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# Megson: 20, 20.1, 20.2, 20.

3,
20.3.1, 20.3.2, 20.3.3, 20.3.5

Structural Idealization

stringers

1
longerons
Structural Idealization – Local vs
flanges
Global Effects
stringers

## • In general, a wing (or a fuselage) bends up or down and

twists
• the different components are used to resist the local loads:
− skins take shear loads due to torsion and some
bending loads (tension or compression) due to bending
− stringers take tension or compression loads due to
bending
− spars take bending and shear loads 2
Structural Idealization – Local vs Global
Effects
• for pure torsion, the rate of
twist (and the resulting
after
stresses) are inversely
proportional to J: the greater
the value of J the lower the
stresses and angle of
before rotation
• from the previous lecture:
4 A2
Jc =
ds
∫ t
valid for a closed section; A is the enclosed area of the airfoil. It can be seen that
the contribution of the stringers to J is negligible (sum of hiti3/3) if they are open
and very small if they are closed (because their enclosed area is very small
compared to the enclosed area of the airfoil
• therefore, the shear stresses in the stringers, being inversely proportional to
their individual J are negligible compared to the shear stresses in the skin 3
Structural Idealization – Local vs Global
A Effects
A
after
y
A
before

σz
upper skin
stringer upper flange y σz
stringer web σz
stringer lower flange x
stringer upper flange
stringer web
stringer lower flange
lower skin very small deviation from constant stress
View A-A
• for bending, whether it is caused by shear or moment, a bending stress
distribution develops across the depth of the wing
• locally, over a single stringer, the stress varies very little from the top of the
stringer to the bottom of the stringer
4
• therefore, to a first approx’n, the stringer stress can be assumed constant with y
Structural Idealization – Local vs Global
A Effects
A
after

A
before
y

## • similarly, the skins themselves have an even smaller

variation of direct stress across their thickness and can
also be assumed to be under normal stress σzskin that is
constant with y

5
Structural Idealization – Local vs Global
Effects
• to summarize:
− skins carry shear stress from torsion or shear
and (some) normal stress from bending; the
normal stress is assumed to not vary through the
thickness of the skin
− stringers carry normal stress from bending; the
normal stress is constant for each stringer

6
Structural Idealization – Simplified
model

## distance between n.a. is small

• because the stringer (and flange) dimensions are
very small relative to the overall dimensions of the
wing cross-section, the neutral axis of the stringers is
very close to the neutral axis of the adjacent skin
• we can therefore assume that the two coincide
• then…

7
Structural Idealization – Simplified
model

## • stringers and flanges are replaced by lumps of area

called “booms” (or “flanges”) which carry only normal
stresses
8
Structural Idealization – Simplified
model

## • there are now two possibilities:

most
− skin is allowed to carry normal stresses common
in practice
− skin is not allowed to carry normal stresses
• in the first case, the skin thickness is unchanged and
normal stresses are carried by booms and skin according
to their respective stiffnesses (for direct stresses only!)

## • in the second case, the skin thickness is zero, the boom

areas are adjusted to include the area of the skin and all
9
normal stresses are carried by the booms
Determination of boom area - Skins
• skin of thickness tD carrying (linear) normal stress
distribution
b b

x
σ1
σ1
σ2 t=0
σ2
t=tD

## • for design, we want the extreme stresses to be repro-

duced in our idealization (hence σ1 and σ2 on the booms)
• a linear distribution of stress with extreme values σ1 and
σ2 is given (for x defined as shown) by:
σ1 − σ 2
σ ( x) = σ 2 + x (7.1)
10
b
Determination of boom area - Skins
b b
dx
x
σ1 2 σ1 2
σ2 t=0
σ1 − σ 2 Area B1 σ2
σ (x) = σ 2 + x t=tD Area B2
b

## • determine now the boom areas such that the idealized

structure produces the same moment
• taking moments about point 2 (in the real structure):
σ −σ 2
b b
  b2 b2
M 2 = ∫ σ ( x)tD xdx = ∫  σ 2 + 1 x t D xdx = σ 2t D + (σ 1 − σ 2 ) tD (7.2)
0 0 b  2 3
• this should be equal to the moment caused about
point 2 in the idealized structure:
M 2 = σ 1 B1b (7.3)
11
Determination of boom area - Skins
b b
dx
x
σ1 2 σ1 2
σ2 t=0
Area B1 σ2
t=tD Area B2

## • equating the moments M2 and solving for the area B1:

tD b  σ 2 
B1 = 2 +  (7.4)
6  σ1 
• require now also that the total force created in the two
cases is the same:
σ −σ 
b b

∫ σ ( x )tD
dx = B σ
1 1
+ B σ ⇒
2 ∫ 
2
σ + x t dx = B σ + B σ
2
1 2
D 1 1 2 2
(7.5)
0 0
b 
• carrying out the integration and substituting for B1 from (7.4):
tD b  σ1  (7.6)
B2 = 2+  12
6  σ2 
Determination of boom area - Skins
b b
dx
x
σ1 2 σ1 2
σ2 t=0
Area B1 σ2
t=tD Area B2
t b σ  tD b  σ1 
B1 = D  2 + 2  B2 = 2+ 
6  σ1  6  σ2 

• interestingly, the model says that B1, which has higher stress
(σ1> σ2) is smaller than B2
• for the model to work, one needs to know the ratio σ1/ σ2
− if the skin is under pure tension or compression, σ1= σ2
− if the skin is under pure bending (about an axis perpendicular to x)
then σ1= -σ2
13
− what if the skin is under both bending and axial loads as above?
Determination of boom area - Skins
b b
dx
x
σ1 2 σ1 2
σ2 t=0
Area B1 σ2
t=tD Area B2

• for the case for which the skin can be modeled as a beam:
b
y
x
σ1

P σ2
M t=tD
P, M known
14
Determination of boom area - Skins
b • the applied stress on the skin is
y
given by
σ1=?
P Mx1 P Mx1
σ= + = + (7.7)
x1 A I yy tDb t Db3
P 12
σ2=?
M • then σ1=σ(x1=-b/2) and
σ2=σ(x1=+b/2); therefore:

P Mb P 6M
σ1 = − = − (7.8)
tD b tDb 3 tDb tDb 2
σ1 and σ2 change as P and M 2
change; therefore, B1 and B2 12
P Mb P 6M
change as loading changes; so the σ2 = + = + (7.9)
solution for B1 and B2 depends on t Db t D b3 t D b t D b 2
2

15
Determination of boom area – Stringers
and flanges
• as already mentioned (a) the difference between the
neutral axis of the stringers and that of the skin is
neglected (b) any variation of stress along the stringer
cross-section is neglected (normal stress on a stringer
is constant)
• then, each stringer (or flange) can be represented by
a boom of equal area at the mid-skin at that location

area As

## •exercise caution if you intend to move the stringer to 16

another boom location (preserve symmetry, equiv loads..)
Example: boom areas for wingbox in
pure bending
600 mm
each (orange) flange has
600 mm
an area of 300 mm2
2mm
1.5mm
400 200mm
mm 2.5mm 2mm

3mm
1
2
3
Determine the areas of the x
6 booms when the applied
x axis 6
4
5 17
Example: boom areas for wingbox in
pure bending
1 600 mm
2 600 mm • Consider first, the contri-
3 bution of the skins to the boom
200 2
150 areas
M 1.5 100 x
• Since this is pure bending
2.5 2 under moment M, the normal
stress anywhere around the
3 4 wingbox is given by
6
5 My
σ=
I xx
M (200)
• therefore, σ1 =
I xx from which: σσ 1
=
200
150
2
M (150)
σ2 = σ 2 150
I xx =
M (100) σ 3 100
σ3 =
I xx σ1 σ 2 σ 3
= = = −1
M (200) σ6 σ5 σ4
σ 6= − 18
I xx
Example: boom areas for wingbox in
pure bending
σ 1 200 tD b  σ 2 
1 600 mm = B1 = 2 + 
2 600 mm
σ 2 150 6  σ1 
3 σ 2 150
200 2 =
150 σ 3 100
M 1.5 100 x tD b  σ1 
σ1 σ 2 σ 3 B2 = 2+ 
= = = −1 6  σ2 
2.5 2 σ6 σ5 σ4
3 4
6
5

## • go to each boom now and apply eq (7.4) or (7.6) and

use the subscript “s” to denote the skin contribution
2(600)  150  3(400)
B1s = 2+ + (2 − 1) = 750
6  200  6
1.5(600)  100  2(600)  200  2.5(300)
B2 s = 2 + + 2+ + (2 − 1) = 1191.7 (units are mm2)
6  150  6  150  6
1.5(600)  150  2(200)
B3 s = 2+ + (2 − 1) = 591.7
6  100  6 19
Example: boom areas for wingbox in
pure bending
1 600 mm
600 mm • now consider the
2 contribution of the flanges
2mm 3 to the boom areas
1.5mm • each flange has area
400 200mm
2mm 300 mm2
mm 2.5mm
B1f=300
3mm 4
B2f=300+300=600
5
6 B3f=300

## • combining: B1 = B1s + B1 f = 750 + 300 = 1050mm2

B2 = B2 s + B2 f = 1191.7 + 600 = 1791.7 mm 2
B3 = B3s + B3 f = 591.7 + 300 = 891.7mm2

## • B4, B5, and B6 are, by symmetry, the same as B3, B2 and

20
B1 respectively
Effect of booms in stress calculations
1
2
x boom areas have been calculated
6
5
4 • to proceed with the analysis, the
effect of the booms on different quantities such as
moments of inertia must be determined
• for example, determining the neutral axis location,
requires that eq (2.0) is satisfied
∫ σ dA = 0
A
z
(pure bending, no net
axial force)

• note that the area A is the area that carries normal stresses
and, thus, the calculated neutral axis location is for the boom
area (i.e. do not include in the calculation of the neutral axis,
Ixx, etc., the skin if it is already included in the booms) 21
My
Booms in bending
1 • we are interested in the normal stresses
2
3
Mx • the bending equation (2.5) from before,
x
I xx M y − I xy M x I yy M x − I xy M y (2.5)
σz = x+ y
6
5
4
I xx I yy − I xy2 I xx I yy − I xy 2

## • but all quantities refer exclusively to the portion of the

cross-section that carries normal stresses

## • this means that the neutral axis is calculated using only

the areas that carry normal stresses
• the moments of inertia use only areas that carry
normal stresses and
• the x,y coordinates where stresses are evaluated refer to
a coordinate system at the centroid of the areas that carry
22
normal stresses
Booms in bending
• in the extreme case where all the skin has been divided
into boom areas, the normal stresses are only the stresses in
the booms and there are no normal stresses in-between

## distributed stresses become simple point stresses on the

23
booms
yref Booms in bending
4h 4h
A __ A7 h + 2 A6 h + 3 A5h + A2 h + 2 Ah 19
y= = h
2A 12 A 6
3A __
2 A 4h + 2 A4h + 3 A8h + A8h
x= = 4h
12 A
7h 5h 3h
xna moments of inertia include only
Steiner terms:
A y
2A xref I xx = ∑ yi 2 Ai
3A
I yy = ∑ xi 2 Ai
x
I xy = ∑ xi yi Ai
• therefore: 2 2 2 2
 19   19   19   19 
I xx = A  7 −  h 2 + 2 A  6 −  h 2 + 3 A  5 −  h 2 + A  − 2  h 2 + ...
 6  6   6  6  then proceed
I yy = A ( 4h ) + 3 A ( 4 h ) + A ( 4h ) + 3 A ( 4h ) = 128 Ah
2 2 2 2 2
with eq (2.5)
 19   19   19  19
I xy = − A  7 −  4h 2 + 3 A  5 −  4 h 2 − A  − 2  4 h2 + 3 A 4h 2 = 40 Ah 2
 6   6   6  6

## • note that even if the original shape is symmetric, if the

resulting boom configuration is not symmetric, Ixy≠0 24
Booms under shear loads – open
S y sections
y

x
Sx

σz
z q2 q1
q2 q1
q2 dz
q1

q2
∂σ q1
σ z + z dz
∂z cross-sectional area Br
• Recall eq (5.6)
I xx S x − I xy S y s
I yy S y − I xy S x s
qs = − ∫ txds − ∫ tyds (5.6)
I xx I yy − I xy 2
0 I xx I yy − I xy 2
0
25
Booms under shear loads – open sections
• this eq refers only to the skin σz
q2 q1
portion that carries normal stress q2 q1
I xx S x − I xy S y s
I yy S y − I xy S x s y
qs = − ∫t xds − ∫t yds q2 dz
I xx I yy − I xy 2 I xx I yy − I xy 2
D D
0 0 q1 x
z
hence the use of tD which q2 ∂σ q1
equals the skin thickness t if σ z + z dz
skin is fully effective, and ∂z cross-sectional area Br
zero if skin carries shear only

## • this equation does NOT account for the effect of booms

• consider z-dir equilibrium of the boom:
 ∂σ z 
σ
 z + dz  Br + q2 dz − q1dz − σ z Br = 0
 ∂ z 
∂σ z
q2 − q1 = − Br (7.10)
∂z 26
Booms under shear loads – open
sections σ z
∂σ q2 q1
q2 − q1 = − z Br (7.10)
∂z q2 q2
y
q2 dz
q1 x
• from bending theory, z
eq (2.5) gives: q2∂σ q1
σ z + z dz
I xx M y − I xy M x I yy M x − I xy M y ∂z cross-sectional area Br
σz = x+ y
I xx I yy − I xy 2
I xx I yy − I xy 2

## • substituting in (7.10) and noting that x, y are the

coordinates xr, yr of the rth boom:
∂M y ∂M x ∂M x ∂M y
I xx − I xy I yy − I xy
q2 − q1 = − ∂z ∂z B x − ∂z ∂z B y
I xx I yy − I xy I xx I yy − I xy
2 r r 2 r r

27
Booms under shear loads – open sections
∂M y ∂M x ∂M x ∂M y σz
I xx − I xy I yy − I xy q2 q1
q2 − q1 = − ∂z ∂z B x − ∂z ∂z B y
q2 q2
I xx I yy − I xy 2 I xx I yy − I xy 2
r r r r
y
q2 dz
q1 x
• but from (2.10) q2
z
∂σ z q1
σz +
∂M x ∂z
dz
cross-sectional area Br
Sy =
∂z
∂M y (2.10)
Sx =
∂z

• substituting,
S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy
q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr (7.11)
I xx I yy − I xy 2
I xx I yy − I xy 2

this equation gives the change in shear flow across a boom which carries

28
Booms under shear loads – open sections
σz
q2 q1
S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy
q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr q2 q2
I xx I yy − I xy 2
I xx I yy − I xy 2
q2 dz
y
q1 x
z
q2
∂σ z q1
• suppose now we have n booms σz +
∂z
dz
cross-sectional area Br

n
• the shear flow after the nth boom will be
s
given by (a) the standard shear flow
equation when there are no booms PLUS
2 (b) the contribution of all the booms up to
1
that point:
I xx S x − I xy S y  s n
 I yy S y − I xy Sx  s n

qs = − 2 ∫ D
t xds + ∑ Br xr  − 2 ∫ D
t yds + ∑ Br y r  (7.12)
I xx I yy − I xy  0 r =1  I xx I yy − I xy  0 r =1 
29
Booms under shear loads – open sections
I xx S x − I xy S y  s n
 I yy S y − I xy Sx  s n

 t D xds + ∑ Br xr  − t yds + ∑ Br y r 
I xx I yy − I xy 2  ∫0 2 ∫ D
qs = − (7.12)
r =1  I I
xx yy − I xy 0 r =1 

• simplification:
− suppose the skin carries only shear stresses
(=> tD=0)
− suppose also that the booms (and not
necessarily the skin) have at least one axis of
symmetry (=>Ixy=0)
− then:
S n Sy n
qs = − x
I yy
∑B x
r=1
r r −
I xx
∑B y
r =1
r r
(7.13)
30
Booms under shear loads – open sections
s Example
2 1
S Area of each
y boom=A Determine the shear flows
Thickness = t
x everywhere
• since skin carries only shear and
2a Skin carries the boom pattern has at least one
a only shear axis of symmetry, eq. (7.13) is valid

## 3 • then, for only Sy applied, (7.13)

4
becomes:
Sy n
qs = −
I xx
∑B y
r =1
r r (7.13a) q12 = −
S
4 Aa 2
Aa = −
S
4a
S S S
• now Br=A and y1=y2=a, y3=y4=-a q23 = − − =−
4a 4 a 2a
• also, I xx = 4 Aa 2 q34 = −
S

S
A ( − a ) = −
S
2a 4 Aa 2 4a

31
Booms under shear loads – open sections –
some useful conclusions
• when we idealize the skins to carry only shear loads, the
shear flows between booms are constant as in the
previous example
• these constant shear flows are the average shear flows
that we would get if we had fully effective skins (carrying
bending loads); in the previous example, q12 and q34 would
be linear in s while q23 would be quadratic

fully effective
idealized

32
Booms under shear loads – open sections –
some useful conclusions
s
x (x1,y1) q12 = const = q
ds
q12 horiz force component=qds(cosφ)
dy dx=ds(cosφ)
y dx vert force component=qds(sinφ)
dy=ds(sinφ)
φ
(x2,y2)

## • if we assume an idealized structure, calculation of the

total force in any direction is very simple
• total force in x direction is
2 2 total force in any direction
S x = ∫ qds(cos φ ) = q ∫ dx = q( x2 − x1 ) between two points equals
1 1 the shear flow times the
• total force in y direction is distance between the points
parallel to that direction
2 2
S y = ∫ qds(sin φ ) = q ∫ dy = q ( y2 − y1 )
1 1
33
Booms under shear loads – open sections –
some useful conclusions
s • the resultant force on this skin is
x (x1,y1)
ds given by
q12
V = S x 2 + S y 2 = q ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2
y

(x2,y2) L L
V=qL (7.14)
V acting along a line connecting the
s end points!!
x (x1,y1)
ds • the resultant moment about any
q12 p point O is given by
y 2 2
M = ∫ qpds = q ∫ pds
O
1 1
(x2,y2)
• but pds is twice the area of the
• then, going from 1 to 2, the integral is the area A enclosed by the skin and two
lines connecting O to the skin ends:
M=2Aq !!!! (7.15) 34
Booms under shear loads – open sections –
some useful conclusions
V s
(x1,y1) V=qL (7.14)
ds
q12 p
M = 2 Aq (7.15)
e O
(x2,y2) note that this is identical to eq. (3.44)
L from torsion theory:

T = 2 Aq (3.44)

## • If V is the applied shear force causing shear flow q(=q12),

then, the distance e of the line of action of V from any point
O can be determined
Ve = M = 2 Aq

## • and using (7.14) to substitute for V e = 2A (7.16)

35
L
Booms under shear loads – closed sections
S
2 In a manner analogous to the open sections, the
3
2A A shear flows can be obtained by combining the
1
closed section without booms, eq. (5.8 ) with the
a A
eq giving the effect of a boom, eq (7.11)
2A A
(5.8)
4 5
a a I xx S x − I xy S y s
I yy S y − I xy S x s
qs − q s 0 = − ∫ txds − ∫ tyds
I xx I yy − I xy 2
0 I xx I yy − I xy 2
0

S x I xx − S y I xy S y I yy − S x I xy
q2 − q1 = − B r xr − Br yr (7.11)
I xx I yy − I xy 2
I xx I yy − I xy 2

I xx Sx − I xy Sy  s n  I yy S y − I xy Sx  s n 
 tD xds + ∑ Br xr  − t yds + ∑ Br yr  + qso
I xx I yy − I xy 2  ∫0 2 ∫ D
qs = − (7.17)
r =1  I I
xx yy − I xy  0 r =1 

## note similarity with (7.12)

36
Booms under shear loads – closed sections-
y
S
Example
2
3
2A A I xx Sx − I xy S y  s n
 I yy S y − I xy Sx  s n

1 qs = − 2 ∫ D
I xx I yy − I xy  0
t xds + ∑ Br r
x − 2 ∫ D
t yds + ∑ Br yr  + qso
x A
r =1  I xx I yy − I xy  0 r=1 
a
A
(7.17)
2A
4 5 there is one axis of symmetry => Ixy=0
a a
Sx=0, Sy=S
skin only carries shear => tD=0

## • eq. (7.17) then simplifies to

Sy n
qs = −
I xx
∑B y
r =1
r r + qso (7.17a)

## • with B1=B2=B5=A y1=0; y2=-y5=a/2

2 2
a  a 3
I xx = 2 A   + 2(2 A)   = Aa 2 B3=B4=2A y3=-y4=a/2
 2  2 2 37
Booms under shear loads – closed sections-
y
S
Example
qbs
s Sy n 2
a
2
 a 3
∑B y
2
3 qs = − r r + qso I xx = 2 A   + 2(2 A)   = Aa 2
2A A I xx r =1  2  2 2
1
a x A B1=B2=B5=A y1=0; y2=-y5=a/2
2A A B3=B4=2A y3=-y4=a/2
4 5 Following standard procedures, cut, arbitrarily,
a a
between 1 and 2 and determine the shear flows
for the open cross-section. Then:
qb12 = 0
S a S
qb 23 = − A =−
3 2 3a
Aa 2
2
S S a S
qb 34 = − − 2A = −
3a 3 Aa 2 2 a
2
S
qb 45 = q23 = − ( symmetry )
3a
38
qb 51 = q12 = 0 (symmetry )
Booms under shear loads – closed sections-
Example
y
S • Now close the cross-section and assume a
2 constant shear flow qso is applied (in the
3 s
2A A same direction as s)
1
a x A • If we take moments about the point 4 we
qs0 A
can use eq (5.10)
2A
4
a
5
a ∫ pq ds + 2 Aq
s
b s0 =0 (5.10)

## • since, as we found, qb12=qb51=0 and q34 and q45 do not

contribute to the moments about 4, (5.10) becomes
a2
qb 23a (a ) + 2( a + )qso = 0
2

2 2
q a S
• using qb23 to solve for qso gives: qso = − b23 =
3
2 a 2 9a
2
39
Booms under torsion loads – Closed or open
section beams
1
2
3
T
x

4
6
5

## • a pure torque T causes no normal stresses in the booms

(unless the beam is constrained along its axis such as
fixed-fixed)
• therefore, the booms have no effect on the shear flows in
the skins and the solution from beams without booms are
still valid

40