h 2 = 40 Ah 2

6 6 6 6

resulting boom configuration is not symmetric, Ixy≠0 24

Booms under shear loads – open

S y sections

y

x

Sx

σz

z q2 q1

q2 q1

q2 dz

q1

q2

∂σ q1

σ z + z dz

∂z cross-sectional area Br

• Recall eq (5.6)

I xx S x − I xy S y s

I yy S y − I xy S x s

qs = − ∫ txds − ∫ tyds (5.6)

I xx I yy − I xy 2

0 I xx I yy − I xy 2

0

25

Booms under shear loads – open sections

• this eq refers only to the skin σz

q2 q1

portion that carries normal stress q2 q1

I xx S x − I xy S y s

I yy S y − I xy S x s y

qs = − ∫t xds − ∫t yds q2 dz

I xx I yy − I xy 2 I xx I yy − I xy 2

D D

0 0 q1 x

z

hence the use of tD which q2 ∂σ q1

equals the skin thickness t if σ z + z dz

skin is fully effective, and ∂z cross-sectional area Br

zero if skin carries shear only

• consider z-dir equilibrium of the boom:

∂σ z

σ

z + dz Br + q2 dz − q1dz − σ z Br = 0

∂ z

• which leads to

∂σ z

q2 − q1 = − Br (7.10)

∂z 26

Booms under shear loads – open

sections σ z

∂σ q2 q1

q2 − q1 = − z Br (7.10)

∂z q2 q2

y

q2 dz

q1 x

• from bending theory, z

eq (2.5) gives: q2∂σ q1

σ z + z dz

I xx M y − I xy M x I yy M x − I xy M y ∂z cross-sectional area Br

σz = x+ y

I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx I yy − I xy 2

coordinates xr, yr of the rth boom:

∂M y ∂M x ∂M x ∂M y

I xx − I xy I yy − I xy

q2 − q1 = − ∂z ∂z B x − ∂z ∂z B y

I xx I yy − I xy I xx I yy − I xy

2 r r 2 r r

27

Booms under shear loads – open sections

∂M y ∂M x ∂M x ∂M y σz

I xx − I xy I yy − I xy q2 q1

q2 − q1 = − ∂z ∂z B x − ∂z ∂z B y

q2 q2

I xx I yy − I xy 2 I xx I yy − I xy 2

r r r r

y

q2 dz

q1 x

• but from (2.10) q2

z

∂σ z q1

σz +

∂M x ∂z

dz

cross-sectional area Br

Sy =

∂z

∂M y (2.10)

Sx =

∂z

• substituting,

S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy

q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr (7.11)

I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx I yy − I xy 2

this equation gives the change in shear flow across a boom which carries

an axial load σzBr

28

Booms under shear loads – open sections

σz

q2 q1

S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy

q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr q2 q2

I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx I yy − I xy 2

q2 dz

y

q1 x

z

q2

∂σ z q1

• suppose now we have n booms σz +

∂z

dz

cross-sectional area Br

n

• the shear flow after the nth boom will be

s

given by (a) the standard shear flow

equation when there are no booms PLUS

2 (b) the contribution of all the booms up to

1

that point:

I xx S x − I xy S y s n

I yy S y − I xy Sx s n

qs = − 2 ∫ D

t xds + ∑ Br xr − 2 ∫ D

t yds + ∑ Br y r (7.12)

I xx I yy − I xy 0 r =1 I xx I yy − I xy 0 r =1

29

Booms under shear loads – open sections

I xx S x − I xy S y s n

I yy S y − I xy Sx s n

t D xds + ∑ Br xr − t yds + ∑ Br y r

I xx I yy − I xy 2 ∫0 2 ∫ D

qs = − (7.12)

r =1 I I

xx yy − I xy 0 r =1

• simplification:

− suppose the skin carries only shear stresses

(=> tD=0)

− suppose also that the booms (and not

necessarily the skin) have at least one axis of

symmetry (=>Ixy=0)

− then:

S n Sy n

qs = − x

I yy

∑B x

r=1

r r −

I xx

∑B y

r =1

r r

(7.13)

30

Booms under shear loads – open sections

s Example

2 1

S Area of each

y boom=A Determine the shear flows

Thickness = t

x everywhere

• since skin carries only shear and

2a Skin carries the boom pattern has at least one

a only shear axis of symmetry, eq. (7.13) is valid

4

becomes:

Sy n

qs = −

I xx

∑B y

r =1

r r (7.13a) q12 = −

S

4 Aa 2

Aa = −

S

4a

S S S

• now Br=A and y1=y2=a, y3=y4=-a q23 = − − =−

4a 4 a 2a

• also, I xx = 4 Aa 2 q34 = −

S

−

S

A ( − a ) = −

S

2a 4 Aa 2 4a

31

Booms under shear loads – open sections –

some useful conclusions

• when we idealize the skins to carry only shear loads, the

shear flows between booms are constant as in the

previous example

• these constant shear flows are the average shear flows

that we would get if we had fully effective skins (carrying

bending loads); in the previous example, q12 and q34 would

be linear in s while q23 would be quadratic

fully effective

idealized

32

Booms under shear loads – open sections –

some useful conclusions

s

x (x1,y1) q12 = const = q

ds

q12 horiz force component=qds(cosφ)

dy dx=ds(cosφ)

y dx vert force component=qds(sinφ)

dy=ds(sinφ)

φ

(x2,y2)

total force in any direction is very simple

• total force in x direction is

2 2 total force in any direction

S x = ∫ qds(cos φ ) = q ∫ dx = q( x2 − x1 ) between two points equals

1 1 the shear flow times the

• total force in y direction is distance between the points

parallel to that direction

2 2

S y = ∫ qds(sin φ ) = q ∫ dy = q ( y2 − y1 )

1 1

33

Booms under shear loads – open sections –

some useful conclusions

s • the resultant force on this skin is

x (x1,y1)

ds given by

q12

V = S x 2 + S y 2 = q ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2

y

(x2,y2) L L

V=qL (7.14)

V acting along a line connecting the

s end points!!

x (x1,y1)

ds • the resultant moment about any

q12 p point O is given by

y 2 2

M = ∫ qpds = q ∫ pds

O

1 1

(x2,y2)

• but pds is twice the area of the

shaded triangle

• then, going from 1 to 2, the integral is the area A enclosed by the skin and two

lines connecting O to the skin ends:

M=2Aq !!!! (7.15) 34

Booms under shear loads – open sections –

some useful conclusions

V s

(x1,y1) V=qL (7.14)

ds

q12 p

M = 2 Aq (7.15)

e O

(x2,y2) note that this is identical to eq. (3.44)

L from torsion theory:

T = 2 Aq (3.44)

then, the distance e of the line of action of V from any point

O can be determined

Ve = M = 2 Aq

35

L

Booms under shear loads – closed sections

S

2 In a manner analogous to the open sections, the

3

2A A shear flows can be obtained by combining the

1

closed section without booms, eq. (5.8 ) with the

a A

eq giving the effect of a boom, eq (7.11)

2A A

(5.8)

4 5

a a I xx S x − I xy S y s

I yy S y − I xy S x s

qs − q s 0 = − ∫ txds − ∫ tyds

I xx I yy − I xy 2

0 I xx I yy − I xy 2

0

S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy

q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr (7.11)

I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx Sx − I xy Sy s n I yy S y − I xy Sx s n

tD xds + ∑ Br xr − t yds + ∑ Br yr + qso

I xx I yy − I xy 2 ∫0 2 ∫ D

qs = − (7.17)

r =1 I I

xx yy − I xy 0 r =1

36

Booms under shear loads – closed sections-

y

S

Example

2

3

2A A I xx Sx − I xy S y s n

I yy S y − I xy Sx s n

1 qs = − 2 ∫ D

I xx I yy − I xy 0

t xds + ∑ Br r

x − 2 ∫ D

t yds + ∑ Br yr + qso

x A

r =1 I xx I yy − I xy 0 r=1

a

A

(7.17)

2A

4 5 there is one axis of symmetry => Ixy=0

a a

Sx=0, Sy=S

skin only carries shear => tD=0

Sy n

qs = −

I xx

∑B y

r =1

r r + qso (7.17a)

2 2

a a 3

I xx = 2 A + 2(2 A) = Aa 2 B3=B4=2A y3=-y4=a/2

2 2 2 37

Booms under shear loads – closed sections-

y

S

Example

qbs

s Sy n 2

a

2

a 3

∑B y

2

3 qs = − r r + qso I xx = 2 A + 2(2 A) = Aa 2

2A A I xx r =1 2 2 2

1

a x A B1=B2=B5=A y1=0; y2=-y5=a/2

2A A B3=B4=2A y3=-y4=a/2

4 5 Following standard procedures, cut, arbitrarily,

a a

between 1 and 2 and determine the shear flows

for the open cross-section. Then:

qb12 = 0

S a S

qb 23 = − A =−

3 2 3a

Aa 2

2

S S a S

qb 34 = − − 2A = −

3a 3 Aa 2 2 a

2

S

qb 45 = q23 = − ( symmetry )

3a

38

qb 51 = q12 = 0 (symmetry )

Booms under shear loads – closed sections-

Example

y

S • Now close the cross-section and assume a

2 constant shear flow qso is applied (in the

3 s

2A A same direction as s)

1

a x A • If we take moments about the point 4 we

qs0 A

can use eq (5.10)

2A

4

a

5

a ∫ pq ds + 2 Aq

s

b s0 =0 (5.10)

contribute to the moments about 4, (5.10) becomes

a2

qb 23a (a ) + 2( a + )qso = 0

2

2 2

q a S

• using qb23 to solve for qso gives: qso = − b23 =

3

2 a 2 9a

2

39

• adding qso to qbij gives the final answer

Booms under torsion loads – Closed or open

section beams

1

2

3

T

x

4

6

5

(unless the beam is constrained along its axis such as

fixed-fixed)

• therefore, the booms have no effect on the shear flows in

the skins and the solution from beams without booms are

still valid

40

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