Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41



A The piping systems are the arteries and veins of this complex just as they
are in the human body. In this plant the piping systems handle all liquids,
gases or vapors.

B Valves are used for the control of volume and pressures of liquids and gases
moving through piping or in enclosed vessels. They may be operated
automatically or by hand. Their type and construction is as varied as the
operations within the plant; each is designed for the service to be

C. One definition of a pressure vessel is that it is a container that operates

at pressures and temperatures above that of the atmosphere or that it
operates under a vacuum. Pressure vessels may be called receivers,
accumulators, drums, filters, reactors, fractionators, towers, strippers,
scrubbers. packed towers, absorbers, deethaniser, stabiliser, or gasoline
splitter depending upon the service in which they operate.

Pipe sizes are listed, as for example, 2" ips,, or 2" iron pipe size. The
reason for this is that the outside diameter is always the same for a
given pipe size. This was done to standardize threading tools.

Mobil standards dictate the use of Schedule 80 wall thickness as a minimum

for pipe sizes up to and including 2" ips.


All pipe threads taper 3/4" per foot. Thus, a tight metal fit is made upon
tightening a screwed joint. Figure 1 shows the details of a standard pipe
thread joint. Note that there is thinning of the pipe wall as a result of the
thread taper.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

British Standard Minimum Welding for

Taper Threads Socket-Welding


Figure 2 shows socket weld details for a typical joint. Note that the fittings
shown on Figure 3 for socket welds are essentially the same as those for screwed
pipe but eliminate the threaded joint.

n,711 T 'J

90° Ell 45 0 Ell Tee Cross

45 0 Lateral Street Ell Straight Union


Round Head 'Square Head Hexagon Head Hexagon

Plug Plug Plug Bushing


__________ r _
Application of
Reducer Insert

Threaded End Socket Weld End


Pipe Fittings - 1/8 - 2" I.P.S.

Screweo ana Socket Weld


Flanged joints are the most common method for joining pipe in sizes 2" and
above. The use of flanges allows for making the piping up in sections that
are easy to handle and also allows access for cleaning, draining, etc.

0621E T_ 7
American Standard flange facings are shown in Figure 4. Of these, flat face,
raised face and ring joint are the most common used in this plant. This
sketch also shows the basic flange types. This separates the flanges into the
method of attachement to pipe and each type may be involved with any of the
standard flange facings. Also See Figure 5.


Raised Face Lap Joint O

Lar ge Male and Female

Small Male and Female 2 h

Large Tongue and Groove

Small Tongue and. Groove

Flat Face

Ring Joint FLANGES

TYPES: Small Male and Female


Fig. 4.

A. Welding Neck Flanges B. Lap Joint Flanges

C. Socket Welding Flanges D. Slip-on Welding Flanges

E. Threaded Flanges
F i g . 5.

Socket welding flanges are widely used for moderate service, particularly in
the smaller sizes, because of the ease of fit up and alignment. Although usually
welded at the flange hub only, the pipe end may also be welded without having to
reface the flange. The pipe end weld can be ground to provide a smooth bore.


Slip-on welding flanges are popular for normal service conditions because of
the ease of fit up and alignment and the greater tolerance permissible in
cutting the pipe to length. Recommended fabrication practice is to weld at
both the flange hub and the pipe end.


Threaded flanges are widely used because no welding equipment is required for
assembly and both the pipe and flange can be completely salvaged upon
dismantling. Accurately cut, clean, tapered pipe threads dimensioned to ANSI
A2.1 Pipe Threads, assure strong, tight joints.


Welding neck flanges are designed to be butt welded to the pipe. The long
tapered hub reinforces the flange, permits stress-relieving, magnafluxing or x-
raying the weld, when required, and removes the flange face from the heat
affected zone. These advantages make welding neck flanges particularly suitable
for severe service involving high pressures, extreme temperatures, or hazardous


Lap joint flanges, while requiring a separate end connector provide a joint in
which the product does not come in contact with the flange. In additions, the
ability of the flange to rotate simplifies assembly and alignment of bolting on
systems requiring frequent dismantling.

Screwed flanges must be seal welded after the screwed joint is made up tight.
Threading of pipe above 2" is difficult and this type is not used too often.

Slip-on flanges are widely used because of their low cost, ease of fit-up and
alignment, however, they are not too good for service where the temperature
and pressure fluctuate. In some services corrosion of the internal weld may be
a problem.

Welding neck flanges are probably the best all around type of flange. They are
the strongest of all those shown. There are no flow problems associated with the
assembly and the butt joint is the best method to insure a sound weld.

Lap joint flanges are good for a combination of alloy pipe and carbon steel
flanges. This combination reduces the cost and usually reduce the delivery time
compared to waiting for solid alloy flanges. See Figure 5 for the normal method
of attachment.

0621L I - 6
The gaskets used with flange joints must always be softer than the flange
material because one or the other must be deformed in order to make a tight
joint. E

The elastomers include rubber, nylon, plastic, etc. These materials have a
disadvantage in that they can cold flow when squeezed -- even at room
temperature. Thus, it is difficult to maintain a tight joint. These materials
also have a tendency to flow out and must be reinforced with cloth or wire
mesh if any significant pressure is involved. Some elastomers are good for no
more than 37 0C. At this temperature they will soften and some will actually
begin to melt. Some elastomers are soluble in oil.

The spiral wound metal gasket with asbestos filler requires special flange
finishing. Tightening of joints using these gaskets normally requires special
attention and will take more time to properly tighten.


All metals expand with increasing temperature. Steel pipe is no exception to

this rule. Expansion must be considered to accommodate the change in length in
the change from atmospheric temperature to operating temperature. Expansion
joints are used to absorb the effect of the increased length with temperature.
These can be bends as shown on Figure 6 or corrugated expansion joints, shown on
Figure 7. The attached piping must be properly anchored and guided to Direct the
expansion to utilize the expansion joint most effectively.

Expansion U Bend Double Offset Circle Bend

Expansion Bend

Fig. 6.

Pipe Bends

n7i i I - 7

Fig. 7.
Expansion Joint

The choice between these three types is influenced by cost and the advantages
and disadvantages of the individual pipe. Expansion pipe bends require space
and also a hazard in drainage of the line. Corrugated joints must be thin in
order to perform effectively. .If corrosion is a problem the thin wall may be
detrimental. Experience has also shown that the corrugations sometimes fill
with deposits and the joint cannot move under these conditions. If this type
of joint is over-stressed because of temperatures higher than the desi gn
considerations, the corrugations may flatten and fail.


Pipe is available in many metals as well as many non-metals. The standard code
for qualifying welding lists thirty-three different metal and alloy groups. The
most commonly used material in a plant is carbon steel. The chrome moly steels
ana the stainless steels are used for strength at high temperature and
corrosion resistance. Some metals are heat treated to improve corrosion
resistance and some are heat treated because the welds air harden. Some heat
treatment is performed to improve the strength of the completely assembled
pipe. In the case of carbon steel, it is mandatory that assemblies over certain
thicknesses be heat treated.

It is obvious that all the alloy possibilities cannot be considered here. All
applications must be considered as individual cases that require special
attention in design, fabrication, erection and in operation.


Figure 8 shows the most common types of welding fittings used in conjunction
with industry piping. These fittings can be welded to pipe or to flanges.
Here again, ells and tees and return bends are used to change direction.
Reducers are used to change pipe size and are available as concentric or
eccentric reducers. Weld caps are used for closures. Note the lap joint stub E
that is available for use with lap joint flanges as shown on Figure 8.

90° Weld Reducing

Ell Welding

45° Weld Concentric

Ell Reducer
o 5 S OI:=?

Reducing Eccentric
Weld Ell Reducer

180° Return Weld Cap


Fig. 8.

Welding Fittings

Water piping operates at relatively low pressures and temperatures.
Ordinarily water piping can be steel but is usually an underground system and
cast iron, asbestos cement and concrete pipe are used. The joints in these
materials are different than those used in steel pipe. In addition, it is
standard practice to anchor underground piping of these types with blocks of
concrete poured around the pipe at changes in direction and thus prevent the
joints from blowing up or coming apart.
The joints in cast iron pipe can be bell and spigot or bell and plain end pipe.
In both of these joints oakum is tool packed at the bottom of the joint and then
the remainder is filled with molten lead. When the lead solidifies it is caulked
or pounded down to insure a tight joint. Another type of joint is a bell and
plain end arrangement with a soft rubber ring shown as a "Tyton Joint". The
pressure turns the ring and forms a seal. Finally, there is also an arrangement
of a cast iron flange used with a soft rubber gasket. Here, tightening the
flange deforms the gasket and forms a seal. All of these types can be seen in
Figure 9. Asbestos cement pipe provides a hard dense material that can be used
for pressures up to 17 BAR. A special joint is required that uses two rubber
rings. This joint is shown in Fig. 9. The normal procedure for making this joint
is to use a special jacking arrangement that pulls the coupling over the end of
the pipe.

Concrete pipe used for pressure water service ordinarily is reinforced with
metal mesh and also is centrifugally cast. This method of casting the concrete
provides for a harder, denser and stronger concrete than any obtained by the
normal method of pouring or casting.

Small pipe sizes in water service may be screwed or may be copper with
soldered joints. Figure 10 details some typical soldered joint fittings for
water service. Soft solder is used and good joints can be made if good
soldering practices are followed.
n m
to (0




CI, ‘ *



Gland Tee Head Bolt


...OW War


Fig. 10.

Soldered Joint Fittings

Fig. 11.
Joint for Vitrified Pipe

Fig. 12.
Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings


Drains or sewers usually consist of soil pipe, vitrified clay sewer pipe, or
cast concrete pipe. Some drainage systems may be made up of a combination of
these three pipes. Soil pipe that is cast iron can stand more mechanical abuse
than the clay or the concrete pipe.

The joint used with soil pipe is the same as described below under cast iron
water pipe. Oakum is used at the bottom of the joints and the balance is poured
lead that is then caulked to insure tightness. Vitrified clay pipe and concrete
pipe may have joints of oakum with cement sand mixture as the top seal. Both
types are available today with a factory applied neoprene band on the spigot
end of the pipe. A lubricant-cement combination is used for ease in making the
joint and also seal against seepage.


The term tubing is used in the industry for a description of special pipe.
Tubing serves the same purpose as pipe but is made by a special manufacturing
procedure because of the end use and the means for connecting tubing together.
Tubing is always specified by the outside diameter and the wall thickness.
Tubing may be pipe size tubing and will have the same outside diameter as in
piping. In general, the outside diameter of tubing is always more accurately
sized than the outside diameter of pipe.

0621L T-
1 3
The biggest single application of tubing is found in instrumentation. Here the
tubing may be copper, aluminium, or stainless steel. In this case it is cold
drawn in order to provide greater accuracy on the outside diameter. Special
fittings are used that use internal tapered rings that squeeze on the tubing and
form a seal when the fitting nut is tightened. See Figure 13.

Hex Nut
Hex Body
Ferrule P i p e Th r e a d

Fig. 13. Tubing



Blinds are a piping item used extensively in industry. A blind is used to

provide positive isolation in between piping flanges and thus insure that any
leakage that takes place will be to the atmosphere and not through the pipe.
Normally, blinds are used to prepare vessels or tanks for entry and may also be
used to isolate equipment and piping in order to provide complete safety in
welding. Blinds are also used for hydrostatic testing but in this case they must
be a special design in order to handle the test pressures that will be involved.

Fig. 14.

0621L I - 14
Figure 14 shows typical blinds and spacers. Spacers are required when there is
a blind of appreciable thickness to be used. It is ordinarily impossible to
spring the flanges far enough apart to install a blind of thickness beyond one-
half inch. Under these conditions a spacer is required to take up the space
occupied by the blind when the equipment is returned to operating condition.
Sometime the blind and the spacer are attached to each other and
in this case it is known as a "Figure 8" blind. See Figure 14 for details of
this arrangement. Figure 15 shows the gasketing required for blinds. You will
note that both sides of the blind must be sealed with gaskets. In the case of
ring joints, a special machine job is required on the blind.

Fig. 15.

Gaskets for Blinds


Process piping may be corroded by certain process phases. Regularly scheduled

thickness surveys will be made to determine the rate of corrosion, length of
remaining service life and the schedule date for the next survey. The
inspection philosophy involved is based upon providing for safe and continuous
operation of all phases of the plants piping. Ultrasonic thickness measuring
equipment and x-ray will be used to determine thicknesses -- while the
equipment is operating and/or when it is not operating.


Piping between closed valves, filled with gasoline and exposed to the summer
sun will develop pressures proportional to the liquid temperature as the
gasoline expands. Small relief valves are installed to keep the pressure at a
reasonable level in order to minimize leaks. These valves are piped to a place
of lower pressure for safe disposal of the sun heated gasoline.


The types of valves most frequently used are briefly described below:

1. Plug Valves or Cocks - give quick open or shut flow.

2. Globe Valves - offer ease in throttling.

3. Gate Valves - offer less restriction to flow.

4. Check Valves - give shut-off against back flow.

5. Safety Valves - offer protection to equipment against excessive pressure.

6. Needle Valves - offer flow adjustment on small lines.

7. Hand Control Valves - offer fine flow adjustments.

Plug Valves

The plug valve, or cock, is a conical plug within a body. Its chief advantage is
in its tight shut-off. A one quarter (90 degree) turn of the plug changes it
from a fully closed to a wide open position. Since the plug tends to stick when
used in high temperature and high pressure service, some types of these valves
have been provided with a means of lubrication through the stem of the cock.
Special lubricants have been developed to permit the use of plug valves under
severe operating conditions. For efficient operation these valves must be
lubricated frequently.

A rotary-life plug valve is non-lubricated. In operation, as the stem is turned

the plug lifts slightly from its seat, rotates to the opposite position then
lowers back into place. This operation can be performed in about one-fourth to
one-half a turn in the smaller sizes. Larger valves require more rotation of
the stem.

The quick opening principle of plug valves makes them impractical as a means
of controlling rates of flow.

Globe Valves

The essential feature of this type valve is a globular body with an internal,
horizontal partition having a circular opening in which is inserted a ring or
seat. The globe or disc seats on this ring to effect shut-off. The valve
opening is so arranged that flow through it must make two 90-degree changes of

This results in a relatively high pressure drop, or resistance to flow. The

globe valve is generally used in small sized piping for throttling or control.
They are used principally in steam or air service where throttling and a
positive shut-off is desirable. Installation should be such that flow is up
through the seat ring and against the bottom of the disc or glove. This will
prevent opening difficulties caused by the accumulation of debris above the
disc. The wedging action of the disc in the ring will cause galling if the
valve is forced after complete engagement of the disc. This should be avoided.

With this type of valve it is important that the valve is installed with flow
passing through it in the correct or required manner. 0621L I - 16
Normally the flow enters the "S" shaped passage underneath the valve plug.
When the plug lifts, the liquid flows up past the plug and through the
outlet. This method of installation keeps the pressure from the packing gland
when the valve is in the closed position.

Occasionally the flow is revesed and the inlet pressure flow enters on top of
the seat. This is normally done when it is wished to have the pressure assist or
ensure the closing of the valve. With oils of a certain type, this is bad
practice as, if the oil has a tendency to congeal, gum will form on the valve
stem and prevent the valve plug and stem from rising.

Gate Valves

The gate valve is probably the most widely used valve in this plant,
particularly in the larger sizes of piping installations and those of the most
severe service. It consists of a main body and a stem which raises or lowers a
"gate" across the fluid flow. In high pressure installations the gates must be
of heavy constructon and are sometimes difficult to open. Some are motor
operated and some have a small by-pass line for equalizing the pressure on both
sides of the gate before opening.

The rising stem gate valve is used in both water and process piping. It
requires more overall space for installation, but is used to an advantage in
handling corrosive streams that tend to damage stem threads in other type
valves. The non-rising stem gate valve is used extensively in water piping.
Its chief disadvantage is the fact that the degree of opening cannot be
readily determined.

A gate valve should be used only in service where it can be kept in a fully
opened position. In partially opened positions the gate will vibrate and mar
the seating surfaces, preventing complete closure. Wrenches and levers should
not be used to exert extra pressure on valve stems when the gate has become
completely seated in closing. This practice will result in galling and marring
of the seat and disc, making complete closure impossible.

Check Valves

Check valves are automatic in operation. They prevent flow in one direction,
but allow it in the other. These valves should be carefully checked for
direction of flow in lines. Swing check valves are unsuitable for use in
vertical lines. Note importance of correct installation of a check valve in
relation to the stream flow. Usually the valve body has features that indicate
correct direction.

Sometimes an arrow indicates the direction of flow permitted through the valve.
Do not rely upon a check valve to give full shut-off against a back flow. Only
on special occasions, authorised by the Unit Supervisor, will the check valve
be depended upon to prevent back flow of liquid or other hazardous material when
opening lines into other systems or to the atmosphere.

Always use a block valve when possible.

Safety Valves

Safety valves are installed in strategic locations to provide pressure relief

for process equipment subjected to excessive pressure. A safety valve consists
of six basic parts; spring, spindle or stem, adjusting screw, disc, nozzle or
seat, and body. Safety , or relief, valves are intended for
emergency protection only and should not be used as an operating valve.

0621L I - 17
Frequent "popping" of a relief valve contributes to their failure, therefore,
they should be set at 25% above working pressure. For example, relief valves on
the discharge of reciprocating pumps will relieve with each pump stroke if the
set pressure is too low. Continuous pounding of the disc upon the seat
causes damage and resultant leakage of the valve.

Other causes of valve leakage are spring failure and debris on seating surfaces.
Extreme caution should be exercised in tampering with relief valves while a unit
is in operation. The proper place for reseating a leaking valve is in the shop.
Pressure should be reset on the test rack.

When pressure builds up in a vessel or line, pressure is also exerted on the

plug. The plug is lifted from its seat and the excess pressure is immediately
released. At the same time, the spring tends to push back the plug on to its
seat. When the spring tension is once again greater than the vessel pressure
then the plug will again reseat.

Identify individual valves in their position.

Note the pressure relief settings and the normal operating pressures of the
equipment that they protect.

After being tested check the indicated relief pressure on list against the
test pressure on the machine shop tag.

Valves are set to predetermined pressure in the machine shop by adjusting the
tension on the spring attached to valve plug stem.


Rising Stem Valves

Do not jam valve open or closed. Wrenches and levers should not be used to
exert pressure on valve stems when the gate has become completely seated in
closing. This practice will result in galling and marring of the seat and
disc, making complete closure impossible.


Clean valve stems. Brush off the stems and threads with a wire brush or wipe
off with waste. Smear with a few drops of heavy lube oil, or gear oil or grease
stems. Where bushings is provided, add a spot of correct type grease.


The entire face of the plug, apart from the passage holes, seats on the body.
This can only be a complete seat, however, if the plug face is completely
lubricated. This also increases free movement.

Use correct grade of grease for each cock in any particular service. Some
grease decompose with certain substances; this is avoided if the recommended
type of grease is used.

Needle Valves/Hand Control Valves

The plug is more pointed and gives a finer flow control consistent with the
distance the needle is withdrawn from the seat. It provides a very fine
control. Therefore DO NOT JAM SHUT as the stem of the valve is easily bent.

0621L I - 18
Piping systems, in order to effectively perform the function of transporting
fluids from one point to another, need devices to control or regulate the flow
of fluids. Although devices are available -- which by suitable
instrumentation automatically regulate or control the flow of fluids in
response to flow, level, pressure, temperature, or other control signals
--only manually operated devices will be discussed in this section. Check
valves, relief valves, steam traps, drain valves, etc. although not manually
operated are also discussed in this section.

Manually operated valves are devices which are opened or closed by turning a
hand wheel or moving, rotating or otherwise manipulating a hand lever or
wrench. Gate, globe, plug, ball, diaphragm and butterfly valves are in this
category. When valves are large size, difficult to operate due to flow
conditions, located in inaccessible positions, require rapid opening and
closirg, or need to be operated remotely from a central control area,
mechanical or power actuated operators are frequently installed on these-
valves. Gear operators, chain wheels, or electric motor operators are some of
the mechanical or power actuated operators most often used. Each type of valve
is designed for a specific purpose to meet and/or satisfy the following basic
control functions desired in a piping system as shown in Figure 16.

Fig. 16.
Basic Control Furctions

0621L T - 19
Starting and Stopping Flow

To start or stop the fluid flow is the function for which valves are most
generally used. Gate, plug, ball, butterfly and diaphragm valves effectively
perform this function with very little pressure drop through the valve.

Regulating and Throttling Flow

Regulating or throttling flow is most efficiently performed with globe, angle,

or needle valves. These valves are seldom used in sizes above 8 inches because
of the difficulty opening and closing the larger valves against pressure.

Butterfly and diaphragm valves are also effective as regulating or throttling

valves at limited fluid flow characteristics.

Prevent Backflow

Check valves perform the function of checking or preventing reversal of flow

in piping systems. Flow keeps these valves open if the flow is in the right
direction, while gravity and reversal of flow closes them automatically.
Check valves are available in two basic types -- swing and lift checks.

Relieving Pressure

Relief and safety valves are installed on equipment such as boilers, vessels,
drums, piping systems, etc. which can be serously damaged if subject to
pressures in excess of the equipment design. They are usually spring loaded
and automatically open to release pressure which exceeds the limit for which
the valve was set.


Gate Valves

The principle characteristic of a gate valve is the fact that the flow through
the valve is stopped by sliding a relatively flat surface, called a gate or
disc, across the flow path of the fluid and started by moving the disc into a
chamber in the valve bonnet out of the flow path. Gate valves are most effective
-- fully closed or opened. When fully opened the fluid flows through the gate
valve in a straight line with very little pressure drop. See Figure 17 for
cross-section of a gate valve.

0621L I - 20
Fig. 17. Fig. 18.

Cross-section of gate valve. Cross-section of globe valve.

With its disc lifted fully Changing direction of flow
as shown, the gate valve means greater resistance to flow
offers practically no resis- -- and sometimes, objectionable
tance to the flow of fluid pressure drop.
through it.

Globe Valves including Angel and Needle

Globe valves are named after the globular shape of their body. They are most
suitable for throttling fluid flows because of their type of seating
arrangements, however, they can also be used in fully shut off and fully open
service. Globe valve seating is parallel to the line of flow with all contact
between seat and disc ending when flow begins.

The fluid flow through a globe valve follows a changing course which cause
resistance to flow and considerable pressure drop. However, in order to
control the fluid flow we must sacrifice some pressure drop. See Figure 18
for cross-section of a globe valve.

Angle valves are similar to the design of globe valve but have less resistance
which results in less pressure drop, see Figure 19 for basic angle valve design.

The angle valve effectively utilizes globe valve seating principle while
providing for a 90 degree turn in piping. It is less resisting to flow than
the globe valve it displaces. Requires fewer joints; saves make-up time and
Needle valves are designed to give very fine control of flow in small diameter
piping systems. They get their name from their sharp-pointed conical disc and
matching seat. The stem threads are fine so that more turns of the handwheel are
required to increase or decrease the opening through the seat. See Figure 20 for
typical needle valve.


Fig. 20.

Fig. 19. Needle Valve

Basic An le Valve Design

Plug Valves

The plug valve is often referred to as the oldest member of the valve family,
however, this is only true of the non-lubricated type which may be considered a
modification of the simple cock.

The non-lubricated plug valve is an evolution of the simple plug cock. All the
advantages of the simple plug cock are maintained by the tendency of the plug to
seize or bind has been overcome by changes in the desi gn and construction of the
plug valve. This has been accomplished by the use of various plastics or other
materials with low friction values for contact or sealing surfaces. As a result
of these changes non-lubricated plug valves are now available for a much greater
range of service conditions. Teflon (tetrafluoroethylene) is one of the
principle materials with low friction value being used today for contact
surfaces. Teflon, however, has its own problems in terms of cold flow and
temperature limits.

The lubricated plug valve (see Figure 21) lubricant or sealant injected into the
valve under pressure to maintain a leak-tight seal and to permit ease of
movement of the plug inside the valve utilizes the lubricant as a hydraulic jack
to raise the plug slightly to reduce the friction during operation of the plug

GLAND A u l /



. ' zi * '

1I ~__ 4
'' '4


Fig. 2i.

Lubricated Plug Valve (Bolted Gland Type Valve)

Ball Valves

Ball valves are adaptations of plug valves using ball-shaped discs instead of
conical plugs located within the body. A hole through the center of this disc
provides the straight-through flow which is characteristic of ball valves. Ball
valves are used to shut off or permit f l o w o f f l u i d through the valve. See Figure
22 for typical ball valve.

Ball valves have all the advantages of plug valves in terms of excellent flow
characteristics -- quick opening, straight-through flow, minimum turbulence,
tight closure and compactness -- plus the additional advantage of not requiring
and lubrication or sealant. They achieve ti ght closure by establishing a
controlled squeeze of the ball against the sear rings which are mace of plastic
material such as teflon.

Because the sealing of ball valves is accomplished with a ball shaped disc
seating against plastic materials, the temperatures for which these can be
used are limited.

Fig. 22. Ball

Valve Butterfly


The butterfly valve derives its name from the wing-like action of the disc which
operates at right angles to the flow. Ordinarily, they are not intended for
tight shut off, but resilient seats have broadened their possibilities and they
are now frequently advertised as having "bubble tight" closure. See Figure 23
for wafer type butterfly valve.

They are widely used in the municipal field for the control of water flow. It is
significant to note that the plant cooling water piping systems are controlled
with butterfly valves.

Butterfly valves are excellent for handling large flows of gases and liquids at
relatively low pressure.

The butterfly valve in full open position has relatively low pressure drop and
minimum turbulence since the disc position is parallel to the fluid flow. Some
of the advantages of butterfly valves are little head room required, light in
weight, durability, low initial cost and ease of operation. However, they are
limited in pressure and temperature applications.

0621L I - 24

Fig. 23.

Butterfly Valve (Wafer Type)

Ball Type Stop Valves

Ball type stop valves are the type of valve commonly in use with gauge glasses
and should be in a fully open position when in service. Should the glass break,
a free floating steel ball is forced into the stop valve seat by the volume of
the product blowing out through the broken glass. This seals the inlets to the
glass, and prevents hot liquid or vapor from spreading to adjacent equipment
and igniting. It also permits the technician to get in to close the block
valves to the gauge glass so it may be replaced. Because of the operation of
the ball check, the stop valve can prevent flow in either the closed or the wide
open position.

When checking a gauge glass for operation, the stop valve should be pinched in
just enough to lift the ball check off the seat. Care must always be taken in
resetting ball stop valves. The ball left sitting in the wrong position can
give a false reading.

Fig. 23a.

Ball Type Stop Valve

Check Valves

The principal function of a check valve is to automatically prevent reversal

of the direction of the fluid flow. Pressure of the fluid flowing through the
check valve keeps it open - reversal of flow closes it. Most manufacturers
plainly mark check valves for direction of flow. The design of check valves
are relatively simple and are available in three basically different types
--swing check, lift check and ball check.

Swing check valves have a disc, hinged at the top, which seats against a
machined seat in the tilted bridge wall opening. The disc swings freely in an
arc from the fully closed position to one providing unobstructed flow. The
fluid flows through the body in a straight line as shown in Figure 24. The
straight line flow results in low pressure drop because of the minimum
resistance to flow.

0621L I-26

Fig. 24. B. Should flow reverse, the reversed

pressure and the disc's weight close
the disc against the seat, and
backflow is stopped.
Swim Check Valve

The lift check valve has a disc equipped with a short guide, usually above and
below. which moves vertically in integral guides in the cap and bridge wall as
shown in Figure 25. Fluid flow moving through the body in a frequent charging
course keeps the valve open.

When flow stops gravity or reverse of flow direction automatically closes the
valve by forcing the disc against the seat. Lift check valves provide a tighter
seal against back flow than can be achieved with the swing check valve.


A. Line pressure lifts the disc, When flow reverses, the disc
n4911 T '')-7
and path of flow is in a falls to its seat and cuts off
charging course as through a backflow.
lobe valve.

Fig. 25.

Lift Check Valve

Ball check valves are similar to lift check valves except that a ball is used in
place of the lift disc for closure purposes. The ball is pushed away from the
seat during fluid flow and closes rapidly when flow stops or is reversed. This 1
valve has extensive use in piping systems moving hot oils and can only be used in
vertical lines. See Figure 26.

Fig. 26.

Ball Check

Fig. 27.

Stop-Check or Non-Return Valve

A special and more complicated check valve called the stop-check or non-return
valve (Figure 27) is essential to the safe operation of a boiler plant as safety
valves or other safety devices attached to the boiler. Their design must conform
to the ASME Boiler Construction Cooe for Non-Return Stop Valves. The valves are
intended to perform four important functions in boiler steam piping:

1. Act as an automatic non-return valve preventing backflow of steam from the

connected main steam header into the boiler in the event of failure of that

2. Assist in cutting out a boiler, when ceasing to fire that boiler. In this
case, the disc automatically closes and prevents steam header pressure from
entering the boiler. The valves are equipped with a handwreel which permits
closing the valves under pressure or, if already closed automatically,
permits holding the disc in the closed position.

3. Assist in bringing a boiler into service after shutdown. This operation

requires considerable care when performed manually but is accomplished
automatically by a stop-check valve without pressure fluctuations or
disturbance of the water level.

4. Act as "safety first" valve by preventing back flow of steam from

the header into a boiler, shut down for inspection or repairs, should
an attendant accidently open the valve.

0621L I - 28
Since the valves are equipped with handwheels it is imporatant to note that
there is no mechanical correction between the disc and steam. When the stem
is raised by the handwheel, only the boiler pressure can lift the disc.

Water Drain Valves

Compressed air systems, constantly accumulate water and oil. Such liquids in
air lines are a hazard and a hindrance to effective use of the air system for
process uses, tools, machinery, air cylinders etc. See Figure 28.

Fig. 28.

Water Drain Valve - Cross section showing simplified float and ball-type
seating mechanism

Pressure Relieving Valves

Pressure relieving valves come under three classifications:

Safety, Relief and Safety Relief. Definitions are as follows:

1. Safety Valves - An automatic pressure -relieving device actuated

by the static pressure upstream of the valve, and characterised by rapid
full opening or pop action. It is used for steam, gas or vapor service.

2. Relief Valve - An automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the

static pressure upstream of the valve, which opens in proportion to the
increase in pressure over the opening pressure. It is primarily used for
liquid service.

3. Safety Relief Valve - An automatic pressure actuated relieving

device suitable for use as either a safety or relief valve, depending
on application.

Safety, relief and safety relief valves are installed in strategic

locations to provide pressure relief for process equipment subjected to
excessive pressures. These valves consist of six basic parts: spring,
stem, adjusting screw, disc, nozzle or seat, and body.
Pressure relieving valves are intended for emergency protection only and
should not be used as an operating valve. Frequent "popping" of a relief or
safety valve contributes to their failure and are therefore set at 25% - 50%
above the working pressure. For example, relief valves on the discharge of
reciprocating pumps will relieve with each pump stroke if the set pressure is
too low. Continuous pounding of the disc upon the seat causes damage and
resultant leakage of the valve.

Other causes of valve leakage are spring failure and debris on seating

Do not tamper with relief valves while a unit is in operation.

The proper place for reseating a leaking valve is in the shop with
pressure reset on the test rack.




Fig. 29.

L i q u i d R e l i e f Valve






F i o . 30 .

Safe ty R e l i e f Va lve
Most valve manufacturers comply with MSS Standard Marking System SP-25 in the
identification of their valves. The following symbols are generally used:

S - Steam
q - Oil
G - Gas
W - Water
L - Liquid

General purpose valves may show two service ratings. One is a steam rating,
based on a specific pressure/temperature condition. The second rating is for
cold service.

Steam Ratings

Steam ratings are used as a basic for determining the suitability of a

material for a given application. For lower temperatures the safe working
pressure of a material is usually greater than the steam rating.

Cold Ratings

Most valves have two service ratings. In addition to the steam rating,
explained above, cold service ratings are usually designated by the mark WOG,
which stands for cold water, oil, or gas, non-shock.

Steel Ratings are Different .

Cast and forged steel valves and fittings bear a mark such as 150, 300, 600 etc.
These figures denote the maximum pressure at a certain maximum temperature for
which an item is suited. A certain 600-pound steel valve, for example, may be
suited for 600-pound pressure at temperatures up to 454 C. But if the
temperature exceeds that point, up to 538 C, lets say the valve is not
recommended for pressures over 170 pounds. This important effect of temperature
makes it imperative to know both pressure and temperature conditions of a
service, and to consult the manufacturer's service recommendation tables.

Temperature and pressure are not always the only factors to be considered
however. Frequently, steel materials are used for their structural ability to
meet unusually severe conditions beyond the range for which brass or iron are
recommended, such as shock, vibration, line stresses, fire hazard, etc.


Variations in Stem Operation of Gate, Globe and Angle Valves

1. Rising stem with outside screw and yoke. In this construction the stem
remains outside the valve body whether valve is opened or closed. Stem
threads are not subjected to the effects of fluids in the line -- such as
caused by corrosion, erosion, sediment, etc. This construction also
permits convenient lubrication of stem threads.

The rising stem shows at a glance the position of the disc. Adequate
headroom must be provided for the rising stem when the valve is opened and
the stem should be protected against damage when raised. See Figure 31.
2. Rising stem inside screw. This is the simplest and most common stem
construction for gate, globe, and angle valves in the smaller sizes. The
position of the stem indicates the position of the disc. The stem should
be protected against damage when the valve is open. See Figure 32.

3. Non-rising stem with inside screw. Stem does not rise when disc
is raised, but merely turns with the handwheel. Ideal where headroom
is limited. Since stem merely turns when operated, wear on packing is
minimized. See Figure 33.

A. Stem rises; handwheel does not

B. Handwheel rises with
Fig. 31. stem
Rising Stem with Outside Screw and Yoke

Fig. 32... Fig. 33. Rising

Non-Rising Stem Stem
with with Inside
Screw Screw
Do's and Don'ts for Better Valve Service

1. Don't expose valves to damaging blows. Valves can't be abused and

still operate efficiently. A bent stem not only cripples valves, but may
cause a shutdown that results in costly delay and repair. (Fig 34A)

2. Don't overlook leaks - big and small. A leak in a valve often can
be remedied simply and in a hurry, if caught in time. Stem leaks normally
can be fixed by slightly tightening the packing nut or gland. (Fig 34B)

Stuffing box leaks usually can be stopped by merely "pulling" up the packing
nut. On bolted glands, care must be taken to tighten bolts evenly .., as
severely cocking the gland will bind the stem. If the stuffing box must be
repacked, this repair should be scheduled for qualified maintenance

Bonnet and flange leaks can be caused by bolts loosening under service
strain. If tightening the joint doesn't stop the leak, the gasket may be
damaged and this repair should also be scheduled for qualified maintenance

3. Don't spare the oil can. Wear on stem packing is due mainly to the rising
and turning motion of the valve stem, combined with deteriorating effects of
service conditions. A few drops of oil on the stem, now and then, help to
reduce friction -- and wear. Don't forget to lubricate exposed stem threads.
(Fig 34C)

4. Don't operate gate valves continuously in a "cracked open" position

because the valve seats will be severely damaged. Damage to valve seats
will cause valve to leak when closed.

5. Do not use large pipe wrenches to close valves. (Fig. 34D)

6. Rising stem valves should be backed off slightly to relieve tension on the

A. B.

C. D.

Fig. 34.


The basic pressure vessel consists of a cylindrical shell with a head at each
end. It may also, in some instances, be spherical and may be as simple as two
hemispheres joined together to form a sphere.

It is common practice to add additional metal to that regpired for strength to
provide what is called a"corrosion allowarce. For example, if 25.4 mm is the
required thickness and we make it 28.6mm thick, then we say that we have a
3.2mm corrosion allowarce.

We have several methods of minimizing internal metal losses from corrosion.

They are:

1. Coating. Coatings are simply paints. The most effective are

plastics such as the Epoxies.

2. Liners. These are thin sheets or strips of alloy material

attached by welding.

3. Clad. These are thin alloy facings that are rolled on hot at the
steel mill or are attachea by controlled explosions.

4. Refractories. These are special concrete mixtures that are blown

on to reinforcement mesh or special anchors.


Pressure vessels normally contain some type of internals to facilitate the

combination, separation or reaction anticipated. Examples of these internals
and their basic purpose are:

1. Trays. See Figure 36 for typical arrangement of bubble cap, valve and
sieve trays.
All three accomplish the same purpose. In distillation towers the trays
separate liquids according to boiling points. In absorber towers the
trays allow for absorption of gas or vapor into liquids.

2. Packing. Packing is a fill of particles that can be wetted with a liquid
for contact with a gas or vapor. The particles may be as simple as gravel,
or may be short pieces of pipe or may be patented arrangements to provide
maximum particle surface are per unit of volume.

3. Baffles. Baffles are used to direct flow, serve as dams to accumulate

liquid, separate liquids, mix liquids and gases etc.

4. Demisters. The function of a demister is to remove droplets from gas that

is leaving the vessel. Simply, a demister is a thick pad of steel wool that
allows tiny droplets to wet the metal surface and grow in size as liquid
accumulates and eventually falls off as full size drops.

U621L I-36






Fig. 35.

LIOU+o =-

p a v. ! c c H E R




L1 L J I o



Fig. 36.



The terms coalescer, dryer, filter and separator provide for the, removal of
solids and/or water from a liquid stream. This is accomplished by having a
coalescer of a diameter that is larger than the inlet pipe to reduce the flow
velocity. The internals here are an arrangement of excelsior, steel wool,
glass fiber, plastic fiber, and other materials that are a mass of fine
threads. Figure 37 indicates the arrangement found in a common coalescer-
filter. Filters may also be as simple as a pressure vessel filled with sand.

Reactors are normally pressure vessels filled with catalysts which cause a
chemical reaction to take place in the oil stream without charging the
catalyst chemically. Reactors may have a metal support in the form of a grid or
grating to allow for liquid accumulation below inert support material and the
catalyst bed.

r- - - - -

Fig. 37.


Pipe connectors on pressure vessels are screwed for sizes up to 2" and above
are flanged and are normally called nozzles. The pressure rating will agree
with the connected piping and the flange facing will also agree with the
connected piping. It is to be noted that flanges rated at 1509 are good for
that pressure up to 260 C. Above that temperature the pressure rating
decreases. Flanges rating of 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500; are rated at
those pressures up to 454 C. Here again, the allowable pressure decreases with
increasing temperature.

Refer to Figure 4 which shows American Standard flange facings. The most
commonly used styles are the raised face type and the ring joint type. The
other types are used less frequently but may be encountered. Flat face flanges
ordinarily are used with a full face gasket which extends from the bore to the
rim of the flange. The gaskets for raised face flanges extend from the bore to
the outside diameter of the raised face. Ring joint flanges use special
gaskets. The other flange types shown also use special gaskets.

Numbers ana notes are on the sketch to show the different styles of flanges
and the method of attaching the flanges to pipe. You will note that style No. 5
is a heavy wall forging and is called a weldin g neck. This style normally is
only found as an attachment to a pressure vessel.

Nozzles are ordinarily connected to pipes. If they are equipped with a blind
flange that connects to nothing, they probably are access openings. In sizes
from 4" to 10" they are ordinarily called hand holes and are used inspecting,
cleaning and washing the interior of the vessel without entering. In sizes
16 - 24" they are called manways and are used for access to enter the vessel
for cleaning, inspection, repairs, etc.